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Music in Chinese Fairytale and Legend Author(s): Frederick H. Martens Source: The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 8,y : Oxford Universit y Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/737857 Accessed: 01/10/2009 12:44 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates y our acce p tance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp . JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. Please contact the p ublisher re g ardin g an y further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=oup . Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission. JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. Oxford University Press is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to The Musical Quarterly. http://www.jstor.org " id="pdf-obj-0-2" src="pdf-obj-0-2.jpg">

Music in Chinese Fairytale and Legend Author(s): Frederick H. Martens Source: The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 8, No. 4 (Oct., 1922), pp. 528-554 Published by: Oxford University Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/737857

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Music in Chinese Fairytale and Legend Author(s): Frederick H. Martens Source: The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 8,y : Oxford Universit y Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/737857 Accessed: 01/10/2009 12:44 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates y our acce p tance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp . JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. Please contact the p ublisher re g ardin g an y further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=oup . Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission. JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. Oxford University Press is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to The Musical Quarterly. http://www.jstor.org " id="pdf-obj-0-46" src="pdf-obj-0-46.jpg">

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MUSIC IN CHINESE FAIRYTALE AND LEGEND

By FREDERICK

H. MARTENS

INTRODUCTION

HE fairytale

material, a

expresses

that

of every land and race is a

denial of

protest against the

of

existence.

It

the commonplaces

the

part

yearning on

of the human soul-

whether imprisoned in a white, red, yellow or black bodily envelope

-for

the vistas of the fantastic and

"magic

supernaturalopening

out from

frequent

Keats'

casements." And musical allusionsare of

fairytale,

for music is the most

occurrence in the

imaginative,

trolls,

whose

the crystal-

spreading

of finite

volatile and immaterialof the arts. The halls of the

golden splendors

are hidden within Norse mountains;

walled dragon-palaces beneath the China seas, all those

kingdoms

of

fairytale which

escape

the limitations

geography,

And,

since all

the

have their music, a superlative of that of

fairytales

hark back to the

primitive

phenomena of necromancy is their diurnal

accepted

one of their most

magical

ordinary life.

in

mankind, as

incident, incantation

forms of action, the unreal and the

were music-

often instanced in various connec-

their familiar ambient, it would be strange

magic origin-not

which is of

tions in these stories man's imagination has devised to voice dreams

and aspirations

discounted

by

materialism.

In their love for music as well as in the richnessof their litera-

ture of

fairytale, myth and legend,

The

magic

the Chinese are

surpassedby

no other race.

fiddle of German and Scandinavian

fairytale, is paralleled by

Toys-with-Jewels

plays

in her

lofty

(in

fairytales

cording

may

the green jade flute which the Princess

story

of "The

Fluteplayer")

sing

in the

the Chinese

Phoenixtower.

have voices

And the heroineswho

every

of China,

whit as well trained-ac-

to the traditionsof Middle Kingdom bel canto-as any we

encounter in the fairytales of Ireland, Hungary, Italy or

Spain.

The

Jesuit missionary

clavecin

Pere Amiot, who was a

and the transverse flute,

former on the

capable per-

who studied

Chinese music and talked with Chinese musicians

during his long

eighteenth

stay in the country, toward the second half of the

[528

]

Music in Chinese Fairytale and Legend

529

century, tried to charm them by his

les

Sauvages and les

positions

that

performances of Rameau's

Cyclopes, and the most melodious flute com-

He was told

from Blavet's collection, but all in vain.

The airs of our music

pass

from the ear to the heart, and from the

those which you The airs of our

heart to the soul.

We feel and understand them:

have played for us do not produce this effect upon us.

ancient music were quite another matter; it was enough to hear them in

order to be enraptured.

The

degeneracy

from ancient musical tradition to which al-

eighteenth-centuryMongolian

seriously.

