Literature Review|9

Chapter 2
Literature Review
Ceramic/silicon nitride bearing elements are an attractive design solution for high speed turbine, precision machine tools and various automotive applications. High demand of employing these elements in severe conditions of high contact stress, high temperature, high speed and restricted lubrication have put tremendous pressure on design engineers to evaluate the material and advise applicable design strategies, Khan et al.[1,2]. Leading technology, demands for high efficiency and importance of sustainable development have caused loading bearing contacts in all kinds of machinery to be subjected to high speeds, high contact stresses and severe conditions of lubrication, Khan et al.[1,2]. Silicon nitride Si3N4 bearing elements have shown practical advantages over traditional steel elements due to their mechanical and physical properties, Hadfield et al.3and Hadfield [4,5]. Engineering ceramics uniquely combine strength, strength retention at high temperature, hardness, dimensional stability, good corrosion resistance, low density, superior thermal shock resistance, high wear resistance, and fracture toughness, Bennewitz [6]. These excellent mechanical and tribological properties make them suitable candidate materials or various applications, ranging from cutting tools to nuclear reactors, Kanimoto et al.[7] and Kitamura et al.[8]. Typical applications are gas turbine bearings, I. C. Engine components, turbocharger rotors, seals, rocker arms, turbine blades. Compared with, other engineering ceramics, silicon nitride has superior mechanical and tribological properties, Hyuga et al.[5], Nakamura et al.[6,7], Xu et al.[8,9,10]. Silicon nitride and its composites have long been used for design and development of hybrid bearings, cutting tools, values, engine parts, turbine blades etc, Andersson et al.[11]. As the use of Si3N4 is increasing at rapid rate, various sintering methods have been used to improve microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of Si3N4 ceramics Wani et al.12. In addition, composites of Si3N4 with BN, TiN and TiC; and also composites of nano-Si3N4 with Nano-BN have been developed to improve microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of monolithic Si3N4, Xu et al.[13], Jones et al.[15], Hyuga et

Department Of Mechanical Engineering/NIT Srinagar

) used for fabrication of Si3N4 ceramics and its composites. Quinn and Swab [18].[5. Jones et al. to evaluate the hardness of these three ceramics. Researchers observed that inter-granular SiC Nano. molds and dies. Micro hardness research studies on three advanced ceramic materials Si3N4. Silicon nitride composite of SiC has been developed to study the influence of reinforcement on the properties of monolithic Si3N4. optical lens glasses.[5. micro hardness technique for measuring the hardness of ceramics has shown promising results Rendtel et al. Different techniques for measuring hardness of ceramics have been used.[17] Higher hardness means higher wear resistance and vice-versa. such as. Hyuga et al.16] and Ullner et al. three different indentation techniques Vickers.13. Hardness plays a significant role. and Ullner et al. In this research study. Mechanical and tribological properties. Rendtel et al. it was observed that the particulate of BN reinforced into the Si3N4 improves tribological properties of Si3N4. Sun et al. prosthetic hip joint balls and sockets. In this research study. Quinn. Swab and Sun et al. and seals.[21].[17.16].[17].19].e. Xu et al. SiC. valves. wear and abrasion-resistant parts. Multilayered Department Of Mechanical Engineering/NIT Srinagar . Hardness is crucial for cutting tools. Al2O3 have been carried out. it has been observed that the strength and toughness of the composite is higher comparing to monolithic Si3N4.. temperature.[20].15. In order to understand the influence of sintering additives and the composites on hardness values and wear resistance.18. It was observed that there is no significant difference between the abilities of these hardness techniques.. However.Literature Review|10 al. Blugan et al.[20]. in increasing the wear resistance of Si3N4 ceramic. Influence of BN particulate on microstructure and mechanical properties of Si3N4 has been studied. In this research study. hardness.. Knoop and Rockwell have been used. Jones et al. it is essential to measure hardness of Si3N4 ceramics and its composites. Blugan et al. Mechanical properties of Si3N4/C fibre composite have been carried to study the influence of C reinforcement on the properties of monolithic Si3N4.[19]. strength and wear resistance of Si3N4 ceramics depend upon: (a) Sintering additives (b) Type of reinforcement (c) Sintering conditions (i.particles hinder the Si3N4 grain growth and thus change the chemical composition of grain boundary phase. pressure etc. ballistic armor..Hadad et al.14.

