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Thermal gasifi cation for Power and

Fuels
Esa Kurkela
VTT - Gasification Team
September 2010
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Gasification
Is a conversion of any carbonaceous fuel to a gaseous product with a
useable heating value.
The dominant technology is partial oxidation
Produces a gas mixture that contain H2 and CO in varying ratios
(synthesis gas).
The oxidant may be air, pure oxygen and/or steam.
Synthesis (syngas) gas can be used in the production of power and
heat or chemicals similarly as natural gas
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Gasification is an endothermic thermal conversion technology where a solid fuel
is converted into a combustible gas.
GASIFICATION?
air/steam
feedstock
additves
fuel gas
C+O
2
-> CO
2
2C+O
2
-> 2CO
C +H
2
O -> H
2
+CO
etc.
ash
8501000
o
C
CO, H
2
,
CH
4
, CO
2
,
H
2
O, N
2
,
C
x
H
y
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Coal
Oil
Biomass
Waste/SRF
O
2
A
i
r
S
t
e
a
m
Syngas
Energy
(Fuel gas)
Gasification
SOFC
IGCC
Co-firing
Gas engine
CHP
FT-
synthesis
Hydrogen
SNG
MetOH
C
A
R
B
O
N
- partial
oxidation
- combustibl e
product gas
G
A
S
C
L
E
A
N
U
P
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Vesa Mikkonen, nekoski
Buick Le Sabre STW, -83
engine volume 5,0 l, power gasol. 145 hp
gasifier: own design
fuel capacity 130 kg peat
drive length/batch ca. 300 km
fuel cost ca. 2 c/km
Osmo Yli-Krkel, Kihni
Suomen Ekoautoilijat ry
Amateur gasifiers for cars
in Finland in the 21st
century
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7 24/03/2011
Gasification phenomenon
Fuel is fed to the reactor
Water (moisture) and volatiles are released (pyrolysis) rapidly
Residual carbon reacts slower
Reactions depend on the characteristics of biomass
H
2
O
Volatiles
Residual carbon
20C
100 C
Ash
---- 850 C ---- 600 C
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Main reactions of gasification
Gasification of carbon T > 700C binds heat
C + H2O CO + H2 136 kJ /mol = 11.3 MJ /kg C
C + CO2 2CO 170 kJ /mol = 14.2 MJ /kg C
(C + 2H2 CH4 )
Water-gas-shift reaction (WGS) produces heat (small amount):
CO + H2O H2 + CO2. 34 kJ /mol = 2.8 MJ /kg C
Combustion produces heat
C + O2 CO2 395 kJ /mol = 32.9 MJ /kg C
Reactivity is controlling final carbon conversion
Oxidation reactions are generally faster and
O
2
is consumed rapidly in gasifiers
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Example of product gas composition (air gasification, dry gas)
fluid-bed gasifier, saw dust, P = 5 bar, T = 860 1000C
vol-%
CO 12
H
2
11
CO
2
16
N
2
+Ar 57
C
2
-
hydrocarbons
0.2
NH
3
0.05
Kurkela, E., Laatikainen, J . & Sthlberg, P. (1993) Pressurised fluidised-bedgasification experiments with wood, peat and coal at VTT in 1991-1992. Part
1.Test facilities and gasification experiments with sawdust. Espoo, VTT Publications161. 55 p. +app. 2 .
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Gasification reactors
11 24/03/2011
GASIFIERS
UPDRAFT
Output <10 MWth (biomass)
Feedstock size 10 - 100 mm
Moist feedstock <50 p-%
Gas temperature <300 C
"Dirty" gas
Examples:
Bioneer gasification district
heating plants (late 1980s)
Lurgi coal gasifiers at Sasol
DRYING
OXIDATION
PYROLYSIS
AIR
FEEDSTOCK
REDUCTION
GAS
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GASIFICATION REACTIONS
AIR
FEEDSTOCK
GAS
DRYING:
fuel H
2
O + dry fuel
PYROLYSIS:
fuel tars + gases + carbon
GASIFICATION:
C + H
2
O(g) CO + H
2
H
1000
= +135.9 kJ/mol
C +H
2
O(g) CH
4
+CO
2
H
1000
= +5.8 kJ /mol
C + CO
2
2CO H
1000
= +167.7 kJ/mol
CO + H
2
O(g) CO
2
+ H
2
H
1000
= -32.2 kJ/mol
OXIDATION:
C + O
2
CO
2
H
1000
= -395.2 kJ/mol
Thermoneutral reaction for carbon:
1.34C + 0.34O
2
+ H
2
O(g) 0.34CO
2
+ CO + H
2
=> min. ratio O
2
/C = 0.25
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GASIFIERS
DOWNDRAFT
Output <2 MWth
Feedstock size 10 - 100 mm
Dry feedstock <20 p-%
Gas temperature <800 C
Clean gas
The most common gasifier type
Used in 2nd world war time in cars and
trucs and boats
Hkpntt in Finnish
Numerous development trials since
1980s no major break through
DRYING
PYROLYSIS
GAS
AIR
FEEDSTOCK
OXIDATION
REDUCTION
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GASIFIERS
FLUIDIZED BED
Output >20 MWth
Feedstock size <10 mm
Gas temperature <800 C
BUBBLING FLUIDIZED BED (BFB)
Fluidizing velocity 1 - 3 m/s
Long residence time
CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED (CFB)
Fluidizing velocity 3 - 10 m/s
Higher output/diameter
Reactive feedstocks
FEEDSTOCK
AIR
ASH
GAS
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GASIFIERS
ENTRAINED FLOW
Output >100 MWth
Feedstock size <0.1 mm
Coal, oxygen gasification
Gasification temperature 1300 - 1700 C
Usually pressurised reactors
Texaco, Shell, Prenflo
Leading gasification technology for
coal gasification
GAS
SLAG
FEEDSTOCK OXYGEN & STEAM
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GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES
GASIFICATION
METHOD
AIR OXYGEN INDIRECT
steam +
oxygen/circulating
bed material
GAS HEATING
VALUE
3 - 7 MJ /m3n 7 - 15 MJ /m3n 7 - 15 MJ /m3n
SIZE RANGE small - medium
<100 MWth
large >100 MWth medium - large >50
MWth
FEEDSTOCK reactive:
biomass, refuse
derived fuel (RDF)
coal, bottom oils biomass
APPLICATIONS CHP syngas, power,
(CHP)
syngas

