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CHAPTER

3
The Human Body: Are We Really What
We Eat?
and In Depth: Disorders Related to Specific Foods

INQUIRY 1

What are the differences between appetite and hunger?

Define Terms
appetite ___________________________________________________________________
hunger ___________________________________________________________________
hormone __________________________________________________________________
hypothalamus ______________________________________________________________

TEXT OUTLINE SUMMARY


Why do we want to eat what we want to eat?
The hypothalamus prompts hunger in response to various signals.
The role of nerve cells
The role of hormones
The role of the amount and type of food
Environmental cues trigger appetite.
The role of sensory data
The role of social and cultural cues
The role of learning
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Study Questions
What is aroused by environmental clues such as the sight or smell of one of your favorite
foods? ____________________________________________________________________
What is related to pleasant sensations related to food? ______________________________
What is the drive that prompts us to find food and to eat? ___________________________
Name some common triggers that stimulate appetite. _____________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

Critical Thinking
If your blood sugar level fell below normal range, what effect would this have on your
hunger? What if your blood sugar level was high?
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
If your blood sugar level fell below normal range, what effect would this have on your
appetite? What if your blood sugar level was high?
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

INQUIRY 2

Are we really what we eat?

Define Terms
atoms ____________________________________________________________________
molecules _________________________________________________________________

TEXT OUTLINE SUMMARY


Are we really what we eat?
Atoms bond to form molecules.

Study Questions
Atoms connect with other atoms to form _______________________________________ .
Food and cells are both made up of ____________________________________________ .

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Completion Exercise
Complete the table below to determine the makeup of food and humans.
Relative Size

Description

Particle or Unit

Small

The smallest units of matter that cannot be further broken


down by any means.

Slightly Larger

Food we eat is composed of these particles.


When food is digested it is then broken down into these
particles, which are absorbed into the bloodstream.
These particles are then assembled into cellular components
to make cells in the human body.

Critical Thinking
Describe how you are what you eat, based on molecules.
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

INQUIRY 3

What are the main functions of a cells plasma membrane?

Define Terms
cell ______________________________________________________________________
cell membrane _____________________________________________________________
organelle _________________________________________________________________

TEXT OUTLINE SUMMARY


Molecules join to form cells.
Cells are encased in a functional membrane.
Cells contain organelles that support life.

Study Questions
What is the main function of the cell membrane? __________________________________
A round phospholipid head connected to a long lipid tail is called a __________________ .
What role does cholesterol play in the cell membrane? _____________________________

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Completion Exercise
Label these parts of a cell (plasma) membrane (in this example, from the small intestine).

Nucleus

Critical Thinking
The plasma membranes of human cells are selectively permeable. What does this mean and
how is it beneficial?
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
Which organelle do you think is most closely related to food and digestion? How?
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

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CHAPTER 3

The Human Body: Are We Really What We Eat?

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INQUIRY 4

Draw a simple diagram of the digestive system and its accessory


organs.

Define Terms
tissue ____________________________________________________________________
organ ____________________________________________________________________
system ___________________________________________________________________

TEXT OUTLINE SUMMARY


Cells join to form tissues, organs, and systems.

Study Questions
The Gastrointestial (GI) tract is made up of the __________________ of the
__________________ system. List the main organs of the digestive system in order starting with the mouth.
M________________, E________________, S________________, S________________,
I________________, L________________ I________________, R________________.
List the accessory organs of the digestive system. T________________,
T________________, S________________ G________________, L________________,
G________________, P________________.

Completion Exercise
Complete the labels in the first and third columns below and draw a line from each label
box to the correct part of the digestive system.
Accessory Digestive System
Organs

Main Organ of the


Digestive System

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Digestive System

STUDY GUIDE FOR NUTRITION: AN APPLIED APPROACH, 3e

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

INQUIRY 5

How do the digestive organs contribute to the digestion,


absorption, and elimination of food?

Define Terms
digestion __________________________________________________________________
absorption ________________________________________________________________
elimination ________________________________________________________________

TEXT OUTLINE SUMMARY


What happens to the food we eat?
Digestion begins in the mouth.
The esophagus propels food into the stomach.
The stomach mixes, digests, and stores food.
Most digestion and absorption occurs in the small intestine.
The gallbladder and pancreas aid in digestion.
A specialized lining enables the small intestine to absorb food.
Intestinal cells readily absorb vitamins, minerals, and water.
Blood and lymph transport nutrients and fluids.
The liver regulates blood nutrients.
The large intestine stores food waste until it is excreted.
How does the body coordinate and regulate digestion?
The muscles of the gastrointestinal tract mix and move food.
The enteric nerves coordinate and regulate digestive activities.

Study Questions
Where does digestion begin? __________________________________________________
What is the function of the esophagus? __________________________________________
What are the three main functions of the stomach? To ________________________,
________________________, and ________________________ food.
Where does the most food digestion take place? __________________________________
What is the site of most nutrient absorption? _____________________________________
What is the site of most water absorption? _______________________________________

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Completion Exercise
Check the boxes indicating the main function(s) of each main organ of the digestive system.

GI Tract
Organs

Digestion
(breaking down into
absorbable molecules)

Absorption
(molecules move into
the blood and lymph)

Elimination
(nondigestible food
is expelled from the body)

Mouth
Esophagus
Stomach
Small Intestine
Large Intestine

Critical Thinking
What might happen to you if peristalsis stopped?
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
What might happen to you if peristalsis occurred backward?
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
Could you swallow foods and liquids while standing on your head? Explain.
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

INQUIRY 6

What are the main digestive enzymes and where are


they produced?

