RA EL, GAR S. MALLARI, ROMEL REGALADO $AGARES, %HRISTOPHER F.%. $OLASTIG, Petitioners, vs. GLORIA MA%APAGAL&ARRO O, AS PRESIDENT AND %OMMANDER&IN&%HIEF, E'E%"TIVE SE%RETAR ED"ARDO ERMITA, HON. AVELINO %R"Z II, SE%RETAR OF NATIONAL DEFENSE, GENERAL GENEROSO SENGA, %HIEF OF STAFF, ARMED FOR%ES OF THE PHILIPPINES, DIRE%TOR GENERAL ART"RO LOMI$AO, %HIEF, PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLI%E, Respondents. x-------------------------------------x G.R. No. 171(09 May 3, 2006 NIÑEZ %A%HO&OLIVARES AND TRI$"NE P"$LISHING %O., IN%., Petitioners, vs. HONORA$LE SE%RETAR ED"ARDO ERMITA AND HONORA$LE DIRE%TOR GENERAL ART"RO %. LOMI$AO, Respondents. x-------------------------------------x G.R. No. 171()* May 3, 2006 FRAN%IS #OSEPH G. ES%"DERO, #OSEPH A. SANTIAGO, TEODORO A. %ASINO, AGAPITO A. A!"INO, MARIO #. AG"#A, SAT"R %. O%AMPO, M"#IV S. HATAMAN, #"AN EDGARDO ANGARA, TEOFISTO DL. G"INGONA III, EMMAN"EL #OSEL #. VILLAN"EVA, LIZA L. MAZA, IMEE R. MAR%OS, RENATO $. MAGT"$O, #"STIN MAR% S$. %HIPE%O, ROILO GOLEZ, DARLENE ANTONINO&%"STODIO, LORETTA ANN P. ROSALES, #OSEL G. VIRADOR, RAFAEL V. MARIANO, GIL$ERT %. REM"LLA, FLOREN%IO G. NOEL, ANA THERESIA HONTIVEROS& $ARA!"EL, IMELDA %. NI%OLAS, MARVI% M.V.F. LEONEN, NERI #AVIER %OLMENARES, MOVEMENT OF %ON%ERNED %ITIZENS FOR %IVIL LI$ERTIES REPRESENTED $ AMADO GAT IN%IONG, Petitioners, vs. ED"ARDO R. ERMITA, E'E%"TIVE SE%RETAR , AVELINO #. %R"Z, #R., SE%RETAR , DND RONALDO V. P"NO, SE%RETAR , DILG, GENEROSO SENGA, AFP %HIEF OF STAFF, ART"RO LOMI$AO, %HIEF PNP, Respondents. x-------------------------------------x G.R. No. 171()3 May 3, 2006 +IL"SANG MA O "NO, REPRESENTED $ ITS %HAIRPERSON ELMER %. LA$OG AND SE%RETAR GENERAL #OEL MAGL"NSOD, NATIONAL FEDERATION OF LA$OR "NIONS , +IL"SANG MA O "NO -NAFL"&+M"., REPRESENTED $ ITS NATIONAL PRESIDENT, #OSELITO V. "STAREZ, ANTONIO %. PAS%"AL, SALVADOR T. %ARRANZA, EMILIA P. DAP"LANG, MARTIN %"STODIO, #R., AND RO!"E M. TAN,Petitioners, vs. HER E'%ELLEN% , PRESIDENT GLORIA MA%APAGAL&ARRO O, THE HONORA$LE E'E%"TIVE SE%RETAR , ED"ARDO ERMITA, THE %HIEF OF STAFF, ARMED FOR%ES OF THE PHILIPPINES, GENEROSO SENGA, AND THE PNP DIRE%TOR GENERAL, ART"RO LOMI$AO, Respondents. x-------------------------------------x G.R. No. 171(00 May 3, 2006 ALTERNATIVE LA/ GRO"PS, IN%. -ALG., Petitioner, vs. E'E%"TIVE SE%RETAR ED"ARDO R. ERMITA, LT. GEN. GENEROSO SENGA, AND DIRE%TOR GENERAL ART"RO LOMI$AO, Respondents. G.R. No. 171()9 May 3, 2006 #OSE ANSELMO I. %ADIZ, FELI%IANO M. $A"TISTA, ROM"LO R. RIVERA, #OSE AMOR M. AMORADO, ALI%IA A. RISOS&VIDAL, FELIMON %. A$ELITA III, MAN"EL P. LEGASPI, #.$. #OV %. $ERNA$E, $ERNARD L. DAG%"TA, ROGELIO V. GAR%IA AND INTEGRATED $AR OF THE PHILIPPINES -I$P., Petitioners, vs. HON. E'E%"TIVE SE%RETAR ED"ARDO ERMITA, GENERAL GENEROSO SENGA, IN HIS %APA%IT AS AFP %HIEF OF STAFF, AND DIRE%TOR GENERAL ART"RO LOMI$AO, IN HIS %APA%IT AS PNP %HIEF, Respondents. x-------------------------------------x G.R. No. 171(2( May 3, 2006 LOREN $. LEGARDA, Petitioner, vs. GLORIA MA%APAGAL&ARRO O, IN HER %APA%IT AS PRESIDENT AND %OMMANDER&IN&%HIEF0 ART"RO LOMI$AO, IN HIS %APA%IT AS DIRE%TOR&GENERAL OF THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLI%E -PNP.0 GENEROSO SENGA, IN HIS %APA%IT AS %HIEF OF STAFF OF THE ARMED FOR%ES OF THE PHILIPPINES -AFP.0 AND ED"ARDO ERMITA, IN HIS %APA%IT AS E'E%"TIVE SE%RETAR , Respondents. DECISION SANDOVAL&G"TIERREZ, J.1 All powers need some restraint; practical ad !stments rat"er t"an ri#id $orm!la are necessar%. & S!perior stren#t" ' t"e !se o$ $orce ' cannot ma(e wron#s into ri#"ts. In t"is re#ard, t"e co!rts s"o!ld )e vi#ilant in sa$e#!ardin# t"e constit!tional ri#"ts o$ t"e citi*ens, speci$icall% t"eir li)ert%. C"ie$ +!stice Artemio ,. Pan#ani)an-s p"ilosop"% o$ li)ert% is t"!s most relevant. .e said/ 0I2 3a454 627o87629 86:5;<y, <=5 43a854 o> ?@4<635 4=o@8A B569= =5a768y a9a624< 9o75;2C52< a2A 62 >a7o; o> <=5 Doo;, <=5 oDD;5445A, <=5 Ca;962a86E5A, <=5 A64Do445445A a2A <=5 B5aF .0 1aws and actions t"at restrict $!ndamental ri#"ts come to t"e co!rts 0wit" a "eav% pres!mption a#ainst t"eir constit!tional validit%.0 2 3"ese seven 456 consolidated petitions $or certiorari and pro"i)ition alle#e t"at in iss!in# Presidential Proclamation No. &7&5 4PP &7&56 and 8eneral Order No. 9 48.O. No. 96, President 8loria :acapa#al-Arro%o committed #rave a)!se o$ discretion. Petitioners contend t"at respondent o$$icials o$ t"e 8overnment, in t"eir pro$essed e$$orts to de$end and preserve democratic instit!tions, are act!all% tramplin# !pon t"e ver% $reedom #!aranteed and protected )% t"e Constit!tion. .ence, s!c" iss!ances are void $or )ein# !nconstit!tional. Once a#ain, t"e Co!rt is $aced wit" an a#e-old )!t persistentl% modern pro)lem. How does the Constitution of a free people combine the degree of liberty, without which, law becomes tyranny, with the degree of law, without which, liberty becomes license;< On =e)r!ar% 2>, 277?, as t"e nation cele)rated t"e 27t" Anniversar% o$ t"e Edsa People Power I, President Arro%o iss!ed PP &7&5 declarin# a state o$ national emer#enc%, t"!s/ NO/, THEREFORE, I, 8loria :acapa#al-Arro%o, President o$ t"e Rep!)lic o$ t"e P"ilippines and Commander-in-C"ie$ o$ t"e Armed =orces o$ t"e P"ilippines, )% virt!e o$ t"e powers vested !pon me )% Section &@, Article 5 o$ t"e P"ilippine Constit!tion w"ic" states t"at/ 03"e President. . . w"enever it )ecomes necessar%, . . . ma% call o!t 4t"e6 armed $orces to prevent or s!ppress. . .re)ellion. . .,0 and in m% capacit% as t"eir Commander-in-C"ie$, Ao =5;5:y 3oCCa2A <=5 A;C5A Fo;354 o> <=5 P=686DD6254, <o Ca62<a62 8aB a2A o;A5; <=;o@9=o@< <=5 P=686DD6254, D;5752< o; 4@DD;544 a88 >o;C4 o> 8aB8544 76o85235 a4 B588 a4 a2y a3< o> 624@;;53<6o2 o; ;5:5886o2 a2A <o 52>o;35 o:5A65235 <o a88 <=5 8aB4 a2A <o a88 A53;554, o;A5;4 a2A ;59@8a<6o24 D;oC@89a<5A :y C5 D5;4o2a88y o; @Do2 Cy A6;53<6o2; and a4 D;o76A5A 62 S53<6o2 17, A;<6385 12 o> <=5 %o24<6<@<6o2 Ao =5;5:y A538a;5 a S<a<5 o> Na<6o2a8 EC5;9523y. S"e cited t"e $ollowin# $acts as )ases/ /HEREAS , over t"ese past mont"s, elements in t"e Do86<63a8 oDDo46<6o2 =a75 3o24D6;5A B6<= a@<=o;6<a;6a24 o> <=5 5G<;5C5 L5>< ;5D;5452<5A :y <=5 NDF&%PP&NPA a2A <=5 5G<;5C5 R69=<, ;5D;5452<5A :y C686<a;y aA752<@;64<4 , <=5 =64<o;63a8 525C654 o> <=5 A5Co3;a<63 P=686DD625 S<a<5 '

/HEREAS .. t"e activities a)ove-descri)ed. Proclamation &7&5 date =e)r!ar% 2>. 277?. On t"e same da%.omecomin# in Da#!io Cit%. Article BII o$ t"e Constit!tion. San +!an anno!nced t"ro!#" DFR. the %'th )nni*ersary of Edsa I. 3"e plot was to assassinate selected tar#ets incl!din# some ca)inet mem)ers and President Arro%o "ersel$. On =e)r!ar% 2&. &7&5 dated =e)r!ar% 2>. Article 2. Nell% Sinda%en o$ 3I:E :a#a*ine reported t"at Pastor Sa%con.tas( to state t"e $acts )e"ind t"e A!estioned Proclamation.5452< Aa295. t"eir conseA!ences. mem)ers o$ t"e :a#dalo 8ro!p indicted in t"e Oa(wood m!tin%. a2A D. as well as t"e o$$icers and men o$ t"e A=P and PNP.4 to t"e President in determinin# t"e necessit% o$ callin# o!t t"e armed $orces. No.)$ units are under the effecti*e control of responsible and trustworthy officers with pro*en integrity and un-uestionable loyalty.53F85448y Ca926>65A :y 35. 3"!s. )% virt!e o$ t"e powers vested in me !nder t"e Constit!tion as President o$ t"e Rep!)lic o$ t"e P"ilippines. No.oB<= o> <=5 53o2oCy a2A 4a:o<a9629 <=5 D5oD85H4 3o2>6A5235 62 9o75. t"at a "!#e n!m)er o$ soldiers wo!ld oin t"e rallies to provide a critical mass and armed component to t"e Anti-Arro%o protests to )e "eld on =e)r!ar% 2>. In a p!)lic statement. I. 8eneroso Sen#a. 3a#!i# Cit%. /HEREAS .t"e "istorical enemies o$ t"e democratic P"ilippine State ' and w"o are now in a tactical alliance and en#a#ed in a concerted and s%stematic conspirac%. t"e% vowed to remain de$iant and to el!de arrest at all costs. /HEREAS . In t"eir presentation o$ t"e $act!al )ases o$ PP &7&5 and 8. and copies o$ s!)versive doc!ments. a7oB5A a6C4 <o :. t"e% are presentin# t"e same. at t"e "ei#"t o$ t"e cele)ration.Special Action =orce were plannin# to de$ect. /HEREAS . exactl% one wee( a$ter t"e declaration o$ a state o$ national emer#enc% and a$ter all t"ese petitions "ad )een $iled. 9. +r. a tape recorder.e emp"asi*ed t"at none o$ t"e petitioners "as s"own t"at PP &7&5 was wit"o!t $act!al )ases. )% virt!e o$ t"e powers vested in me )% law.5>@<a<6o2 >. Sa%con also p"oned a man code-named Delta. 2779. was iss!ed declarin# a state o$ national emer#enc%. rami$ications and collateral e$$ects constit!te a clear and present dan#er to t"e sa$et% and t"e inte#rit% o$ t"e P"ilippine State and o$ t"e =ilipino people. to )rin# down t"e d!l% constit!ted 8overnment elected in :a% 277>. represented )% t"e ND=CPP-NPA and t"e extreme Ri#"t. 3"e% called !pon t"e people to 0 show and proclaim our displeasure at the sham regime. Sa%con identi$ied "im as DG8en. Article 2. respondents stated t"at t"e proximate ca!se )e"ind t"e exec!tive iss!ances was t"e conspirac% amon# some militar% o$$icers.5C5 L5>< a2A 5G<. I GLORIA MA%APAGAL&ARRO O.5 Prior to "is arrest. not only by going to the streets in protest. 277?. &7&5 dated =e)r!ar% 2>.. 3"e next da%. escaped t"eir detention cell in =ort Doni$acio. over t"ese past mont"s.5 <=a< <=5 4<a<5 o> 2a<6o2a8 5C5. to )rin# down t"e d!l%-constit!ted 8overnment elected in :a% 277>.y . were directed to maintain law and order t"ro!#"o!t t"e P"ilippines. lon#time Arro%o critic. t"e Armed =orces o$ t"e P"ilippines 4A=P6 and t"e P"ilippine National Police 4PNP6. and some mem)ers o$ t"e political opposition in a plot to !nseat or assassinate President Arro%o. /HEREAS .y o@< <=5 253544a. On +an!ar% &5. at t"e "o!se o$ $ormer Con#ressman Pepin# Co !an#co.5 o> <=64 3o@2<. t"ese activities #ive totalitarian $orces. Danilo 1im and Dri#ade Commander Col. /HEREAS .oC D5<6<6o25.5752< a3<4 o> <5. and Commander-in-C"ie$ o$ t"e Rep!)lic o$ t"e P"ilippines. 277?.O. t"ese a3<6o24 a.w"o are now in a tactical alliance and en#a#ed in a concerted and s%stematic conspirac%. <=5 38a6C4 o> <=545 585C52<4 =a75 :552 . %''(. Let us demonstrate our disgust. 3"e Solicitor 8eneral ar#!ed t"at t"e intent o$ t"e Constit!tion is to #ive $!ll A643. . O.6a2 >o. PNP C"ie$ Art!ro 1omi)ao intercepted in$ormation t"at mem)ers o$ t"e PNP. D!rin# t"e oral ar#!ments "eld on :arc" 5. to prevent and s!ppress acts o$ terrorism and lawless violence in t"e co!ntr%. dis(ettes. President Arro%o decided not to attend t"e Al!mni .5<6o2a. rami$ications and collateral e$$ects constit!te a 385a. t"ese conspirators "ave repeatedl% tried to )rin# down t"e President. 1awrence San +!an and Patricio D!midan#.o. 3"e latter promptl% o)e%ed and iss!ed a p!)lic statement/ 0)ll . 277?. 277?. and p!rs!ant to Proclamation No. 277?. THEREFORE. over a )road $ront. /HEREAS .omecomin#. $or t"e el!cidation o$ t"e iss!es.9523y =a4 35a45A <o 5G64<. t"e President iss!ed 8.II and Section &5. S"e iss!ed Proclamation No.5C5 R69=< <=5 oD52629 <o 62<5246>y <=56.4H 3o@24584. /HEREAS .5 aA75. t"ere was no wa% t"e% co!ld possi)l% stop t"e soldiers )eca!se t"e% too. Danilo 1im. t"e A=P and PNP "ave e$$ectivel% prevented. NO/. >a6<= 62 <=5 >@<@. t"e activities a)ove-descri)ed.S.354 o> :o<= <=5 5G<. Section > o$ o!r Constit!tion ma(es t"e de$ense and preservation o$ t"e democratic instit!tions and t"e State t"e primar% d!t% o$ 8overnment. t"is series o$ actions is "!rtin# t"e P"ilippine State ' )% o)str!ctin# #overnance incl!din# =62A5. /HEREAS . over a )road $ront. /HEREAS . &72& w"ic" reads/ /HEREAS . 1t. <=545 a3<676<654 9675 <o<a86<a. /HEREAS . represented )% militar% advent!rists . t"e Solicitor 8eneral speci$ied t"e $acts leadin# to t"e iss!ance o$ PP &7&5 and 8. a!dio cassette cartrid#es. t"e claims o$ t"ese elements "ave )een rec(lessl% ma#ni$ied )% certain se#ments o$ t"e national media. "e immediatel% ordered SA= Commandin# 8eneral :arcelino =ranco.0@ DG8en. t"!s/ /HEREAS .<a62 459C52<4 o> <=5 2a<6o2a8 C5A6a0 /HEREAS . =o!nd in "is possession were two 426 $las" dis(s containin# min!tes o$ t"e meetin#s )etween mem)ers o$ t"e :a#dalo 8ro!p and t"e National People-s Arm% 4NPA6. t"ese actions are adversel% a$$ectin# t"e econom%. &7&5. President o$ t"e Rep!)lic o$ t"e P"ilippines.? dated =e)r!ar% 2>. t"eir conseA!ences. s!ppressed and A!elled t"e acts lawless violence and re)ellion.2C52< a2A <=56. to t"e sa$et% and t"e inte#rit% o$ t"e P"ilippine State and o$ t"e =ilipino people. o$ )ot" t"e extreme 1e$t and extreme Ri#"t t"e openin# to intensi$% t"eir avowed aims to )rin# down t"e democratic P"ilippine State. t"ese series o$ actions is "!rtin# t"e P"ilippine State )% o)str!ctin# #overnance. but also by wearing red bands on our left arms. THEREFORE.y a2A aDD. On :arc" <. Proclamation No. )!sinessmen and mid-level #overnment o$$icials plotted moves to )rin# down t"e Arro%o administration. 9 implementin# PP &7&5. t"at t"e 0 agdalo!s "#"ay would be on $ebruary %&. "owever. Article .oD. /HEREAS . 277?. GLORIA MA%APAGAL&ARRO O.6a<5 a3<6o24 a2A C5a4@.O. w"ic" were iss!ed on t"e )asis o$ Proclamation No. elements in t"e political opposition "ave conspired wit" a!t"oritarians o$ t"e extreme 1e$t. 1t. #overnment o$$icial a)o!t "is #ro!p-s plans i$ President Arro%o is o!sted. President Cor% AA!ino-s )rot"er.629 <=5 9. I "ere)% direct t"e C"ie$ o$ Sta$$ o$ t"e A=P and t"e C"ie$ o$ t"e PNP. C"ie$ o$ Sta$$ o$ t"e Armed =orces o$ t"e P"ilippines 4A=P6. Ariel H!er!)in con$ided to 8en. do "ere)% call !pon t"e Armed =orces o$ t"e P"ilippines 4A=P6 and t"e P"ilippine National Police 4PNP6.54 <o 4@DD. No. C"ile "e explained t"at it is not respondents.+ On =e)r!ar% 2<. t"ese conspirators "ave repeatedl% tried to )rin# down o!r rep!)lican #overnment. 277?.> 3"e% considered t"e aim to o!st or assassinate t"e President and ta(e-over t"e rei#ns o$ #overnment as a clear and present dan#er. Captain Nat"aniel Ra)on*a and =irst 1ie!tenants Sonn% Sarmiento. 1im said 0it was all systems go for the planned mo*ement against )rroyo. to +disa*ow+ an% de$ection.a<63 P=686DD625 S<a<5. <o 6CC5A6a<58y 3a. )% virt!e o$ 8eneral Order No. p!rs!ant to Section &@.544 a2A D. NO/. Section > o$ t"e o!r Constit!tion ma(es t"e de$ense and preservation o$ t"e democratic instit!tions and t"e State t"e primar% d!t% o$ 8overnment. incl!din# "inderin# t"e #rowt" o$ t"e econom% and sa)ota#in# t"e people-s con$idence in t"e #overnment and t"eir $ait" in t"e $!t!re o$ t"is co!ntr%. /HEREAS .64C a2A 8aB8544 76o85235 . a )om) was $o!nd and detonated at t"e P:A parade #ro!nd.0 9 On =e)r!ar% &5. le$tist ins!r#ents o$ t"e New People-s Arm% 4NPA6.629 AoB2 <=5 A5Co3. /HEREAS . San +!an was recapt!red in a comm!nist sa$e"o!se in Datan#as province. /HEREAS . prevent and s!ppress all $orm o$ lawless violence as well as an% act o$ re)ellion and to !nderta(e s!c" action as ma% )e necessar%. were )rea(in# t"e . S6926>63a2<8y.y DoB5. 0 On t"e same da%. Accordin# to t"ese two 426 o$$icers. Commander o$ t"e Arm%-s elite Sco!t Ran#er. 277? "as )een iss!ed declarin# a State o$ National Emer#enc%.458y a>>53<629 <=5 53o2oCy0 /HEREAS .5 Ba4 2o . <=5.? Epon t"e advice o$ "er sec!rit%. 9. called a E. 277?. t"e President li$ted PP &7&5. "ere)% A538a. t"e a!t"orities #ot "old o$ a doc!ment entitled 0Oplan Hackle I 0 w"ic" detailed plans $or )om)in#s and attac(s d!rin# t"e P"ilippine :ilitar% Academ% Al!mni . narrated "ere!nder.9 and No.