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PRESSURIZED
ATMOS-
PHERIC
PARTIAL
TOTAL
FLUID-BED
FIXED - BED
ENTRAINED
FLOW
OTHER
TYPES
INDIRECT
OXYGEN
AIR
WET
SCRUBBING
HOT GAS
CLEANUP
Gasifier
operation
pressure
Degree of
gasification
Reactor type Gas cleanup Heat production
Coal-IGCC
Biomass-engine
Coal-GFBCC(FW)
REF-gasifier+boiler
GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES
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PRESSURIZED
ATMOS-
PHERIC
PARTIAL
TOTAL
FLUID-BED
FIXED - BED
ENTRAINED
FLOW
OTHER
TYPES
INDIRECT
OXYGEN
AIR
WET
SCRUBBING
HOT GAS
CLEANUP
Gasifier
operation
pressure
Degree of
gasification
Reactor type Gas cleanup Heat production
Coal-IGCC
Biomass-engine
Coal-GFBCC(FW)
REF-gasifier+boiler
GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES
Biomass gas-engine process
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PRESSURIZED
ATMOS-
PHERIC
PARTIAL
TOTAL
FLUID-BED
FIXED - BED
ENTRAINED
FLOW
OTHER
TYPES
INDIRECT
OXYGEN
AIR
WET
SCRUBBING
HOT GAS
CLEANUP
Gasifier
operation
pressure
Degree of
gasification
Reactor type Gas cleanup Heat production
Coal-IGCC
Biomass-engine
Coal-GFBCC(FW)
REF-gasifier+boiler
GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES
Waste gasification for power
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PRESSURIZED
ATMOS-
PHERIC
PARTIAL
TOTAL
FLUID-BED
FIXED - BED
ENTRAINED
FLOW
OTHER
TYPES
INDIRECT
OXYGEN
AIR
WET
SCRUBBING
HOT GAS
CLEANUP
Gasifier
operation
pressure
Degree of
gasification
Reactor type Gas cleanup Heat production
Coal-IGCC
Biomass-engine
Coal-GFBCC(FW)
REF-gasifier+boiler
GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES
Coal IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle)
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Power Production from Biomass and Solid Recovered Fuels
Gasification based systems for different size classes
Fixed-bed gasifier +
microturbine
Fixed-bed gasifier +
Fixed-bed gasifier +
gas / diesel engine
Fixed-bed
gasifier +
steamcycle
Fixed/fluidised-bed
gasifier &co-firing in
natural gas engines
Fluidised-bed gasifier connected
to existing coal-or oil-fired boilers
Gasification +fuel cell +
gas turbine and/or steamcycle
Simplified IGCC based
on pressurised gasific.
or co-comb. in NGCC
Long-term
Short-term
Power, MW
0.1 1 5 10 50 100 200
fuel cell +CHP
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GAS CLEANUP
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Impurities in (biomass) gasification gas
H
2
Particulates
CO
2
CO
H
2
O
N-
compounds
H2S
C2H4
CH
4
HCl
TARS
- naphthalene, PAH
CLOGGING, SOLID DEPOSITS
- pipes
- filters
- engine ducts
NITROGEN COMPOUNDS
- NH3, HCN
Will cause NOx-emissions
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Always high amounts at the gasifier outlet
Particulates, alkali- and heavy metals, tars, nitrogen
compounds
Gas has to be cleaned before utilisation (except in direct
combustion applications)
Gas cleanup is the most crucial problem in the development of
advanced gasification based processes
Engine, turbine and fuel cell power plants and
Syntheses
Impurities in gasification gas
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Product gas cleaning
Filtering
Ceramic or bag filter
Particulates removed
Alkali and heavy metals and Cl removed
Catalytic decomposition
Monolith or fluid bed reactor
Tar and ammonia decomposed
Scrubbing
Venturi, spray tower, packed bed column
Ammonia by acid scrubbing
Tar not removed
In the gasifier
Limestone/dolomite additives
Partial decomposion of tars
Sulfur capture (coal gasification)
Ultra cleaup and gas conditioning for synthesis applications
Removal of Sulphur and other contaminants to ppb levels
Shifting the H2-toCO ratio and removal of CO2
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What is tar?
Pentti Vesterinen operating a tar-burning pit in the late 19th century
Traditionally obtained by
dry distillation of wood
(slow pyrolysis)
-Paint
-Multipurpose substance:
if sauna, vodka and tar
won't help, the disease is
fatal
27 24/03/2011
- peat
- biomass
- coal
TAR
mixture of
numerous organic
compounds
liquid at room
temperature
What is tar?
No explicit definition
Composition depends mainly on temperature
history:
High temperature tar >750 C
Formed by secondary reactions of the primary
pyrolysis products, C2 intermediates play
important role
Fluidisd bed, downdraft gasifiers
Most abundant components:
benzene, toluene, naphthalene, fenanthrene
Low temperature tar <750 C
Primary pyrolysis products
Composition depends on fuel, wood: lot of
phenolics
Updraft gasifier
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Component Gas pipe Temp.
708 720 730 740
Benzene 3354 3312 3396 3144
Pyridine 32 30 28 28
1H-Pyrrole 9 9 7 8
Toluene 279 229 203 128
Ethenylbenzene 36 30 23 16
m-Xylene 13 9 7 2
Ethynylbenzene 5 6 6 4
Styrene 126 108 101 64
o-Xylene 4 0 0 0
Benzaldehyde 49 37 28 14
Phenol 1092 836 607 373
Benzonitrile 7 7 7 6
4-Methylstyrene 126 110 96 60
Indene 48 41 40 30
o-Cresol 45 26 15 8
p-Cresol 23 15 7 0
m-Cresol 80 47 27 13
Naphthalene 677 630 633 504
Quinoline 7 6 5 6
Isoquinoline 7 3 2 0
1H-Indole 4 2 2 4
2-Methylnaphthalene 30 23 19 11
1-Methylnaphthalene 18 15 13 8
Biphenyl 46 39 34 24
2-Ethylnaphthalene 2 0 0 0
Acenaphtylene 85 84 85 68
Acenaphthene 7 6 4 4
Dibenzofurane 139 137 119 106
Bibenzyl 21 9 4 8
2-Methyl-1-Naphthol 13 6 0 0
Fluorene 6 6 4 4
Phenanthere 198 132 104 106
Anthracene 23 14 11 12
4H-Cyclopenta(def)Phenantherene 12 6 4 7
Fluoranthene 81 43 34 59
Benz(e)acenaphthylene 11 8 6 8
Pyrene 72 36 24 50
Benzene
bp. 80 C
Light tar
Compounds,
1 ring
bp. 80 210 C
Naphthalene,
2 -ring
bp. 218 C
Light PAH
Compounds,
2 3 rings
Bp. 220 - 300 C
Heavy PAH
Compounds,
3 or more rings
Bp. > 300 C
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Vapour pressure of tar compounds
0.1
1
10
100
1000
10000
100000
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220
Temperature (C)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
P
a
)
naphthalene solid
naphthalene liquid
anthracene liquid
solid
vapour
liquid
Triple point
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plugging of piping
http://www.thersites.nl/
fouling of equipment http://www.thersites.nl/
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Gas
cooler
Filter
Fuel
feeding
Gas
burner
Coal
burners
Bed material/
Ca-based
additive
Sorbent
Gas cleaning: gas cooling followed by filtration
Removal of char & ash
particles
But also removal of
Alkali metals
Heavy metals
Chlorine
(by sorbent injection)
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http://www.schumacher-usa.com/filtration/hotgas.htm
Rigid ceramic candle filters
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Alternatives for rigid ceramic candle filters
Ceramic fabric filters
3M/ FB 700
Rigid ceramic fibre filters
Madison filter / Cerafil
Tenmat/ Firefly
BWF/ Pyrotex KE 85
etc.
Teflon bags only in some specific
cases (<250
o
C)
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Removal of chlorine & heavy metals
Filtration temperature range
150 800 C
Depends on impurity to be
removed, pre-reforming, filter
media, etc.
Filter media:
Rigid ceramic or metal candle
filters
Rigid ceramic fibre filters
(< 900 C)
Ceramic bag filters (< 500 C)
Teflon bag filters (< 250 C)
HCl
DUST
+
Cl
DUST
(Sorbent)
F
I
L
T
E
R
Clean gas
HCl
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0,0
10,0
20,0
30,0
40,0
50,0
60,0
70,0
80,0
90,0
100,0
Na K Cl Al Ca Hg Sn Sb As Cd Pb V Mn Co Ni Cu Zn Mo Cr Si Mg
%

