APRCHS * Mr. Rubio, Principal * Ms. Coy-Bailey, AP Supervision INSTRUCTOR: Mr. Friedman, Humanities Academy COURSE: H5 DATE: 10.1.

09 TOPIC: The Commercial North OBJECTIVES: 1. Trace the development of a varied and thriving economy in the North. 2. Explain the diverse society of the North and the tensions that led to witchcraft trials in Salem. 3. Summarize the influence of the Enlightenment and the Great Awakening. AIM: How did the Northern colonies develop a predominantly urban society, based on commerce and trade? 1) A Diversified Economy • Cold winters, rocky soil restrict New Englanders to small farms • Middle colonies raise livestock, crops; export surplus • Diverse commercial economy develops in New England, middle colonies • By mid-1700s, merchants are powerful group in North 2) Urban Life • Growth in trade leads to large port cities like New York, Boston • Philadelphia second largest city in British Empire; has urban plan

3) Influx of Immigrants • 1700s, large influx of immigrants: Germans, ScotsIrish, Dutch, Jews • Immigrants encounter prejudice, clash with frontier Native Americans 4) Slavery in the North • Less slavery in North than in South; prejudice still exists • Slaves have some legal rights, but highly restricted 5) Women in Northern Society • Women have extensive work responsibilities but few legal rights • Only single women, widows can own businesses • Wives must submit to husbands CURRENT EVENTS: New York Times Video Clip – “Women At Arms: Mother and Medic” • In 2004, Jaymie Holschlag left her two children to serve in Iraq. The separation was challenging, but the transition home was also difficult. Now the family prepares for a second deployment. o According to the video clip, what challenges do women face while serving their nation overseas? o Why is the transition home from the battlefield difficult for so many? o PREDICTION: What role did women play on the battlefield during the Revolutionary War?

MOTIVATION: What do you like and/or dislike about city life? How does the largest city near you influence life in your community? How might the growth of commercial cities affect life in the colonies? ACTIVITY A: Forming Generalizations, Analyzing Effects, & Analyzing Causes A. What kinds of industries developed in the North? • Grinding wheat, harvesting fish, sawing lumber, and shipbuilding were some of the industries that developed in the North. B. What were the negative and positive effects of the growing ethnic diversity in the colonies? • Negative: Conflict and distrust between the different groups. • Positive: Creation of a diverse society. C. What were the underlying causes of the Salem witch hunts in 1692? • The strict limitations on women’s roles, combined with social tensions, the strained relationship with the Native Americans, and religious fanaticism lay behind the witch hunts. D. Why was the Enlightenment such a revolutionary movement? • The Enlightenment led people to conclude that individual shave natural rights that governments must respect. Enlightenment principles led many colonists to question the authority of the British monarchy. ACTIVITY B: Work with your group to fill in the diagram with historical examples that illustrate the main idea at the top. D i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h e r n C o l o n i e s E c o n o m P o p u l a t i o R e l i g i o u y n s G r o u p s Examples Examples Examples T h e

CONTINUUM: Read pp. 79 – 84; Complete Ch. 3, Sec. 3 Assessment p. 84; 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Extra Credit: Compare and contrast the ideas of Franklin and Edwards, particularly the two men’s views of the individual and of predestination. (See p. 83)

Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)

Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758)

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