4 36<5A <=5 5752<4 <=a< >o88oB5A a><5. . Sen#a "as remained $ait"$!l to "is Commander-in-C"ie$ and to t"e c"ain o$ command. Da. et al. 3"e raidin# team con$iscated news stories )% reporters. t"e President convened "er sec!rit% advisers and several ca)inet mem)ers to assess t"e #ravit% o$ t"e $ermentin# peace and order sit!ation. <=56. on =e)r!ar% 29. No. S"e directed )ot" t"e A=P and t"e PNP to acco!nt $or all t"eir men and ens!re t"at t"e c"ain o$ command remains solid and !ndivided.0 . 3"ree 4<6 o$ t"ese petitions impleaded President Arro%o as respondent. *. identi$ied as Roel and Art.he Communist Party and re*olutionary mo*ement and the entire people look forward to the possibility in the coming year of accomplishing its immediate task of bringing down the )rroyo regime/ of rendering it to weaken and unable to rule that it will not take much longer to end it.. In t"e interim. w"ile leavin# "is $arm"o!se in D!lacan. it is pro)a)le t"at t"e President-s o!ster is nearin# its concl!din# sta#e in t"e $irst "al$ o$ 277?. doc!ments. petitioners Nine* Cac"o-Olivares and . 0*iolation of freedom of e:pression0 and 0a declaration of martial law. Deltran. 3"at same evenin#. w"ic" to t"e President-s mind were or#ani*ed $or p!rposes o$ desta)ili*ation. t"e police s!rro!nded t"e premises o$ anot"er pro-opposition paper. 9ayan una Representative +osel . $ormer "ead o$ t"e P"ilippine Consta)!lar%. Fo. is not a part% in an% o$ t"ese petitions. can already be implemented . p!)licl% anno!nced/ 0 )nti#)rroyo groups within the military and police are growing rapidly. and its sister p!)lication. David. .O.ribune o$$ices in :anila. president o$ part%-list )kbayan. "!ndreds o$ riot policemen )ro(e !p an EDSA cele)ration rall% "eld alon# A%ala Aven!e and Paseo de Roxas Street in :a(ati Cit%. Retired :a or 8eneral Ramon :ontaMo.irador was arrested at t"e PA1 3ic(et O$$ice in Davao Cit%.e as(ed $or +balanced reporting+ $rom )roadcasters w"en coverin# t"e events s!rro!ndin# t"e co!p attempt $oiled )% t"e #overnment. 7'78 3 we will recommend a 2takeo*er. t"e antiArro%o conservative political parties. 8en.eadA!arters in =ort Doni$acio. et al.+ 3"e PNP warned t"at it wo!ld ta(e over an% media or#ani*ation t"at wo!ld not $ollow +standards set by the go*ernment during the state of national emergency. "owever.<. and tear #as to stop and )rea( !p t"e marc"in# #ro!ps. <=5 644@a235 o> PP 1017 a2A G. it violates t"e constit!tional #!arantees o$ $reedom o$ t"e press. 9ayan una Representative 3eodoro CasiMo and 8a)riela Representative 1i*a :a*a. was arrested w"ile wit" "is wi$e and #ol$mates at t"e Orc"ard 8ol$ and Co!ntr% Cl!) in DasmariMas. police arrested 4wit"o!t warrant6 petitioner Randol$ S.0J On t"e ot"er "and. were ta(en into c!stod%. operatives o$ t"e Criminal Investi#ation and Detection 8ro!p 4CID86 o$ t"e PNP. t"e President s!spended classes in all levels in t"e entire National Capital Re#ion. Cesar Renerio. 1i*a :a*a.0 3"e% also claimed t"at t"e term 0emer#enc%0 re$ers onl% to ts!nami. )i# $i)er #lass s"ields. No.. itis a s!)ter$!#e to avoid t"e constit!tional reA!irements $or t"e imposition o$ martial law. 3eodoro CasiMo. No. Representative Ra$ael :ariano. w"ile t"e rest were dispersed )% t"e police. Sat!r Ocampo. marc"ed $rom vario!s parts o$ :etro :anila wit" t"e intention o$ conver#in# at t"e EDSA s"rine.&2 Accordin# to petitioner 0ilusang ayo 1no. :ala%a.O.e claimed t"at wit" t"e $orces o$ t"e national democratic movement. pl!s t"e #ro!ps t"at "ave )een rein$orcin# since +!ne 2779.&> Also. petitioners Randol$ S. &< A $ew min!tes a$ter t"e searc" and sei*!re at t"e "aily . 3wo mem)ers were arrested and detained.R. So is t"e raid o$ an arm% o!tpost in Den#!et res!ltin# in t"e deat" o$ t"ree 4<6 soldiers. t"e% were told t"e% co!ld not )e admitted )eca!se o$ PP &7&5 and 8. and twent% one 42&6 ot"er mem)ers o$ t"e .ribune P!)lis"in# Co.owever. 1et it )e stressed at t"is point t"at t"e alle#ed violations o$ t"e ri#"ts o$ Representatives Deltran.+ Director 8eneral 1omi)ao stated t"at +if they do not follow the standards 3 and the standards are # if they would contribute to instability in the go*ernment. 6 and Proc. t"ese seven 456 petitions c"allen#in# t"e constit!tionalit% o$ PP &7&5 and 8. w"ic" stemmed $rom a case o$ incitin# to re)ellion $iled d!rin# t"e :arcos re#ime.0&& Endeterred )% t"e anno!ncements t"at rallies and p!)lic assem)lies wo!ld not )e allowed.Presidential C"ie$ o$ Sta$$ :ic"ael De$ensor anno!nced t"at 0warrantless arrests and take#o*er of facilities. D5<6<6o25. 171()*.o!se o$ Representatives w"ere t"e 0Datasan 90 decided to sta% inde$initel%. spo(esman $or t"e National Democratic =ront 4ND=6 at Nort" Central :indanao. are cancelled. 1ater. t"ere is 0absolutely no emergency0 t"at warrants t"e iss!ance o$ PP &7&5.O.ribune o$$ices as a clear case o$ 0censors"ip0 or 0prior restraint. and scatter t"e massed participants. Respondents $!rt"er claimed t"at t"e )om)in# o$ telecomm!nication towers and cell sites in D!lacan and Dataan was also considered as additional $act!al )asis $or t"e iss!ance o$ PP &7&5 and 8. and +osel .O. "ad lon# )een A!as"ed. David.777 :etro :anila radicals and 29.! to tell media outlets not to conni*e or do anything that would help the rebels in bringing down this go*ernment. NPA spo(esman 8re#orio 0Ia Ro#er0 Rosal declared/ 0 . 3"e same police action was !sed a#ainst t"e protesters marc"in# $orward to C!)ao. t"e CPP-NPA called $or intensi$ication o$ political and revol!tionar% wor( wit"in t"e militar% and t"e police esta)lis"ments in order to $or#e alliances wit" its mem)ers and (e% o$$icials. Also arrested was "is companion.otel in H!e*on Cit%.R. are not )ein# raised in t"ese petitions. "!rricane and similar occ!rrences. w"ile policemen $rom t"e :anila Police District were stationed o!tside t"e )!ildin#. 171(09. No.R. 3"ose w"o were alread% near t"e EDSA site were violentl% dispersed )% "!#e cl!sters o$ anti-riot police. and moc(-!ps o$ t"e Sat!rda% iss!e. #ro!ps o$ protesters 4mem)ers o$ 0ilusang ayo 1no KI:EL and National =ederation o$ 1a)or Enions-0ilusang ayo 1no KNA=1E-I:EL6. Policemen $rom Camp Crame in H!e*on Cit% were stationed inside t"e editorial and )!siness o$$ices o$ t"e newspaper. is +meant to show a 2strong presence. 9 constit!te 0usurpation of legislati*e powers0. "e was t!rned over to t"e c!stod% o$ t"e .irador .c"ain o$ command to oin t"e $orces $oist to !nseat t"e President. 171396. At aro!nd &2/27 in t"e earl% mornin# o$ =e)r!ar% 29. t%p"oon. 277?. 9.Commissioner Ronald Solis !r#ed television and radio networ(s to +cooperate+ wit" t"e #overnment $or t"e d!ration o$ t"e state o$ national emer#enc%.O. H!e*on Cit% and to t"e corner o$ Santolan Street and EDSA. No. representin# t"e )nakpawis Part% and C"airman o$ 0ilusang ayo 1no 4I:E6. 3"e welltrained policemen !sed tr!nc"eons. No. Deltran-s law%er explained t"at t"e warrant. it encroac"es on t"e emer#enc% powers o$ Con#ress. c"allen#ed t"e CID8-s act o$ raidin# t"e "aily . and revo(ed t"e permits to "old rallies iss!ed earlier )% t"e local #overnments.777 more $rom t"e provinces in mass protests. 1im and directed Col. incl!din# Representatives Sat!r Ocampo.ribune o$$ices. t"e police cited PP &7&5 as t"e #ro!nd $or t"e dispersal o$ t"eir assem)lies. Immediatel%. and -3. Inc. Cavite. 3"e% asserted t"at PP &7&5 and 8.!+ National 3elecomm!nications. Ronald 1lamas. Esc!dero. 277?. including media. raided t"e "aily . petitioners "erein are Representative =rancis +osep" 8. on t"e )asis o$ PP &7&5 and 8. 9. a pro$essor at t"e Eniversit% o$ t"e P"ilippines and newspaper col!mnist. "ence. Ra$ael :ariano. H!er!)in to ret!rn to t"e P"ilippine :arines . No. And also t"e directive o$ t"e Comm!nist Part% o$ t"e P"ilippines orderin# its $ront or#ani*ations to oin 9. No. 277?. or if they do not subscribe to what is in 4eneral Order 5o. pict!res.0 . 5o. 9ayan una Representative Sat!r Ocampo el!ded arrest w"en t"e police went a$ter "im d!rin# a p!)lic $or!m at t"e S!lo . assailed PP &7&5 on t"e #ro!nds t"at -1. . t"e police arrested Con#ressman Crispin Deltran. t"e ta)loid A)ante. Attempts were made to arrest )nakpawis Representative Sat!r Ocampo.O.0 3"e% alle#ed t"at President Arro%o 0#ra*ely abused her discretion in calling out the armed forces without clear and *erifiable factual basis of the possibility of lawless *iolence and a showing that there is necessity to do so.&7 D% midni#"t o$ =e)r!ar% 2<.e warned t"at "is a#enc% will not "esitate to recommend t"e clos!re o$ an% )roadcast o!t$it t"at violates r!les set o!t $or media covera#e w"en t"e national sec!rit% is t"reatened. +!stice Secretar% Ra!l 8on*ales stated t"at political rallies. In G. 3"e police s"owed a warrant $or "is arrest dated &J@9. C"en mem)ers o$ petitioner I:E went to Camp Crame to visit Deltran. In G. o$ speec" and o$ assem)l%. -2. water cannons. D!t "is two drivers. coalitions. t"e O$$ice o$ t"e President anno!nced t"e cancellation o$ all pro#rams and activities related to t"e 27t" anniversar% cele)ration o$ Edsa People Power I. D!rin# t"e dispersal o$ t"e rall%ists alon# EDSA. No.e immediatel% too( c!stod% o$ DG8en. hastened by the economic difficulties suffered by the families of )$P officers and enlisted personnel who undertake counter#insurgency operations in the field. 9 were $iled wit" t"is Co!rt a#ainst t"e a)ove-named respondents.o!se o$ Representatives. 3"e raid. 277?. President Arro%o iss!ed PP &72& declarin# t"at t"e state o$ national emer#enc% "as ceased to exist. accordin# to Presidential C"ie$ o$ Sta$$ :ic"ael De$ensor. In G. Earlier. On :arc" <. 9. . 3o protect t"e %o!n# st!dents $rom an% possi)le tro!)le t"at mi#"t )rea( loose on t"e streets.

NA=1E-I:E. t"e% arro#ate !nto President Arro%o t"e power to enact laws and decrees. and t"e p!)lic. including its cognate rights such as freedom of the press and the right to access to information on matters of public concern. petitioners "ave to raise a A!estion o$ constit!tionalit%. in G.Consolidated Comment. Sections &.&? 2. C"et"er t"e iss!ance o$ PP &72& renders t"e petitions moot and academic. ot"erwise moot and academic.o8. petitioners asserted t"at PP &7&5 0goes beyond the nature and function of a proclamation as defined under the . on t"e extent o$ t"e protection #iven )% constit!tional #!arantees.Moot and Academic Principle One o$ t"e #reatest contri)!tions o$ t"e American s%stem to t"is co!ntr% is t"e concept o$ !dicial review en!nciated in arbury *. No. Petitioners alle#ed t"at t"e iss!ance o$ PP &7&5 and 8. PRO%ED"RAL1 1.5 PP 1017 a2A G. -2. T=64 DoB5.e*ised )dministrati*e Code.<2third. standin# is #overned )% t"e 0real-parties-in interest0 r!le as contained in Section 2. t"e plainti$$-s standin# is )ased on "is own ri#"t to t"e relie$ so!#"t. S"$STANTIVE1 1. 7a86AI Do <=5y ?@4<6>y <=545 a88595A 68859a8 a3<4I 3"ese are t"e vital iss!es t"at m!st )e resolved in t"e present petitions. w"en constit!tional iss!e raised reA!ires $orm!lation o$ controllin# principles to #!ide t"e )enc". A5>52A5A 62 <=5 2aC5 o> <=5 . petitioner Alternative 1aw 8ro!ps.0 a real and s!)stantial controvers% admittin# o$ speci$ic relie$. E:ecuti*e .R.Legal Standing In view o$ t"e n!m)er o$ petitioners s!in# in vario!s personalities. <=5 C686<a. It con$ers limited powers on t"e national #overnment.5 C@4< :5 4oC5 a@<=o. No.O.+ And lastl%. t"e 0real-part%-in interest0 is 0<=5 Da.O. a. Inc. A.. 171()94Cadi* et al.contested actions are capa)le o$ repetition. <=5 Da.0 In t"is re#ard.o<53<6o20 6< 64 62 859a8 3o2<5CD8a<6o2. <=5 3o@. i$/ first. 9 are !nconstit!tional )eca!se -1. PP &7&5 "as constit!tional and le#al )asis.3645. No. 6< 3o2>5.. t"e Co!rt "as t"e d!t% to $orm!late #!idin# and controllin# constit!tional precepts. G.6. it is not necessar% $or petitioners to implead President Arro%o as respondent.R. Section &527 o$ Article BII o$ t"e Constit!tion.6.2> Respondents maintain t"at t"e $irst and second reA!isites are a)sent. 1e#arda maintained t"at PP &7&5 and 8. o$ assem)l% and o$ t"e press. x x x I> <=5 9o75. 9 are !nconstit!tional. t"e constit!tional A!estion m!st )e raised at t"e earliest opport!nit%. 171()9.y a3<6o2 C@4< :5 D.R.4 2o . C"et"er petitioners in 171()* 4Esc!dero et al. :oreover. T=64 64 <=5 :59622629 a2A <=5 52A o> <=5 <=5o. No. t"e% $ailed to ta(e into acco!nt t"e C"ie$ +!stice-s ver% statement t"at an ot"erwise 0moot0 case ma% still )e decided 0pro*ided the party raising it in a proper case has been and>or continues to be pre?udiced or damaged as a direct result of its issuance.0<5 In private s!its. "ence. No.I. -:.0 2< Co!rts ma% exercise s!c" power onl% w"en t"e $ollowin# reA!isites are present/ first. S!c" contention lac(s merit. a2A <=@4 <o 762A63a<5 a2A D. contendin# t"at t"e present petitions were rendered 0moot and academic0 )% President Arro%o-s iss!ance o$ PP &72&.O.ecretary.petitioners I:E.2? so t"at a declaration t"ereon wo!ld )e o$ no practical !se or val!e. Nos. 62oD5. 29 3"e Solicitor 8eneral re$!tes t"e existence o$ s!c" act!al case or controvers%.<? .anlakas *. Co!rts will decide cases. On :arc" 5. Section >&9 o$ Article II. D!rin# t"e ei#"t 4@6 da%s t"at PP &7&5 was operative.O.6<y 3oCD5<52< <o =o8A 6< 62 3o2<. third. 9 violates t"e Constit!tion. PP &7&5 does not violate t"e people-s ri#"t to $ree expression and redress o$ #rievances. respondents cited C"ie$ +!stice Artemio . t"e case is capa)le o$ repetition %et evadin# review. and -A. 171(2(. t"eir iss!ance was wit"o!t $act!al )asis. 6< 6CDo454 2o A@<654. 171()3 4I:E et al. t"e police o$$icers.<9 And lastl%. R!le < o$ t"e &JJ5 R!les o$ Civil Proced!re. t"e exceptional c"aracter o$ t"e sit!ation and t"e paramo!nt p!)lic interest is involved.2C52< 3o2436o@48y o.<4 5G5. 277?. t"ere m!st )e an act!al case or controvers%.6.0 And ass!min# t"at PP &7&5 is not reall% a declaration o$ :artial 1aw.75 6276o8a<5 <=5 B688 o> <=5 D5oD85 a4 5GD. 62?@.a<675. C"et"er PP &7&5 and 8.<> All t"e $ore#oin# exceptions are present "ere and !sti$% t"is Co!rt-s ass!mption o$ !risdiction over t"e instant petitions. committed ille#al acts in implementin# it.ection & of the 7<=8 Constitution. As Applied C"allen#e A. No. @23o2436o@48y o75. accordin# to petitioners. An act!al case or controvers% involves a con$lict o$ le#al ri#"t.<& second. third.0<7 3"e 0moot and academic0 principle is not a ma#ical $orm!la t"at can a!tomaticall% diss!ade t"e co!rts in resolvin# a case.22 D!t t"e power o$ !dicial review does not repose !pon t"e co!rts a 0sel$-startin# capacit%.0<@ S!ccinctl% p!t.y o> ?@A636a8 . and t"eir mem)ers averred t"at PP &7&5 and 8. 171(00. and 171(2( 41e#arda6 "ave le#al standin#.6 and &5&>@J 4Cadi* et al. 2. In G.<y B=o 4<a2A4 <o :5 :525>6<5A o. Certainl%. * 3o24<6<@<6o2a8 o.2& 3"is concept rests on t"e extraordinar% simple $o!ndation -3"e Constit!tion is t"e s!preme law. No. No. t"ere is a #rave violation o$ t"e Constit!tion. No. t"e petitions are s!) ect to !dicial review. t"e Co!rt deems it imperative to "ave a more t"an passin# disc!ssion on le#al standin# or locus standi.petitioners in 8. &5&>@< 4I:E et al.O. 4A18I6 alle#ed t"at PP &7&5 and 8. It "as t"e s%m)olic $!nction o$ ed!catin# t"e )enc" and t"e )ar. It provides t"at 0 575. No.0 Accordin#l%.R. co!rts decline !risdiction over s!c" case2@ or dismiss it on #ro!nd o$ mootness.In G. -3. fourth. It m!st )e stressed t"at 0a2 @23o24<6<@<6o2a8 a3< 64 2o< a 8aB. t"e% violate $reedom o$ expression and t"e ri#"t o$ t"e people to peacea)l% assem)le to redress t"eir #rievances.69=<4.5A :y <=5 ?@A9C52< 62 <=5 4@6< o. an opposite le#al claims s!scepti)le o$ !dicial resol!tion. I. PRO%ED"RAL =irst. t"e !ltimate so!rce o$ all political a!t"orit%. C"et"ert"e S!preme Co!rt can review t"e $act!al )ases o$ PP &7&5. 9 are 0unconstitutional for being *iolati*e of the freedom of e:pression. 6< a>>o. II. as amended. 171()3. and in t"e present petitions. Constit!tional Dasis 3. &5&>2> 41e#arda6.5a8 Da. t"e Co!rt cond!cted oral ar#!ments and "eard t"e parties on t"e a)ove interloc(in# iss!es w"ic" ma% )e s!mmari*ed as $ollows/ A. respondents. 2. It is 0de$inite and concrete. and -3. and fifth.54<. we s"all limit o!r disc!ssion t"ereon. involvin# as t"e% do t"e people-s )asic ri#"ts to $reedom o$ expression. $. to!c"in# t"e le#al relations o$ parties "avin# adverse le#al interest.0 In addition.545. and fourth. 171(00 4A18I6.Section 2<&J o$ Article . s"e stated t"at t"ese iss!ances prevented "er $rom $!ll% prosec!tin# "er election protest pendin# )e$ore t"e Presidential Electoral 3ri)!nal.O. t"e decision o$ t"e constit!tional A!estion m!st )e necessar% to t"e determination o$ t"e case itsel$. petitioners ar#!ed t"at 0it amounts to an e:ercise by the President of emergency powers without congressional appro*al. 3"ere is no A!estion t"at t"e iss!es )ein# raised a$$ect t"e p!)lic-s interest. &5&>77 4A18I6.&5 and >&@ o$ Article III.R. t"e )ar.A4 2o D. In respondents. second. doctrines or r!les. In t"eir attempt to prove t"e alle#ed mootness o$ t"is case.5765B . we m!st resolve t"e proced!ral road)loc(s.25 8enerall%.o453@<5A o. alle#ed t"at PP &7&5 is an 0arbitrary and unlawful e:ercise by the President of her artial Law powers. . Cadi* et al. In G.2J 3"e Co!rt "olds t"at President Arro%o-s iss!ance o$ PP &72& did not render t"e present petitions moot and academic.4<5D4 <=545 86C6<a<6o24 <=5.<y 62 62<5.<< and fourth.5445A 62 <=5 %o24<6<@<6o2. petitioners +ose Anselmo I. all guaranteed under )rticle III.6 "ave no le#al standin#. =acial C"allen#e :. adison. It was ordained )% t"e people. 0 3"e present case $alls ri#"t wit"in t"is exception to t"e mootness r!le pointed o!t )% t"e C"ie$ +!stice.y a2A <=5 Do8635. Pan#ani)an-s Separate Opinion in .<y 52<6<85A <o <=5 a7a684 o> <=5 4@6<. <o <=Ba.owever.R. . A moot and academic case is one t"at ceases to present a !sticia)le controvers% )% virt!e o$ s!pervenin# events. t"e Solicitor 8eneral co!ntered t"at/ first.< 6<4 @23o24<6<@<6o2a8 a<<5CD<. No4.6. Locus standi is de$ined as 0a ri#"t o$ appearance in a co!rt o$ !stice on a #iven A!estion. 9 are !nconstit!tional )eca!se t"e% violate -a.petitioner1oren D. &5&>@9 4Esc!dero et al. t"e petitions s"o!ld )e dismissed $or )ein# moot.second.