o
f

o
u
t
p
u
t
Bottom ash Cyclone dust Filter dust Gas
Fuel: SRF (RDF); Ceramic fabric filter (3M FB-900); Cyclone
temperature 700-750
o
C; filter temperature 395
o
C)
VTT test data from late 1990s CFB gasification at atmospheric pressure
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Scrubbing
Source: http://www.ecn.nl/en/bkm/products-services/olga/
Scrubber columns
Spray towers
Venturi
Water not efficient, removes
water solubles and condensable
tar fraction
Organic solvents work better:
RME (rape seed methyl
ester), Gussing plant
OLGA-process
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OLGA tar scrubbing process
Developed by ECN (OLie GAswasser)
Based on organic tar solvent
Operates above water dew point
Two scrubbing columns: liquid tar in the
Collector (COL) and gaseous tar absorption in
the Absorber (ABS)
Scrubbing liquid from the Absorber with the
dissolved tars is regenerated at high
temperature in the Stripper (STR)
Liquid tars in the collector are separated from
the scrubbing liquid and returned to the
gasifier
Wet electrostatic precipitator (W-ESP) not
necessary when hot gas filter is applied
upstream of the OLGA
Source: http://www.ecn.nl/en/bkm/products-services/olga/
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AIR (oxidizer)
O2
H
2
GASIFICATION
GAS
CO
2
CO
H
2
O
N-
compounds
CATALYST
500-900 C
CO, CO2,
H2, H2O
N2, H2,
H2O
CLEAN GAS
CATALYTIC CLEANUP OF GASIFICATION GAS
CO
CO
2
H
2
H
2
O
CH
4
CH
4
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Function of catalytic reforming
PRE-REFORMING:
-Removal of condensable tars
-Enables gas filtration
-Controls soot formation in
deep reforming
-Enables engine or turbine use
in CHP applications
PRE-
REFORMER
FILTER
SORBENT
Dust
Cl
Alkali metals
Heavy metal s
Deep reforming
Gas engine
Gas turbine
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Reforming catalysts
ZrO
2
+Lower operation temperature ~700 C
+Tolerates catalyst poisons
- Tar conversion not complete
- Under development
Nickel
+Decomposes tar and ammonia simultaneously
+Commercially available
- Requires high temperature 900 C
- Deactivates easily by coke & sulphur
Precious metals
+High activity
- Very expensive
- Long-term stability?
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900
Temperature (C)
T
a
r

m
o
d
e
l

c
o
m
p
o
u
n
d

c
o
n
v
e
r
s
i
o
n

(
%
)


