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# Seismic methods:

Seismic reflection - II

## Seismic reflection processing

Flow overview

These are the main steps in processing The order in which they are applied is variable

## Reflectivity and convolution

The seismic wave is sensitive to the sequence of impedance contrasts The reflectivity series (R)

We input a source wavelet (W) which is reflected at each impedance contrast The seismogram recorded at the surface (S) is the convolution of the two S=W*R

## Applied Geophysics Seismic reflection II

Deconvolution

undoing the convolution to get back to the reflectivity series what we want

Spiking or whitening deconvolution Reduces the source wavelet to a spike. The filter that best achieves this is called a Wiener filter
Our seismogram S = R*W (reflectivity*source)

## Deconvolution operator, D, is designed such that D*W = So D*S = D*R*W = D*W*R = *R = R

Time-variant deconvolution D changes with time to account for the different frequency content of energy that has traveled greater distances Predictive deconvolution The arrival times of primary reflections are used to predict the arrival times of multiples which are then removed
Applied Geophysics Seismic reflection II

Spiking deconvolution

## Applied Geophysics Seismic reflection II

Spiking deconvolution

1 1

-1

## Applied Geophysics Seismic reflection II

Spiking deconvolution

1 1

-1 1

## Applied Geophysics Seismic reflection II

Spiking deconvolution

-1 1

## Applied Geophysics Seismic reflection II

Spiking deconvolution

-1

- 1

## Applied Geophysics Seismic reflection II

Spiking deconvolution

-1

- 1 1

## Applied Geophysics Seismic reflection II

Source-pulse deconvolution
Examples Original section Deconvolution: Ringing removed

## Source wavelet becomes spike-like

Applied Geophysics Seismic reflection II

## Deconvolution using correlation

If we know the source pulse Then cross-correlating it with the recorded waveform gets us back (closer) to the reflectivity function

If we dont know the source pulse Then autocorrelation of the waveform gives us something similar to the input plus multiples. Cross-correlating the autocorrelation with the waveform then provides a better approximation to the reflectivity function.

## Applied Geophysics Seismic reflection II

Multiples
Due to multiple bounce paths in the section Looks like repeated structure These are also removed with deconvolution easily identified with an autocorrelation removed using cross-correlation of the autocorrelation with the waveform

Sea-bottom reflections
Applied Geophysics Seismic reflection II

## Seismic reflection processing

Flow overview

These are the main steps in processing The order in which they are applied is variable

## Applied Geophysics Seismic reflection II

Velocity analysis
Determination of seismic velocity is key to seismic methods Velocity is needed to convert the time-sections into depth-sections i.e. geological cross-sections

Unfortunately reflection surveys are not very sensitive to velocity Often complimentary refraction surveys are conducted to provide better estimates of velocity

## Normal move out (NMO) correction

The reflection traveltime equation predicts a hyperbolic shape to reflections in a CMP gather. The hyperbolae become fatter/flatter with increasing velocity reflection hyperbolae become fatter with depth (i.e. velocity)

Tx2 = T02 +

x2 V1

We want to subtract the NMO correction from the common depth point gather 2

TNMO

x 2T0V12

## Applied Geophysics Seismic reflection II

Stacking velocity
In order to stack the waveforms we need to know the velocity. We find the velocity by trial and error:

TNMO =

x2 2T0V12

For each velocity we calculate the hyperbolae and stack the waveforms The correct velocity will stack the reflections on top of one another So, we choose the velocity which produces the most power in the stack

## Applied Geophysics Seismic reflection II

Stacking velocity
Multiple layer case A stack of multiple horizontal layers is a more realistic approximation to the Earth Can trace rays through the stack using Snells Law (the ray parameter) For near-normal incidence the moveout continues to be a hyperbolae The shape of the hyperbolae is related to the time-weighted rms velocity above the reflector Velocity semblance spectrum Pick stacking velocities

## Applied Geophysics Seismic reflection II

s tiple mul

Stacking velocity
Multiple layer case Stacking velocity panels: constant velocity gathers

## Applied Geophysics Seismic reflection II

Multiple layers
Interval velocity Average velocity Root-meansquare velocity

Vi =

zi

ti

V '= Z

T0

VRMS =

V t t
2 i i

Two-way traveltime of ray reflected off the nth interface at a depth z The interval velocity of layer n determined from the rms velocities and the two-way traveltimes to the nth and n-1th reflectors

tn =
Vint =

x2 + 4z 2 VRMS

(V

RMS , n

) t (V
2 n

RMS , n 1

)t
2

n 1

t n t n 1
Dix equation

The interval velocity can be determined from the rms velocities layer by layer starting at the top
Applied Geophysics Seismic reflection II

## Velocity sensitivity: Example

Deep: Two layer model: 1 = 6 km/s, z = 20 km
2 2 2 1 Equation of the 400 + x t= z2 + x = 4 3 4 1 reflection hyperbolae:

t=
2 1 25 + x 4 1.5

## Normal move out correction: For a 5 km offset:

t NMO =

x2 2 t
2 1 0

x2 480

t NMO =

x2 60

For a 5 km offset: 1 = 3.0 km/s then 0.417 sec 1 = 2.5 km/s then 0.600 sec 1 = 3.5 km/s then 0.306 sec

1 = 6.0 km/s then 0.052 sec correct value 1 = 5.5 km/s then 0.062 sec 1 = 6.5 km/s then 0.044 sec

## Applied Geophysics Seismic reflection II

Frequency filtering
Hi-pass: to remove ground roll Low-pass: to remove high frequency jitter/noise Notch filter: to remove single frequency

## Applied Geophysics Seismic reflection II

Resolution of structure
Consider a vertical step in an interface To be detectable the step must cause an delay of to a wavelength This means the step (h) must be 1/8 to the wavelength (two way traveltime) Example: 20 Hz, = 4.8 km/s then = 240 m Therefore need an offset greater than 30 m Shorter wavelength signal (higher frequencies) have better resolution. What is the problem with very high frequency sources?

## Applied Geophysics Seismic reflection II

Resolution of structure

When you have been mapping faults in the field what were the vertical offsets?
Applied Geophysics Seismic reflection II

Fresnel Zone
Tells us about the horizontal resolution on the surface of a reflector First Fresnel Zone The area of a reflector that returns energy to the receiver within half a cycle of the first reflection The width of the first Fresnel zone, w:

w 2 d + = d + 4 2
w2 = 2d +

2
4

If an interface is smaller than the first Fresnel zone it appears as an point diffractor, if it is larger it appears as an interface Example: 30 Hz signal, 2 km depth where = 3 km/s then = 0.1 km and the width of the first Fresnel zone is 0.63 km
Applied Geophysics Seismic reflection II