is not a real part%-in-interest as it "ad not demonstrated an% in !r% to itsel$ or to its leaders.<654JI< 64 a< 85a4< <=5 . mem)ers or s!pporters. 3"e distinction was $irst laid down in 9eauchamp *. =5 64 :@< <=5 C5. petitioners.69=<4 o> <=56. In G. Partido anggagawa.yK <54< in o!r !risdiction. No. In ot"er words.<a235. No. @ordan>& "eld t"at 0<=5 .a24352A52<a8 6CDo.<J w"ere it was "eld t"at t"e plainti$$ in a taxpa%er-s s!it is in a di$$erent cate#or% $rom t"e plainti$$ in a citi*en-s s!it.ileston *.4. )ein# a mere proced!ral tec"nicalit%. it reiterated its r!lin# in 9agong )lyansang akabayan *.5 <=5 .9? t"e Co!rt r!led t"at t"e stat!s o$ 0ilosbayan as a people-s or#ani*ation does not #ive it t"e reA!isite personalit% to A!estion t"e validit% o$ t"e on-line lotter% contract.mall Landowners in the Philippines.an. t"ere m!st )e a s"owin# t"at t"e iss!es raised are o$ transcendental importance w"ic" m!st )e settled earl%.657a235 :5 .4 %a454. t"ere m!st )e a claim o$ ille#al dis)!rsement o$ p!)lic $!nds or t"at t"e tax meas!re is !nconstit!tional. Case law in most !risdictions now allows )ot" 0citi*en0 and 0taxpa%er0 standin# in p!)lic actions. eA!atin# t"em wit" t"e 1DP in Lacson.O. <o Ca62<a62 a2 a3<6o2 62 3o@.< <=5 . to prevent !st a)o!t an% person $rom see(in# !dicial inter$erence in an% o$$icial polic% or act wit" w"ic" "e disa#reed wit".& .0 Pertinent are t"e $ollowin# cases/ -1.>2 later rea$$irmed in.9a26Ea<6o24 Cay :5 9. 3"e same "olds tr!e wit" petitioners in G.97 t"is Co!rt resolved to pass !pon t"e iss!es raised d!e to t"e 0>a. t"e Co!rt "as adopted a r!le t"at even w"ere t"e petitioners "ave $ailed to s"ow direct in !r%.54@8< . D% wa% o$ s!mmar%.58aG5A.oCD<8y a2A A5>626<58y a2A 4<a2A629 . E:ecuti*e . -2. <=5 %o@.O. Inc. a2A 6< 64 2o< 4@>>63652< <=a< =5 =a4 a 9525.. t"e Co!rt declared t"em to )e devoid o$ standin#.92 w"ere t"e Co!rt r!led t"at <=5 52>o. In )-uino *. :oreover. t"ere m!st )e a claim t"at t"e o$$icial action complained o$ in$rin#es !pon t"eir prero#atives as le#islators. Nor can it s!e as a concerned citi*en as it does not alle#e an% speci$ic in !r% it "as s!$$ered. 171(2(. and t"!s "inders t"e activities o$ #overnmental a#encies en#a#ed in p!)lic service. 3"e $act t"at s"e is a $ormer Senator is o$ no conseA!ence.0 or in t"e cate#or% o$ a 0citi*en. a2A <=a< a D@:863 9.isitin# =orces A#reement. <=@4 6CDa6. B=685 62 <=5 8a<<5.eform . 9.ribune P!)lis"in# Co.9523y DoB5.C5.R. :oreover.y a4 a . Cac"o-Olivares and .5L@6. . Damora.?2 9asco *.J<=5 D5oD85 a. re#!lations and r!lin#s. <=5 D8a62<6>> 64 a>>53<5A :y <=5 5GD52A6<@. 171396.8y D@.@C52< o> <=5 D@:863 3o235. provided t"at t"e $ollowin# reA!irements are met/ -1. "e "as to ma(e o!t a s!$$icient interest in t"e vindication o$ t"e p!)lic order and t"e sec!rin# o$ relie$ as a 0citi*en0 or 0taxpa%er. $or 859648a<o. Lim *. No. In 0ilosbayan.Ca<6o2 a2A <=5 5L@6<a:85 A6>>@46o2 o> 2a<@.5 Ca<<5. o.elecommunications and 9roadcast )ttorneys of the Philippines.9& 3"!s.R. Damora.53< 62?@.ecretary.O. In G. "e "as to adeA!atel% s"ow t"at "e is entitled to see( !dicial protection. 1oren 1e#arda "as no personalit% as a taxpa%er to $ile t"e instant petition as t"ere are no alle#ations o$ ille#al dis)!rsement o$ p!)lic $!nds. t"ere m!st )e a s"owin# o$ o)vio!s interest in t"e validit% o$ t"e election law in A!estion.a24352A52<a8 6CDo.5a3=629 6CD863a<6o240 o$ t"e petition notwit"standin# its cate#orical statement t"at petitioner t"erein "ad no personalit% to $ile t"e s!it.4 o> %o29. -3.y 36<6E52 <o 62<5.0 3"e Aera doctrine was !p"eld in a litan% o$ cases.>< 3"e same Co!rt r!led t"at $or a private individ!al to invo(e t"e !dicial power to determine t"e validit% o$ an exec!tive or le#islative action. &7&5 and 8. 171()3. <=5 3a454 C@4< :5 45<<85A D. 3"is is too #eneral an interest w"ic" is s"ared )% ot"er #ro!ps and t"e w"ole citi*enr%. it cannot s!e as a taxpa%er a)sent an% alle#ation t"at p!)lic $!nds are )ein# mis!sed.>9 anila ..y0 <54< in E: Parte Le*itt.9> w"ile t"e Co!rt noted t"at t"e petitioners ma% not $ile s!it in t"eir capacit% as taxpa%ers a)sent a s"owin# t"at 0Dali(atan 72-7&0 involves t"e exercise o$ Con#ress.53< 62?@.anlakas.4. 9.oD5. No.69=<.4 .5C5A65A. In G. $or 7o<5. orato.a24352A52<a8 6CDo.>J w"ere t"e 0<.9< w"erein t"e Co!rt "eld t"at K96752 <=5 <. s!c" as.>> it "eld t"at t"e person w"o imp!#ns t"e validit% o$ a stat!te m!st "ave 0a D5. As to petitioners .ocial @ustice . Inc. A54D6<5 <=5 8a3F o> A6.54o@.y a4 a . t"is Co!rt applied t"e li)eralit% r!le in Philconsa *.R. w"ile !ndo!)tedl% tr!e.?& )ssociation of .e ma% )e a person w"o is a$$ected no di$$erentl% $rom an% ot"er person. 4A18I6. Comelec. *. Now.35C52< o> <=5 3o24<6<@<6o2a8 . Si#ni$icantl%. Inc.?? t"e Co!rt "eld t"at t"e mere invocation )% t"e IDP o$ its d!t% to preserve t"e r!le o$ law and not"in# more. 1llman. O. =oB575. C5C:5.4 o> <=5 D@:863. "inglasan. t"ere is a c"ain o$ cases w"ere t"is li)eral polic% "as )een o)served.<a235.a24352A52<a8 6CDo.R. as t"e% claim t"at t"e President-s declaration o$ a state o$ re)ellion 64 a @4@. is )e%ond do!)t. .y 3a22o< :5 A5265A.a62 <=5 @28aB>@8 @45 o> D@:863 >@2A4 <o =64 62?@. No.taxin# or spendin# powers. It "eld t"at 0t"ere m!st )e a s"owin# t"at t"e citi*en personall% s!$$ered some act!al or t"reatened in !r% arisin# $rom t"e alle#ed ille#al o$$icial act. Custodio *. Philippine )musement and 4aming Corporation. 6> 2o< <=5 A@<y.<654 455F629 ?@A636a8 .69=< o> a 36<6E52 a2A a <aGDay5. Public Estates )uthority. $eli:.5 624<. In Integrated 9ar of the Philippines *. .<a235 o> <=5 644@54 627o875A.>?Pascual *. more so w"ere it does not raise an% iss!e o$ constit!tionalit%. S!c" li)eralit% was neit"er a rarit% nor accidental.<a235 B=63= 38o<=5 <=5 D5<6<6o25.ere. .u*era.ociety. Collins/>7 0I2 Ca<<5.owever. Inc. t"e opposition Con#ressmen alle#ed t"ere was !s!rpation o$ le#islative powers. it is in t"e interest o$ !stice t"at t"ose a$$ected )% PP &7&5 can )e represented )% t"eir Con#ressmen in )rin#in# to t"e attention o$ t"e Co!rt t"e alle#ed violations o$ t"eir )asic ri#"ts. Ri#"tl% so. .53< 62?@.3"e di$$ic!lt% o$ determinin# locus standi arises in D@:863 4@6<4.enate.25A 36<6E524. in view o$ t"e transcendental importance o$ t"e iss!e.5 D@:863 . t"e Enited State S!preme Co!rt laid down t"e more strin#ent 0 A6. No. In G. E:ecuti*e .69=< <o 62>o. In G.ilk.owever.0 In eit"er case.Da<6o2 o> <=5 5C5. CadiC et al. o> 575. *. 859648a<675 DoB5. $or 3o235.54< 3oCCo2 <o a88 C5C:5. recent decisions s"ow a certain to!#"enin# in t"e Co!rt-s attit!de toward le#al standin#.4 o> <. t"e Solicitor 8eneral does not A!estion t"eir le#al standin#.5 a2A 455 <=a< a D@:863 o>>5235 :5 D.0 . . w"o are national o$$icers o$ t"e Inte#rated Dar o$ t"e P"ilippines 4IDP6 "ave no le#al standin#. t"e% "ave )een allowed to s!e !nder t"e principle o$ 0<. t"e $ollowin# r!les ma% )e c!lled $rom t"e cases decided )% t"is Co!rt.95 t"e Co!rt reiterated t"e 0direct in !r%0 test wit" respect to concerned citi*ens. t"e application o$ t"e a)ove principles to t"e present petitions. and .< Cay . 3axpa%ers. *.rainers! )ssociation *. 171()*.ecretary. does so as a representative o$ t"e #eneral p!)lic.y <o <=5 Da. Laban ng "emokratikong Pilipino 41DP6. 171(09. Inc. In .2.?> t"at w"en t"e iss!e concerns a p!)lic ri#"t.5C52<4 Cay :5 . In .354 a.0 or Ntaxpa%er.9523y PoB5. 3"e locus standi o$ petitioners in G. -(.5 o> D@:863 >@2A4. 3"e% alle#ed 0direct in !r%0 res!ltin# $rom 0ille#al arrest0 and 0!nlaw$!l searc"0 committed )% police operatives p!rs!ant to PP &7&5.R.>5. In People *.58aG <=5 4<a2A629 .ace Horse .err *.544.629 <=56. PereC.5a8 Da. =5 C@4< 4=oB <=a< =5 =a4 4@4<a625A a A6.5L@6. and civic or#ani*ations to prosec!te actions involvin# t"e constit!tionalit% or validit% o$ laws.ecretary of Public Borks>5 and )nti#Chinese League of the Philippines *. I:E-s assertion t"at PP &7&5 and 8. and -*. Aera.53< 62?@. 3"is was done in t"e 19(9 EC5.?7 0apatiran 5g ga 5aglilingkod sa Pamahalaan ng Pilipinas.>@ . and le#islators ma% )e accorded standin# to s!e. allowin# ordinar% citi*ens.5765BK o$ t"e . "avin# $ailed to alle#e an% direct or potential in !r% w"ic" t"e IDP as an instit!tion or its mem)ers ma% s!$$er as a conseA!ence o$ t"e iss!ance o$ PP No. o> C5. I2 <=5 >o.9J t"e Co!rt r!led t"at onl% t"e petitioners w"o are mem)ers o$ Con#ress "ave standin# to s!e.0 In Lacson *.owever.53< 62?@. 171(00.a8 .<4 <o .cases involvin# constit!tional iss!es. is not s!$$icient to clot"e it wit" standin# in t"is case.4@5A a2A D@264=5A.<a2350 o$ t"e cases prompted t"e Co!rt to act li)erall%. t"is Co!rt declares t"at petitioner "ave locus standi. Comelec. As "eld )% t"e New Oor( S!preme Co!rt in People e: rel Case *.?< and .R.99<=a< 62 3a454 o> <. .54@8< o> <=a< a3<6o2.e co!ld )e s!in# as a 0stran#er. $or <aGDay5. .9@ t"e Co!rt r!led t"at one o$ t"e petitioners.a24352A52<a8 6CDo. No. partic!larl% David and 1lamas.ecretary of )grarian . Cha*eC *.a8 62<5. President of the . it is s!$$icient t"at t"e petitioner is a citi*en and "as an interest in t"e exec!tion o$ t"e laws.aEada *. . -3.anlakas *.69=<. 3"is Co!rt adopted t"e KA6.. )raneta *. concerned citi*ens.4. No. Enri-ueC. 9 violated its ri#"t to peace$!l assem)l% ma% )e deemed s!$$icient to #ive it le#al standin#. mem)ers o$ Con#ress.?9 Ce ta(e !dicial notice o$ t"e anno!ncement )% t"e O$$ice o$ t"e President )annin# all rallies and cancelin# all permits $or p!)lic assem)lies $ollowin# t"e iss!ance o$ PP &7&5 and 8. Indeed. .R. B688 4@4<a62 A6. voters. No.0 Cit" respect to taxpa%er-s s!its. "e la $uente.54<.54< 62 <=5 3a45 4@3= <=a< =5 =a4 4@4<a625A. S"e can no lon#er s!e as a le#islator on t"e alle#ation t"at "er prero#atives as . B6<= locus standi0 (2. 9agong )lyansang akabayan *.a2<5A 4<a2A629 <o a445. t"e plainti$$ w"o asserts a 0p!)lic ri#"t0 in assailin# an alle#edl% ille#al o$$icial action.o4D5.4o2a8 a2A 4@:4<a2<6a8 62<5. t"e reA!irement o$ locus standi ma% )e waived )% t"e Co!rt in t"e exercise o$ its discretion. *. t"e cases involve constit!tional iss!es.4.5C52<4 a2A a88oB <=5 4@6< <o D. Damora. No. 3"e% also raised t"e iss!e o$ w"et"er or not t"e conc!rrence o$ Con#ress is necessar% w"enever t"e alarmin# powers incident to :artial 1aw are !sed. 171()9.

o. and t"ere is no need to provide $or it in t"e Constit!tion or law. to wit.owever.O.a recent case most pertinent to t"ese cases at )ar && ec"oed a principle similar to Lansang.. t"e Co!rt is convinced t"at t"e President was !sti$ied in iss!in# PP &7&5 callin# $or militar% aid. :@< <o aDD5a8 <o H5a752. 9 is a !dicial A!estion w"ic" is o$ paramo!nt importance to t"e =ilipino people. 6< 62<o25A. /=o 4=a88 ?@A95 <=5 255A >o. II. 624<.5 <=5y =a75 2o ?@A95 o2 5a.a<6o2 o> DoB5.05? In &J5<. Enrile.2C52< 64 62 9. Article . 3"e iss!e o$ w"et"er t"e Co!rt ma% review t"e $act!al )ases o$ t"e President-s exercise o$ "is Commander-in-C"ie$ power "as reac"ed its distilled point .6<y <o A536A5 B=5<=5.o8 >o. . President Arro%o was not expected to simpl% $old "er arms and do not"in# to prevent or s!ppress w"at s"e )elieved was lawless violence. a2A GoA.<629 <o <=5 D.a24352A52<a8 6CDo. 3"!s. . it was not 0necessar%0 $or President Arro%o to iss!e s!c" Proclamation. t"e r!in o$ t"e StateP It is wron# t"ere$ore to wis" to ma(e political instit!tions as stron# as to render it impossi)le to s!spend t"eir operation. It declared t"at t"ere is a need to re-examine t"e latter case. <o 4=oB <=a< <=5 P. F.0 )!t also 0<o A5<5. ma%.5<6o2 aCo@2<629 <o 8a3F o. 3"ere. Enli(e t"e le#islative and !dicial )ranc". w"ic" prevents t"em $rom adoptin# t"emselves to circ!mstances. S"e "as not s!$$icientl% s"own t"at PP &7&5 will a$$ect t"e proceedin#s or res!lt o$ "er case. 5@ 3"en came 4arcia#Padilla *. 3o24<6<@<6o2a88y supreme.o43.a lawma(er "ave )een impaired )% PP &7&5 and 8. Castaneda5& to t"e volatile era o$ Lansang *. 2o< =5 =a4 4o a3<5A 64 754<5A 62 <=5 #@A636a8 D5Da.9523y 3"is case )rin#s to $ore a contentio!s s!) ect -.< o> a2y :.A629 <o A643. it is important t"at "e )e $reed $rom an% $orm o$ "arassment. called !pon t"e En#lis" doctrine o$ prero#ative to cope wit" t"e pro)lem o$ emer#enc%. Petitioners presented not"in# to re$!te s!c" events.ere.5C5Ay 62 <=64. )!t also o$ A@<y. ratiocinatin# t"at 062 <6C54 o> Ba.5>< o> >a3<@a8 :a4640 and t"at i$ "e $ails.5> 3"e t!#-o$-war alwa%s c!ts across t"e line de$inin# 0political A!estions.55 3"ere.net 3"is Co!rt "olds t"at all t"e petitioners "erein "ave locus standi.C625 B=5<=5.546A52< and =64 A53646o2 64 >62a8 a2A 3o238@4675 o2 <=5 3o@. t"e Crown retained a prero#ative 0DoB5. onl% one constit!tes t"e exec!tive )ranc" and an%t"in# w"ic" impairs "is !se$!lness in t"e disc"ar#e o$ t"e man% #reat and important d!ties imposed !pon "im )% t"e Constit!tion necessaril% impairs t"e operation o$ t"e 8overnment. <=5 P5oD85. to s!pport "is assertion. t"e standard laid down is not correctness. B=5<=5. 64. it stressed t"at 0 <=64 Ao54 2o< D.64<4 o2 <=5 PoB5. !d#in# t"e serio!sness o$ t"e incidents.@< In Integrated 9ar of the Philippines. Incidentall%. 1i(e an% ot"er o$$icial. <=5 D@:863 9ooA. t"is Co!rt $!rt"er r!led t"at 06< 64 623@C:52< @Do2 <=5 D5<6<6o25. @r.III o$ &J@5 Constit!tion w"ic" $orti$ies t"e a!t"orit% o$ t"e co!rts to determine in an appropriate action t"e validit% o$ t"e acts o$ t"e political departments. In t"ese sit!ations.64A63<6o2 o2 <=5 Da. 3"ere was also t"e :in!tes o$ t"e Intelli#ence Report and Sec!rit% 8ro!p o$ t"e P"ilippine Arm% s"owin# t"e #rowin# alliance )etween t"e NPA and t"e militar%. Accordin# to "im/ 3"e in$lexi)ilit% o$ t"e laws. t"e .@2 As to "ow t"e Co!rt ma% inA!ire into t"e President-s exercise o$ power. 3o parap"rase +!stice 1a!rel. a relaxation o$ t"e standin# reA!irements $or t"e petitioners in t"e 0PP &7&5 cases. Do3<.5<6o2. t"e Co!rt was almost evenl% divided on t"e iss!e o$ w"et"er t"e validit% o$ t"e imposition o$ :artial 1aw is a political or !sticia)le A!estion.5<6o2 >o.<=. . In times o$ dan#er to t"e nation.5a< D5. .546A52<. t"e mem)ers o$ t"e Co!rt were !nanimo!s in t"e conviction t"at t"e Co!rt "as t"e a!t"orit% to inA!ire into t"e existence o$ $act!al )ases in order to determine t"eir constit!tional s!$$icienc%.0 partic!larl% t"ose A!estions 0in re#ard to w"ic" $!ll discretionar% a!t"orit% "as )een dele#ated to t"e le#islative or exec!tive )ranc" o$ t"e #overnment. No. t"e de$ections in t"e militar%. i$ "e can )e dra##ed into co!rt liti#ations w"ile servin# as s!c".@C52<a86<y o> <=5 9o75. <=5 75. 3"e petitions t"!s call $or t"e application o$ t"e 0 <.t"e power o$ t"e President in times o$ emer#enc%. B6<=o@< <=5 D. positive law enacted )% t"e le#islat!re mi#"t )e inadeA!ate or even a $atal o)stacle to t"e promptness o$ action necessar% to avert catastrop"e. Lansang adopted t"e test t"at 0 !dicial inA!ir% can go no further t"an to satis$% t"e Co!rt not t"at t"e President-s decision is correct. t"is does not mean t"at t"e President is not acco!nta)le to an%one.a:85 o28y <o =64 3o24365235.o9a<675 a2A =oB Cay 6<4 a:@45 :5 a7o6A5AI . a2 5G69523y =a4 a.?J $. +o"n 1oc(e. t"e !nanimo!s Co!rt o$Lansang was divided in )-uino *.5C5. it is not proper to implead President Arro%o as respondent. Enrile.er claim t"at s"e is a media personalit% will not li(ewise aid "er )eca!se t"ere was no s"owin# t"at t"e en$orcement o$ t"ese iss!ances prevented "er $rom p!rs!in# "er occ!pation. "indrance or distraction to ena)le "im to $!ll% attend to t"e per$ormance o$ "is o$$icial d!ties and $!nctions.6236D85 o> 45Da.C625 B=5<=5. &7&5 and 8.3645A B6<=62 D5.54o. o.0 599arcelon and ontenegro were in !nison in declarin# t"at t"e a@<=o. Indeed.er s!)mission t"at s"e "as pendin# electoral protest )e$ore t"e Presidential Electoral 3ri)!nal is li(ewise o$ no relevance. . at a time o$ crisis. It will de#rade t"e di#nit% o$ t"e "i#" o$$ice o$ t"e President. Ender t"e new de$inition o$ !dicial power.a75 a:@45 o> A643. <=5 P. No. Re iew o! "actual #ases Petitioners maintain t"at PP &7&5 "as no $act!al )asis.5.2C52<.a8 Po86<63a8 T=5o.oC <=5 D. in certain cases. Even Sparta allowed its law to lapse.5< and 8arcia-Padilla v. A #limpse at t"e vario!s political t"eories relatin# to t"is s!) ect provides an adeA!ate )ac(drop $or o!r ens!in# disc!ssion.5 a88o<<5A <o =6C :y <=5 $a463 LaB. o> <=5 P. s!##estin# t"atK<=5 D5oD85 =a75 2o o<=5.0 7a**phil. A readin# o$ t"e Solicitor 8eneral-s Consolidated Comment and :emorand!m s"ows a detailed narration o$ t"e events leadin# to t"e iss!ance o$ PP &7&5. t"e w"ole o$ P"ilippine societ% now waits wit" )ated )reat" t"e r!lin# o$ t"is Co!rt on t"is ver% critical matter. 5G3544 o> ?@. B=63= <=5 P. :entioned are t"e escape o$ t"e :a#dalo 8ro!p.52 )-uino. "e remains acco!nta)le to t"e people ?@ )!t "e ma% )e removed $rom o$$ice onl% in t"e mode provided )% law and t"at is )% impeac"ment. .5752< a2 5GaC62a<6o2 o> B=5<=5. K@2A5.0@9 +ean-+acA!es Ro!ssea! also ass!med t"e need $or temporar% s!spension o$ democratic processes o$ #overnment in time o$ emer#enc%..546A52< 62 T6C54 o> EC5. %onstitutionality o! PP &'&( and ).ence. descri)in# t"e arc"itect!re o$ civil #overnment.546A52< 64 4@D. invasion or re)ellion.y 86>5 o> <=5 2a<6o2 a2A <=5 9o75.*. t"e co!rts are a!t"ori*ed not onl% 0to settle act!al controversies involvin# ri#"ts w"ic" are le#all% demanda)le and en$orcea)le.2. . is totall% )ere$t o$ $act!al )asis. partic!larl% in t"e P"ilippine :arines. o. Ba4 5G5.4. Enrilew"ic" #reatl% dil!ted Lansang. t"e exercise o$ s!c" power or d!t% m!st not sti$le li)ert%.3645A 62 a Ca225. )% wa% o$ proo$.0 Petitioners $ailed to s"ow t"at President Arro%o-s exercise o$ t"e callin#-o!t power.< 3a22o< @2A5. 3a454 B=5. t"eir a!dacio!s t"reat o$ t"e agdalo "#"ay. a)sent an% contrar% alle#ations. .6254 o> S575. and t"e reprovin# statements $rom t"e comm!nist leaders.<C52<.$rom t"e ind!l#ent da%s o$ 9arcelon *. C"ile t"e Co!rt considered t"e President-s 0callin#-o!t0 power as a discretionar% power solel% vested in "is wisdom.a75 a:@45 o> A643.0@> D!t 1oc(e reco#ni*ed t"at t"is moral restraint mi#"t not s!$$ice to avoid a)!se o$ prero#ative powers. 2a<6o2a8 5C5.<aF5 a2 62A5D52A52< 62754<69a<6o2 :5yo2A <=5 D85aA6294. It cannot )e do!)ted t"at t"e validit% o$ PP No.?5 ma% not )e s!ed in any civil or criminal case. 4@3= DoB5.0 3"!s.O.9523y. t"is Co!rt ma% relax t"e standin# r!les.03"is r!lin# is mainl% a res!lt o$ t"e Co!rt-s reliance on Section &. 9aker57 and ontenegro *. . a4 62 a88 o<=5. @& It spea(s o$ !dicial prero#ative not onl% in terms o$ DoB5. Enrile. 64 a24B5. +o.5 =a4 :552 a 9.owever. render t"em disastro!s and ma(e t"em )rin# a)o!t. d!rin# "is ten!re o$ o$$ice or act!al inc!m)enc%.546A52< C@4< :5 96752 a:4o8@<5 3o2<. 2o< <=5. )% iss!in# PP &7&5. Damora@7 -.<4. 62 <@. t"en 0<=64 %o@.ead o$ State. 3"is is t"e !nderl%in# le#al tenet o$ t"e 0li)eralit% doctrine0 on le#al standin#.68. t"e discretion o$ t"e political departments o$ t"e #overnment. wit" s!pportin# reports $ormin# part o$ t"e records.546A52<H4 A53646o2 64 <o<a88y :5. G G G o28y i! a2A w$en =5 a3<4 B6<=62 <=5 4D=5. S"$STANTIVE I. )!t ar)itrariness. Settled is t"e doctrine t"at t"e President.6D<6o2 o> <=5 8aB a2A 4oC5<6C54 5752 a9a624< 6<.a23= o. 1oc(e readil% admitted de$eat. 4arcia. 3o24<6<@<629 9. 6< 4=6><5A <=5 >o3@4 <o <=5 4y4<5C o> 3=53F4 a2A :a8a2354. D!t considerin# once more t"e transcendental importance o$ t"e iss!e involved. It m!st alwa%s )e )orne in mind t"at t"e A!estion o$ locus standi is )!t corollar% to t"e )i##er A!estion o$ proper exercise o$ !dicial power. a2A <=5 a@<=o. w$ic$ in t$is respect. =!rt"ermore. T=5 P.0 )!t t"at 0t"e President did not act arbitrarily. <o a3< a33o. 6< Ba4 5G5. *.<a2350 doctrine.05J 3"e Integrated 9ar of the Philippines *. 9.C6446:85 3o24<6<@<6o2a8 86C6<4 o.0 3"e latter part o$ t"e a!t"orit% represents a )roadenin# o$ !dicial power to ena)le t"e co!rts o$ !stice to review w"at was )e$ore a $or)idden territor%.6<y <o A5<5. Lansang too( t"e opposite view.6452 :58o294 <o <=5 P.