Precious metal A Ni ZrO2
H. Rnkknen et al. Book of Abstracts, 1st International Congress on Green
Process Engineering, 24-26.4.2007 Toulouse, France p. 277
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REMOVAL OF
particulates
tars and hydrocarbons
NH3 and HCN
chlorine
alkali metals
heavy metals
Gas cleanupsteps in advancedgasification applications
PRE-
REFORMER
FILTER
DEEP
REFORMER
Gasification gas cleanup
- Under R&D
Syngas processing
- Commercial technology
REMOVAL OF
Sulphur compounds
Residual nitrogen compounds
Residual hydrocarbons
CO2
H2O
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Application Examples
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District heat / Steam production
Small Scale
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Updraft gasifier "Bioneer"
- For boilers and kilns
- Tar containing gas
- High carbon conversion
- Not sensitive to sintering
5 MW district heating plant, J alasjrvi, Finland,
in operation since 1987 with high availability
Fuel silo
Gas boiler
Hot gas -
District heating -
Electricity
Ash
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Gas engine power plant
Small Scale
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Small-scale CHP based on biomass
gasification + catalytic gas cleaning + IC-engines
Applications:
Size class 1- 20 MW
th
, large potential
Electrical efficiency >25 %, total efficiency
>80 %
Small district heating plants
Co-combustion in natural gas engines
Saw mills, plywood industry etc.
Biomass
Air
Air
Catalytic
tar removal
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Gssing biomass CHP plant
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Gussingin demo plant:
Fuel capacity 8 MW
Power 2 MW
Electrical eff. 25 %
Thermal eff. 56,3 %
Investment 10 M, Share of and EC
and national investment support 60 %
Development steps:
TUW- 10 kW 1993-1996
TUW - 100 kW 1997-2002
Gussing/Demo 2002-2004
Commercial 2004 =>
Gssing biomass CHP plant
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Increase of Availability of the Gssing Plant
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
h
o
u
r
s

o
f

o
p
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
gasifier
engine
Source: TU Vienna, Institute of Chemical Engineering
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Gasification CHP Plant, Denmark
As result of Carbonas domestic and international R&D cooperation
SKIVE PROCESS DIAGRAM
DISTRICT
HEATING
12 MWth
POWER
3x2 MWe
GAS FILTER
3 GAS ENGINES
BIOMASS
FLY ASH
2 BOILERS
TO STACK
WATER
GAS
SCRUBBER
GAS BUFFER
TANK
2x10 MWth
BOTTOM ASH
AIR/STEAM
TAR REFORMER
GASIFIER
GAS COOLERS
WOOD
PELLETS
6 MW POWER
12 MW DISTRICT HEAT
BFB GASIFIER
2 GAS BOILERS
3 GAS ENGINES
FLARE
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Novel power plant: 1.8 MWe + 3.3 MW heat
Supplier: Condens Oy
Kokemki, Finland
Novel
gasifier
Tar reformer
Gas cooler
and Filter
Scrubber
Gas engines
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Requirements for real success stories in
small-scale gasification (< 10 MW
fuel
)
Fuel flexibility with respect to particle size,
ash composition and moisture content
Elimination of tars without waste water problems
Effective final gas cleaning to protect gas engines
or small turbines
Automatic operation, good reliability and
low service costs (in industrial countries)
High power production efficiency, 30 - 35 %
These requirements are not met by ordinary
downdraft gasifier gas engine plants
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Power and Steam
medium-to-large scale scale
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Bottom
ash
Gasifier
Coal
540 C/170 bar
Processing
Biomass
Fly ash
Pulverized coal flames
Gas flame
Natural Gas
60 MW
350 GWh/a -15 % fuel input
1850 GWh/a -80 %
360 MW
100 GWh/a -5 %
Power
* 600 GWh/a
District Heat
* 1000 GWh/a
Biomass Gasification - Coal Boiler
Lahti, Finland
Source: Kivel M, Lahti Energia, 2002
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CFB GASIFIER
REACTOR
850 C
900 C
BIOFUEL FEED
BOTTOM ASH COOLING SCREW
HOT LOW CALORIFIC
GAS (750 - 650 C)
AIR PREHEATER
R
E
T
U
R
N

L
E
G
GASIFICATION AIR FAN
UNIFLOW CYCLONE
Commercial lime-kiln gasifiers were
constructed in 1980s by Ahlstrm
New development by Foster Wheeler
in 1990s for boiler applications
Gasifiers are now offered by
Foster Wheeler
Carbona/Andritz
Metso Power
Feasible in size range 15-150 MW
Source: Foster Wheeler
VTTs role and activities
IPR on FB gasification
IPR on gas reforming for clean gas
applications
support for industrial projects
R&D on gas filtration, heavy metal
removal and fuel characterisation
Atmospheric-pressure CFB/BFB gasificati on
for kilns and boilers
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The CFB test rig is used in R&D for:
Gasification of challenging fuels
Gas cooling and filtration
Heavy metal and chlorine removal
R&D in other high temperature processes
Feedstocks used in PDU-tests include:
Wood waste, straw, coal and peat
Mixed plastics, RDF, demolition wood and industrial waste feedstocks
Technical information:
Inside diameter: 0.15 m
Reactor height: 7.9 m
Temperature: 600 - 1000 C
Gas velocity: 1 - 5 m/s
Pressure: 1 bar (abs)
Max. fuel feeding: 80 kg/h
Fuel capacity: 350 kW
Gas cleaning: cyclones, ceramic/bag filters,
catalytic decomposition
Additional information
Esa Kurkela, Development Manager
Tel. +358 20 722 5596
esa.kurkela@vtt.fi
Matti Nieminen, Customer Manager
Tel. +358 20 722 6587
matti.nieminen@vtt.fi
Atmospheric-pressure PDU-scale CFB-gasification test rig
BAG
FILTER
COMBUSTOR
& FLUE GAS SCRUBBER
Fabric bag filter: -16 bags (4x4)
- 110 x 1000 mm
Ceramic candle filter unit:
- 12 x 1000 mm long candles (3 x 4 clusters)
CERAMIC
CANDLE
FILTER
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This AFB60 test facility i s used for preliminary gasification tests with new fuels before entering into
larger-scale tests. The effects of gasificati on conditions on carbon conversion, ash behaviour and gas
composition can be examined. In addition, this test rig is used for catalytical gas cleaning studies.
Test facility:
Gasifier
Ceramic filter
Catalyst/SCO-reactor
Technical information of gasifier:
Bed diameter: 63 mm
Freeboard ds:104 mm
Temperature: 600-1000 C
Fuel feeding: about 1 kg/h
Additional information
Esa Kurkela, Development Manager
Tel. +358 20 722 5596
esa.kurkela@vtt.fi
Jaana Laatikainen-Luntama,
Research Scientist
Tel +358 20 722 5598
jaana.laatikainen-luntama@vtt.fi
Atmospheric-pressure fluidised-bed reactor for air-blown gasification
GASIFIER HEAT TREATMENT OF VAPOURS
Atmospheric fluidised-bed gasifier
Fuel
feeder
Ceramic
filter
To gas combustor
Gas sampling
Gas sampling
Primary air
58 24/03/2011
Proven reference: Lahti (Kymijrvi power plant), Finland
CFB gasifier of 60MW
Main boiler
360 MW
th
Gasifier feed
preparation
- In operation since 1998
- No commi ssioning problems
- Gasifier availability > 95 %
- Boil er emi ssions decrease
59 24/03/2011
Experience from the Lahti no. 1 Plant
Very high availability
Very flexible with respect to fuels (wood/wood waste, REF/SRF,
waste plastics, waste paper/-cardboard, railway sleepers, sludge,
etc.)
Careful fuel control =>almost all emissions lowered
Emi ssion Change caused by gasi fier
NOx Decrease by 10 mg/MJ (=5 to 10 %)
SOx Decrease by 20 - 25 mg/MJ
HCl Increase by 5 mg/MJ
CO No change
Particulates Decrease by 15 mg/m3n
Heavy metals Slight increase in some elements, base level low
Dioxins
Furans
PAH
Benzenes
Phenols
No change
No change
No change
No change
No change
60 24/03/2011
Gas cleaning: gas cooling followed by filtration
developed at VTT since late 1990s
Gas
cooler
Filter
Fuel
feeding
Gas
burner
Coal
burners
Bed material/
Ca-based
additive
Sorbent
61 24/03/2011
0,0
10,0
20,0
30,0
40,0
50,0
60,0
70,0
80,0
90,0
100,0
Na K Cl Al Ca Hg Sn Sb As Cd Pb V Mn Co Ni Cu Zn Mo Cr Si Mg
%