Define Terms
enzymes __________________________________________________________________

TEXT OUTLINE SUMMARY


See Text Outline Summary in Inquiry 5 above.

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Study Questions
Enzymes usually end with what specific letters? __________________________________
Where is the first digestive enzyme in the GI tract found? ___________________________
What is the first digestive enzyme in the GI tract? _________________________________
Name the two main stomach enzymes: ___________________ and ___________________
What digestive fluid is released by the gallbladder? ________________________________
Which three enzymes are secreted into the small intestine from the pancreas?
________________________ ________________________, _______________________
________________________, and ________________________

Completion Exercise
Complete the table below by indicating the main action of each one of the digestive
enzymes or digestive fluids of the GI tract.

Name of Enzyme or
Digestive Fluid

Organ Producing
the Enzyme or
Digestive Fluid

Enzyme or Digestive
Fluid Secreted
into This Location

Salivary Amylase

Salivary Glands

Mouth

Action of Enzyme
or Digestive Fluid

Hydrochloric Acid
Stomach

Pepsin
Gastric Lipase
Bile

Liver
(stored in gallbladder)

Pancreatic Lipase
Small Intestine

Pancreatic Amylase
Pancreas
Pancreatic Proteases
Bicarbonate

Critical Thinking
If the stomach did not produce enough HCl (hydrochloric acid), what problem(s) might this
cause?
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
What effect might taking antacids have on digestion?
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
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Why do you think scientists have not yet successfully invented an artificial liver?
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

INQUIRY 7

What are common disorders affecting the gastrointestinal


system?

Define Terms
heartburn (gastroesophageal reflux) ____________________________________________
GERD ____________________________________________________________________
peptic ulcer ________________________________________________________________
food intolerance ____________________________________________________________
food allergy _______________________________________________________________
celiac disease ______________________________________________________________
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) ________________________________________________
lactose intolerance __________________________________________________________

TEXT OUTLINE SUMMARY


What disorders are related to digestion, absorption, and elimination?
Heartburn is caused by reflux of stomach acid.
An ulcer is an area of erosion in the GI tract.
Some disorders affect intestinal function.
Diarrhea
Constipation
Irritable bowel syndrome
Food intolerances, food allergies, and celiac disease

Study Questions
GERD occurs when stomach contents leak backward or reflux into which GI tract organ?
__________________________________________________________________________
Why is this painful? _________________________________________________________
Identify several factors that can aggravate GERD. _________________________________
GI tract ulcers can often be caused by which bacteria? _____________________________
What drugs have a common side effect of causing ulcers? __________________________
List the common symptoms of food intolerance. __________________________________
Which condition could be more serious and why: irritable bowel syndrome or celiac
disease? __________________________________________________________________
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Critical Thinking
If a person always gulped food down without chewing it fully, how might this play a role
in GERD?
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

INQUIRY 8

What are the main warning signs of diarrhea-induced


dehydration?

Define Terms
diarrhea __________________________________________________________________
dehydration _______________________________________________________________
constipation _______________________________________________________________

TEXT OUTLINE SUMMARY


Diarrhea and constipation

Study Questions
What is the connection between diarrhea and dehydration? __________________________
List the most common signs and symptoms of dehydration in adults. __________________
List the most common signs and symptoms of dehydration in infants. _________________

Critical Thinking
Why is diarrhea so potentially serious in children and infants?
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

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Self-Test Questions
1. Appetite can be commonly triggered by
a. location.
b. activities.
c. who you are with at the time.
d. visual cues and sounds.
e. All of these.
2. Which cell membrane component assists in transporting materials into the cell and is also
involved in the manufacture of certain chemicals?
a. phosphates
b. lipids
c. cholesterol
d. proteins
e. All of these.
3. The adult GI tract is approximately how many feet long?
a. 10
b. 20
c. 25
d. 30
e. 50
4. Digestion of what nutrient starts in the mouth?
a. proteins
b. fats
c. carbohydrates
d. All of these.
e. None of these.
5. Rhythmic contraction of what muscles causes the peristalsis that moves food along the
GI tract?
a. inner sheets of circular smooth muscles in the GI tract walls
b. outer sheets of longitudinal muscles in the GI tract walls
c. skeletal muscles in the GI tract walls
d. a and c
e. a and b
6. Which one of the following is the longest portion of the GI tract?
a. large intestine
b. small intestine
c. esophagus
d. stomach
e. gall bladder
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STUDY GUIDE FOR NUTRITION: AN APPLIED APPROACH, 3e

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7. Which of these nutrients can be absorbed without being digested first?


a. vitamins
b. minerals
c. water
d. All of these.
e. None of these.
8. The most common factors related to GERD include
a. alcohol use.
b. over eating.
c. foods containing tomatoes.
d. lying down immediately after eating.
e. All of these.
9. Which GI tract condition is usually not related to specific foods?
a. ulcers
b. food allergies
c. celiac disease
d. food intolerance
e. None of these.
10. Children with diarrhea lasting for how many hours should be taken to a doctor
immediately?
a. 6
b. 12
c. 18
d. 24
e. 48

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