We

may

lusion is made in this remarkof an

music-lover is not, consider it one of

perhaps,

to be taken too

those truisms of

all contemporaneouscriticism,

golden age

whose

perfection

mists of

recedes into the

which regrets the glories

seems the

more

perfect

legend and myth.

of a distant

the farther it

No doubt but what, even at the period of the

great Hoang-ti,

learned

of their art, and

who is

supposed

to have

reigned

2700

years B. C.,

decay

musicologists of his

sighed

for

time shook their heads over the

good

old times even more ancient, before

the modernismsof their own day had tampered with the heritage of

their ancestors. The standard of music of the streets, is

present-day

musically

Chinese

popular music, the

as low as our own, and

textually it could not
textually
it could not

probably more objectionable in some respects, though

possibly

be so in

others.

and

But there is

temple

occupational songs,

folk-songs

in the

especially

melodically quite

rather than a tonal

tone-production,

music, there are

truest sense, which-

in such Indo-Chinese lands as Annam and Java-are

lovely, even to

harmony,

the

our ears, though

peculiarities

a

rhythmic

of oriental vocal

by

the use of the

and the exotic character lent

five-tone scale and bizarreinstrumental timbres foreign to our ears,

may music as alluded to

obscure their charm.

in the

Then, too, with

fairytale,

regard

to Chinese

we must

remember that

are

larger,

endowed with

the

gold

of en-

all fairytale employs the superlativedegree. Its jewels

more radiant, than

those

of

actuality,

its

mystic properties and magic powers;

chantment,

its

springs

they are

gold

is

productive

beings

are the fountains of youth, its medicines are

of miraculous cures, its birds are rocs, its fishes human

who languish beneath a spell, its beasts are werewolves and

is

peopled

by

magicians,

king's

sons, heroes who

beggars to possessors of

of

untold wealth in the

devastating beauty, by ghouls,

dragons. It

are changed from

twinkling

of

an eye, by princesses

  • 530 The

Musical

Quarterly

vampires, ghosts, corpses that are quick,

tasms. Hence the music

spoken

of

in

gods, fairies and phan- the Chinese fairytale is

sweeter than that of ordinary life. Just as the fairytale in its most

characteristic moments is raised to a

plane of glamor and poesy

far above earthly levels, so its music approaches the music of the

spheres, has a

springing

subtler charm, a more eloquent loveliness than any

purely

mundane source.

little Teuton

fairytale by

from a

There is a sad

Singing Bone."

It

is

the tale

of

a

Grimm called "The brother slain by his

senior, who

buried the

body

a stream. Years afterward a

younger

beneath a bridge which led over

shepherd who was driving his flock

across the bridge,

saw a snow-white bone

lying

on the sand below,

and thought

it would make a

good

mouthpiece for his horn.

So

he whittled it into shape, fitted

it

to his horn and began to blow

the latter.

No sooner had he done so than the bone itself began

to sing,

to the

shepherd's great astonishment, and told in its

 
 

the

cruel and traitorous details of the murder.

again, when the

shepherd put

his

lips

to

his horn, there came

forth the song which denounced the fratricide, until it reached the

king's ears,

and brought about the punishment of the wicked

brother. In essence there is only one Wunderhorn, one magic horn of

fairytale, for all that its mouthpieces,

racial tone-color and quality,

way

occupied

by

song

is true

of translation that we

which determine individual

Yet

though

it

be

by

which

are many.

come to the Chinese mouthpiece

(as "The Singing Bone" is fitted to the shepherd's horn

of giving

of the

in Grimm's

story) we here use for the purpose

music in the fairytales

to its own peculiar

mistaken for any other.

an idea of the place

Middle Kingdom, its

racial self, and its music not to be

Music

IN CHINDSE MYTH

Music, like so many other developments of Chinese civiliza-

of the immutable about it. It in traditional forms, and, once

tion, has always had something

was systematized,

crystallized

fixed has seemingly been

established for all time. Chinese theorists

as it is produced by means

they still

still classify musical sound according

of skin, stone, metal, clay,

retain the picturesque

"The Emperor,"

"State

Affairs"

wood, bamboo, silk or gourd;

ancient names of the five tones of the scale:

People,"

And

we

"The Prime Minister," "The Subject

and

"The Picture

of

the

Universe."

find numerous references to the celestial origin of music and

rThe "Weaving Mai(len," seventh daughter of the Jade Kilg, who spins the clolld silk for the
rThe
"Weaving
Mai(len," seventh
daughter
of the Jade Kilg,
who
spins
the
clolld
silk
for the
King
andl Queen
of IHeaven.-- Fr,om
The'
t/Iiinese Fairy Book.

(Courtesy of the Fre(leri(k A. Stokes

('o., New York.)

Music in Chinese Fairytale and Legend 531

descriptions

fairytale

above

clove the

of the music of the gods and immortals in Chinese

King,

the Lord of Heaven,

and literature.