o
f

o
u
t
p
u
t
Bottom ash Cyclone dust Filter dust Gas
Fuel: SRF (RDF); Ceramic fabric filter (3M FB-900); Cyclone
temperature 700-750
o
C; filter temperature 395
o
C)
0,0
10,0
20,0
30,0
40,0
50,0
60,0
70,0
80,0
90,0
100,0
Na K Cl Al Ca Hg Sn Sb As Cd Pb V Mn Co Ni Cu Zn Mo Cr Si Mg
%

o
f

o
u
t
p
u
t
Bottom ash Cyclone dust Filter dust Gas
Fuel: SRF (RDF); Ceramic fabric filter (3M FB-900); Cyclone
temperature 700-750
o
C; filter temperature 395
o
C)
VTT data fromlate 1990s
62 24/03/2011
LahtiStreams IP (Advanced Integrated Waste Management and WtE Demonstration)
( Lahti Energia/ FI, VTT/FI, L&T/FI, Dong Energy/DK, FZK/D; total budget 23.5 M)
- Demonstration of complete advanced waste management chain including:
>waste processing
>material recovery
>SRD/RDF production
> advanced high efficiency WtE plant
>further treatment of ashes
-R&D of - waste processing and material recovery
- improved hot gas cleaning
- advanced ash treatment
- new gasification based high efficiencyWtE technologies
http://www.lahtistreams.com/
63 24/03/2011
RFD
Gasifier
Gas cooling
Gas
cleaning
Gas boiler
High
pressure
steam
Electricity,
process steam
Flue gas
cleaning
Bag house,
Ca(OH)
2
+
activated
carbon
Steam
turbine
Natural gas/ oil
auxiliary fuel
Demonstration by Lahti Energia Oy (Lahti, Kymijrvi)
- SRF fuelled gasification based WtE plant (CHP)
- 2 x 80 MW
th
gasification & gas cleaning trains
- 160 MW
th
gas fired boiler
- Technology supplier: Metso
64 24/03/2011
Source: T.Anttikoski, Foster Wheeler Energia Oy
Plastic reject material
with 10 % aluminium
Corenso gasifier in Varkaus, Finland
gasification of aluminium containing plastic reject material
complete recycling of liquid cartoons (milk & juice packaging)
50 MW gas to boiler, 2100 t/year aluminium for re-use
developed by VTT & Foster Wheeler Energia Oy in 1998 - 2000
in operation since autumn 2001
Source: Foster Wheeler
65 24/03/2011
Power and Steam
Large Scale
66 24/03/2011
Source: TECO Power services
Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle = IGCC
67 24/03/2011
Large-scale Power with Integrated Gasification
Combined-Cycle - IGCC
Fluidised-Bed Gasification at 20 bar, 800-950
o
C
Gas filtration at 350-600
o
C
Combined Gas Turbine and Steam Turbine Process
Biomass IGCC
Demonstration Plant,
Vrnamo, Sweden
Developed and demonstrated in 1990s
Electric efficiency 42 - 48 %
Requires large-scale > 50 MW
e
Best potential for CO
2
reduction
Market situation in Finland and Sweden
was unfavourable in mid 1990s - large scale
projects were not realised
Maybe times will be better for
high-efficiency power in a near future?
68 24/03/2011
Coal
Oil
Biomass
Waste
Syngas
H
2
+CO
Fuel gas
Gasification
&
Gas Cleaning
Gas engine
Fuel cell
Gas turbine
Burner
Kiln
Chemicals
Hydrogen
SNG
Liquid fuels
C
a
r
b
o
n
Synthesis gas route
"C1-Chemistry"
69 24/03/2011
History of the synthesis gas production
Commercialization of the cryogenic separation of air by Carl von
Linde in the 1920s
Winkler fluid-bed process (1926)
Lurgi moving-bed pressurized gasification process (1931)
Koppers-Totzek entrained-flow process (1940s)
Little further technological progress was made in the gasification of
solid fuels over the following 40 years.
70 24/03/2011
History of the synthesis gas production
The capacity still expanded steadily:
Germanys wartime synthetic fuels program
Worldwide development of the ammonia industry.
Foundation of Sasol.
With the introduction of abundant resources of natural gas and
naphtha in the 1950s, the importance of coal gasification declined.
The need for synthesis gas, however, did not.
71 24/03/2011
Gasification capacity by product
72 24/03/2011
Relevant potential products from synthesis gas
73 24/03/2011
Syngas versus product gas
Product gas contains, along with the desired main components
(H
2
, CO), also a large amount of impurities, out of which most are
harmful for the synthesis phase and must be removed
In chemical syntheses, transition metal catalysts are used (Co, Rh,
Pt, Ni), that are poisoned very easily. Therefore low amounts of
Sulphur
Tar
Cl, N and metals are needed
Gas should also contain only low amounts of fine-grained solids to
avoid mechanical deactivation
CH
4
, other paraffines and CO
2
are often inerts
74 24/03/2011
Biomass gasification for
liquid biofuels and green chemicals
75 24/03/2011
FUEL ROADMAPS AT THE END OF CHEAP OIL AGE