5C5 Ca964<.0 t"!s/ 1. B=685 624@.C625 <=5 5G64<5235 o> a2 5C5.3645A @2A5. Pt"e decision to instit!te a constit!tional dictators"ip s"o!ld never )e in t"e "ands o$ t"e man or men w"o will constit!te t"e dictatorP 3. li(e t"e decision to instit!te one s"o!ld never )e in t"e "ands o$ t"e man or men w"o constit!te t"e dictator. <=5 3o2<. ). no rep!)lic will ever )e per$ect i$ s"e "as not )% law provided $or ever%t"in#.4=6D 4=o@8A a8Bay4 :5 4<.oC KB5aFK 9o75. event!all%.a8 624<6<@<6o24. and .e reco#ni*ed t"e two 426 (e% elements o$ t"e pro)lem o$ emer#enc% #overnance. <=5 A5>5245 o> 86:5. wit" e$$ective constit!tional restraints.9523y a3<6o2 C@4< :5 <=5 A5>5245 o> <=5 3o24<6<@<6o2a8 o. 62 3a454 o> 5G<. 3"ese are t"e conditions o$ s!ccess o$ s!c" a dictators"ip/ KT=5 D5.5 o> 8aB a4 oDDo45A <o <=5 D. and w"ic" is consistent wit" t"e $indin#s o$ t"is st!d%.A5. =rance. a2A a 3oCD85<5 Do86<63a8 .e $o!nd t"at t"e reall% e$$ective c"ec(s on despotism "ave consisted not in t"e wea(enin# o$ #overnment )!t. J7 Contemporar% political t"eorists.629 <=a< 4@3= DoB5. )!t rat"er in t"e 86C6<629 o> 6<.y DoB5. is t"at $orm!lated )% C"arles .o8 o> 9o75. T=5 <Bo >@2AaC52<a8 3o. It matters not w"et"er t"e term 0dictator0 is !sed in its normal sense 4as applied to a!t"oritarian r!lers6 or is emplo%ed to em)race all c"ie$ exec!tives administerin# emer#enc% powers..576o@4 >o.a.y 62 a D5.&7& In t"e $inal anal%sis. <=5 o:?53<675 o> 5C5. F55D629 9o75. endeavored to create a #overnment in t"e concept o$ +!stice +ac(son-s 0)alanced power str!ct!re.y A63<a<o.a<675 DoB5.o354454 >o.o354454 o> >o.a. t"e% $avored instead t"e 0concept o$ constit!tionalism0 artic!lated )% C"arles . .4 o> 86:5. 3"!s.58a<6758y 4=o.54Do246:686<y a2A @2A5.54Do246:686<y o> 9o75. Ceimar.@85.oC 3o2A5C2629. $or "ow lon#.e reco#ni*ed and attempted to )rid#e t"is c"asm in democratic political t"eor%.a. <o A5<5. 3"e decision to terminate a constit!tional dictators"ip.63< Do86<63a8 3o245.54Do246:686<y.2 <o <=5 D.0@@ Nicollo :ac"iavelli-s view o$ emer#enc% powers.y DoB5. . . $!rnis"ed an ironic contrast to t"e 1oc(ean t"eor% o$ prero#ative.35. <=a< o> a88o<<629 623.4=6D 62 a2y 96752 3a45 C@4< 2575.Ca252< 62?@.2C52<. i.5a4629 aAC6264<.oD5.0 Carl +.0J5 Clinton 1. In s!c" a case. too.4=6D C@4< :5 . "ave emplo%ed t"e doctrine o$ constit!tional dictators"ip. . . and Do86<63a8 .oCD< . <o <=5 %=65> EG53@<675. 0constit!tional dictators"ip0 cannot )e divorced $rom t"e implication o$ s!spension o$ t"e processes o$ constit!tionalism. M3I8Ba62 C5a2< 9o75.I$ t"e peril is o$ s!c" a (ind t"at t"e parap"ernalia o$ t"e laws are an o)stacle to t"eir preservation.@? Rossea! did not $ear t"e a)!se o$ t"e emer#enc% dictators"ip or 04@D. and to w"at end.!ltimatel% aim to solve one real pro)lem in emer#enc% #overnance.5<@.754 <o D. .J& =rederic( :.e wo!ld sec!re to Con#ress $inal responsi)ilit% $or declarin# t"e existence or termination o$ an emer#enc%. No constit!tional dictators"ip s"o!ld extend )e%ond t"e termination o$ t"e crisis $or w"ic" it was instit!tedP 11.54< B6<= <=5 A63<a<o. $!ll emp"asis is placed !pon D. "avin# a remed% $or ever% emer#enc% and $ixed r!les $or appl%in# it. )etween w"ic" t"ere is a #reat and ver% si#ni$icant di$$erence. . P no dictatorial instit!tion s"o!ld )e adopted. 3"e dictators"ip s"o!ld )e carried on )% persons representative o$ ever% part o$ t"e citi*enr% interested in t"e de$ense o$ t"e existin# constit!tional order.4 o> <=5 5G53@<675. Cat(ins saw 02o .$rom 1oc(-s 0t"eor% o$ prero#ative. . No #eneral re#ime or partic!lar instit!tion o$ constit!tional dictators"ip s"o!ld )e initiated !nless it is necessar% or even indispensa)le to t"e preservation o$ t"e State and its constit!tional orderP 2. A63<a<o.25A. . 62 <=5 >o. >.5C5 2535446<y. 3"e meas!res adopted in t"e prosec!tion o$ t"e a constit!tional dictators"ip s"o!ld never )e permanent in c"aracter or e$$ectP 7.e attempted $ort"ri#"tl% to meet t"e pro)lem o$ com)inin# a capacio!s reserve o$ power and speed and vi#or in its application in time o$ emer#enc%.0 J? =riedric". O!r Constit!tion "as $airl% coped wit" t"is pro)lem.0 to Cat(ins.oC <=5 Aa295.cott and Cotter. =or "im.6oA o> <5CDo.0J< Cat(ins placed "is real $ait" in a sc"eme o$ constit!tional dictators"ip. were one in sa%in# t"at. . to wit/ KT=5 5C5.:6<.4 4=o@8A :5 5G5. t"e% will in a little w"ile )e disre#arded !nder t"at pretext )!t $or evil p!rposes. as well as all constit!tional #overnance/ 623.a3654 4@. s!) ect to eA!all% stron# limitations as to w"o s"all exercise s!c" powers. :cIlwain clearl% reco#ni*ed t"e need to repose adeA!ate power in #overnment..0J2 .y.6a2 .0 3o appraise emer#enc% power in terms o$ constit!tional dictators"ip serves merel% to distort t"e pro)lem and "inder realistic anal%sis. $or alt"o!#" t"e% ma% $or a time )e )ene$icial.a3<5. And in disc!ssin# t"e meanin# o$ constit!tionalism. t"!s/ Now. t"e &J@? Constit!tional Commission. in anal%*in# t"e a)ove contemporar% t"eories in li#"t o$ recent experience. t"e vario!s approac"es to emer#enc% o$ t"e a)ove political t"eorists '.5a4 o> A643. no re#!lar proced!re altered an% more t"an is a)sol!tel% necessar% $or t"e conA!est o$ t"e partic!lar crisis .58a<675 585C52<4 o> 3o24<6<@<6o2a864C >o.3645A B6<= a 45245 o> Do86<63a8 .0 provided it 045. 5>>53<675 86C6<a<6o24 a2A 3=53F4. 6. t"e met"od is to nominate a s!preme law%er.2C52< . o$$ered criteria $or !d#in# t"e adeA!ac% o$ an% o$ sc"eme o$ emer#enc% powers.54Do246:85 ..63< <6C5 86C6<a<6o20 a2A 8a4<.&77 . 10. 0 <=5 4@9954<6o2 <=a< A5Co3. to :cIlwain-s 0principle o$ constit!tionalism0 --. as one element in t"e w"ole sc"eme o$ limited #overnment. 9. :cIlwain. B=685 a< <=5 4aC5 <6C5 K6CDo4629 86C6<a<6o2 @Do2 <=a< DoB5. a 4<. Rossea! and :ill ' so!#"t to incorporate into t"e constit!tion a re#!lari*ed s%stem o$ stand)% emer#enc% powers to )e invo(ed wit" s!ita)le c"ec(s and controls in time o$ national dan#er.4 B688 :5 5G5.J9 0It is a pro)lem o$ concentratin# power ' in a #overnment w"ere power "as conscio!sl% )een divided ' to cope wit"P sit!ations o$ !nprecedented ma#nit!de and #ravit%.9523y0 5C5.o35A@.doctrine o$ 0constit!tional dictators"ip0 and... . it wo!ld more li(el% )e c"eapened )% 0indiscreet !se. w"en.C4 o> Do86<63a8 86>5 .63<8y 8596<6Ca<5 62 3=a. in a well-ordered societ%. %et t"e precedent is pernicio!s. Rossiter.C625 <=5 255A >o.o<53< 54<a:864=5A 624<6<@<6o24 >. w"o s"all silence all t"e laws and s!spend $or a moment t"e soverei#n a!t"orit%.6<a.5 <=5 859a8 86C6<4 <o a. and it clear t"at t"e people-s $irst intention is t"at t"e State s"all not peris".6<y <o A5<5.. addressin# t"emselves to t"e pro)lem o$ response to emer#enc% )% constit!tional democracies. No #overnment s"o!ld initiate a constit!tional dictators"ip wit"o!t ma(in# speci$ic provisions $or its terminationP (.. 8erman% and t"e Enited States. .JF62a8 a@<=o. no ri#"t invaded. "e insisted t"at t"e =64<o. 3"ere m!st )e a )road #rant o$ powers.9523y 5G53@<675 C@4< :5 aDDo62<5A :y 3o24<6<@<6o2a8 C5a24 . "e relied !pon a ten!re o$ o$$ice o$ prescri)ed d!ration to avoid perpet!ation o$ t"e dictators"ip. t"ere is no do!)t a)o!t t"e #eneral will.5.a75 Aa295. =riedric" cast "is anal%sis in terms similar to t"ose o$ Cat(ins. <=5 a44@CD<6o2 o> a:4o8@<5 DoB5.@J :ac"iavelli ' in contrast to 1oc(e. in dra$tin# t"e &J@5 Constit!tion. reverted to a description o$ a sc"eme o$ 0constit!tional dictators"ip0 as sol!tion to t"e vexin# pro)lems presented )% emer#enc%. :cIlwain/ A concept o$ constit!tionalism w"ic" is less misleadin# in t"e anal%sis o$ pro)lems o$ emer#enc% powers. 62 <6C5 o> 9.0 .y 5C5.0 &72 Exec!tive.2C52< <o a2 a@<=o. <o <=5 2a<6o2 64 not :a45A @Do2 4o@2A 3o24<6<@<6o2a8 <=5o.@5 +o"n St!art :ill concl!ded "is ardent de$ense o$ representative #overnment/ 0I aC >a.5<6o2a.2C52< <o <=5 9o75.e re$!sed to eA!ate constit!tionalism wit" t"e en$ee)lin# o$ #overnment )% an exa##erated emp"asis !pon separation o$ powers and s!)stantive limitations on #overnmental power. a$ter s!rve%in# t"e "istor% o$ t"e emplo%ment o$ emer#enc% powers in 8reat Dritain. o> D5. "e stated a priori t"e conditions o$ s!ccess o$ t"e 0constit!tional dictators"ip. 6.a3y0 as "e termed it.4=6D.o35A@. .owever !sed.A5. <54< o> 3o24<6<@<6o2a864C Ba4 <=5 5G64<5235 o> aA5L@a<5 D. J@ 1i(e Cat(ins and =riedric". and "e places #reat $ait" in t"e e$$ectiveness o$ con#ressional investi#atin# committees.52A5. I2 a44o36a<629 3o24<6<@<6o2a864C B6<= K86C6<5AK a4 A64<629@64=5A >. . =6C458> P0J> and t"e o) ective o$ s!c" an emer#enc% dictators"ip s"o!ld )e 04<. =res" $rom t"e $etters o$ a repressive re#ime. 3"!s..C o> a <5CDo. $or i$ t"e practice is once esta)lis"ed $or #ood o) ects. B=63= a88 8o75.e was !nwillin# to rel% !pon an 0aDD5a8 <o =5a752.e. Eltimate responsi)ilit% s"o!ld )e maintained $or ever% action ta(en !nder a constit!tional dictators"ip. it s"o!ld never )e necessar% to resort to extra 'constit!tional meas!res. =5 C@4< :5 8596<6Ca<50 =5 4=o@8A 2o< 52?oy DoB5.2C52< 86C6<5A <o <=5 o.0 Instead.5a4629 a.<JD63<a<o.9523y DoB5.5a4o2 B=y a:4o8@<64C 4=o@8A 2o< :5 @45A a4 a C5a24 >o. Pall !ses o$ emer#enc% powers and all read !stments in t"e or#ani*ation o$ t"e #overnment s"o!ld )e e$$ected in p!rs!it o$ constit!tional or le#al reA!irementsP *.<y C@4< y5< >69=< a.a8 86C6<a<6o24. C"ile it does not )% an% means necessaril% excl!de some indeterminate limitations !pon t"e s!)stantive powers o$ #overnment. Pt"e termination o$ t"e crisis m!st )e $ollowed )% a complete ret!rn as possi)le to t"e political and #overnmental conditions existin# prior to t"e initiation o$ t"e constit!tional dictators"ipPJJ Rossiter accorded to le#islat!re a $ar #reater role in t"e oversi#"t exercise o$ emer#enc% powers t"an did Cat(ins. .7a<64C.9523y a2A 64 >o88oB5A :y a D.6oA o> A63<a<o. le#islative.63a8 a2A D.8y D.