In the celestial realms of the Jade

the great four-square

green waves,

sea where fish with golden scales

King's daughters (of

and in which the Jade

whom the seventh is the Weaver Maiden, who weaves the cloud-

silk of the

up

skies) disported themselves, "countless magic

And we have

singing

birds flew

and down, singing."

An

maidens on the once sat at wine

moon as well.

emperor of the Tang dynasty

when he

expressed a

with two sorcerers, and

wish to visit the abode

of the Moon Fairy, one of them threw his bamboo wand into the

air, where it

straightway

turned into a

bridge, along which the

way

to the

palace

of the

towers and crys-

emperor and the

Moon

Fairy,

tal walls.

necromancersmade their

called

with all its wondersof

Fairy

silver pagoda

upon

her

And the Moon

maidens, and they beneath the

sang

came riding up

magic

poetically

magician

pass through

change

had a

built a

on white birds, and danced and

cassia-tree. And the music of the heavens is describedmost

in the tale came to the

of "King

king

Mu of Dschau." It seems that a

West,

one who could

falling,

king,

and

who

great honor,

from out of the

fire and water, rise into the air without

shapes.

The

him with

himself into a thousand different

deep respect

lofty

for

necromancy, treated

tower for him to dwell in, and sent him the loveliest of

jewels

and scented

maidenshe could find, clad in silks, adornedwith

with

fragrantherbs,

kings"

the ancient

the magician

through

the

to fill the

tower-palace and "sing the songs of

then, one day,

for the sorcerer's pleasure. And

king

take hold of his

bade the

sleeve, and they rose

air to the magician'spalace in the skies.

It was built of

gold

and

silver, and ornamentedwith

It seemedto the

ethereal city, the

pearls

and

precious stones. It toweredabove rain and

whereonit rested. To the

clouds. Andwhat the

things

eye senses perceived was

it had the

of the humanworld.

in the midstof the

clouds,and nonecould say

altogether appearance differentfrom of heaped-up the

king

that he was

truly

the

harmonyof

purpledepths of the

heavenlyspheres, whereGreat

God dwelt himself ...

the soundswhich

met the king's confusedears he was unableto grasp.

Later, on another

magic journey,

King

Mu

the divine Queen Mother

at

her castle

by

the

jade

jade-

him a magic

life." Here we

the

song

of incan-

this occasion; but of

of the West entertained

fountains. She

gave him rock

sang

him a

marrowand the fruits of the

song and taught

gain long

magic song,

trees to eat, "then

formula by means of which he could

have, definitely,

tation,

which

an

allusion to the

we find beneficently used on

  • 532 The Musical Quarterly

which

Greek

so many maleficent

and Roman

examples

as

occur in

in

the

the

literature of

modern tribal

antiquity,

well as

practice of peoples

as remote from each other

as are the negroes of

the Congo and the North American Indians.

In

the

white-jade

palaces

and

the

peach-gardens

of im-

mortality of Chinese

myth, there is as much music to be heard as in

temples

of the Christian New Jerusalem;

matrimony,

and also estab-

the golden streets and

the divine Nu Wa, who first instituted

lished the laws of music (is she credited with both accomplish-

ments because, theoretically

purest harmony?), is, from a

as Saint

Cecilia.

And of the

at least, they represent systems

Chinese standpoint, quite Eight Immortals who

singers.

of

as musical

dwell in the

Go,

Chinese heavens, at least two are

One is Dschang

reputed to have been a white bat before he turned into a human

being, and acquired the hidden knowledge

the

Tang dynasty

first came to the throne,

in primal times. When

Dschang

Go appeared

"with a

ancient,

in various cities as a venerable white-bearded

bamboo drum on his back,

riding

on a black mule.

He beat the

drum and sang." Lan Tsai Ho, another of the Immortals, hung

about the market-places in a torn blue gown and with but a single

shoe, and sang a song

of the

nothingness

in

which

of life.

And in the story

of the "Priest of Lauschan,"

a Taoist magician, at the

request of his disciples, compels the Moon Fairy to appear,

dance and

sing

for them, "her voice was

"Sky o' Dawn,"

pure

and

and clear as a flute."

eighteen years

could

on

whistle

a divine star-god who spent

earth as the confidant of a Chinese emperor,

" ....

admirably.

out,

the

Whenever he whistled with full tones, long drawn

danced to

"Help

his whistling."

in Need,"

in

And there

is

a

which a semi-divine

Dragon-King, hard pressed by an un-

to a provin-

sun-motes

Chinese fairytale called

princess, the daughter

welcome suitor

cial governor

fallen

of a

of her own immaterial kind, appeals

for a loan of the souls of such of his soldiers who have

in battle, to aid her to withstand the hosts of her admirer.

