XXXXXXXX XXX XXXXX Teacher: XXXXXXXX Marijana Nikolic XXXXXXXXX
THE AIR TEMPERATURE
By: TIJANA SEKULIC Source: http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/7l.html
Pronunciation: HH Pronunciation
Directions: Practice Pronouncing this sound by saying the word pairs and example sentences and words from this reading
Word Pairs happy-sappy, hear-sear, hand-sand, hell-sell, hit-sit Example sentence: Who helped Harry hurry? Examples from this reading: Alcohol Homogenous
Directions: Study the following keywords and definintions.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. alcohol -(n) - A flammable, intoxicating liquid.* annual -(adj) - Once a year. comparison -(n) - Measure one object against another. depth -(n) - Deepness. expansion -(n) - Make something bigger by adding to it.* quantity -(n) - The amount or number of something. thermal -(adj) - Related to heat and temperature. accumulates -(v) - To gather more and more, little by little.* radiating -(v) - To extend in all directions, as from a source or focus. crucial -(adj) - Essential, very important, necessary. constructed -(v) - Build. due to -(adj) - Because of. homogenous -(adj) - Being of the same type. freezing -(v) - Stop all motion or action. radiation -(n) - Energy given off as waves or as sub-atomic particles.
Which words are the hardest? Focus on the tough ones!
Directions: Read the following passage carefully.
Fill out the 'K' and the 'W' columns before you read, and then use the 'L' column to take notes while you read. K What do you KNOW about this subject? W What do you WANT to know about this subject? L What did you LEARN about this subject?
The highest and the lowest daily temperatures are measured with a special. which is slow to go from the heated surface into depth. as much as many other factors..
THE AIR TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT
The air temperature is the thermal state of the air.
Underline important parts of the text. In the northern hemisphere the warmest month is July and the coldest January. These two scales relate as F-32:9=C:5. The sun radiation gets much deeper into the water. at 7. i. The greatest insolation Earth receives at the time of the summer solstice. altitude.
DAILY AND ANNUAL CHANGES IN THE AIR TEMPERATURE
During the day the temperature of the air changes depending on the ratio of the received and released heat. It is measured by thermometers that work on the principle of the body expansion when hot and contraction when cold. Australia) a Fahrenheit scale is still in use (F) by which the water freezes at 32* and boils at 212*. The air cools down by delivering its own heat and in contact with colder surfaces. Thermographs are used. 2-3 hours after the highest position of the Sun.
THE AIR TEMPERATURE
The air is mostly heated from below. 2. Starting from the sunrise the temperature slowly rises because the shortwave Sun radiation.00. type of surface. The median daily temperature is worked out according to these values: (t7 + t14 + 2xt21) : 4. from the surface.00. That is why the air temperature depends on thermal conditions on the surface and the rate and way of radiating that heat into the atmosphere. the air temperature drops and reaches the daily minimum just before the sunrise.e.e. The sum of all the median temperatures divided by the number of days in a certain month is the median monthly temperature. to continuously record the daily and weekly air temperature. the daily amplitude is greater.e. 14. These features of land and water are crucial for daytime and annual changes in air temperature. Put a check mark (✓ ) next to statements that you agree with. They are constructed in such a way so that the mercury. which due to its higher specific heat (2. Since the Earth is not homogenous there are great differences in warming of some of its parts. the air temperature reaches its daily maximum.5 times that of the land) gets less warm and more slowly. when it is closest to the
. alcohol that the thermometers are filled with. USA. i. We use the thermometer with a Celsius scale © where the point of water freezing is marked with 0*. Besides. The temperature is recorded three times daily. After that the Earth' radiation is higher than the insolation. only 1m in a day. the degree of cloudiness. The daily fluctuation of the temperature depends on multiple factors: latitude. i. etc. The annual changes in the air temperature depend on the Earth's revolution and the tilt of its rotational axis on the ecliptic. and the point of boiling with 100*. where they are exposed to free airflow. especially between the land and the sea. it accumulates substantially smaller quantity of the heat. In some countries (Great Britain. Circle words or phrases in the text that you don’t know. 3. The land gets warm and cold more quickly and thus the daily fluctuation of the temperature above the land is more prominent than above the ocean. and 21. This is the reason why the land gets cooler faster in the same time period.1. whereas the sum of the median monthly temperatures divided by 12 is the median annual air temperature.00. but since it has a greater heat capacity it also gets cooler more slowly. is greater than the longwave Earth radiation.00. remains at the point of the temperature measured. Put a question mark (?) next to statements you have a question about. the degree of its heat. so-called maximum and minimum thermometer. however. season of the year. which actually record the temperature graph on the paper roll. the same ones that have impact on the daily changes in temperature. All the instruments used to measure the air temperature are kept in thermometer shelters of meteorological sheds to protect them from direct sunlight and at 2 m above the ground. Canada. It is usually around 14. Above the water the air temperature changes differently than above the land due to the differences in their physical features. 4. so it gets warm quickly. When the insolation and radiation equalize. In comparison with water. relief. the so-called insolation. the land has small specific heat. and very little when the sunrays go through the atmosphere.