IEAs BLUE Map scenario predicts 26 % biofuels in 2050 (ETP 2008) IEAs BLUE Map scenario predicts 26 % biofuels in 2050 (ETP 2008)
84 mbd
Transportation -
Other Uses -
50 mbd
34 mbd
Transportation
World
Petroleum
comsumption
2008
A. Rj 2006
76 24/03/2011
Different approaches to BTL
Biochemical routes to ethanol
Different final products from
syngas (FT-diesel, methanol,
DME, gasoline, H
2
, CH
4
)
Alternative biomass
gasification processes
Electric or hybrid cars with
renewable electricity
TRANSFORMATION
THROUGH
INTERMEDIATES
(SUGARS)
REDUCTION TO
BUILDING BLOCKS
(CO, H
2
)
BIOCHEMICAL
CONVERSION
THERMO-
CHEMICAL
CONVERSION
77 24/03/2011
Production and Conversion of Biomass-Derived Synthesis Gas
Main Steps in Overall Process
Main
Product
HP Steam
CO shift,
H
2
S removal
CO
2
removal
MP Steam
Off-gas
Heat
Typical pressures:
1 - 30 bar 30 bar 30 - 200 bar
Biomass
Steam Steam + O
2
DRYING
GASIFICATION
REFORMING
INITIAL GAS
CLEANING
SYNTHESIS/
UPGRADING
FINAL GAS
CLEANING AND
CONDITIONING
Commercial ly avail able
technology:
experiences from coal, oil and
natural gas processing
Focus of R&D efforts at VTT:
Special technology for biomass
78 24/03/2011
What would mean
e.g. 5 % of EU market?
EU MARKET 2030: Huge need to be satisfied
15 Mtoe
150 gasification-synthesis
plants of 300 MW feed
Turnover/year:
100 M/plant
total 15 billion /year
Investment potential:
50 billion in 2015-30
15 plants/year at ca. 2020 =>
5 B/year
Biofuels Technology Platform SRA 2008 Biofuels Technology Platform SRA 2008
79 24/03/2011
Production of Biomass-Derived Synthesis Gas
Initial step - two main approaches
Biomass
Raw synthesis gas
to cooli ng, clean-up
and conditioning
Typically: fluidised-bed
gasifier, either oxygen-blown
or indi rectly heated
GASIFIER
e.g. 850 C
REFORMER
900 C
catalytic
Main technical challenge:
reforming of gas
Biomass
Raw synthesis gas
to cooli ng, clean-up
and conditioning
Typically: oxygen-blown
entrained-flow gasifier
Dry
Pul ver
BIOMASS
PRE-
TREATMENT
GASIFIER
1300 C +
Main technical challenge:
prehandling, feeding of biomass
or
Pyrolysis
oil
80 24/03/2011
Entrained-Flow Gasifiers
Output >100 MW
th
Feedstock size <0.1 mm
Commercially available for coal and heavy oil
Gasification temperature 1300 - 1500 C
Texaco, Shell, Prenflo
GAS
SLAG
FEEDSTOCK OXYGEN & STEAM
Not applicabl e as such to biomass;
main problem: feeding
examples of solutions:
prior pyrol ysis on site (Choren Carbo-V

)
prior pyrol ysis elsewhere (FZK-ITC concept)
81 24/03/2011
82 24/03/2011
82
83 24/03/2011
From: Bienert, Warsow 29-31.8.2007
84 24/03/2011
85 24/03/2011
From: Landlv, tcbiomass, 2009
86 24/03/2011
From: Landlv, tcbiomass, 2009
87 24/03/2011
87
From: Landlv, tcbiomass, 2009
88 24/03/2011
Fluidised-Bed Gasifiers
Output >20 MW
th
Feedstock size <10 mm
Gas temperature 800 - 900 C
CIRCULATING FLUIDISED BED (CFB)
Fluidising velocity 3 - 10 m/s
Higher output/diameter
Reactive feedstocks
BUBBLING FLUIDISED BED (BFB)
Fluidising velocity 1 - 3 m/s
Long residence time
Foster Wheeler Energia, Carbona/Andritz
FEEDSTOCK
AIR
ASH
GAS
Appli cable to biomass, technologi es for synthesis-gas
applications in demonstration phase
89 24/03/2011
Forestry residues,
mill residues,
straw, energy crops,
urban biowaste
Synthesis
& upgrading
Gasification and
gas treatment
Pulp and
paper mill
Biomass
handling
and
drying
power
plant
Process steam & power
Paper
or pulp
Hydrocarbon fuels (FT)
(or methanol, SNG, H
2
, etc.)
Energy
to drying
synthesis
-gas
bark,
forestry
residues,
other
biomass
fuel gas
+steam
steam & oxygen
Syngas Route to Biofuels I ntegrated Concept
150-300 MW
75-160 MW
50-150 MW
90 24/03/2011
Moist
feedstock
Dryer Gasifier Reforming
Heat
Oxygen
Recycle gas
Oxygen
plant
HP
Steam
HT
Shift
LP
Steam
HP
Steam
Combustor
HP Steam
Scrubber-
cooler
Regenerative
Absorber
FT synthesis
FT primary liquids (C
5+
)
LP Steam
FT reforming loop
FT off-gas (purge)
H
2
O
MP Steam
Separator
CW
CW
Steam
Process Scheme for Production of FT Liquids
91 24/03/2011
Efficiencies with Industrial-Heat Production
Efficiency = 100 x [LHV-energy of main product + high-grade byproduct energy {electricity / 0.4}]
/ [LHV-energy of as-received feedstock]
Feedstock drying: from 50 % moisture to 30 % with secondary heat; from 30 % to 15 % with by-product steam
From: McKeough & Kurkela, NWBC, Stockholm 2008
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
FT CH3OH SNG H2
O
v
e
r
a
l
l