When they

cannot make head against them under the ghostly

governor

burns incense before an

living general, whose spirit

which the princess

dwells.

leader who commands them, the

altar, and lends her the soul of his best

is thereupon

The princess

surrounded

translated to the city

bids him to a

by

painted

banquet

in

They plucked the strings

the meal was brought

of honor: "She sat there erect,

of

incomparable beauty. wine was served, and

maid-servants

and blew flutes ...

inanimate

in to the sound of music." After he had

captain's

soul returned to the

during the period of its

defeated her foes, the distinguished

body which had been lying

Music in Chinese Fairytale and Legend

533

absence on the

couch in his tent

in camp. In the tale of "The

dragon-beings, another ad- music of celestial origin.

beneath the surface of the Sea

Outcast Princess," also of the race of

mirer has an opportunity

of enjoying

At a festal of Dungting, case

happens

banquet

which is held

to celebrate the destruction of the villain (who in this

to

be

the

lady's husband)

Liu I, who eventually

succeeds him, enjoys a feast for ears and eyes.

Music and the dance lent charm to the meal.

The music

ranks, and the hair

Then, again,

the sound of

bells was heard.

Clad in red and

A thousand war- forward. They

Tsian

Tang

had

rose

flutes and

a thousand

expressed in

lament,

riors with banners and lances in

carried out

a war dance.

broken through

the

in his head with terror!

enemy

little

golden

their hands stepped

expressed

how

of

the guest, as he listened,

strings,

green silk,

maidens danced around. The return of the Princess was

tones.

They

sounded like a

song,

like sobbing, like sadness and

and all who heard were moved to tears.

There is indeed a

sufficiency

of music in the divine and semi-

Many, if they formulate

might

be inclined

of the Ambrosian or

religious music repre-

divine abodes of the gods

of Cathay.

thoughts anent the music of a biblical paradise,

to conceive it, vaguely, as a spiritualization

Gregorian chant (certainly not the type

of

sented by the average sacred song of the day), sung by myriads of

white-robed and

panying

dition

white-winged angels, assisted by all the accom-

biblical statement, ecclesiastical tra-

instruments which

and the more profane imagination of the Renaissance

painters have established as belonging to the scene: the harp, the

trumpet, the sistrum, the organ, the flute, lute, violin, and even the bass viol. Orchestrally we would seem to have an advantage

over the polytheistic Mongol, yet semi-celestial and celestial

regions whose scheme admits of the introduction of the

pantomime

and ballet in connection with instrumental and vocal music, which

allows the

programmatic as well as the absolute in tone, which

of the

phoenix and the chime effect of golden bells

has the voice

to lend variety

to

its

choruses,

might

whose

program

to some seem preferable,

is

an

eternity

musically,

to

laudation.

those

of choral

Unfortunately

we have

as

yet no authentic musical exhibits

from

either

source by means of which to establish a comparison;

ouija-board

might

suggest

possibilities.

Or, now that

a musical

the

radio has

been

enlisted

in

the

service

of

spiritism,

why

(after the ultimate

perfection

of electrical

should we not listen

wireless transmission)

to

such music as the blessed

spirits

make!

may

A definite knowledge of what they might have to hear

534

The

Musical

Quarterly

through

the

ages

of ages might

easily

offset

earthly

differences

of

race, color and

creed

in

the

case of true music-lovers,

who

might

look

on musical

variety

as

the

spice

of eternal

as

well

as mortal

life.

But

thus

far

we

are

at

a loss.

That

emperor

of the

Tang

dynasty

who visited

the moon,

and who there listened

to

the song of

the moon maidens,

".

...

had the songs which

he had heard

on the

moon written

down, and sung in his pear garden to the accompani-

ment

of jasper flutes."

But

no echo of them

has come down

to

us

from the past.

Two

ODD

CHINESE

MUSICAL

LEGENDS

Perhaps

the most interesting

proof of the r61e played

by music

in Chinese

fairytale

and legend,

and, by induction,

in Chinese

life

itself,

is afforded

by

the

two

colorful

stories

of "The Fluteplayer"

and "The

Music

of Destruction,"

which

we give

in full.