The climate with great annual amplitudes is called continental and with small ones maritime." 2. The daily fluctuation of the temperature depends on multiple factors:
4. These two scales relate as F-32:
2. however. The minimal monthly temperature is in January (in the coastal regions in February) when the Sun's insolation is lower than the Earth's radiation. Habits: "I drink coffee every morning.
3. The smallest amount of the Sun's thermal energy at the time of the winter solstice (22nd December) when the Earth is closest to the southern celestial pole. because the air is then also heated by the radiation from the overheated surface. Use the important details to support your discussion of the main idea. the warmest month is August due to the fact that the sea gets warm more slowly in comparison with the land." How is the simple present used in the sentence(s) below?
Directions: Identify how the simple_present is used in the sentence(s) below
1. 2) 3)
Identify 2 details that are not very important to the main idea of the passage. General truths: "The sun rises in the east.
Focus on Grammar
The simple present is used in 3 cases. The variations in the air temperature during a year is more pronounced in inland regions of the continents than in the coastal regions. In the coastal regions. the highest monthly temperature is in July and not June.
1) Identify 3 important supporting details that contribute to the main idea of the passage." 3. This is the reason why the land gets cooler faster in the same time period. We use the thermometer with a Celsius scale & copy. 1.
.northern celestial pole (21st or 22nd June). However. which is why it is coldest then. Conditions: "Today is sunny.
Write 1 brief paragraph summarizing the main idea of the passage.
they are not _______________ anymore. 4. The river's _______________ is 10 meters here. gamma rays. They were quite unsteady when they came out. The _______________ blanket keeps her warm in the winter. 14. 6. Her face seemed to _______________ light. The company had to _______________ hiring to lower expenses. The _______________ of the empire caused many wars.. He bought a small _______________ of cookies.
1. brightening up the entire room. x-rays. owing to the effect of the _______________ on their empty stomachs. 8.
alcohol thermal homogenous
annual accumulates freezing
comparison radiating radiation
quantity due to
1. the cat gets furious.
Directions: Identify the word that ends with -ous in each sentence and write it on the line.es) + ous I was nervous when he drove fast. 12. Maupassant . 13. The game was stopped _______________ rain. furious (fury-y) + ious When you pull her tail. like dangerous. and visible light are all different forms of _______________. She made a _______________ of the different computers before buying one.Two Friends 5. water becomes gaseous.Word Roots & Stems
Rule: The suffix ous changes a noun into an adjective. 11. just as in the models. Water is _______________ for life. mysterious ____________ ________________________________________________ spacious ____________ ________________________________________________ nervous (nerves . 7.
. The Brooklyn Bridge was _______________ over 100 years ago. glorious ____________ ________________________________________________
Vocabulary Practice FILL IN THE BLANK
Directions: Use the word bank to identify the word that best completes the sentence. Christmas is an _______________ holiday. Alpha particles. 2. 9. 3. Since the Earth is not homogenous there are great differences in warming of some of its parts. especially between the land and
Directions: Fill in the blanks below.
gaseous gas + eous Above 100 degrees C. 10. Modern cities have people from every country in them.
C. 18. little by little. as from a source or focus. _______ Build.* 27. 26. _______ Stop all motion or action. L. D. M. _______ The amount or number of something. _______ Being of the same type. _______ Energy given off as waves or as sub-atomic particles. he _______________ many.
alcohol thermal homogenous annual accumulates freezing comparison radiating radiation depth crucial expansion constructed quantity due to
34. J. _______ Make something bigger by adding to it. necessary. _______ Because of. Be sure to write a sentence that would help the reader better understand the meaning of the word. _______ Related to heat and temperature. write an original sentence using the word. E. intoxicating liquid. N. 28. alcohol annual comparison depth expansion quantity thermal accumulates radiating crucial constructed due to homogenous freezing radiation
WRITE YOUR OWN SENTENCES
Directions: For each of the words in the box. over the years. B. _______ Once a year.