It is act!all% a call !pon t"e A=P to prevent or s!ppress all $orms o$ 8aB8544 76o85235.&7J it was "eld t"at/ K3L"e tas( o$ anal%*in# a proposed stat!te.o3544 o> <=5 .B645 7a86A 3.0&7? . E:ecuti*e . $acial invalidation o$ laws is considered as 0Ca26>54<8y 4<. votin# ointl%. respectivel%. and t"e S!preme Co!rt. Em)edded in t"e traditional r!les #overnin# constit!tional ad !dication is t"e principle t"at a person to w"om a law ma% )e applied will not )e "eard to c"allen#e a law on t"e #ro!nd t"at it ma% conceiva)l% )e applied !nconstit!tionall% to ot"ers. .< o> o@.75 aBay <=5 @23o24<6<@<6o2a8 a4D53<4 o> <=5 8aB :y 627a86Aa<629 6<4 6CD. In .A Da. 46<@a<6o24 2o< :5>o.53o926E5A a2 Mo75.econd.&7@ A writer and sc"olar in Constit!tional 1aw explains $!rt"er/ T=5 Co4< A64<623<675 >5a<@. Cit"in $ort%-ei#"t "o!rs $rom t"e proclamation o$ martial law or t"e s!spension o$ t"e privile#e o$ t"e writ o$ habeas corpus. D5<6<6o25.A40 and a#ain. is !nwarranted. too.<.!dicial powers are dispersed to t"e President.5A. :oreover. 3"e% also $ailed to esta)lis" t"at men o$ common intelli#ence cannot !nderstand t"e meanin# and application o$ PP &7&5.a8 86C6<a<6o24. And li(e over)readt".5aA<= <53=26L@5 64 <=a< 6< Ca. petitioners did not even attempt to s"ow w"et"er t"is sit!ation exists.ere.9523y. %o24<6<@<6o2a8 $a464 o> PP 1017 Now on t"e constit!tional $o!ndation o$ PP &7&5.A62a. O. I2 o75. w"ic" is mani$estl% s!) ect to state re#!lation.A Da.5=524675 3o2<.5865> 4o@9=<. it is also an anal%tical tool $or testin# 0on t"eir $aces0 4<a<@<54 62 >.5>@88y D.55 4D553= 3a454.o<53<5A 3o2A@3<.&7>t"e ES S!preme Co!rt "eld t"at 0B5 =a75 2o< . pinpointin# its de$iciencies. 3"e Co!rt ass!mes t"at an over)road law-s 0ver% existence ma% ca!se ot"ers not )e$ore t"e co!rt to re$rain $rom constit!tionall% protected speec" or expression.55AoC o> 4D553=. . .<a685A B=52 627oF5A a9a624< o.<4 3a.y $or decidin# constit!tional A!estions. 3"is. ins!rrection and re)ellion are considered 0"arm$!l0 and 0constit!tionall% !nprotected cond!ct. !sin# t"e over)readt" doctrine.5 o> <=5 .II o$ t"e Constit!tion reprod!ced as $ollows/ S53. see( to re#!late onl% 04DoF52 Bo.@854 o> 3o24<6<@<6o2a8 86<69a<6o2.68y.a<5 B6<=62 3a. =5. ma% revo(e s!c" proclamation or s!spension. Artilce . Article .0 An over)readt" r!lin# is desi#ned to remove t"at deterrent e$$ect on t"e speec" o$ t"ose t"ird parties. $@< <=5 D8a62 6CDo. at t"e same time. a< <=5 75.alerno.anlakas *. and a)ove all <=5 4D53@8a<675 a2A aCo. In ot"er words.:6A4 <=5 S<a<5 <o 4a23<6o2 Co754 >.0 to )e !sed 04Da.5L@6.< <=56. it is said t"at a liti#ant ma% c"allen#e a stat!te on its $ace onl% i$ it is 7a9@5 62 a88 6<4 Do446:85 aDD863a<6o24. and reA!irin# correction o$ t"ese de$iciencies )e$ore t"e stat!te is p!t into e$$ect. extend s!c" proclamation or s!spension $or a period to )e determined )% t"e Con#ress. 6< o:86954 =6C <o oD5. a $acial c"allen#e on t"e #ro!nd o$ over)readt" is t"e most di$$ic!lt c"allen#e to mo!nt s!ccess$!ll%.o84 o75.ordinaril% res!lts in a (ind o$ case t"at is B=o88y @24a<64>a3<o. Related to t"e 0over)readt"0 doctrine is t"e 0void $or va#!eness doctrine0 w"ic" "olds t"at 0a 8aB 64 >a36a88y 627a86A 6> C52 o> 3oCCo2 62<588695235 C@4< 253544a. Epon t"e initiative o$ t"e President.o85 <o 45. s!spend t"e privile#e o$ t"e writ o$ habeas corpus or place t"e P"ilippines or an% part t"ereo$ !nder martial law.@854 o> D. )!t on t"e ass!mption or prediction t"at its ver% existence ma% ca!se o<=5. constit!tionall% !nprotected cond!ct. 3"is s%stem does not B5aF52 t"e President.0 3"e% claim t"at its en$orcement encroac"ed on )ot" !nprotected and protected ri#"ts !nder Section >.6:5A D.a645 <=5 .0 6> <=5 86<69a2< D. 62 o<=5.:. 3"!s.0&&7 It is s!) ect to t"e same principles #overnin# over)readt" doctrine..y 3. . 3"e Con#ress.tates *. a4 <o 6<4 aDD863a<6o2. 627a46o2 o.5o75. 6> 52<5.<63@8a. a Da.0 and is 09525. t"e over)readt" doctrine is an anal%tical tool developed $or testin# 0on t"eir $aces0 stat!tes in >. 3o24<6<@<6o2a88y @2D. <5. A $acial review o$ PP &7&5. oB2 62<5. Ea3= :. i$ not in session. :y <=56.0 In9roadrick *.5aA<=H Ao3<. and t"e co!rt invalidates t"e entire stat!te 0on its $ace.B645 @2D.e. .A 3o2A@3< and <=a< 3o2A@3< .o<53<5A 3o2A@3< .<.C4.0 not merel% 0as applied $or0 so t"at t"e over)road law )ecomes !nen$orcea)le !ntil a properl% a!t"ori*ed co!rt constr!es it more narrowl%. 1).:. 3in#a. orders and re#!lations prom!l#ated )% me personall% or !pon m% direction..&7< A plain readin# o$ PP &7&5 s"ows t"at it is not primaril% directed to speec" or even speec"-related cond!ct.75 a4 86C6<a<6o2 o. 3"e President s"all )e t"e Commander-in-C"ie$ o$ all armed $orces o$ t"e P"ilippines and B=52575. in times o$ emer#enc%.ecretary. w"ic"ever wa% t"e% mi#"t )e decided.0 deterrent e$$ect o$ t"e over)road stat!te on t"ird parties not co!ra#eo!s eno!#" to )rin# s!it.o35A@. 3"e Con#ress. since t"e c"allen#er m!st esta)lis" t"at <=5.0&75 3"e reason $or t"is is o)vio!s. t"e 6CDa3< o2 <=5 859648a<675 D.5aA<= 38a6C4.y 85a4<.625 o@<46A5 <=5 86C6<5A 3o2<5G< o> <=5 F6.69=<4 o> <=6.. Eac" is s!preme wit"in its own sp"ere.68y 9@544 a< 6<4 C5a2629 a2A A6>>5.oC MD@. Harris. in t"e same manner. =a75 :552 3@.:..4y.C6<<5A <o .544 8aB8544 76o85235. 3a454 64.a23= 64 96752 a . i$ t"e invasion or re)ellion s"all persist and p!)lic sa$et% reA!ires it. <=a< 6< >o.oD5.o29 C5A63625.54o.D=o@4 2a<@.5:5886o2. a 86C6<5A o25 a< <=5 o@<45<. $irst and foremost. t"e over)readt" doctrine is not intended $or testin# t"e validit% o$ a law t"at 0re$lects le#itimate state interest in maintainin# compre"ensive control over "arm$!l. w"ic" revocation s"all not )e set aside )% t"e President. t"e incontroverti)le $act remains t"at PP &7&5 pertains to a spectr!m o$ 3o2A@3<.4 <o a 8aB a.:. o!r Constit!tion reasona)l% demands t"at we repose a certain amo!nt o$ $ait" in t"e )asic inte#rit% and wisdom o$ t"e C"ie$ Exec!tive )!t.<654 a2A 3a2 o28y a445. not $ree speec".5 <=5 %o@.. is !ncalled $or. In 1nited . $@< 2o25 =a4 <=5 Co2oDo8y o> DoB5. t"e President s"all s!)mit a report in person or in writin# to t"e Con#ress. also (nown !nder t"e American 1aw as =irst Amendment cases.C6<<5A <o .5aA<= a2a8y464.57a684.5 o> <=5 o75.a645 <=5 . it !st 86C6<4 "is power. 4@DD.544675 . 3"e $actor t"at motivates co!rts to depart $rom t"e normal ad !dicator% r!les is t"e concern wit" t"e 0c"illin#.:.%alling-out Power 3"e $irst provision pertains to t"e President-s callin#-o!t power. i.A62a.$ird pro ision0as provided in Section &5. In Founger *. a. t"e Con#ress ma%.5 4o@9=< <o :5 aDD865A <o D. <.o75.0 Endo!)tedl%. In case o$ invasion or re)ellion..4 2o< :5>o. . claims o$ $acial over)readt" are entertained in cases involvin# stat!tes w"ic". <=a< >a36a8 o75. >a884 B6<=62 <=5 43oD5 o> o<=5. t"at 0o75.&&& t"is Co!rt. Mo. s"all wit"in twent%-$o!r "o!rs $ollowin# s!c" proclamation or s!spension. =or one. +!stice Dante O.a88y A64>a7o.II P do "ere)% command t"e Armed =orces o$ t"e P"ilippines.55 4D553= 3a454. prevent or s!ppress all $orms o$ lawless violence as well an% act o$ ins!rrection or re)ellion0 Second pro ision0and to en$orce o)edience to all t"e laws and to all decrees. a $acial c"allen#e !sin# t"e over)readt" doctrine will reA!ire t"e Co!rt to examine PP &7&5 and pinpoint its $laws and de$ects.5aA<= aA?@A63a<6o2 64 a2 5G35D<6o2 <o o@.69=<4 o> <=6. Oklahoma.5 D5. is rarel% i$ ever an appropriate tas( $or t"e !diciar%.5 2o< D5. Article BII o$ t"e Constit!tion do "ere)% declare a State o$ National Emer#enc%.6C62a8 8aB4 <=a< a. KFa36a8 %=a885295K Petitioners contend t"at PP &7&5 is void on its $ace )eca!se o$ its 0over)readt".54<4. convene in accordance wit" its r!les wit"o!t need o$ a call. "e ma%.@854 9675 Bay0 3=a8852954 a.&79 it was "eld/ It remains a Nmatter o$ no little di$$ic!lt%. "eld t"at Section &@. to maintain law and order t"ro!#"o!t t"e P"ilippines. Petitioners li(ewise see( a $acial review o$ PP &7&5 on t"e #ro!nd o$ va#!eness.C5A >o. not on t"e )asis o$ its act!al operation to petitioners.4 A6A 2o< 5752 a<<5CD< <o 4=oB <=a< PP 1017 64 7a9@5 62 a88 6<4 aDD863a<6o2. t"ro!#" :r. 3"e com)ination o$ t"e . )% a vote o$ at least a ma orit% o$ all its :em)ers in re#!lar or special session.y. $or a period not exceedin# sixt% da%s.< to re$rain $rom constit!tionall% protected speec" or expression.6298y a2A o28y a4 a 8a4< . A9a62.6C62a8 8aB4 <=a< .0 . w"en t"e p!)lic sa$et% reA!ires it.354 <o D. 3"e operative portion o$ PP &7&5 ma% )e divided into t"ree important provisions.to determine w"en a law ma% properl% )e "eld void on its $ace and w"en Ns!c" s!mmar% action. Article III o$ t"e Constit!tion and sent a 0c"illin# e$$ect0 to t"e citi*ens. :.is inappropriate. 62 <6C54 o> 5C5.aA6<6o2a8 .5Co<52544 o> <=5 3o2<. aDD863a<6o24 o2 a 3a45 <o 3a45 :a464.5A 8625&:y&8625 a2a8y464 o> A5<a685A 4<a<@<54.C>@8.543. <=o45 . 3=a885295. t"e Con#ress.5>853< 8596<6Ca<5 4<a<5 62<5.54<4 62 Ca62<a62629 3oCD.ere.F4 a2 5G35D<6o2 <o 4oC5 o> <=5 @4@a8 .5752 6> 5GD.<654.5752< o. =a. =5 Cay 3a88 o@< 4@3= a.a3<635 a2A <=a< 6<4 >@23<6o2. In ot"er words. a<<52@a<54 a4 <=5 o<=5.o<53<5A :5=a76o. 86<69a2< 38a6C4 <=a< a 4<a<@<5 64 @23o24<6<@<6o2a8 a4 aDD865A <o =6C o.<a625A a< a88.5 4D553=H <oBa.58a<675 .0 "irst Pro ision. !sin# t"e lan#!a#e o$ :cIlwain.4< AC52AC52<K ->.5 <=5 %o@.5 3a2 :5 2o 624<a235 B=52 <=5 a44a685A 8aB Cay :5 7a86A. <=5 3o@. lawless violence. And third. 3=53F @Do2 <=5 o<=5. t"!s/ "irst pro ision0)% virt!e o$ t"e power vested !pon me )% Section &@. 6< :53oC54 253544a.

+!stice :endo*a $!rt"er stated t"at speci$icall%. and 4d6 iss!ance o$ Presidential Decrees.C4 o> 8aB8544 76o85235 a4 B588 a4 a2y a3< o> 624@. it cannot )e !sed to !sti$% acts t"at onl% !nder a valid declaration o$ :artial 1aw can )e done. 6< :53oC54 253544a.3"e S!preme Co!rt ma% review. s"e is in t"e )est position to determine t"e act!al condition o$ t"e co!ntr%. wit"o!t le#al si#ni$icance. It is placed in t"e (eepin# o$ t"e President $or t"e p!rpose o$ ena)lin# "im to sec!re t"e people $rom "arm and to restore order so t"at t"e% can en o% t"eir individ!al $reedoms.enate Committee on @ustice0 on :arc" &<.4o2a88y o. 277?.e cannot invo(e a #reater power w"en "e wis"es to act !nder a lesser power.4 a2A .oC@89a<5A :y C5 D5.0&&< In "is 0. President Arro%o did not onl% rel% on Section &@. )!rea!s. I< 64 C5..anlakas. and o$$ices. in an appropriate proceedin# $iled )% an% citi*en. t"e power to declare :artial 1aw poses t"e most severe t"reat to civil li)erties. a provision on t"e State-s extraordinar% power to ta(e over privatel%-owned p!)lic !tilit% and )!siness a$$ected wit" p!)lic interest. Indeed.oC@89a<5A :y C5 D5.53<6o2.II. I. :endo*a.4o2a88y o. FERDINAND E. Owin# to "er O$$ice-s vast intelli#ence networ(. amon# ot"ers. in m% capacit% as t"eir Commander-in-C"ie$.4 a2A .35 o:5A65235 <o a88 <=5 8aB4 a2A to all A53. t"e President.C5A Fo.&&2 t"e Co!rt r!led t"at t"e onl% criterion $or t"e exercise o$ t"e callin#-o!t power is t"at 0 B=52575. PP &7&5 is more t"an t"at. w"ic" partl% reads/ NO/. O)vio!sl%.5:5886o2. Doo( II o$ t"e Revised Administrative Code o$ &J@5. It is no so. C"apter 2.0 Q Petitioners. 4@DD. It cannot )e !sed to sti$le or persec!te critics o$ t"e #overnment.anlakas6 and t"e a!t"orit% to proclaim a state o$ national emer#enc%. t"e power to s!spend t"e privile#e o$ t"e writ o$ habeas corpus.irador ar#!e t"at PP &7&5 is !nconstit!tional as it arro#ated !pon President Arro%o t"e power to enact laws and decrees in violation o$ Section &. H5 4=a88 524@.53<6o2. 3"is is )ased on Section &5. Para#rap" 426 o$ t"e Constit!tion. 4a6 arrests and sei*!res wit"o!t !dicial warrants.. a 0seA!ence0 o$ #rad!ated powers.0 t"e President ma% call t"e armed $orces 0<o D. C"at de$ines t"e c"aracter o$ PP &7&5 are its wordin#s.59@8a<6o24 D. @Do2 Cy A6.5:y 3oCCa2A <=5 A. t"e #reater are t"e limitations. nor s!pplant t"e $!nctionin# o$ t"e civil co!rts or le#islative assem)lies. 1i*a :a*a.544 a88 >o. is "armless. and m!st prom!l#ate its decision t"ereon wit"in t"irt% da%s $rom its $ilin#.53<6o2. It is no more t"an a call )% t"e President to t"e armed $orces to prevent or s!ppress lawless violence.a0e %are/ Power 3"e second provision pertains to t"e power o$ t"e President to ens!re t"at t"e laws )e $ait"$!ll% exec!ted. invasion or re)ellion. as Commander-in-C"ie$. Citin# Integrated 9ar of the Philippines *. t"e stat!tor% a!t"orit% cited in . Article . 0exec!te its laws. 3eodoro CasiMo. A state o$ martial law does not s!spend t"e operation o$ t"e Constit!tion. =or t"is reason. t"ese are/ t"e callin#-o!t power.0 .&&5 incl!din# t"e P"ilippine National Police&&@ !nder t"e Department o$ Interior and 1ocal 8overnment. !pon t"e existence o$ w"ic" t"e operation o$ a speci$ic law or re#!lation is made to depend. 3"e President s"all "ave control o$ all t"e exec!tive departments. and t"at. w"ile t"e emer#enc% lasts.o@9=o@< <=5 P=686DD6254.anlakas was Section >. t"e ena)lin# cla!se o$ PP &7&5 iss!ed )% President Arro%o is/ <o 52>o.5752< o. Ao =5. <o Ca62<a62 8aB a2A o. nor a!t"ori*e t"e con$erment o$ !risdiction on militar% co!rts and a#encies over civilians w"ere civil co!rts are a)le to $!nction. +!stice .A5. s"all )e prom!l#ated in proclamations w"ic" s"all "ave t"e $orce o$ an exec!tive order.4o2a88y o.554.5752< o. and an% act done contrar% to its command is ultra *ires. 3"e declaration o$ :artial 1aw is a 0warnKin#L to citi*ens t"at t"e militar% power "as )een called !pon )% t"e exec!tive to assist in t"e maintenance o$ law and order. w"ic" provides/ SEC. &7@&.354 o> <=5 P=686DD6254.anlakas./. +!stice :endo*a also stated t"at PP &7&5 is not a declaration o$ :artial 1aw.4 a2A .35 o:5A65235 <o a88 <=5 8aB4 a2A A53.oC@89a<5A :y C5 D5.e sees to it t"at all laws are en$orced )% t"e o$$icials and emplo%ees o$ "is department.53<6o2. It is plain t"erein t"at w"at t"e President invo(ed was "er callin#-o!t power.53<6o2 o.4 a2A . Article BII. President Arro%o $o!nd it necessar% to iss!e PP &7&5. <=. o. C"ile President Arro%o-s a!t"orit% to declare a 0state o$ re)ellion0 emanates $rom "er powers as C"ie$ Exec!tive. Section &@. and t"e power to declare :artial 1aw. "e will.5:5886o2.3645 o> P. @Do2 Cy A6. Its !se $or an% ot"er p!rpose is a perversion o$ its nat!re and scope. THEREFORE. As s!c". #rants t"e President. wit"o!t le#al si#ni$icance. t"e% m!st. @Do2 Cy A6.&&>an a!t"orit% in constit!tional law. . i$ needed.tatement before the . a President m!st )e care$!l in t"e exercise o$ "is powers.59@8a<6o24 D. nor s!pplant t"e $!nctionin# o$ t"e civil co!rts or le#islative assem)lies.contention is !nderstanda)le. 3"e% assail t"e cla!se 0<o 52>o. De$ore ass!min# o$$ice. Second Pro ision. $or t"e armed $orces to assist "er in preventin# or s!ppressin# lawless violence.II. t"e s!$$icienc% o$ t"e $act!al )ases o$ t"e proclamation o$ martial law or t"e s!spension o$ t"e privile#e o$ t"e writ or t"e extension t"ereo$.&&9 t"e primar% $!nction o$ t"e President is to en$orce t"e laws as well as to $orm!late policies to )e em)odied in existin# laws. Ender t"e callin#-o!t power.A5.II o$ t"e Constit!tion. Article . and deemed not written. it is clear t"at PP &7&5 is not a declaration o$ :artial 1aw. 627a46o2 o.y. >. @Do2 Cy A6. Its ena)lin# cla!se states/ K<o 52>o. or not written.A5. Section & o$ t"e Constit!tion !nder martial law and. w"ic" vests t"e power to enact laws in Con#ress. in t"e words o$. D.544 8aB8544 76o85235. Art. 627a46o2 a2A . a declaration allowed !nder Section > cited a)ove.I o$ t"e Constit!tion. It is a stron# medicine w"ic" s"o!ld not )e resorted to li#"tl%. President Arro%o-s declaration o$ a 0state o$ re)ellion0 was merel% an act declarin# a stat!s or condition o$ p!)lic moment or interest.. D!t ever% act t"at #oes )e%ond t"e President-s callin#-o!t power is considered ille#al or ultra *ires. o. ' Proclamations. :r. S"e also relied on Section &5.554. 3"e s!spension o$ t"e privile#e o$ t"e writ s"all appl% onl% to persons !diciall% c"ar#ed $or re)ellion or o$$enses in"erent in or directl% connected wit" invasion. President o$ t"e P"ilippines )% virt!e o$ t"e powers vested !pon me )% Article . Section &7. In declarin# a state o$ national emer#enc%. s!c" Proclamation cannot )e deemed "armless.5:5886o2 a2A <o 52>o.&&J Petitioners.554.0 &&? In t"e exercise o$ s!c" $!nction. t"at t"ere is a distinction )etween t"e President-s a!t"orit% to declare a 0state o$ re)ellion0 4in . !pon pain o$ arrest and p!nis"ment. t"e President ma% s!mmon t"e armed $orces to aid "im in s!ppressin# 8aB8544 76o85235. are powers w"ic" can )e exercised )% t"e President as Commander-in-C"ie$ o28y w"ere t"ere is a valid declaration o$ :artial 1aw or s!spension o$ t"e writ o$ habeas corpus. "owever. 3"ere lies t"e wisdom o$ o!r Constit!tion. A readin# o$ PP &7&5 operative cla!se s"ows t"at it was li$ted &27 $rom =ormer President :arcos.35 o:5A65235 <o a88 <=5 8aB4 a2A <o a88 A53. said t"at o$ t"e t"ree powers o$ t"e President as Commander-in-C"ie$.35 o:5A65235 <o a88 <=5 8aB4 a2A A53. D!rin# t"e s!spension o$ t"e privile#e o$ t"e writ.. o. Some o$ t"e petitioners ve"ementl% maintain t"at PP &7&5 is act!all% a declaration o$ :artial 1aw. It is pertinent to state. Sat!r Ocampo. as in t"e case o$ . In t"ese cases.554. and +osel . Ce all (now t"at it was PP &7@& w"ic" #ranted President :arcos le#islative power.59@8a<6o24 D. nor a!t"ori*e t"e con$erment o$ !risdiction on militar% co!rts and a#encies over civilians w"ere civil co!rts are a)le to $!nction.A5. 3"is involves ordinar% police action. 4c6 ta(e-over o$ news media and a#encies and press censors"ip.oC@89a<5A :y C5 D5. "e is reA!ired to ta(e an oat" or a$$irmation to t"e e$$ect t"at as President o$ t"e P"ilippines. . In $act.II w"ic" reads/ SE%. . nor a!tomaticall% s!spend t"e privile#e o$ t"e writ. an% person t"!s arrested or detained s"all )e !diciall% c"ar#ed wit"in t"ree da%s.0 )re these conditions present in the instant cases.546A52< A. Ra$ael :ariano. especiall% Representatives =rancis +osep" 8. As stated earlier. ma% emplo% t"e powers attac"ed to "is o$$ice as t"e Commander-in-C"ie$ o$ all t"e armed $orces o$ t"e co!ntr%. As t"e Exec!tive in w"om t"e exec!tive power is vested.A5. ot"erwise "e s"all )e released. Dased on t"e a)ove disA!isition. do "ere)% place t"e entire P"ilippines as de$ined in Article &. S!c" declaration. not commit an% acts w"ic" will in an% wa% render more di$$ic!lt t"e restoration o$ order and t"e en$orcement o$ law. t"e #reater t"e power. considerin# t"e circ!mstances t"en prevailin#.5 <=a< <=5 8aB4 :5 >a6<=>@88y 5G53@<5A. . . nor a!tomaticall% s!spend t"e privile#e o$ t"e writ. Esc!dero.K Epon t"e ot"er "and. Article . ' Acts o$ t"e President $ixin# a date or declarin# a stat!s or condition o$ p!)lic moment or interest. PP &7&5 calls $or t"e exercise o$ an aB54oC5 DoB5. provides/ A state o$ martial law does not s!spend t"e operation o$ t"e Constit!tion. =rom t"e most to t"e least )eni#n. MAR%OS. a provision callin# on t"e A=P to prevent or s!ppress lawless violence. Damora.icente .58y a2 5G5.Proclamation No.59@8a<6o24 D. o. 17. 4)6 )an on p!)lic assem)lies.oyoH4 3a88629&o@< DoB5. 4@DD.4o2a88y o.