In both

music

is

the

true

motive,

the

pivotal

point

about

which

the

nar-

rative

turns.

In

"The

Fluteplayer"

the

tale

and

its

characters

move

from

terrestrial

to

celestial

regions;

in

"The

Music

of

Destruction,"

while

spirits

are

involved,

the

earth

remains

the

scene

of action.

THE

FLUTEPLAYER

It once

happened, in days long

since

past,

that a

young daughter was

born to a Prince of Tsin.

the

stone.

And when she was born a rock was

brought

to

prince which, when it was split open, disclosed a lump of green jade-

When the little

daughter's

of

first

birthday came around, a

the

precious jade-stone,

only

thing

table

had

gifts, including

but

the stone was the

only thing

to leave

which she

play.

with which she would

her

hands,

she was named

up she became lovelier in face and in

proved

to

be

greatly gifted.

how

to

Since

and understood

compose

had the

the Prince of Tsin

laden with a great variety

been

prepared

for the

child;

would take

from the table,

And, since she would not

"Toys-with-Jewels."

form

than

she

played

melodies

any

and the

allow it

grew

and

As she

other maiden,

beautifully upon the

without

ever

having

syrinx,

taken

a lesson,

most skilled of all his artisans carve a

syrinx

out of the

green jade-stone.

When the maiden blew it, it sounded like the

therefore the

stories

prince

in height

Palace,

Phoenix

Phoenix Tower.

Prince of Tsin

singing

of the

phoenix;

and

many

honored and loved the child,

guard

her.

This

and had a palace

palace

built, wherein to

was called the

and the high tower which rose before it was known as the

When

Toys-with-Jewels

of

finding

was fifteen

But

thought

her a husband.

years of age, the

Toys-with-Jewels

entreated him and said: "Let it be no other man but one who knows how

to blow the

gether.

have."

syrinx sweetly,

an one

I

so that his

playing

but

and mine

may

sound to-

not

care to

Such

The

would take,

another I should

prince had his people

success.

seek everywhere for a player on the

syrinx, but without

Music in Chinese Fairytale and Legend

535

Now one day it chanced that Toys-with-Jewels

was in her palace.

She rolled back her curtains and saw the heavens

were clear and cloudless,

and the

light

the

moonlight

incense,

as radiant as a mirror. She commanded her maids to

took

up

her

green jade syrinx,

melody

and seated at the window,

were so clear and

very

high

that

A

heavens.

seemed as though

now near, now

far

astonishment.

as

The tones of her

they

continuously,

accompanying

aroused

must have been heard in the

and

suddenly

her

it

melodies;

Toys-with-Jewels's

the music of her unknown

partner stopped

air.

commenced to play.

it seemed as

though

faint breeze stirred

someone without were

it sounded,

and

When she ceased

secretly

blowing,

well; only its overtones

Toys-with-Jewels

stood

though

she

trembled for a moment in soft echoes on the

for a moment

at the window: and a sadness as

Thus

gone

Then she laid the syrinx in her

gate

of the South-Western

five colors, glowing and

youth,

she mourned for something she had lost overcame her.

until

midnight,

when the moon had

stared out of the window

down, and the incense had

bed and

reluctantly went to

slept

And while she

Heavens

shining

opened wide,

like

the

day,

of

with a headdress

on a phoenix,

spirit

of the

Day

word;

about

burned out.

sleep.

she dreamed that the

and that a cloud-radiance of

streamed forth from it.

stork feathers, came

riding

of some red

And a handsome

down from the heavens

stood before the Phoenix Tower and said to her: "I am the

Taihua Mountains,

and am your destined husband. On the

again."

Then he said not another

girdle

precious stone from the

and

began

to play.

danced,

and the

Then the

of the

singing

together in harmony through

upon

the

ear,

of

and

Toys-

thoughts

called?" she asked.

Mountains,"

again asked

wife?

Why

to-

He went

she

of Mid-Autumn we shall meet

but

drawing

his hips,

a flute

leaned against the balcony

beat his

wings

and

bright-colored phoenix

phoenix

all

the

filled it with

and the tones of the flute sounded

heights and depths; sweetly

an

entrancing

echo.

their sound fell

The soul and the

melody

the

with-Jewels became confused.