Directions: Write the letter of word that matches the definition on the line. Circle the vocabulary word in each sentence. He only bought one book a week but. _______ Measure one object against another. 22.* A. _______ Essential. I.
36. F. very important. G.
32. 30. K. 25. 21. 19. If it helps. _______ To gather more and more. _______ Deepness. 24.* 20.
16. feel free to also draw a line between the definition and the matching word. 23. O. _______ A flammable.15. H. 29. _______ To extend in all directions.
Standards addressed: Vocabulary:
Aim: Grade: 9 Subject: Prepared by: Marijana Nikolic
Students will be able to understand. accumulates 14.
. radiation 4. Instruct students to read the passage silently and complete the questions independently. freezing 3. or develop a physical action to increase the student’s ability to remember the new words. Model and emphasize pronunciation. Struggling students may need additional instruction on how to make new sounds. Who can think of a time when this word might be used? Can you use this word in a sentence? What’s the antonym (opposite) of this word?
When appropriate. depth 10.
ALL Students will be able to demonstrate an increase in pronunciation skills by successfully pronouncing the new sound during choral or individual repetition. quantity 12. individual and choral repitition. Pause at key moments and model good reading strategies through a think aloud. pronounce. homogenous 2. Some students may benefit from being challenged to think of their own minimal pair. SOME students will be given an opportunity to share their answer aloud. Ask students to complete the questions by doing Think. Pair. expansion 11. Share
ALL Students will read the passage or follow along as the passage is read. Students will be able to demonstrate comprehension of the passage by answering questions which require basic understanding and interpretation of the content. constructed 6.SOME Students will be asked to orally demonstrate knowledge of new words. SOME students will be able to recognize and identify the sound in other words they know. annual 8. Ask students to volunteer to read parts of the passage aloud. thermal 13. give different types of learners an opportunity to write down the new words. to model phrasing and fluency.
Give students who need extra help the opportunity to practice in smaller groups or individually. associate a visual image to cue to understanding of the word. Review defintions Sample Questioning: In your own words.
Reading & Comprehension Questions
Students will read the passages of and demonstrate comprehension of the content by question. alcohol 7.
Introduction of vocabulary
Introduce the new words from the vocabulary list in above (see Objectives) by modeling pronunciation. comparison 9. explain the definition. Alternate choral and individual repetition. calling on individual students at random. crucial 5. Individual and choral repetition. ALL Students will strive to demonstrate comprehension of the passage by answering the questions.
ALL Students will be able to increase their understanding and awareness of the new words. while working with students who need more literacy help.
Depending on the population: Read the entire passage aloud. and use the words in the vocabulary list below. radiating 15. due to
Pronunciation Practice: HH
Introduce key phoneme with minimal pairs.
-5 M. -2 H. -14 C. but also include the vocabulary from the lesson in their sentences.
Give students need time to work on completing their own practice sentences for the grammatical structure. -8 L. -1 J. -7 O.
Example quick assess: 3 new pieces of information from text. -13 G.
ALL Students will increase their familiarity with the new vocabulary and their ability to successfully use these new words in context. When appropriate. -11 F.Grammar
Students will review the usage of and then identify simple_present in sentences from the reading. -12 D.
Fill-in-the-blank Answer Key: 1) radiate 2) thermal 3) crucial 4) alcohol 5) due to 6) depth 7) freeze 8) constructed 9) radiation 10) homogenous 11) expansion 12) comparison 13) quantity 14) annual 15) accumulated Matching Answer Key: A. Students who get more than two of the cloze sentences wrong should be asked do other reinforcement (i. -6 E. 2 new words. -9
. Students will write 5 original sentences using simple_present. -3 K. -10 N. flash cards).
Practicing New Vocabulary
Students will be given a chance to practice applying new vocabulary by completing cloze sentences.
Word Building: Roots and Stems
Students will be encouraged to take away a word-attack strategy from this lesson by reviewing -y. -15 I. have students work in pairs or small groups.
The summary can be completed as quick discussion or by asking student to summarize in their notes.
ALL Students will be able to demonstrate an increased mastery of the grammar structure by independently writing sentences that correctly employ simple_present. Invite early finishers to put their sentences on the board or challenge them to not only use the grammar structure. 1 question about what they learned.e. like dirty.
Students may benefit from having time to complete this portion of the worksheet individually or in pairs.
Students complete this section of worksheet independently prior to group review of the answers.. which was used in the reading.
ALL students will be able to recognize the suffix -y and understand The suffix y changes a noun into an adjective. -4 B.
Instructor will review the objectives of the lesson with the class a whole.