neit"er :artial 1aw nor a state o$ re)ellion nor a state o$ emer#enc% can !sti$% President Arro%o-s exercise o$ le#islative power )% iss!in# decrees.9523y DoB5. 3"e emer#enc% powers m!st )e exercised to 3a. 2o< . In times o$ national emer#enc%. emorandum Circulars. control and operation of the anila Electric Company. It $ollows t"at t"ese decrees are void and. w"en t"e p!)lic interest so reA!ires. temporaril% ta(e over or direct t"e operation o$ an% privatel%-owned p!)lic !tilit% or )!siness a$$ected wit" p!)lic interest. .5 <=5 5G64<5235 o> a 4<a<5 o> Ba. 9. S"e can onl% order t"e militar%.@854 <=a< <=5 a44a685A PP 1017 64 @23o24<6<@<6o2a8 624o>a..I a!t"ori*in# it to dele#ate s!c" powers to t"e President. a!t"ori*e t"e President.5Do45A @Do2 6<. 23. &2< Considerin# t"at Section &5 o$ Article BII and Section 2< o$ Article . R Acts o$ t"e President providin# $or r!les o$ a #eneral or permanent c"aracter in implementation or exec!tion o$ constit!tional or stat!tor% powers s"all )e prom!l#ated in exec!tive orders. 4eneral or . 3"e Con#ress. Enless sooner wit"drawn )% resol!tion o$ t"e Con#ress.o!se o$ Representatives. previo!sl% A!oted.&2> . Article . . (nowin# t"at d!rin# #rave emer#encies.0 3"e President is #ranted an Ordinance Power !nder C"apter 2. A distinction m!st )e drawn )etween t"e President-s a!t"orit% to A538a.544 8aB8544 76o85235. Bhat could be the reason of President )rroyo in in*oking the abo*e pro*ision when she issued PP 7'78G 3"e answer is simple. the Philippine 5ational . Article BII w"ic" reads/ S53. President Arro%o-s ordinance power is limited to t"e $ore#oin# iss!ances. 17. !nder PP &7&5. s!c" as c!stoms laws. Cit" respect to 0laws. <o A538a. -1. &2& T=64 %o@.554 similar to t"ose iss!ed )% =ormer President :arcos !nder PP &7@&.544 64 <=5 . the 5ational Baterworks and . Article . 2 dated Septem)er 22. -2.544 o> <=5 P=686DD6254 B=63= 4=a88 3o2464< o> a S52a<5 a2A a Ho@45 o> R5D.4o2a88y o. !pon t"e existence o$ w"ic" t"e operation o$ a speci$ic law or re#!lation is made to depend. cannot )e en$orced. 5. 3"ere m!st )e a Ba. s"all )e prom!l#ated in proclamations w"ic" s"all "ave t"e $orce o$ an exec!tive order.<a628y.5 a 4<a<5 o> 2a<6o2a8 5C5. &J52 instr!ctin# t"e Secretar% o$ National De$ense to ta(e over 0the management.<6385 'II o> <=5 %o24<6<@<6o2 Ao =5. claim t"at President Arro%o-s incl!sion o$ Section &5. Sec.elephone Company.0 3"e lo#ical concl!sion t"en is t"at President Arro%o co!ld validl% declare t"e existence o$ a state o$ national emer#enc% even in t"e a)sence o$ a Con#ressional enactment.I o$ t"e Constit!tion reads/ SE%. a2A a4 D. )ir anila HandI $ilipinas Orient )irways . Article BII in PP &7&5 is an encroac"ment on t"e le#islat!re-s emer#enc% powers. Article .543. 0 Petitioners. s"all )e em)odied in memorand!m circ!lars. w"ic" t"e President desires to )rin# to t"e attention o$ all or some o$ t"e departments. PP &7&5 p!rports to #rant t"e President. Proclamations.< . 3o t"e $irst. Sec. 3"is provision was $irst introd!ced in t"e &J5< Constit!tion. for the successful prosecution by the 4o*ernment of its effort to contain. a#encies. 2a<6o2a8 5C5.oyo <=5 a@<=o.owever.II 4callin#-o!t power6 and #rant it to Con#ress 4li(e t"e declaration o$ t"e existence o$ a state o$ war6.K 1e#islative power is pec!liarl% wit"in t"e province o$ t"e 1e#islat!re. "ence. laws on o)li#ations and contracts and t"e li(e.9523y.63<6o24 a4 <=5 %o29.5452<a<6754 . R Acts o$ t"e President $ixin# a date or declarin# a stat!s or condition o$ p!)lic moment or interest. t"e Con#ress ma%. 3"e dele#ation m!st )e $or a 86C6<5A D5. Section &. is a di$$erent matter. Sec. to en$orce laws pertinent to its d!t% <o 4@DD. R Acts and commands o$ t"e President in "is capacit% as Commander-in-C"ie$ o$ t"e Armed =orces o$ t"e P"ilippines s"all )e iss!ed as #eneral or special orders. S"e cannot iss!e A53. d!rin# t"e emer#enc% and !nder reasona)le terms prescri)ed )% it. %o29. the Philippine Long "istance . Co!rts "ave o$ten said t"at constit!tional provisions in pari materia are to )e constr!ed to#et"er. emorandum Orders.o76A5A 62 S53<6o2 17. 2a<6o2a8 5C5. votin# separatel%. Presidential Decrees are laws w"ic" are o$ t"e same cate#or% and )indin# $orce as stat!tes )eca!se t"e% were iss!ed )% t"e President in t"e exercise o$ "is le#islative power d!rin# t"e period o$ :artial 1aw !nder t"e &J5< Constit!tion. R Acts o$ t"e President on matters o$ administrative detail or o$ s!)ordinate or temporar% interest w"ic" onl% concern a partic!lar o$$icer or o$$ice o$ t"e 8overnment s"all )e em)odied in memorand!m orders. $or in$ormation or compliance. -(.II #rants t"e President s!c" power.y o@< a 2a<6o2a8 Do863y declared )% Con#ress. 2J2 4Administrative Code o$ &J@56.0 I$ t"e intention o$ t"e =ramers o$ o!r Constit!tion was to wit""old $rom t"e President t"e a!t"orit% to declare a 0state o$ national emer#enc%0 p!rs!ant to Section &@.Is it within the domain of President )rroyo to promulgate +decrees+G PP &7&5 states in part/ 0to en$orce o)edience to all t"e laws and A53.5Do46<o. mani$old constit!tional iss!es arise.pecial Orders. R Acts o$ t"e President w"ic" relate to partic!lar aspect o$ #overnmental operations in p!rs!ance o$ "is d!ties as administrative "ead s"all )e prom!l#ated in administrative orders. A.y o> 5C5. as el!cidated )% t"e Co!rt. Can President )rroyo enforce obedience to all decrees and laws through the military. >. In times o$ war or o<=5.5:y A538a. it ma% not )e possi)le or practica)le $or Con#ress to meet and exercise its powers. di$$erent cla!ses. and provisions o$ a constit!tion w"ic" relate to t"e same s!) ect matter will )e constr!ed to#et"er and considered in t"e li#"t o$ eac" ot"er. D!t t"e 5G5.1etter o$ Instr!ction No. a :oAy 3a22o< A5859a<5 a DoB5. s!c" powers s"all cease !pon t"e next ad o!rnment t"ereo$. .3645 emer#enc% powers.0 3o )e s!re. Section &@. Section 2<. Doo( III o$ Exec!tive Order No.oC@89a<5 KA53. Clearl%. a4 6< 9. 3"e import o$ t"is provision is t"at President Arro%o.3645 o$ emer#enc% powers. d!rin# t"e state o$ national emer#enc% !nder PP &7&5.a0e * er 3"e pertinent provision o$ PP &7&5 states/ x x x and to en$orce o)edience to all t"e laws and to all decrees. S"e ma% iss!e an% o$ t"e $ollowin#/ Sec. s!) ect to certain conditions.4. D!t to t"e second. )dministrati*e Orders.53<6o2.I cate#oricall% states t"at 0 N<O=5 859648a<675 DoB5. as a prod!ct o$ t"e 0martial law0 t"in(in# o$ t"e &J5& Constit!tional Convention. to exercise powers necessar% and proper to carr% o!t a declared national polic%.. . sol*e and end the present national emergency. -3. G525. &22 In e$$ect at t"e time o$ its approval was President :arcos. )% law.a88y. D!rin# t"e existence o$ t"e state o$ national emer#enc%. 3"is is evident in t"e tenor o$ Section 2< 426.a2<4 P.54<. )% a vote o$ two-t"irds o$ )ot" . E:ecuti*e Orders.Power to . partic!larl% t"e mem)ers o$ t"e . orders. s"all "ave t"e 4o85 DoB5.o!ses in oint session assem)led. 3"is reA!ires a dele#ation $rom Con#ress. $or a limited period and s!) ect to s!c" restrictions as it ma% prescri)e. 3"is is an area t"at needs delineation.554.0 s"e cannot call t"e militar% to en$orce or implement certain laws.. Ot"erwise stated.ailways. ?. Article . t"ere$ore.546A52< A.5 0a state o$ national emer#enc%0 and to5G5.9523y. t"e% did not intend t"at Con#ress s"o!ld $irst a!t"ori*e t"e President )e$ore "e can declare a 0state o$ national emer#enc%. to ta(e over or direct t"e operation o$ an% privatel%-owned p!)lic !tilit% or )!siness a$$ected wit" p!)lic interest. t"e% m!st )e read to#et"er to determine t"e limitation o$ t"e exercise o$ emer#enc% powers. and re#!lations prom!l#ated )% me personall% or !pon m% direction. It ma% )e pointed o!t t"at t"e second para#rap" o$ t"e a)ove provision re$ers not onl% to war )!t also to 0o<=5.9523y. can call t"e militar% not onl% to en$orce o)edience 0to all t"e laws and to all decrees x x x0 )!t also to act p!rs!ant to t"e provision o$ Section &5.6<y <o D.6oA o28y. Sec. 4=a88 :5 754<5A 62 <=5 %o29. sections. or o<=5.6:5. no le#itimate constit!tional o) ection can )e raised. wit"o!t an% a!t"orit% or dele#ation $rom Con#ress. Sec.I. t"e State ma%. laws #overnin# $amil% and propert% relations. As t"is Co!rt stated earlier.554 x x x D. t"!s/ -1. relate to national emer#encies. )!rea!s or o$$ices o$ t"e 8overnment.ewerage )uthority. R Acts o$ t"e President on matters relatin# to internal administration. t"en t"e =ramers co!ld "ave provided so.544 Cay D. President Arro%o "as no a!t"orit% to enact decrees. %5.$ird Pro ision. 2. t"e =ramers o$ o!r Constit!tion deemed it wise to allow Con#ress to #rant emer#enc% powers to t"e President. 5C5. -2.9523y. the Philippine )ir Lines.oC@89a<5A :y C5 D5. s!c" as t"e ta(in# over o$ privatel% owned p!)lic !tilit% or )!siness a$$ected wit" p!)lic interest. 3"e dele#ation m!st )e 4@:?53< <o 4@3= . <. Article . @Do2 Cy A6.

t"!s/ :R. O$ t"e seven 456 petitions. . 277?. 3"e ta(in# over o$ private )!siness a$$ected wit" p!)lic interest is !st anot"er $acet o$ t"e emer#enc% powers #enerall% reposed !pon Con#ress. pestilence or epidemic.&62&%=65> o> <=5 A.629 <=5 5C5. Article BII re$ers to 0<4@2aC6. Oes. 3"e point is.9523y. t"e $act remains t"at t"e Constit!tion "as set !p t"is $orm o$ #overnment. And in G. .F o> o@. . <o <=5 P. . t"ose wo!ld not )e covered )% t"e term 0national emer#enc%. No.oA@3<6o2. a4 4@3= <o <aF5 Do445446o2 o> D. it m!st )e $o!nd in some provision o$ t"e Constit!tion. t"at w"ic" pertains to sec!rit%.oC 4<oDD629 D. t"e President "as no a)sol!te a!t"orit% to exercise all t"e powers o$ t"e State !nder Section &5. . I2 <=5 >. And it is not claimed t"at express constit!tional lan#!a#e #rants t"is power to t"e President.&<2 xxxxxx :R. $or example.a<6o2 o> a2y D. and perception.y o.C4 D. 171()3. 8ASCON.. :a% I as( t"e committee i$ 0national emer#enc%0 re$ers to C686<a.. "ave )een occasioned )% a wide ran#e o$ sit!ations. O!r "istor% reveals t"at in t"e cr!ci)le o$ con$lict.&<> t"is Co!rt emp"asi*ed t"at le#islative power.562 9. petitioners I:E and NA=1E-I:E et al.4. %o24<6<@<6o2. o> <=5 D. wit"o!t le#islation.354 =a4 <=5 @8<6Ca<5 DoB5. petitioners Cac"o-Olivares and . to cele)rate t"e 27t" Anniversar% o$ People Power I.0 3"is is a limited view o$ 0emer#enc%. o> 5GD. classi$ia)le !nder t"ree 4<6 principal "eads/ a.&<&3"is is evident in t"e Records o$ t"e Constit!tional Commission. <o 455 <=a< <=5 8aB4 a.&<< It ma% )e ar#!ed t"at w"en t"ere is national emer#enc%. t"e% were arrested wit"o!t warrants on t"eir wa% to EDSA to cele)rate t"e 27t" Anniversar% o$ People Power I. it co!ld re$er to :o<= C686<a. et al. t"ree 4<6 indicate 0direct in !r%. in times o$ extreme perils more t"an in normal circ!mstances Nt"e vario!s )ranc"es.. t"e State ma% temporaril% ta(e over or direct t"e operation o$ an% privatel% owned p!)lic !tilit% or )!siness a$$ected wit" p!)lic interest.. Implicit in t"is de$initions are t"e elements o$ intensit%. economic crisis. t"ro!#" w"ic" extraordinar% meas!res are exercised. 2a<6o2a8 453@.5a4o2a:85 <5. man% ri#"ts are c!rtailed and trampled !pon. <o F55D 8a:o.5a4o2a:85 45a. 3"ere is a A!estion )% Commissioner de los Re%es.a8 A64a4<5. 6<4 C686<a. 5L@67o3a8 a:o@< B=o 4=a88 CaF5 8aB4 B=63= <=5 P. as t"e ideal. not t"e President. B6<=o@< 859648a<6o2. no.heet J . invo(ed )% President Arro%o in iss!in# PP &7&5.aC5Bo. 3"ree policemen were assi#ned to #!ard t"eir o$$ice as a possi)le 0so!rce o$ desta)ili*ation.2a8 a99. *.a8 A64a4<5.ere. C"at a)o!t stri(es and riots.67a<5 D.4 =5. w"en Section &5 states t"at t"e 0 <=5 S<a<5 Cay. &25 Emer#encies. not even w"en t"at Rep!)lic was $i#"tin# a total war.y 2a<6o2a8 5C5.a2<5A 4=a88 :5 754<5A 62 a %o29.A5. T=5 %o24<6<@<6o2 86C6<4 =64 >@23<6o24 62 <=5 8aBCaF629 D.0 as contemplated in o!r Constit!tion.0 it re$ers to Con#ress. 277?. w"et"er or not t"e President ma% exercise s!c" power is dependent on w"et"er Con#ress ma% dele#ate it to "im p!rs!ant to a law prescri)in# t"e reasona)le terms t"ereo$.oD5.a2< 5G53@<675 DoB5.a2<8544 a. 3IN8SON. Foungstown .5>@<54 <=5 6A5a <=a< =5 64 <o :5 a 8aBCaF5.R. 3a8aC6<654 or 2a<@. partic!larl%. remains in Con#ress even in times o$ crisis.R..5446o2.53oCC52A629 o> 8aB4 =5 <=62F4 B645 a2A <=5 75<o629 o> 8aB4 =5 <=62F4 :aA. is o$ t"e same )readt".68y <aF5 o75. t"ere$ore. 3"e tr!t" is t"at !nder o!r concept o$ constit!tional #overnment. :R. 1et it )e emp"asi*ed t"at w"ile t"e President alone can declare a state o$ national emer#enc%.9523y or co!ld t"is )e 53o2oC63 5C5. In G. No. Con#ress ma% not )e a)le to convene and. 1i(ewise.4.<6385 4ay4 <=a< KA88 859648a<675 PoB5. !na)le to dele#ate to t"e President t"e power to ta(e over privatel%-owned p!)lic !tilit% or )!siness a$$ected wit" p!)lic interest.A5.. 3"an( %o! ver% m!c".55AoC o> 4D553=.II in t"e a)sence o$ an emer#enc% powers act passed )% Con#ress.0 A#ain.ribune P!)lis"in# Co. S!c" cases need not concern !s "ere. T=5 >6.I11E8AS. Enless t"e% are o$ s!c" proportions s!c" t"at t"e% wo!ld paral%*e #overnment service. 3"e arrestin# o$$icers cited PP &7&5 as )asis o$ t"e arrest.53< <=5 oD5. Nor can "e determine w"en s!c" exceptional circ!mstances "ave ceased.543. <=5 P. alle#ed t"at t"eir mem)ers were 0t!rned awa% and dispersed0 w"en t"e% went to EDSA and later.69=< a9a624< Ba. A2A <=5 %o24<6<@<6o2 64 256<=5. 3"e order cannot properl% )e s!stained as an exercise o$ t"e President-s militar% power as Commander-in-C"ie$ o$ t"e Armed =orces.&<7 0Emer#enc%.4< 453<6o2 o> <=5 >6.6:5A :y 6<. in pre$erence to t"e commin#lin# o$ powers in one man or #ro!p o$ men. contends t"at t"e term 0emer#enc%0 !nder Section &5. exec!tive. :5 4@4<a625A :53a@45 o> <=5 4575. 2a<@. a2A o> a445C:8y !nder t"e Dill o$ Ri#"ts s!$$ered t"e #reatest )low.C5A Fo. wit" all its $a!lts. It ma% incl!de re)ellion.63a250and046C68a. B5 3a22o< B6<= >a6<=>@82544 <o o@.6<654. Partic!lar reliance is placed on provisions in Article II w"ic" sa% t"at 03"e exec!tive Power s"all )e vested in a President . .5446o2. A@.5 o. $lood. or w"en it was en#a#ed in a li$e-and-deat" str!##le to preserve t"e Enion. A64D@<54 >. Oes.R. 2o< >o. o> Ba.&2@ :.0 =ollowin# o!r interpretation o$ Section &5.3= a2A 456E@. is t"at militar% necessit% and t"e #!aranteed ri#"ts o$ t"e individ!al are o$ten not compati)le.0 0=@.50 <=5 . .546A52<.I11E8AS. C"at is t"e Committee-s de$inition o$ 0national emer#enc%0 w"ic" appears in Section &<.. 3"!s.0 0<yD=oo2.53o2oC63. connotes t"e existence o$ conditions s!ddenl% intensi$%in# t"e de#ree o$ existin# dan#er to li$e or well-)ein# )e%ond t"at w"ic" is accepted as normal.. "e "as no power to ta(e over privatel%-owned p!)lic !tilit% or )!siness a$$ected wit" p!)lic interest.54<0 and <=5 >.0 Emer#enc%. 3.awyer. t"e President "as no power to point o!t t"e t%pes o$ )!sinesses a$$ected wit" p!)lic interest t"at s"o!ld )e ta(en over.0 :R.0 t"at 0"e s"all ta(e Care t"at t"e 1aws )e $ait"$!ll% exec!ted. 3IN8SON. 171396. t"e .4< a. not exceptin# periods o$ crisis no matter "ow serio!s.a8 3o24<6<@<6o2a8 D. o33@.I11E8AS.E752 <=o@9= K<=5a<5. . No. on =e)r!ar% 2>. 46852< 2o. wit" all its de$ects and s"ortcomin#s. as perceived )% le#islat!re or exec!tive in t"e Enited Sates since &J<<. In s"ort. <=5 2a<6o2H4 8aBCaF5.546A52<H4 DoB5. le#islative. t"e )asis was PP &7&5. 3"e President cannot decide w"et"er exceptional circ!mstances exist warrantin# t"e ta(e over o$ privatel%-owned p!)lic !tilit% or )!siness a$$ected wit" p!)lic interest. le#islation is preserved $or Con#ress all t"e time. 3"e =ilipino people )% adoptin# parliamentar% #overnment "ave #iven notice t"at t"e% s"are t"e $ait" o$ ot"er democrac%-lovin# peoples in t"is s%stem. "owever. KAS APPLIED %HALLENGEK One o$ t"e mis$ort!nes o$ an emer#enc%. Now. "ave speci$ic $!nctions o$ t"e le#islative )ranc" o$ enactin# laws )een s!rrendered to anot"er department ' !nless we re#ard as le#islatin# t"e carr%in# o!t o$ a le#islative polic% accordin# to prescri)ed standards. petitioners David and 1lamas alle#ed t"at. Inc. . t"e )asic $eat!res o$ w"ose Constit!tion "ave )een copied in o!rs. In )raneta *.. DEN8FON.Section &5. :@462544 a>>53<5A B6<= D@:863 62<5.0 and t"at "e 0s"all )e Commander-in-C"ie$ o$ t"e Arm% and Nav% o$ t"e Enited States.0 In G. 3a2 <=5 456E@. and !dicial. to A%ala Aven!e.67a<58y oB25A D@:863 @<686<y o.54<. Article BII m!st )e !nderstood as an aspect o$ t"e emer#enc% powers cla!se. variet%.K :5 a2 5GDa2A629 3o235D<. It reads/ C"en t"e common #ood so reA!ires. :R. no.y a@<=o. <5CDo. Article BII. C"at I mean is t"reat $rom 5G<5.5 >a6<=>@88y 5G53@<5A .<y 62 o. Article .0&2? Petitioner Cacho#Oli*ares. Stri(es. 3o24<6<@<6o2a8 4y4<5C =o8A <=a< <=5 %oCCa2A5. A6.&2J and 3. t%p"oon. t"is Co!rt r!les t"at s!c" Proclamation does not a!t"ori*e "er d!rin# t"e emer#enc% to temporaril% ta(e over or direct t"e operation o$ an% privatel% owned p!)lic !tilit% or )!siness a$$ected wit" p!)lic interest wit"o!t a!t"orit% $rom Con#ress. as a #eneric term.544.#iven t"e a)ilit% to act. "inglasan. 0x x x A$ter all t"e criticisms t"at "ave )een made a#ainst t"e e$$icienc% o$ t"e s%stem o$ t"e separation o$ powers. 171(09. or ot"er similar catastrop"e o$ nationwide proportions or e$$ect.9523y a2A @2A5. claimed t"at on =e)r!ar% 29.546A52< 64 <o 5G53@<5.544 o> <=5 "26<5A S<a<54 . No.69=< a9a624< @2. are called !pon Nto per$orm t"e d!ties and disc"ar#e t"e responsi)ilities committed to t"em respectivel%. 3"e 8overnment attempts to do so )% citin# a n!m)er o$ cases !p"oldin# )road powers in militar% commanders en#a#ed in da%-to-da% $i#"tin# in a t"eater o$ war.0 :R.o7646o24 <=a< 9. t"e CID8 operatives 0raided and ransac(ed wit"o!t warrant0 t"eir o$$ice. . 8ASCON.6<y. !nder t"is $ramewor( o$ #overnment. T=64 64 a ?o: >o. o.ube Co. 53o2oC63 A648o3a<6o24. .&29"eld/ It is clear t"at i$ t"e President "ad a!t"orit% to iss!e t"e order "e did.a. Never in t"e "istor% o$ t"e Enited States. :R. 3"e contention is t"at presidential power s"o!ld )e implied $rom t"e a##re#ate o$ "is powers !nder t"e Constit!tion. .o3544 <o <=5 .52354. :R. pa#e 9. et al.

