University of Wollongong
Faculty of Engineering - Papers Faculty of Engineering
Experimental determination of energy absorption capacity for prestressed concrete sleepers under impact loads
A. M. Remennikov
University of Wollongong, email@example.com
University of Wollongong, firstname.lastname@example.org
This peer-reviewed paper was originally published as Remennikov, AM and Kaewunruen, S, Experimental determination of energy absorption capacity of railway prestressed concrete sleepers under ultimate impact loading, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Structural Engineering and Construction (ISEC2007), Melbourne, Australia, 26-28 Sep 26-28 2007, 381-386. Copyright 2007 Taylor & Francis.
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NSW. Wollongong. including relative masses. The residual capacity of the prestressed concrete sleepers after impact has also been highlighted. Its role is to distribute loads from the rail foot to the underlying ballast bed. Sukontasukkul et al.Experimental determination of energy absorption capacity for prestressed concrete sleepers under impact loads
A. There is a widespread suspicion based on the industry experience that railway concrete sleepers have reserves of strength that are untapped. This paper presents the experimental investigations to evaluate failure modes. the research efforts are required to perform comprehensive studies
of the loading conditions. Under static loading.
1 INTRODUCTION Railway sleeper (or called ‘railroad tie’) is a main part of railway track structures. cracks in concrete sleepers have been visually observed by many railway organizations. toughness. These loading conditions are caused by wheel or rail abnormalities such as flat wheels. flexural toughness. In addition.. while the force magnitude can be over 400 kN per rail seat. which are unrealistic to the actual dynamic loads on tracks. (2003. and modulus of elasticity were found as the rate of loading increased. and increases in strength. A high-capacity drop weight impact testing machine was constructed at the University of Wollongong. It is thus important to ascertain the spectrum and amplitudes of forces applied to the railway track. In general. Static and impact tests were carried out on the Australian-manufactured prestressed concrete sleepers. 1998). Considerably. and energy absorption mechanisms for railway prestressed concrete sleepers under static and impact loadings. the typical loading duration produced by wheel flats is about 1-10 msec. mixed shear-flexure failure modes can be observed. Australia
ABSTRACT: Extreme loading conditions on railway tracks may include dynamic impact loads with very high magnitude but short duration. Remennikov & S. and a decrease in the nonlinear portion of stress-strain curve. Kaewunruen
University of Wollongong. Figure 1 shows the typical components of ballasted railway tracks. Apart from the impact material property testing. the failure mode is affected through that process. Kishi et al. in order to evaluate the ultimate capacity of prestressed concrete sleepers under impact loads. In order to devise a new limit states design concept. whilst under impact loading the identical specimens failed only in shear failure type. the dynamic response. Current design philosophy for prestressed concrete sleepers is based on permissible stress principle taking into account only the static and quasi-static loads. 1987. The failure of such experiments was simply represented by the flexural toughness of such specimens (Banthia et al. etc. A major research effort at the University of Wollongong is to evaluate the ultimate capacities of concrete sleepers under static and impact loads. 2002a. the static behaviour. Energy absorption capacity of the prestressed concrete sleepers was also evaluated to determine the amount of energy required to fail the sleeper under impact load. resulting in an increase in strength and toughness. and to clarify the processes whereby concrete sleepers in particular carry those actions. 2004) found that concrete strength under impact loading shows different behavior from that under static loading. and the impact resistance of the prestressed concrete sleepers (Kaewunruen and Remennikov.M. 2007). the concrete material behaves in a more brittle manner. dipped rails. the principal cause of cracking is the infrequent but high-magnitude wheel loads produced by a small percentage of “bad” wheels or railhead surface defects. This is because the impact cracks tend to propagate through rather than around aggregate granular. Those loads are of short duration but of very high magnitude. veloci-
. Then. to understand more clearly the manner in which track components respond to those forces. For instance.. 2002b). As noted in the review (Murray and Cai. It is discovered that the response of a structure to impact loading depends on an interaction between impacting body and structure by many factors. the studies of impact behaviors of concrete members mostly dealt with flexural members.
as per the Australian Standard AS1012. An electronic load cell was used to measure the applied load in order to keep load accurate and consistent. Static energy absorption capacity can be obtained from the static tests. and therefore. The device was connected to computer for recording.
. The impact pulses were recorded using the high capacity load cell connected to the National Instrument data acquisition system. the ultimate behaviors of prestressed concrete sleepers under impacts are currently unclear and there is no method to predict the ultimate moment capacity under impact loading.14 (2003). were taken and tested. which is often used in broad gauge tracks.2 Experimental program In the experiments. in order to back calculating for the optimum drop height. The experimental setup thus required for specific energy absorption capacity for particular sleeper.