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
,

%






Primary
energy out
Main product
(Electricity in)
/ 0.4
92 24/03/2011
92
SYNGAS FROM PEAT AND WOOD
HTW-PLANT AT OULU KEMIRA AMMONIA
PLANT, 120 MW
fuel,
(operation in 1989-90)
HTW gasi fi er
Peat crush
moisture 15 %
Steam
Oxygen Recycle gas
Waste
heat
boiler
Steam
Water
scrubber
Dust
Ash
Gas to amisol scrubber
1500 k mol/h 29 bar
Sl udge separati on
Peat from MoDo
steam dryer
Benzene
scrubber
To naphthalene
extraction
Benzene from
naphthalene
extraction
10bar
750-
950C
Pressuri sed steam/O
2
-blown gasifier
Technology was successfully demonstrated
in late 1980s with peat and lignite
(Oulu, Berrenrath)
Single gasifier train 150-300 MW feasible
Improvements to the process:
HTW gasifier replaced by CFB
- fuel flexibility, high availability
- operation at lower temperature
New gas cool er design
- not sensitive to fouling
Hot filtration instead of wet
scrubbing of particul ates
Reforming of hydrocarbons
- elimination of tar problem
- higher syngas yield
- higher H2/CO ratio
93 24/03/2011
The Finnish Development Pl an
developed in VTTs UCG project in 2004-2007
Initial R&D project: budget ca. 4 MEUR, duration 1.1.2004 31.5.2007
Industrial consortium: Foster-Wheeler, Neste Oil, Andritz, Vapo, PVO, UPM, M-
real, Mets-Botnia, Stora-Enso
0.5 MW process development unit (PDU); operated by VTT's Gasification
Research Group
Demonstration of bio-syngas process planned for the period 2008 2010
size of demonstration plant: 10 50 MW feedstock input
operation of plant to be economically profitable: replacement of natural gas
or fuel oil; parallel experimental program on the flexible PDU unit at VTT
plant design studies already under way
The subsequent step: pre-commercial plant; 250 MW; commissioning 2013
Acknowledgement of funding sources: the National Technology Agency of
Finland (Tekes), VTT and the companies of the consortium (above)
94 24/03/2011
Gasification and Gas Cleaning Process
Developed and tested at VTT on 0.5 MW scale
GAS CLEANING
TAR & METHANE
REFORMING
FILTRATION
DIRTY SHIFT
NEW INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY
FT-DIESEL
CH
3
OH
ULTRA
CLEANUP
HYDROGEN
SNG
CELLS
CLEAN FUEL
GAS TO FUEL
CELLS
FUEL-FLEXIBLE
CFB
GASIFICATION
STEAM/OXYGEN
PRESSURISED
GASIFIER TARGETS
NO ASH-RELATED PROBLEMS
SIMPLE DESIGN AND HIGH RELIABILITY
HIGH C-CONVERSION TO GAS+TARS
LOW OXYGEN CONSUMPTION
GAS CLEANING TARGETS
COMPLETE TAR DECOMPOSITION
OVER 80% METHANE REFORMING
H
2
/CO RATIO SUITABLE TO FT-SYNTHESIS
95 24/03/2011
Gasification and Gas Cleaning Process
Developed and tested at VTT on 0.5 MW scale
96 24/03/2011
VTT-UCG
OPTIMISED
SYNGAS R&D
& PDU-SCALE
TESTING
INDUSTRIAL R&D
& DEMONSTRATION
REPLACEMENT OF OIL
START-UP IN 2009
FURTHER R&D
PROCESS OPTIMISATION
WASTE GASIFICATION
HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGIES
NEW APPLICATIONS
FUEL CELLS, 2nd GEN. IGCC
HYDROGEN OR METHANE
RENEWABLE CHEMICALS
R & D ON HOT
FILTRATION AND
CATALYTIC
GAS CLEANING
BIOMASS/WASTE
GASIFICATION FOR POWER
(LAHTI, CORENSO,
VRNAMO)
PEAT
AMMONIA
PLANT
OULU/FINLAND
SYNTHESIS GAS
R&D IN EUROPE
AND USA IN 1980s
FIRST SYNFUEL PRODUCTION PLANT
200-250 MW FEED CAPACITY
105 000 tons/a DIESEL FUEL
2-3 % FINNISH TRANSPORT FUEL
START-UP IN 2012-14
1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 1985 2025 2030
BIOREFINERIES AT PULP AND PAPER
MILLS AND AT LARGE CHP PLANTS
FUEL PRODUCTION: 70-150 000 tons/plants
BY-PRODUCT HEAT FOR PROCESS STEAM OR
DISTRICT HEATING
HIGH OVERALL EFFICIENCY
SYNTHESIS GAS FROM BIOMASS
FROM R&D TO INDUSTRIAL SUCCESS
(road map generated in VTT:s UCG project in 2006)
VTT-UCG
OPTIMISED
SYNGAS R&D
& PDU-SCALE
TESTING
INDUSTRIAL R&D
& DEMONSTRATION
REPLACEMENT OF OIL
START-UP IN 2009
FURTHER R&D
PROCESS OPTIMISATION
WASTE GASIFICATION
HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGIES
NEW APPLICATIONS
FUEL CELLS, 2nd GEN. IGCC
HYDROGEN OR METHANE
RENEWABLE CHEMICALS
R & D ON HOT
FILTRATION AND
CATALYTIC
GAS CLEANING
BIOMASS/WASTE
GASIFICATION FOR POWER
(LAHTI, CORENSO,
VRNAMO)
PEAT
AMMONIA
PLANT
OULU/FINLAND
SYNTHESIS GAS
R&D IN EUROPE
AND USA IN 1980s
FIRST SYNFUEL PRODUCTION PLANT
200-250 MW FEED CAPACITY
105 000 tons/a DIESEL FUEL
2-3 % FINNISH TRANSPORT FUEL
START-UP IN 2012-14
1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 1985 1985 2025 2030
BIOREFINERIES AT PULP AND PAPER
MILLS AND AT LARGE CHP PLANTS