e. or adversar%. 2o< a.64C. do not de$ine 0acts o$ terrorism. . Remar(a)le con$!sion persists in re#ard to t"e le#al cate#ori*ation o$ acts o$ violence eit"er )% states.5a4o2a:85.64629 >. )!t later )ecame internationall% respected statesmen. ins!rrection or re)ellion. expressl% or impliedl%. +!st ima#ine t"e a)s!rdit% o$ sit!ations w"en laws ma%)e declared !nconstit!tional !st )eca!se t"e o$$icers implementin# t"em "ave acted ar)itraril%. t"e A$#"ani :! a"edeen 4later to )ecome t"e 3ali)an movement6/ d!rin# t"e Cold Car period t"e% were a #ro!p o$ $reedom $i#"ters $or t"e Cest..636o@4. one reA!irement $or t"ese r!les to )e valid is t"at t"e% m!st )e . D!t t"ere is not"in# in PP &7&5 allowin# t"e police. ta(in# over t"e media enterprises. p!rs!ant to 8. )rea(in# into o$$ices and residences.<@26<y >o. in spite o$ t"e emp"asis in t"e Pream)le to t"e Enited Nations C"arterS ' "as )ecome even more serio!s in t"e present #lo)al power constellation/ one s!perpower exercises t"e decisive role in t"e Sec!rit% Co!ncil.544 a2A D. 3"e )asic pro)lem !nderl%in# all t"ese militar% actions ' or t"reats o$ t"e !se o$ $orce as t"e most recent )% t"e Enited States a#ainst IraA ' consists in t"e a)sence o$ an a#reed de$inition o$ terrorism. searc" or violate t"e citi*ens. t"is 0de$initional predicament0 or t"e 0a)sence o$ an a#reed de$inition o$ terrorism0 con$ronts not onl% o!r co!ntr%. ma orit% o$ t"e provisions o$ t"e Revised Penal Code wo!ld "ave )een declared !nconstit!tional a lon# time a#o. No.&<@3"is is lo#ical. No. 9 to carr% into e$$ect t"e provisions o$ PP &7&5.constit!tional ri#"ts. and a terrorist #an# $or t"e Soviet Enion. x x x s"all )e p!nis"ed )%reclusion temporal x x x.does the illegal implementation of a law render it unconstitutionalG Settled is t"e r!le t"at co!rts are not at li)ert% to declare stat!tes invalid a8<=o@9= <=5y Cay :5 a:@45A a2A C64a:@45A&<9 and Cay a>>o. 3"is decree is entitled 0Codi$%in# 3"e . terrorists $or t"e Socialist camp ' or. invasion or re)ellion.e.0 it is President Arro%o alone.O. 3"e or#ani*ation "as intensi$ied its e$$orts recentl%.&<5 PP &7&5 is merel% an invocation o$ t"e President-s callin#-o!t power.y o. in P. Dependin# on w"et"er a state is in t"e position o$ an occ!p%in# power or in t"at o$ a rival.O. . No. Can this Court ad?udge as unconstitutional PP 7'78 and 4.oD5. a:@45 62 <=5 Ca225. violence. It "ad accomplis"ed t"e end desired w"ic" prompted President Arro%o to iss!e PP &72&.O. 3"is 0de$initional predicament0 o$ an or#ani*ation consistin# o$ soverei#n states ' and not o$ peoples. 3"e answer is no. to mention onl% a $ew. )!t are clearl% determined )% strate#ic interests. li)eration $i#"ters in t"at o$ Pa(istan ' t"e earlier Contras in Nicara#!a ' $reedom $i#"ters $or t"e Enited States. Con#ress "as %et to enact a law de$inin# and p!nis"in# acts o$ terrorism. or A"med Den Della in Al#eria.&<J 3"e% are )ased on and are t"e prod!ct o$.a)i) Do!r#o!i)a in 3!nisia. No.5 6236A52<a8 . Oet t"e militar% or t"e police ma% consider t"e act as an act o$ terrorism and immediatel% arrest t"em p!rs!ant to 8. 9 mandates t"e A=P and t"e PNP to immediatel% carr% o!t t"e 0253544a. and t"ose w"o )elieve in t"e concept o$ t"e le#itimate !se o$ $orce w"en resistance a#ainst $orei#n occ!pation or a#ainst s%stematic oppression o$ et"nic andGor reli#io!s #ro!ps wit"in a state is concerned.oC 6<4 5>>53<4 62 a Da. A 0polic% o$ do!)le standards0 on t"is vital iss!e o$ international a$$airs "as )een t"e !navoida)le conseA!ence. t"en. President Arro%o iss!ed 8. &@<9 was repealed )% E. &?5 4w"ic" o!tlaws t"e Comm!nist Part% o$ t"e P"ilippines6 enacted )% President Cora*on AA!ino on :a% 9. t"ere can )e indiscriminate arrest wit"o!t warrants. All t"ese can )e e$$ected in t"e name o$ 8.0 3"e word 0terrorism0 is mentioned in t"e $ollowin# provision/ 03"at one w"o conspires wit" an% ot"er person $or t"e p!rpose o$ overt"rowin# t"e 8overnment o$ t"e P"ilippines x x x )% $orce. 9. t"eir o) ect.54 <o 4@DD.O.0 3"e% are internal r!les iss!ed )% t"e exec!tive o$$icer to "is s!)ordinates precisel% $or t"e D. S!c" r!les and re#!lations create no relation except )etween t"e o$$icial w"o iss!es t"em and t"e o$$icial w"o receives t"em. Now. o$ PP &7&5. t"e de$inition o$ terrorism will 0$l!ct!ate0 accordin#l%. No. No. O)vio!sl%. It m!st )e remem)ered t"at an act can onl% )e considered a crime i$ t"ere is a law de$inin# t"e same as s!c" and imposin# t"e correspondin# penalt% t"ereon. One co!ld #o on and on in en!meratin# examples o$ con$lictin# cate#ori*ations t"at cannot )e reconciled in an% wa% ' )eca!se o$ opposin# political interests t"at are at t"e roots o$ t"ose perceptions.O.o. 3"e Enited Nations Or#ani*ation "as )een !na)le to reac" a decision on t"e de$inition o$ terrorism exactl% )eca!se o$ t"ese con$lictin# interests o$ soverei#n states t"at determine in eac" and ever% instance "ow a partic!lar armed movement 4i. t"en. a relations"ip in w"ic" power is t"eir so!rce. most drasticall%. C"at. and 5>>63652<aAC6264<. No. state $!nctionaries or in$rastr!ct!re or militar% installations. 8eneral orders are 0acts and commands o$ t"e President in "is capacit% as Commander-in-C"ie$ o$ t"e Armed =orces o$ t"e P"ilippines. Since t"e times o$ t"e Cold Car t"e Enited Nations Or#ani*ation "as )een tr%in# in vain to reac" a consens!s on t"e )asic iss!e o$ de$inition. o> aDD863a<6o2. I$ t"is were so.0 t"e p"rase 0acts o$ terrorism0 is still an amorp"o!s and va#!e concept. and w"ic" is invaria)l% associated wit" 0invasion.er !d#ment on t"is aspect is a)sol!te. !d#in# $rom t"e )l!nders committed )% policemen in t"e cases passed !pon )% t"e Co!rt.6a<5 a3<6o24 a2A C5a4@.y a2A aDD. A state ma% event!all% see itsel$ as protector o$ t"e ri#"ts o$ a certain et"nic #ro!p o!tside its territor% and will t"ere$ore spea( o$ a 0li)eration str!##le.5752< a3<4 o> <5. t"e )asic reason $or t"ese stri(in# inconsistencies lies in t"e diver#ent interest o$ states. 9.:6<.64C a2A 8aB8544 violence. In o!r anal%sis. pro"i)ition and dispersal o$ all assem)lies and #at"erin#s !n$riendl% to t"e administration. ma% t"is Co!rt ad !d#e a law or ordinance !nconstit!tional on t"e #ro!nd t"at its implementor committed ille#al acts. w"o "as t"e discretion to determine w"at acts constit!te terrorism.2o< >.ario!s 1aws on Anti-S!)version and Increasin# 3"e Penalties $or :em)ers"ip in S!)versive Or#ani*ations. and vice-versa. t"e word 0terrorism0 appears onl% once in o!r criminal laws. !nder 8. <5. 1ists o$ states 0sponsorin# terrorism0 and o$ terrorist or#ani*ations are set !p and constantl% )ein# !pdated accordin# to criteria t"at are not alwa%s (nown to t"e p!)lic. a2A 2o< a C5.D. 3"ese two 426 laws. )!t "as )een !na)le to )rid#e t"e #ap )etween t"ose w"o associate 0terrorism0 wit" an% violent act )% non-state #ro!ps a#ainst civilians. 3"e dilemma can )% s!mmari*ed in t"e sa%in# 0One co!ntr%-s terrorist is anot"er co!ntr%-s $reedom $i#"ter. 3"e criterion )% w"ic" t"e validit% o$ t"e stat!te or ordinance is to )e meas!red is t"e essential )asis $or t"e exercise o$ power. )!t t"e international comm!nit% as well. were ori#inall% la)eled as terrorists )% t"ose w"o controlled t"e territor% at t"e time.0 Enli(e t"e term 0lawless violence0 w"ic" is !nar#!a)l% extant in o!r stat!tes and t"e Constit!tion. can t"ose contradictin# de$initions and con$lictin# perceptions and eval!ations o$ one and t"e same #ro!p and its actions )e explained.&>7 =or t"ese reasons. 3"e $ollowin# o)servations are A!ite apropos/ In t"e act!al !nipolar context o$ international relations. and o)edience. No.o. Its #eneral p!rpose is to command t"e A=P to s!ppress all $orms o$ lawless violence. o$ an occ!p%in# power in a #iven territor%. &J@9. 3"ese acts #o $ar . 9.ow. 8.&<? 3"e validit% o$ a stat!te or ordinance is to )e determined $rom its #eneral p!rpose and its e$$icienc% to accomplis" t"e end desired. wit"o!t restrictions. t"is is a)!se and oppression on t"eir part.oD.0 P.&>& 3"e a)sence o$ a law de$inin# 0acts o$ terrorism0 ma% res!lt in a)!se and oppression on t"e part o$ t"e police or militar%.oC 6<4 5G5.O. ConseA!entl%. )% armed #ro!ps s!c" as li)eration movements. is t"e de$inin# criterion $or terrorist acts ' t"e differentia specifica distin#!is"in# t"ose acts $rom event!all% le#itimate acts o$ national resistance or sel$-de$ense.D. 5o 6 on the basis of these illegal actsG In #eneral. and t"e pro)lem "as )ecome even more ac!te since t"e terrorist attac(s o$ && Septem)er 277& I t"e Enited States. . No.a.0 not o$ 0terrorism0 w"en acts o$ violence )% t"is #ro!p are concerned. a non-state actor6 is la)eled in re#ard to t"e terrorists-$reedom $i#"ter dic"otom%. &J@& enacted )% President :arcos d!rin# t"e :artial 1aw re#ime. i. 9. 3"e dilemma $acin# t"e international comm!nit% can )est )e ill!strated )% re$erence to t"e contradictin# cate#ori*ation o$ or#ani*ations and movements s!c" as Palestine 1i)eration Or#ani*ation 4P1O6 ' w"ic" is a terrorist #ro!p $or Israel and a li)eration movement $or Ara)s and :!slims ' t"e Ias"miri resistance #ro!ps ' w"o are terrorists in t"e perception o$ India. "owever.0 Since t"ere is no law de$inin# 0acts o$ terrorism.54@8< a... &@<9 dated +an!ar% &?. An ill!stration is w"en a #ro!p o$ persons are merel% en#a#ed in a drin(in# spree. or )% individ!als.A a2 oDDo. t"e 0$i#"t a#ainst terrorism0 "as )ecome one o$ t"e )asic slo#ans w"en it comes to t"e !sti$ication o$ t"e !se o$ $orce a#ainst certain states and a#ainst #ro!ps operatin# internationall%.0 3"e apparent contradiction or lac( o$ consistenc% in t"e !se o$ t"e term 0terrorism0 ma% $!rt"er )e demonstrated )% t"e "istorical $act t"at leaders o$ national li)eration movements s!c" as Nelson :andela in So!t" A$rica. 3aD.a<6o2 o> 8aB. So $ar.<6o2. n!rt!red )% t"e Enited States. to cond!ct ille#al arrest. In $act.O.<63@8a.A per!sal o$ t"e 0direct in !ries0 alle#edl% s!$$ered )% t"e said petitioners s"ows t"at t"e% res!lted $rom t"e 6CD85C52<a<6o2. $ormer #reat powers o$ t"e Cold Car era as well as medi!m powers are increasin#l% )ein# mar#inali*ed. 3a45.O.

A@5 2o<635 a2A =5a. o$ expression.. were arrested w"ile t"e% were exercisin# t"eir ri#"t to peace$!l assem)l%.6a<5 <o 4@DD. t"e $!ndamental protection #iven )% t"is provision is t"at )etween person and police m!st stand t"e protective a!t"orit% o$ a ma#istrate clot"ed wit" power to iss!e or re$!se to iss!e searc" warrants or warrants o$ arrest. and accordin# to proced!re. No.Ca88y !nreasona)le !nless a!t"ori*ed )% a validl% iss!ed searc" warrant or warrant o$ arrest. C"en an o$$ense "as !st )een committed and "e "as pro)a)le ca!se to )elieve )ased on personal (nowled#e o$ $acts or circ!mstances t"at t"e person to )e arrested "as committed it. w"ic" t"e Solicitor 8eneral $ailed to re$!te. all t"at t"e arrestin# o$$icers co!ld invo(e was t"eir o)servation t"at some rall%ists were wearin# t-s"irts wit" t"e invective +Oust 4loria 5ow+ and t"eir erroneo!s ass!mption t"at petitioner David was t"e leader o$ t"e rall%.o29 D.. sei*!res and arrests are 2o. second. t"e Co!rt li(ewise considers t"e dispersal and arrest o$ t"e mem)ers o$ I:E et al. G.5 Da. esta)lis"ed t"e $ollowin#/ first. No.R. t"e InA!est Prosec!tor ordered "is immediate release on t"e #ro!nd o$ ins!$$icienc% o$ evidence.53oCC52A a N<aF5o75. or is attemptin# to commit an o$$ense. "e was detained $or seven 456 "o!rs. a2A D. Neit"er o$ t"e two 426 exceptions mentioned a)ove !sti$ies petitioner David-s warrantless arrest. * a2A P. Section > o$ Article III #!arantees/ No law s"all )e passed a)rid#in# t"e $reedom o$ speec".629 <6C54 B=52 <=5 2a<6o2a8 453@.a8 O. It is a necessar% conseA!ence o$ o!r rep!)lican instit!tion and complements t"e ri#"t o$ speec".a2< o> a. D!rin# t"e inA!est $or t"e c"ar#es o$ i 236<629 <o 45A6<6o2 and 76o8a<6o2 o> $P ))0.0&>J 3olerance is t"e r!le and limitation is t"e exception. S53<6o2 ( reA!ires t"at a 45a. and fifth. "o!ses.<636Da<6o2 62 a D5a35a:85 a445C:8y a2A a 8aB>@8 D@:863 A643@446o2 a4 <=5 :a464 >o.545235. R!le &&< o$ t"e Revised R!les on Criminal Proced!re provides/ Sec. certain $acts are esta)lis"ed/ first. a 3.ribune!s o$$ices were searc"ed wit"o!t warrant. "e was )ro!#"t at Camp Iarin#al. S!c" a)sence o$ notice is a $atal de$ect. ma% )e validl% reA!ired.629 on t"e determination o$ t"e presence o$ clear and present dan#er. B5 B688 . 277?. No. a wave o$ warnin# came $rom #overnment o$$icials. .O. t"e searc" was cond!cted at a)o!t &/77 o. is t"at not onl% was t"eir ri#"t a#ainst warrantless arrest violated. t"is ri#"t is not to )e limited. si:th.2C52<. Section 9. 0Assem)l%0 means a ri#"t on t"e part o$ t"e citi*ens to meet peacea)l% $or cons!ltation in respect to p!)lic a$$airs. o$ co!rse. 4Cac"o-Olivares. t"e person to )e arrested "as committed. t"e% ma% )e prosec!ted $or t"eir conspirac% or ot"er violations o$ valid laws. is act!all% committin#. 5G35D< o2 a 4=oB629 o> a clear and present danger o> a 4@:4<a2<675 5768 <=a< <=5 S<a<5 =a4 a . a permit $or t"e !se o$ s!c" place. .A4 . and not $or t"e assem)l% itsel$. Even t"e Solicitor 8eneral. 3"e% were not committin# an% crime.52< Ca<<5. On t"e )asis o$ t"e a)ove principles.R. in "is presence. reasona)le. et al. it )e"ooves a democratic #overnment to see to it t"at t"e restriction is $air. and partic!larl% descri)in# t"e place to )e searc"ed and t"e persons or t"in#s to )e sei*ed.ribune o$$ices. Indeed.narration o$ $acts. t"is Co!rt declares t"at t"e 0acts o$ terrorism0 portion o$ 8. i$ t"e assem)l% is intended to )e "eld in a p!)lic place. 3"e A!estion. o. Oregon. H5 Ba. 3"erea$ter.53oCC52A <=5 38o4@.cloc( in t"e mornin# o$ =e)r!ar% 29.$@< 6< 64 a A6>>5. 3"!s. Petitioners.&9& 3"e searc" is ille#al. "e was c"ar#ed wit" . B=52 <=5 S<a<5..6<y 64 <=.95.a2A <=5 4<a2Aa. 171396 4"a*id et al. t"e% violate t"e d!e process cla!se o$ t"e Constit!tion.5452< Aa295. C@3= 8544 A5265A. 9 is !nconstit!tional. except on a s"owin# o$ a 385a.e noted t"at petitioner David was not wearin# t"e s!) ect t-s"irt and even i$ "e was wearin# it. s!c" acts are considered ille#al. and se*enth. arrest a person/ -a. Certainl%. fifth.6:5 <o B=a< 64 62 G525. et al. "e also stated t"at t"ere is ins!$$icient evidence $or t"e c"ar#e o$ 76o8a<6o2 o> $P ))0 as it was not even (nown w"et"er petitioner David was t"e leader o$ t"e rall%.A5.oD.629629 AoB2 <=64 9o75. R!le &2? o$ 3"e Revised R!les on Criminal Proced!re la%s down t"e steps in t"e cond!ct o$ searc" and sei*!re. As in t"e case o$ $reedom o$ expression. No. invasion or re)ellion. Ce $irst examine G. &5&>@<6 !nwarranted.y a2A aDD. $ailed to !sti$% t"e arrestin# o$$icers. third. )!t also t"eir ri#"t to peacea)l% assem)le.5752<.R. t"e limitation o$ t"eir a!t"orit% in p!rs!in# t"e Order. It ma% not )e conditioned !pon t"e prior iss!ance o$ a permit or a!t"ori*ation $rom t"e #overnment a!t"orities except. d!rin# t"e oral ar#!ment. &>? ConseA!entl%. t"eir dispersal was done merel% on t"e )asis o$ :alacaMan#-s directive cancelin# all permits previo!sl% iss!ed )% local #overnment !nits. t"!s/ Peacea)le assem)l% $or law$!l disc!ssion cannot )e made a crime. No.55AoC o> a445C:8y 64 2o< <o :5 86C6<5A.&97 3"e $irst time t"e% learned o$ it was at t"e time o$ t"e dispersal. :oreover.ribune except t"e sec!rit% #!ard o$ t"e )!ildin#. -:.5 6> <=5y Bo@8A 3o2<.. 3"e% "ave t"e power to iss!e permits and to revo(e s!c" permits a><5. respondents $ailed to s"ow or convince t"e Co!rt t"at t"e rall%ists committed acts amo!ntin# to lawless violence. 3"ose w"o assist in t"e cond!ct o$ s!c" meetin#s cannot )e )randed as criminals on t"at score."e was event!all% released $or ins!$$icienc% o$ evidence. I$ t"e persons assem)lin# "ave committed crimes elsew"ere. ))0&>9 and I236<629 <o S5A6<6o2. and x x x.6C62a8 3=a. not as to t"e relations o$ t"e spea(ers.6:@<5 <o 624<a:686<y 62 <=5 9o75. C5A6a 3o75.2C52<. H!e*on Cit% w"ere "e was $in#erprinted.0&>2 3"e plain import o$ t"e lan#!a#e o$ t"e Constit!tion is t"at searc"es. or o$ t"e press. 6> <=5y Ao 2o< 4@:43.K Director 8eneral 1omi)ao $!rt"er stated t"at K6> <=5y Ao 2o< >o88oB <=5 4<a2Aa. 48.oaA3a4< o@<>6< <=a< 76o8a<54 . i$ t"e ri#"ts o$ $ree speec" and peace$!l assem)l% are not to )e preserved.A peace o$$icer or a private person ma%. In "e @onge *.O. petitioners were not even noti$ied and "eard on t"e revocation o$ t"eir permits.544 a2A D.e. t"e police operatives sei*ed several materials $or p!)lication. . t"e"aily .&>< In t"e Drie$ Acco!nt&>> s!)mitted )% petitioner David.iolation o$ $a<a4 PaC:a24a $68a29 No. 3"is is ar)itrar%.6 presents anot"er $acet o$ $reedom o$ speec" i. t"ere is not"in# in 8. or t"e ri#"t o$ t"e people peacea)l% to assem)le and petition t"e #overnment $or redress o$ #rievances.)e%ond t"e callin#-o!t power o$ t"e President."e was treated )r!sA!el% )% policemen w"o 0"eld "is "ead and tried to p!s" "im0 inside an !nmar(ed car.o3. or . is not as to t"e a!spices !nder w"ic" t"e meetin# was "eld )!t as to its p!rpose.5a<525A . 3"e "oldin# o$ meetin#s $or peacea)le political action cannot )e proscri)ed. Cit" t"e )lan(et revocation o$ permits. 1017 . Presidential C"ie$ o$ Sta$$ :ic"ael De$ensor was A!oted as sa%in# t"at s!c" raid was KC5a2< <o 4=oB a M4<. In ot"er words. 4@3= o>>52454. li(e ot"er ri#"ts em)raced in t"e $reedom o$ expression.o453@<629 <=5C >o. fourth.3= Ba. 3"e w"olesale cancellation o$ all permits to rall% is a )latant disre#ard o$ t"e principle t"at 0 >. 9.5:584 62 :. policemen stationed t"emselves at t"e vicinit% o$ t"e "aily . t"e distinction )etween protected and !nprotected assem)lies was eliminated.A4 a. No.a2< )e iss!ed !pon pro)a)le ca!se in connection wit" one speci$ic o$$ence to )e determined personall% )% t"e !d#e a$ter examination !nder oat" or a$$irmation o$ t"e complainant and t"e witnesses "e ma% prod!ce.69=< <o D.54< s"all iss!e except !pon pro)a)le ca!se to )e determined personall% )% t"e !d#e a$ter examination !nder oat" or a$$irmation o$ t"e complainant and t"e witnesses "e ma% prod!ce. neit"er was t"ere a s"owin# o$ a clear and present dan#er t"at warranted t"e limitation o$ t"at ri#"t. Apparentl%.H <o <588 C5A6a o@<85<4 2o< <o 3o22675 o. fourth. No. Onl% !pon a s"owin# t"at an assem)l% presents a clear and present dan#er t"at t"e State ma% den% t"e citi*ensri#"t to exercise it.second.. C"en. Arrest wit$out warrant2 w$en law!ul. t"e a!t"orit% to re#!late assem)lies and rallies is lod#ed wit" t"e local #overnment !nits. i$ t"e% "ave $ormed or are en#a#ed in a conspirac% a#ainst t"e p!)lic peace and order.t"e searc" was cond!cted in t"e a)sence o$ an% o$$icial o$ t"e "aily .ere.cond!ct. =!rt"er. room. 456E54 @Do2 C5.@854 45< o@< >o. &>5 D!t w"at made it do!)l% worse $or petitioners David et al. t"e c"ar#es o$ 6236<629 <o 45A6<6o2and 76o8a<6o2 o> $P ))0 were mere a$tert"o!#"t. t"e PNP operatives arrested "im on t"e )asis o$ PP &7&5. "e was arrested wit"o!t warrant. t"e ri#"t to assem)le is not s!) ect to previo!s restraint or censors"ip. o$ a s!)stantive evil t"at Con#ress "as a ri#"t to prevent.-0 National 3elecomm!nications Commissioner Ronald Solis !r#ed television and radio networ(s to +cooperate+ wit" t"e #overnment $or t"e d!ration o$ t"e state o$ national emer#enc%. m!c" less denied. wit"o!t a warrant. 9 a!t"ori*in# t"e militar% or police to commit acts )e%ond w"at are 253544a. t"e $reedom o$ t"e press. papers and e$$ects a#ainst !nreasona)le searc" and sei*!re o$ w"atever nat!re and $or an% p!rpose s"all )e in iolable1 and no searc" warrant or Ba. Si#ni$icantl%. p"oto#rap"ed and )oo(ed li(e a criminal s!spect.25A <=a< =64 a9523y B688 2o< =546<a<5 <o . As can )e #leaned $rom circ!mstances. Ot"erwise. 171(09. third. 3"e rin#in# tr!t" "ere is t"at petitioner David.6 3"e Constit!tion provides t"at 0t"e ri#"t o$ t"e people to )e sec!red in t"eir persons.5 o> a2y :. !nder DP @@7. 3"!s. )!t w"et"er t"eir !tterances transcend t"e )o!nds o$ t"e $reedom o$ speec" w"ic" t"e Constit!tion protects. s!c" $act is ins!$$icient to c"ar#e "im wit" i236<629 <o 45A6<6o2.5752< 8aB8544 76o85235. S53<6o2 ) mandates t"at t"e searc" o$ a "o!se. 624<5aA o> D.a95 A@. C"en a person-s ri#"t is restricted )% #overnment action. Ao a2y<=629 <=a< Bo@8A =58D <=5 .&>@ it was "eld t"at peacea)le assem)l% cannot )e made a crime.