Typical components of railway tracks. After applying the ultimate impact load. et al. drilled from the sleepers. Regarding to railway sleepers. The key hindrance was about how rail pad really affect the system impact responses and how much of that effect.Figure 1. the sleeper was re-tested for residual capacity and energy absorption. These supports provide restraints to the translational and rotational deformation. The dimensions and shape of the prestressed concrete sleeper are shown in Table 1. and whether there could be a simplified prediction for the ultimate capacity of concrete sleepers. Drop-weight impact hammer was used to apply extreme impact loading to the specimens at certain drop heights on the basis of the test arrangement. while LDVT was mounted at the mid-span to obtain the corresponding deflection. ROCLA. The cored samples.14 (2001). 1995). Cross section of the prestressed concrete sleepers at railseat can be seen in Figure 3.
ties. The high strength concrete material was used to construct the prestressed concrete sleepers. strain rate and loading rate have been taken into account in moment capacity calculation on the basis of sectional analysis and only steel tendons’ failure mechanisms. Their study focused on the effect of material uses on the ultimate capacity of prestressed concrete sleepers. The test specimens were kindly supplied by an Australian manufacturer. contact zone stiffness. it was unclear whether strain rate has an effect on the behaviors of concrete sleepers or not. was selected for these tests. Wakui and Okuda (1999) have later proposed a simplified technique to predict the ultimate capacity of concrete sleepers but they failed to prove it. In the proposal.14. the drop height becomes the only variable. and locally energy-absorbed area (Hughes and Al-Dafiry. Ye. It was found that the average compressive strength at the test age of about two years was 80 MPa. The damage and failure modes were identified in this paper. with design compressive strength at 28 days of 55 MPa. So far. precision of impact.
2 EXPERIMENTAL OVERVIEW 2. A sleeper was performed the static tests in the conventional manner as shown in Figure 4. (1994) and Wang (1996) investigated the resistance of concrete railroad ties to impact loading. 2. However. This paper examines the ultimate behaviour of railway prestressed concrete sleepers subjected to static and impact loading.1 Testing specimens The typical full-scale prestressed concrete sleeper. and the prestressing steels used were the high strength with rupture strength of 1860 MPa. a steel plate was used to distribute impact load to concrete sleepers. The weight of the projectile was set as 5. The width of the plate is equivalent to railseat and effective zone described in AS1085. as shown in Figure 2. It is believed that the high strength prestressing wires are of high quality and the strength will not change during time. The comparative study of both static and impact energy absorption of prestressed concrete sleepers was carried out. The prestressed concrete sleepers were designed complied with Australian Standard: AS1085. frequency of loading.81 kN. The supports were considered as a simple support with influential span due to elastic support.
Mass (kg) 206.50 At railseat (m) width depth 0. The core of the test rig is the free-fall hammer that can be dropped from a maximum height of 6m. Therefore. The drop hammer used has the weight of 5.Figure 2. or equivalent to the maximum drop velocity of 10 m/s. which could generate an impact of over 600kN.23 At centre (m) width 0. The impact load was monitored and recorded by the dynamic load cell connected to the computer.0
Static test setup. To eliminate surrounding noise and ground motion.21 depth 0.
Cored concrete samples
Dimensions and masses of the test sleepers
Gauge length (m) 1.
Cross section of sleepers at railseat
In this study. the required drop height based on energy conservation theory was revised taking the test rig efficiency into account. The roller was attached to the steel drop mass through runners guiding the descent of the drop weight hammer. Table 1. Efficiency of drop weight hammer has been obtained through the calibration tests done using high speed camera.60 Total length (m) 2. The new required drop height ( h ) read
h = hT/0. It is found that due to friction of guiding runner the hammer’s experimental velocity averagely reduces to 98% of theoretical velocity ( hT ). At the railseat was installed the impact plate to transfer the load to the specimens.96
. the concrete sleepers were set up and placed on a strong isolated floor in the laboratory.
Impact test setup. The drop height was determined from a series of pre-test experiments to cause complete collapse under one blow.81kN. The hammer was hoisted mechanically to the required drop height (ultimate resistance of the sleeper) and released by an electronic quick release system.20 0. the drop height and drop mass were selected to simulate a typical impact load due to a wheel flat of 20-25mm.
The sketch of impact testing setup is illustrated in Figure 5.
Loading static single impact single impact Required Energy (J) Failed at 2.
Behavior of test concrete sleeper under static load.5m 500 Impact Load.700 Drop Height Used (mm) 100 500 Imparted Energy (J) 580 2.02 0. kN
drop height = 0.04 Time.
Target Conditions crack fail crack fail
Tested moment capacity (kNm) 34 84 44 95
Type of damage First crack is due to bending Shear failure First crack is the bending crack Bending-shear failure
600 drop height = 0. A1-S A2-I A3-I
Table 3.08 0.06 0.
Loading Static Impact
Summary of experimental moment capacities of prestressed concrete sleepers. s 0.
0 0 0.Table 2.
Impact force measurements.700 574 2.
Summary of the test series and specimens.900
J 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Deflection.
new sleeper under static load
Applied Load.Figure 8.
Behavior of test concrete sleeper under ultimate impact load. kN
300 damaged sleeper under static load 200
0 0 10 20 30 Deflection. Comparison of residual strengths of fresh and damaged sleeper.