Wear coefficients were slightly higher in dry conditions (K = 2. grain size and morphology. and humidity.[22]. Gomes . (< 0. with the wear behavior.4 N and 1000˚C was 292 times larger than that at room temperature. temperature. Xu et al. Friction and wear study results have shown that wear resistance of laminates remain unchanged. Studies on the influence of humidity and sliding speed on the Si N tribological properties have shown an intricate dependence on these variables. Oliveira [26] state that The tribological response of Si N -based materials as 3 4 self-mated pairs or as dissimilar couples with metals has been intensively investigated in a wide range of experimental conditions like speed. In this research study. whereas from 750 to 1000˚C the main mechanism was highly influenced by the oxidation of silicon nitride due to the increased temperature. the oxidation of silicon nitride at high temperatures is an important factor in wear increase. only a few published papers related intrinsic characteristics such as ceramic composition.R. lubrication. fracture toughness of laminates is higher than that of Si3N4 composite. optimization of the tribological properties regarding micro structural design is still a matter of research. amount and nature of intergranular phase and porosity. However. Tomizawa and Fischer [25] observed the very low friction coefficient. plus the friction coefficient of silicon nitride increased upon decreasing in the normal load.002) of Si3N4 in water. based on Vickers indentation method. In addition. and the specific wear rate at 29. The specific wear rate was found to decrease relative to a decrease in the sliding distance. microhardness tests on Si3N4 ceramics and its composites have been carried out. to study influence of sintering additives and reinforcement on Vickers and Knoop hardness values of silicon nitride ceramics.Literature Review|11 laminates of Si3N4 –TiN have been used to develop the Si3N4 / TiN composite Bai et al. Recently. Seock-Sam Kima. fracture toughness of these ceramic materials has also been evaluated. load. Then. have better high-temperature properties and higher hardness due to the smaller amount of intergranular glassy phase. Young-Hun Chae and Dae-Jung Kim[24] suggested The friction coefficient of silicon nitride was more substantially influenced by the normal load than by elevated temperatures. and Wani [23].J.5×10-4 mm3 N-1 m-1) than in humid environments (K=1×10-4 mm3 N-1 m-1) at very low sliding speeds( v= 1 ×10-3ms-1) but Department Of Mechanical Engineering/NIT Srinagar . J. Sialon ceramics. in comparison with Si3N4 ceramics. F. Nano-silicon nitride composites of BN have been developed for self lubrication of Si3N4 / Si3N4 tribopair. however. The main wear mechanism from room temperature to 750˚C was caused by brittle fracture. Accordingly.

In contrast. These elongated grains.5 ms-1) . in the presence of humidity.Literature Review|12 the opposite tendency was observed at intermediate speeds (v= 0. -structure had much higher hardness (Vickers micro hardness) than the -structure and that is why .to -Si3N4 transformation during the liquid phase sintering leads to decreasing of hardness of ceramic materials. A micro fracture mechanism was predominant in dry conditions. results in the densification and phase transformation. The liquid phases formed during densification provide a media for the growth of prism-shaped -Si3N4 grains. a minimum of wear rate (K= 1×10-6 mm3 N-1 m-1) occurs at intermediate speeds (v= 0. Department Of Mechanical Engineering/NIT Srinagar .In dry conditions. Typically Si3N4 is densified by employing various mixtures of additives that. a maximum value of (K= 7×10-4 mm3 N-1 m-1) was reported in this speed range. while tribochemical reactions with formation of hydrated silica or silicates dictated the tribological response in humid environments. in turn. These facts are the reason why it is very important to control the microstructure that is able to maintain high hardness and at the same time to increase fracture toughness. There is nowadays ongoing searching for production processes on the basis of low-cost Si3N4 powder as well as sintering additives that are equally inexpensive and enable low sintering temperatures.1 ms-1 ). act as a reinforcing phase that promotes crack bridging processes and toughens the ceramics.044 ms-1). followed again by a return to the initial trend at higher speeds (v= 0.[27] states that silicon nitride ceramics are the most promising material for engine components due to high strength and high fracture toughness. On the other side. contrary to -Si3N4 which usually has equiaxed grain morphology and as a consequence poor toughness. The authors related this complex dependence with the existence of intermediate layers at the wear interface. Branko Matovic. in combination with the surface SiO2 on the silicon nitride particles.

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