"What is this

melody of

possible

already

you?"

so

This

"It is the first movement of the

replied the handsome

Toys-with-Jewels.

should

I

not

be

youth.

you

"Are

able to teach

"Is

not

it

to

it

ward her and took her hand.

Taihau

to learn it?"

my

the

promised

youth.

said

terrified the maiden that

awoke,

her eyes still filled with her dream.

day

it to his

When the

had dawned, she told her dream to the

minister Meng Ming,

investigate

prince,

and the

prince repeated

the

told

person

for

himself on

Every

drinks

day

in

evening.

and sent the

latter out to

Taihua Mountains to

Meng

has

Ming

the matter.

There a village elder

July

a

strange

what follows:

"Since the

middle of

appeared in this neighborhood.

the

sparkling

hill

of

stars,

He has woven a hut of reeds

and lives there

the whole

quite

alone.

buy wine which he

interruption

region.

until

Who-

he is accustomed to descend in order to

solitude.

Its

And he

plays his flute without

throughout

tones can be heard

ever hears them forgets all weariness.

of us know."

Whence the stranger comes none

Then

Meng Ming

sparkling

began to climb the mountains, but when he had

hill of

stars, he really saw a man who wore a head-

appeared

to be carved from a

precious

of his countenance so free and

His face

reached the

dress of stork's feathers.

stone, his lips were red, and the expression

  • 536 The Musical Quarterly

so

celestially happy

Meng

that

he seemed to be

suspected

living

in a

world beyond

anything

"My

that

of man.

Ming at once

being.

replied

that this was

but an

father's

Who

ordinary human

name

is

Schao,"

are you?

land,"

He bowed

the

youth,

and asked his name.

"and

my given

"I

name is

Sche.

And why

do you

come here?"

"My

Since

am the

minister of this

replied

Meng Ming.

daughter.

lord and master is about to seek a

she blows the

syrinx

with

great art,

together

versed

in

he sent me out

hardly know anything

negligible flute-playing

"Let us seek

my

about

I have

master

husband for his

he will take none other for son-in-law but one who is able to play

with her. Now the

music, and has been

to take

you

the various

to him."

prince

had

heard that you were

Hence

deeply

thirsting to look upon you.

Said the

youth,

"I

this

tonalities, and aside from

no art.

I do not dare to follow your command."

took him back with him

led Schao Sche before the

The

prince

sat in the Phcenix

together," replied Meng Ming,

So

report,

homage

Meng Ming

and

then

to him.

"and then all will be made clear."

in his carriage,

prince

that

first made his

he

might

pay

Sche

country-

nothing

and for-

I know

Tower, and Schao

from the

cast himself down before him

side and from the hills, and an

of court ceremonies, and beg

and said: "I am a subject

altogether ignorant

that

you

man.

will treat me

mercifully

give me." The Prince of Tsin studied Schao Sche, and noticed the free

and

happy

expression of his countenance, which

a lively pleasure

him

and

in the arrival of the

asked: "I

Can you

syrinx,"

the

also

seemed truly

stranger,

how

"I

can

celestial.

And he took

himself beside

flute

had him seat

to play

play

the

the

for a

hear that you know

blow the

syrinx?"

"I had

is not

admirably.

flute, but not the

man who

Turning

replied Schao Sche.

syrinx,

he

but the

flute

your guest

been looking

the

syrinx-both

could play

to

same thing."

daughter,"

sent a serv-

obey

Meng Ming

If

added, "He is no partner for my

away.

Then Toys-with-Jewels

"Flute

and

message:

and commanded that he be led

ing maid to the

the

prince

same law of music.

with the

why

can play the flute

was mirrored in

Schao Sche

so admirably,

to play,

jewel

of those

the

first

stone: the

the eyes

played

not let him show his art?"

The Prince of Tsin took her advice, and ordered Schao Sche

precious

Schao Sche took up his flute, made of a crimson

was radiant and

present.

It

oily,

its crimson

a

was truly

gleam

rare treasure.

movement: slowly a clear wind arose.

clouds

played

in

the

came flying

the

third,

skies.

from all four

different kinds

until,

At the second movement colored

and when he

each other

of birds of

points of the heavens;

dancing

trees,

white storks could be seen

pairs

in the

opposite

hundreds

Peacocks sat in

accompanied his

they

music with the harmony of their songs,

delighted.