. mm damaged sleeper under static load new sleeper under static load
b) energy absorption Figure 9. mm 40 50
a) load-deflection curves
8000 7000 Energy absorption.
concrete material plays a dominant role in the dynamic failure mode and residual capacity of prestressed concrete sleepers. The summary of static and impact experimental results is given in Table 3. Wang. Mikami H. From Figure 9b. 2002. Materials and Structures 20: 293-302. Applicability of FE analysis on RC columns under lateral impact loading.D. 2003. The authors would also like to thank Alan Grant and Ian Bridge. Ando T. Remennikov. It is found that the residual load carrying capacity of the damaged sleeper is much less than that of the new sleeper.5m) has a major crack as shown in Figure 8. Mindess S.141991: Method of testing concrete – Method for securing and testing cores from hardened concrete for compressive strength Sukontasukkul P. Canada. International Journal of Impact Engineering 30: 465-475.
Adachi T. University of British Columbia. Energy
absorption capacity can clearly indicate the damage severity of the tested specimens. for their assistance in this project. Cement and Concrete Research 34: 2127-2134. Murray M. it can be concluded that the energy balance method can be used to indicate the ultimate impact behaviors of prestressed concrete sleepers. Wakui H and Okuda H. Matsouka KG. Australian Standards: AS3600 Design of Concrete Structures. Mindess S. Impact behaviour of concrete beams. it is found that due to the reserve strength of the concrete and other wires. Banthia NP. Based on the comparison of static behaviors of new and damaged sleepers. Sastranegara A. Interestingly. Materials and Structures 36: 372-378. no major failure was observed. Experimental and numerical studies of prestressed concrete sleepers under static and impact loads. RSTA Research Report. 2001. p.900J is delivered with energy loss of about 400J. University of Toronto. Ando T. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Structures under Shock and Impact. 1991. 2000. Civil Computing.3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Impact forces measured from the dynamic load cell are presented in Figure 6. Yang I-Y. Effect of loading rate and support conditions on the mode of failure of prestressed concrete railroad ties subjected to impact loading. Cai Z. 2001. Thesis. the damaged concrete sleeper was then re-tested under static loading to evaluate such residual capacity. Ando T. N. Concrete Library of JSCE 33: 1-25. Mindess. it is clear that the prestressing wires have yielded as there is no energy needed for the beginning range of displacements. p. S. Mikami H. but the sleeper is likely to possess residual moment capacity as there is no visual indication of wire damage. Kishi N. 499-508.200J. 1987. After a certain point. The shear fracture of concrete under impact loading using end confined beams. 1996. Until a certain point. Sectional analysis of reinforced concrete members. It is also discovered that. Effect of transverse impact on buckling behavior of a column under static axial compressive force. Bentz EC. Bentur A. the residual capacity is found about 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors are grateful to the Australian CRC for Railway Engineering and Technologies (Rail-CRC) for the financial support throughout this study. Wang. However. Department of Civil Engineering. Mindess S. the concrete started to crush and the wires damaged one by one as can be seen from the significant drop of load curve. However. Cement & Concrete Research 24(7): 1386-1298. Yamaji A. International Journal of Impact Engineering 27: 955-968. due to the effect of high strain rate. Bending crack was firstly detected but the significant cracks were associated with shear failure. 4 CONCLUSIONS This study investigates the energy absorption capacities of prestressed concrete sleepers under static and dynamic loadings. In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Concrete under Severe Conditions. Banthia NP. up till 3mm. Canada. 1996). certain energy is required to further damage the sleepers until more crushing and damage of upper wires happen. Figure 9a shows the comparison of loaddeflection curves between new and damaged sleepers. PhD Thesis. the concrete started to crush and the steel wires breaking one by one as can be seen from the significant drop of load curve. Mikami H. 1994. Literature review on the design of railway prestressed concrete sleeper. Figure 7 presents the failure mode of the concrete sleeper under static loading. 2002. Impact behaviour of shear-failure-type RC beams without shear rebar. Effect of loading rate on damage of concrete. Kishi N. Standards Australia. As a result. Resistance of concrete railroad ties to impact loading. Kishi N. and after the impact energy of 2. Matsuoka KG. A study on limit-state design for prestressed concrete sleepers.700J for the damaged sleeper (Wang. Australian Standard: AS1012. 1998. Tanaka T. It is found that the residual load carrying capacity of damaged sleeper is much less than that of new sleeper. The small visual cracks found include either bending and shear cracks. Impact-resistant behaviour of shear-failure-type RC beams under falling-weight impact loading. Kim S-K. 2004. This is the proof that the energy balance theory is applicable to this case as the total energy absorption for new ties is 7. 1999. 2004. Kaewunruen S.
. It is also found that the prestressing wires have already yielded after the impact test as at the beginning the slope of load-deflection curve is very low and negligible. AM. 2007. in press (invited). Ye X. Figure 9 shows the comparison of load-deflection curves between new and damaged sleepers. as well as the residual moment capacity after the ultimate impact. Sukontasukkul P. Standards Australia. it was found that the concrete sleeper under the ultimate impact (at drop height of 0. 581-588. N. Ph. Australia.