A great list of popular and common beginner statistical techniques. Useful for reference or to understand the bigger idea

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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A great list of popular and common beginner statistical techniques. Useful for reference or to understand the bigger idea

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Inference Parameter

One Population Mean

Statistic

Type of Data

Examples

Analysis

Stat >Basic statistics >1-sample t data approximately normal or have a large sample size (n 30)

Estimating a Mean

Sample mean

Numerical

What is the average 1-sample t-interval weight of adults? s What is the average y t /2 n cholesterol level of adult females? Is the average GPA of juniors at Penn State higher than 3.0? Is the average Winter temperature in State College less than 42 F? What is the proportion of males in the world? What is the proportion of students that smoke?

Ho : = o Ha : o or Ha : > o or Ha : < o

The one sample t test:

Numerical

t=

y 0 s n

(1 ) n

Estimating a Proportion

Sample Proportion

1-proportion Z-interval

Categorical (Binary)

z/2

Is the proportion of females different The one proportion Z-test: from 0.5? Is the proportion of 0 students who fail z= Stat 500 less than 0 (1 0 ) 0.1?

Ho : = o Ha : o or Ha : > o or Ha : < o

n o 5 and n (1-o ) 5

Inference

Parameter

Statistic

Type of Data

Examples

Analysis

Stat >Basic statistics >2-sample t Independent samples from the two populations Data in each sample are about normal or large samples

Numerical

How different are the mean GPAs of males and females? two-sample t-interval How many fewer colds do vitamin C (y 1 y 2 ) t /2 s.e.(y 1 y 2 ) takers get, on average, than non vitamin C takers? Do the mean pulse rates of exercisers and non-exercisers differ? Is the mean EDS score for dropouts greater than the mean EDS score for graduates? What is the difference in pulse rates, on the average, before and after exercise?

Test to compare two means Difference in Difference in two two sample population means means 1-2 y1 y 2

Numerical

Ho : 1 = 2 Ha : 1 2 or Ha : 1 > 2 or Ha : 1 < 2

The two sample t test:

t=

(y1 y 2 ) 0 s.e.(y1 y 2 )

Independent samples from the two populations Data in each sample are about normal or large samples

paired t-interval

d t /2

sd n

d

Numerical

Ho : D = 0 Is the difference in Ha : D 0 or Ha : D > 0 IQ of pairs of twins or Ha : D < 0 zero? d0 Are the pulse rates t= of people higher sd after exercise?

Inference

Parameter

Statistic

Type of Data

Examples

How different are the percentages of male and female smokers? How different are the percentages of upper- and lowerclass binge drinkers? Is the percentage of males with lung cancer higher than the percentage of females with lung cancer? Are the percentages of upper- and lowerclass binge drinkers different? Is there a relationship between smoking and lung cancer? Do the proportions of students in each class who smoke differ?

Analysis

Minitab Command

Conditions

two-proportions Z-interval

1 2

Categorical (Binary)

1 2) ( 1 2) z /2 s.e.(

Ho : 1 = 2 Ha : 1 2 or Ha : 1 > 2 or Ha : 1 < 2

The two proportion z test:

z= 1 2 1 1 (1 )( + ) n1 n 2

independent samples from the two populations have at least 5 in each category for both populations

1 2

Categorical (Binary)

independent samples from the two populations have at least 5 in each category for both populations

y + y2 where = 1 n1 + n 2

.

Stat >Tables >Chi square Test all expected counts should be greater than 1 at least 80% of the cells should have an expected count greater than 5

11 in a 2-way

table

Relationship

Relationship between two categorical variables or difference in two or more population proportions

not related Ha : The two variables are related The chi-square statistic:

cells

Inference

Parameter

Statistic

Type of Data

Examples

Minitab Command

Conditions

The form of the equation that links the two variables must be correct The error terms are normally distributed The errors terms have equal variances The error terms are independent of each other Each population is normally distributed Independent samples from the t populations Equal population standard deviations

Numerical

Is there a linear relationship between The t test with n-2 degrees height and weight of of freedom: a person? b1 0

t=

s.e.(b1 )

Numerical

Ho : 1=2= =t Is there a difference Ha : not all the means are between the mean equal

GPA of Freshman, Sophomore, Junior and Senior classes? The F test for one-way ANOVA:

F=

MSTR MSE

Stat >ANOVA >Test of Equal Variances

1 4

Are the variances of t Ho : 12 = 22 length of lumber Ha : 12 22 produced by Company A 2 s1 different from F = 2 those produced by s2 Company B

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