In the meantime

Toys-

and

from behind a curtain

after a time,

dispersed.

highly

The Prince of Tsin was

with-Jewels had witnessed the

whole miracle

said: "In

truth,

this

is

he

who

ought to

origin

play

with me."

The Prince

asked Schao Sche: "What is the

and

syrinx?"

invented.

out of the

"In the

and the difference between flute

beginning,"

replied Schao Sche, "the syrinx was

greater simplicity

pipe

was possible,

and

of one reed, the

"that

"The

you

flute."

are able to lure

tones of the flute

But then men found that

pipe

it,"

of four reeds

again

by

they

made the

"And how is

the

asked the Prince of Tsin,

means of your playing?"

birds to you

Music in Chinese Fairytale and Legend

537

resemble the

song

of the

phoenix,"

returned Schao Sche.

Once, when

"The

phoenix

is the king of all the hundreds of

that the

phoenix

is

singing

Sun discovered

the mode

And if it is

possible

other birds?"

full and sonorous,

favorite daughter

understanding

Hence she

species of birds.

up.

the

Hence they

the

all believe

Emperor

voice was

"I have

a

great an

and hasten

Schao Schao,

phoenix by

phoenix himself appeared.

not

the

to lure the

means of music, why

speaker's

and

said:

The Prince of Tsin noticed that the

grew

more and more content,

Toys-with-Jewels.

willingly

whose name is

She has so

of music that I would not

your

wife."

give her to a deaf man.

grew

sober, he bowed

shall be

Schao Sche's face

peasant

the noble

prince,

a number of times and

said: "I am a

from the mountains. How

princess?"

"When

might I venture to enter into a union with

my daughter

other

was but a child," answered the

syrinx

should be

than a blower on the

This is the

however, penetrates

it

is

better

than

dream.

heaven and

the syrinx.

Day

Hence, do not refuse!"

spoke

the

his thanks.

Now the prince

nuptials.

is

But

more

no time

"she swore that none

her husband. Your flute,

creature:

once dreamed a

will of heaven is

plain.

earth and conquers every living

Then, too,

my daughter

of Mid-Autumn, and the

Then Schao Sche cast himself on the ground and

soothsayer

said:

to select an

auspicious day for

Day,

and

"This is the Mid-Autumn

moon shines full in the heavens,

to

So the

it,

prince at

might

once had a bath

cleanse himself.

that he

taken to the Phoenix

The following

attention

day

to

wished his

the soothsayer

The

propitious.

all men on earth breathe

prepared,

And

joyfully."

led

and had Schao Sche

he had

changed

his

when

garments he was

Toys-with

Jewels.

Castle, where he was united with

the

Prince appointed

his duties,

Castle.

Schao Sche a

mandarin; but he paid no

spent

all his time

for all his official rank, and

in the Phoenix

drank a

ate no cooked food and only,

He

of wine.

so that

Toys-with-Jewels

end she too

in the

from time to time,

few goblets

breathing,

addition

learned from him

his secret of

In

was able to live without food.

he taught her a melody by means of which one could lure the

phoenix. Half a

together

in

phoenix,

year had gone by when,

the

moonlight.

Suddenly

one

night, the pair

appeared

a

were

playing

there

violet-colored

who stationed himself to

the left

of the

Phoenix Tower, and a

Then Schao-Sche

crimson dragon, who uncoiled himself at its

said: "In the

upper

world I was a

sent me down, when the books of

I might order them.

spirit.

history

Emperor Djou

Schao.

Up

to

incapable.

end

of the

right.

Then the Ruler of the Heavens

had become disordered, so that

year

of the

reign of the

family

were

to the

be continued.

people called me

years

Hills

ago.

as a

Thus, in the seventeenth

Schuan-Wang

the

death

on earth, I was born as a son into the

of

Schuan-Wang,

the

historiographers

the books of

history from the beginning

they

might

the

But I arranged

and ordered them, so that

period

of

my

But

labors with the history

all this

happened

more

And because

Schao Sche.

books

than a hundred

The Ruler of the Heavens commanded me to rule in the Hua

mountain

destined,

spirit.

he

Yet,

since this marriage

by

with

you

was

already pre-

of

the

flute.

brought us together

may

no

longer

away.

means of the tones

Now, however, we

remain here on

earth, for dragon and

phoenix have come to bear us

We must depart.

  • 538 The Musical Quarterly

Toys-with-Jewels

"No,

those

first wished to bid

who wish to become

is