62<629 a2A D@:863a<6o2 o> 4a6A 25B4DaD5. and 4<6 to impose standards on media or an% $orm o$ prior restraint on t"e press.o. 3"e motto s"o!ld alwa%s )e obsta principiis.5 a >. t"at is t"eir responsi)ilit%. Not !pon m% instr!ctions. 9 valid. t"e transcendental iss!es raised )% t"e parties s"o!ld not )e 0evaded. No. Its ratiocination "as )een ex"a!stivel% presented. Did t"e% )ecome s!ddenl% part o$ t"e evidence o$ re)ellion or incitin# to sedition or w"at.O.4 B5.545235 o> <=5 8aB>@8 o33@Da2< t"ereo$ or an% mem)er o$ "is $amil% or in t"e a)sence o$ t"e latter. t"e stationin# o$ policemen in t"e vicinit% o$ t"e .O. as %o! said. SO18EN DENIPAOO/ As $ar as I (now.54@8< <=a< <=5 D.55AoC <o 5GD. are plain censors"ip. ma% not a#ain )e iss!ed. attac"ed "ereto.an% ot"er premise )e made 62 <=5 D.55. a85. it also provides a valid standard ' t"at t"e militar% and t"e police s"o!ld ta(e onl% t"e 0253544a. t"is Co!rt "as to declare s!c" acts !nconstit!tional and ille#al. Oo!r . 9 are constit!tional in ever% aspect and 0s"o!ld res!lt in no constit!tional or stat!tor% )reac"es i$ applied accordin# to t"eir letter.&9? 1i(ewise. No. w"en inspected t"e 3ri)!ne $or t"e p!rpose o$ #at"erin# evidence and %o! admitted t"at t"e policemen were a)le to #et t"e clippin#s.onor.5 A643o2<62@5A. SO1ICI3OR 8ENERA1 DENIPAOO/ Ender t"e law t"e% wo!ld seem to )e. 6< 3a22o< :5 3o2Ao25A. 9 "ave not )een le#all% de$ined and made p!nis"a)le )% Con#ress and s"o!ld t"!s )e deemed deleted $rom t"e said 8. t"e Solicitor 8eneral admitted t"at t"e searc" o$ t"e . . 3"e acts. t"at is w"% I said.ribune!s o$$ices and t"e sei*!re o$ its materials $or p!)lication and ot"er papers are ille#al. <=64 . S"MMATION In s!m. cannot ta(e over privatel%-owned p!)lic !tilit% and private )!siness a$$ected wit" p!)lic interest.O. In t"e 9urgos *. 277? t"at alle#edl% PP &7&5 wo!ld )e reimposed 0i$ t"e :a% & rallies0 )ecome 0!nr!l% and violent. t"e militar% and t"e police committed acts w"ic" violate t"e citi*ens.6a<5 a3<6o24 a2A C5a4@. Alread%.5C5A654 >o.aC5Bo.owever. Is t"at not in admission o$ t"e admissi)ilit% o$ t"ese clippin#s t"at were ta(en $rom t"e 3ri)!ne.<@a8 A526a8 o> D5<6<6o25. a misapplication o$ t"e law. <=5y 3a2 4@5 a2A <=5.. t"e warrantless arrests and sei*!res exec!ted )% t"e police were. t"e Co!rt $inds 8.ribune was not padloc(ed and sealed li(e t"e 0 etropolitan ail0 and 0Be $orum0 newspapers in t"e a)ove case.55AoC o> <=5 D. t"e . p!rs!ant to 8. ASSO. No. As a conseA!ence o$ t"e searc" and sei*!re. and t"ese are inadmissi)le $or an% p!rpose. PP &7&5-s extraneo!s provisions #ivin# t"e President express or implied power 4&6 to iss!e decrees. +ES3ICE PENO/ 3"ese "ave )een p!)lis"ed in t"e past iss!es o$ t"e Dail% 3ri)!ne. C"ie$ +!stice Artemio . SR. and t"at t"e same are inadmissi)le 0$or an% p!rpose.he "aily . <=545 D. invasion or re)ellion.F B=5. ASSO. 2o.IE= +ES3ICE PAN8ANIDAN/ 3"ere seems to )e some con$!sions i$ not contradiction in %o!r t"eor%.onor. )eca!se t"ere is not"in# in &7&5 w"ic" sa%s t"at t"e police co!ld #o and inspect and #at"er clippin#s $rom Dail% 3ri)!ne or an% ot"er newspaper. SO18EN DENIPAOO/ :a%)e so. It is t"e d!t% o$ t"e co!rts to )e watc"$!l $or t"e constit!tional ri#"ts o$ t"e citi*en. is considered an inte#ral part o$ t"is ponencia. 3524o. +ES3ICE PENO/ Are %o! sa%in# t"at t"e act o$ t"e policeman is ille#al.4P >.onor. 3"is Co!rt cannot tolerate t"e )latant disre#ard o$ a constit!tional ri#"t even i$ it involves t"e most de$iant o$ o!r citi*ens. s!$$ice it to reiterate t"at PP &7&5 is limited to t"e callin# o!t )% t"e President o$ t"e militar% to prevent or s!ppress lawless violence. Oo!r . All t"ese r!les were violated )% t"e CID8 operatives. +ES3ICE PENO/ So. And S53<6o2 9 states t"at t"e warrant m!st direct t"at it )e served in t"e Aay<6C5.5 64 62 <=5 2a<@. Oo!r . C"ile 0terrorism0 .5752< a3<4 o> 8aB8544 76o85235 . 3"e searc" and sei*!re o$ materials $or p!)lication. it "as no )asis. Not onl% t"at. $rom t"e $acts.. It is t"at o$$icio!s $!nctionar% o$ t"e repressive #overnment w"o tells t"e citi*en t"at "e ma% spea( onl% i$ allowed to do so.5 DaA8o3F5A a2A 45a85A. So w"% do %o! "ave to #o t"ere at & o-cloc( in t"e mornin# and wit"o!t an% searc" warrant.&95 3"e Dissentin# Opinion states t"at PP &7&5 and 8. ASSO. and t"e arro#ant warnin# o$ #overnment o$$icials to media. . C"en in implementin# its provisions. t"ere "ave )een media reports on April <7.< a2A 5752 C686<a2< D. t"ere is no #!arantee t"at PP &7&5.0D!t t"e words 0a3<4 o> <5. At t"is point. &9< Endo!)tedl%. Si#ni$icantl%. I don-t (now i$ it is premat!re to sa% t"is. or one similar to it. Chief of . =reedom to comment on p!)lic a$$airs is essential to t"e vitalit% o$ a representative democrac%. as I said.$reedom o$ t"e press.544 9@a. in t"e presence o$ two 426 witnesses o$ s!$$icient a#e and discretion residin# in t"e same localit%. i$ t"e% were ille#all% sei*ed.y a2A aDD. Desides. In t"is connection. t"e President.54 <o 4@DD.5C6454 B5. Oo!r . in w"ic" case a direction ma% )e inserted t"at it )e served at an% time o$ t"e da% or ni#"t. Oo!r . it is not )ased on an% law.0 t"!s/ +ES3ICE CA11E+O/ Oo! made A!ite a mo!t"$!l o$ admission w"en %o! said t"at t"e policemen. SR. t"e "aily . all %o! "ave to do is to #et t"ose past iss!es. no le#al )asis w"atsoever. +ES3ICE PENO/ Is it )ased on an% law. No. I t"in( and I (now.ri#"ts !nder t"e Constit!tion.II o$ t"e Constit!tion and t"e relevant !rispr!dence disc!ssed earlier.576o@4 . SO1ICI3OR 8ENERA1 DENIPAOO/ I don-t (now w"et"er t"is will clari$%.a62< o.544 64 54452<6a8 >o. t"e premises searc"ed were t"e )!siness and printin# o$$ices o$ t"e 0 etropolitan ail0 and t"e 0Be $orum0 newspapers. 3"ese are acts o$ t"e police o$$icers. SO18EN DENIPAOO/ It is not )ased on Proclamation &7&5. are ultra *ires and @23o24<6<@<6o2a8. !nless t"e propert% is on t"e person or in t"e place ordered to )e searc"ed. and it is not )ased on Proclamation &7&5. T=64 4<a<5 o> :5629 64 Da<52<8y a2a<=5Ca<63 <o a A5Co3.64C0 $o!nd in 8.he "aily .0 ConseA!entl%.owever. SR.54<.0 t"e% m!st now )e resolved to prevent $!t!re constit!tional a)erration. w"ile PP &7&5 was still operative.544 a2A D. 3"e proclamation is s!stained )% Section &@. Pan#ani)an-s conc!rrin# opinion.ribune was s!) ected to t"ese ar)itrar% intr!sions )eca!se o$ its anti-#overnment sentiments.5A :y <=64 Bo@8A Ba2< <o 4@5 <=5C. t"e s!pposed ille#al or !nlaw$!l acts committed on t"e occasion o$ &7&5. I> <=5 D5oD85 B=o =a75 :552 62?@.0 3"e Co!rt "as passed !pon t"e constit!tionalit% o$ t"ese iss!ances. t"e searc" violated petitioners.62<. SO18EN DENIPAOO/ Cell. ille#al and cannot )e condoned. %et it cannot )e denied t"at t"e CID8 operatives exceeded t"eir en$orcement d!ties.a2<55A @2A5.544 <=5C458754 62 D. a2A 3o24<6<@<54 a 76.onor.y .taff&92 t"is Co!rt "eld t"at -As "ereto$ore stated.oD. 2o. Oo! cannot )lame t"e President $or.a<63 >. Article BII o$ t"e Constit!tion. 426 to direct t"e A=P to en$orce o)edience to a88 8aB4even t"ose not related to lawless violence as well as decrees prom!l#ated )% t"e President. It is an Order iss!ed )% t"e President ' actin# as Commander-in-C"ie$ ' addressed to s!)alterns in t"e A=P to carr% o!t t"e provisions o$ PP &7&5. 3"e )est #a!#e o$ a $ree and democratic societ% rests in t"e de#ree o$ $reedom en o%ed )% its media. &99 xxxxxxxxx SR.52< <o <=5 >.5 o> D.<=5.O.. S@3= 38o4@. B5 Ao 2o< 3o2Ao25 <=64. 3"e Co!rt $inds and so "olds t"at PP &7&5 is constit!tional inso$ar as it constit!tes a call )% t"e President $or t"e A=P to prevent or s!ppress 8aB8544 76o85235. in t"e a)sence o$ a le#islation. and no more and no less t"an w"at "e is permitted to sa% on pain o$ p!nis"ment s"o!ld "e )e so ras" as to diso)e%. it was t"e police t"at did t"at. B6<= <=5 >@.&9> Incidentall%. t"e li$tin# o$ PP &7&5 t"ro!#" t"e iss!ance o$ PP &72& ' a s!pervenin# event ' wo!ld "ave normall% rendered t"is case moot and academic. ille#al acts were committed alle#edl% in p!rs!ance t"ereo$. d!rin# t"e oral ar#!ments.ribune o$$ices. <=5 >@2AaC52<a8 8aB. :a%)e so. Article . ASSO.5 . 3"e Co!rt also r!les t"at !nder Section &5.4=6D a:=o.oB<= o> <=5 36<6E52. t"!s/ C.5 a. In t"e same vein. <=5 Do86<63a8 52869=<52C52< a2A 9. . C"ile admittedl%. accordin# to t"e Solicitor 8eneral. and a#ainst an% stealt"% encroac"ments t"ereon.onor. 9.O.

69=<4 a.O. David and Ronald 1lamas. and event!all% t"e co!rts.O. as well as t"e warrantless searc" o$ t"e . s!c" portion o$ 8.e. David and Ronald 1lamas. . no law "as )een enacted to #!ide t"e militar%. invasion or re)ellion and violatin# DP @@7.5C5C:5.54 <o 4@DD.:6<.D!rin# emer#enc%. 4@DD. #overnmental action ma% var% in )readt" and intensit% $rom normal times. t"e dispersal and warrantless arrest o$ t"e I:E and NA=1E-I:E mem)ers d!rin# t"eir rallies.69=<4 64 o25 o> <=5 5<5. t"e law and !rispr!dence.5 52A4 62 <=5C458754. Ot"er t"an t"is declaration o$ invalidit%. as well as decrees prom!l#ated )% t"e President. it is also pristine clear t"at 4&6 t"e warrantless arrest o$ petitioners Randol$ S. are not a!t"ori*ed )% t"e Constit!tion.54Do246:686<y o> <=5 9o75. t"e imposition o$ standards on media or an% $orm o$ prior restraint on t"e press."as )een deno!nced #enerall% in media..6a<5 a3<6o24 a2A C5a4@.a. 3"e warrantless arrest o$ Randol$ S. criminal or administrative sanctions on t"e individ!al police o$$icers concerned. to determine t"e limits o$ t"e A=P-s a!t"orit% in carr%in# o!t t"is portion o$ 8.a<63 4<a<5. i. )!t s!c" declaration does not a!t"ori*e t"e President to ta(e over privatel%-owned p!)lic !tilit% or )!siness a$$ected wit" p!)lic interest wit"o!t prior le#islation. 426 t"e dispersal o$ t"e rallies and warrantless arrest o$ t"e I:E and NA=1E-I:E mem)ers. 6< 255A4 <o D. w"atever is 0253544a.ribune o$$ices and t"e w"imsical sei*!res o$ some articles $or p!)lication and ot"er materials. 9. Article . are declared "N%ONSTIT"TIONAL . No. t"e vital lesson t"at we m!st learn $rom t"e t"eorists w"o st!died t"e vario!s competin# political p"ilosop"ies is t"at.25A.5752< o. 3"e Co!rt r!les t"at PP &7&5 is %ONSTIT"TIONAL inso$ar as it constit!tes a call )% President 8loria :acapa#al-Arro%o on t"e A=P <o D. t"e Petitions are partl% #ranted. On t"e )asis o$ t"e relevant and !ncontested $acts narrated earlier. No.ribune o$$ices and w"imsical sei*!re o$ its articles $or p!)lication and ot"er materials.5752< a3<4 o> 8aB8544 76o85235. 4<6 t"e imposition o$ standards on media or an% prior restraint on t"e press. in t"e a)sence o$ proo$ t"at t"ese petitioners were committin# acts constit!tin# lawless violence. . are declared "N%ONSTIT"TIONAL . Per"aps. t"is Co!rt cannot impose an% civil. 64 a C5a24 <o a2 52A a2A 4@:4<a2<675 36768 .544 a2A D.&9@ /HEREFORE. No.y <=5 DoB5. 3"e civil complaints or ca!ses o$ action andGor relevant criminal In$ormations "ave not )een presented )e$ore t"is Co!rt. It is B588 <o . it is possi)le to #rant #overnment t"e a!t"orit% to cope wit" crises wit"o!t s!rrenderin# t"e two vital principles o$ constit!tionalism/ <=5 Ca62<52a235 o> 859a8 86C6<4 <o a. <=a< C686<a.oD. 8.o<53< <=5 R5D@:863 B6<=o@< @2253544a. Not even )% t"e valid provisions o$ PP &7&5 and 8. Elementar% d!e process )ars t"is Co!rt $rom ma(in# an% speci$ic prono!ncement o$ civil.y DoB5.2C52< <o <=5 9o75. 9.y DoB5. No.68y <.y a2A aDD. t"e provisions o$ PP &7&5 commandin# t"e A=P to en$orce laws not related to lawless violence. criminal or administrative lia)ilities. and Do86<63a8 . %et t"e% s"o!ld not )e ar)itrar% as to !nd!l% restrain o!r people-s li)ert%. 0 %onsiderin# t"at 0acts o$ terrorism0 "ave not %et )een de$ined and made p!nis"a)le )% t"e 1e#islat!re.aCD8629 62A676A@a8 .O. HoB <o 9675 <=5 C686<a.O. and 4>6 t"e warrantless searc" o$ t"e .owever. No costs.2a8 :a8a23629 <a4F4 o> a A5Co3. 3"e% "ave not )een individ!all% identi$ied and #iven t"eir da% in co!rt. 9 is %ONSTIT"TIONAL since it provides a standard )% w"ic" t"e A=P and t"e PNP s"o!ld implement PP &7&5.544 8aB8544 76o85235. t"e provision in PP &7&5 declarin# national emer#enc% !nder Section &5. In addition. SO ORDERED. 9 is declared "N%ONSTIT"TIONAL.II o$ t"e Constit!tion is %ONSTIT"TIONAL.

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