FUEL PRODUCTION: 70-150 000 tons/plants
BY-PRODUCT HEAT FOR PROCESS STEAM OR
DISTRICT HEATING
HIGH OVERALL EFFICIENCY
SYNTHESIS GAS FROM BIOMASS
FROM R&D TO INDUSTRIAL SUCCESS
(road map generated in VTT:s UCG project in 2006)
97 24/03/2011
National UCG project: budget 4 MEUR, duration 2004 2007
Biomass gasification and gas reforming experiments employing
the 0.5 MW process development unit PDU at VTT
Wide industrial consortium: Foster-Wheeler, Neste Oil, Andritz-
Carbona, Vapo, PVO, UPM, M-real, Mets-Botnia, Stora-Enso
Demonstration phase now under way:
Demonstration plant in operation at Varkaus, Finland; consortium:
Neste Oil and Stora-Enso
The Finnish Development Path NSE Biofuels
98 24/03/2011
NSE Biofuels Demo 1 plant in Varkaus,
Finland
From Neste Oil and Stora Enso
1. Commissioning as ai r blown lime
kil n gasifier
2. Testing period as O
2
/H
2
O gasifier,
gas cleaning, FT tests
3. Return to lime kiln gasifier
Lime
kiln
5 MW
Gas cleaning
and FT
Biomass
Silo
Kuivuri
Dryer
12 MW
Gasifier
1. Commissioning as ai r blown lime
kil n gasifier
2. Testing period as O
2
/H
2
O gasifier,
gas cleaning, FT tests
3. Return to lime kiln gasifier
Lime
kiln
5 MW
Gas cleaning
and FT
Biomass
Silo
Kuivuri
Dryer
12 MW
Gasifier
Lime
kiln
5 MW
Gas cleaning
and FT
Biomass
Silo
Kuivuri
Dryer
12 MW
Gasifier
99 24/03/2011
Stora Enso / Neste Oil Joint Venture for F-T
BTL Diesel Fuel
50/50 J oint Venture NSE Biofuels Oy to first develop
technology and later produce next generation
renewable diesel crude from wood / forest residues
Currently building a 12MW demonstration plant in
Stora Ensos Varkaus mill, to be in use spring 2009
Investment decision for a commercial scale plant
when the parties have enough experience from the
demonstration plant
Strong development consortium
J oint Venture partners:
Testing & research partner:
Gasification supplier:
From Neste Oil and Stora Enso
100 24/03/2011
PRESSURISED GASIFICATION OF BIOMASS
Vrnamo IGCC Demonstration
Plant at 1990s
FW scope: Gasificationplant
101 24/03/2011
The Finnish Development Path - UPM
National UCG project: budget 4 MEUR, duration 2004 2007
Biomass gasification and gas reforming experiments employing
the 0.5 MW process development unit (PDU) at VTT
Wide industrial consortium: Foster-Wheeler, Neste Oil,
Andritz-Carbona, Vapo, PVO, UPM, M-real, Mets-Botnia,
Stora-Enso
Demonstration phase now under way:
Demonstration plant in operation at Varkaus, Finland; consortium:
Neste Oil and Stora-Enso
Pilot-plant testing at Gas Technology Institute, Chicago, USA;
consortium: UPM and Carbona
102 24/03/2011
International Gasification R&D Cooperation
CARBONA
with
The Gas Technology Institute
Chicago, USA
long term exclusive cooperation
pressurized BFB gasification
biomass fuels
air and oxygen gasification
gas cleanup systems
for IGCC and BTL
103 24/03/2011
Critical R&D issues of biomass gasification
Ash behaviour and fuel reactivity of different biomass feedstocks with
respect to different gasification processes (limits for real fuel flexibility)
Removal of particulates, alkali-metals and chlorine by hot filtration
(fundamental R&D, industrial-scale design and operation experience)
Formation and behaviour of tars in gasifiers, gas coolers and filtration
(still a long way to fundamental understanding)
Removal of tars and ammonia by catalytic high-temperature systems
or by advanced wet scrubbing (industrial experiences & further R&D)
High-quality process simulation and system analysis for
different gasification applications (international co-operation)
Robust on-line analytics from R&D labs to industrial gasification plants
(rapid tar analysis developed by VTT, robust sampling lines & analysers needed)
Fundamental gasification R&D in 2008-2010
VTT, TKK and bo Akademi, total budget 1.5 M
Financing by Tekes Biorefine, VTT and private companies
(Carbona, Foster Wheeler, Metso Power, Neste Oil, Stora Enso, UPM, Vapo & Gasum)
104 24/03/2011
GASIFICATION
800 - 1400
o
C
G
A
S
C
L
E
A
N
I
N
G
COAL
OIL
BIOMASS
WASTE/SRF
O
2
A
I
R
S
T
E
A
M
SYNGAS
(CO + H
2
)
FUEL GAS
Industrial kilns
Co-firing in boilers
Gas turbines
Engines
Fuel cells
FT-diesel fuel
Methanol, DME
Gasoline, jet-fuel
Hydrogen
Synthetic methane
Chemicals
Biomass Gasification to Different Final Products
High-Quality
Final
Products
Wide
Feedstock
basis
105 24/03/2011
VTT creates business from
technology