Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar IMPACT OF TAGORE’S GITANJALI THROUGH TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES K.S.

Saradhambal Assistant Professor and Head, Department of English Sri Vasavi College, Erode. Tagore’s Gitanjali remains to this day among the most popular books in modern India. This work illustrates those rare instances when the highest excellence in art resides in matter, which is also the simplest and human. It is a measure of the emotional potency of the verses that he could even in translation, produce such a profound effect in a mind. An effortless artistry form by employing translation strategies is effortlessly integrated with substances that speak powerfully of the most fundamental and loftiest elements in human nature. This paper attempts to analyse the impact of Tagore’s translation even after 100 years and still retains its austerity in this modern world. The history of translation is the history of human civilization and understanding, and sometimes of misunderstanding. Stories travel from culture to culture, and their transmission through translation takes innumerable forms. Tagore has been an abiding influence on modern life and thought. Thematically and stylistically, his Gitanjali are of a wide range and variety. Tagore’s admirer Yeats, the Nobel Jury of 1913 and readers across the world were all stuck by this genuine greatness of the work. The Gitanjali was translated from Bengali by Rabindranath Tagore, and the main strategy taken by Tagore was creative translation. Tactically it includes replacements of cultural imaginations, changes of personal pronouns and partial or full rewrite of some texts. Therefore, the Gitanjali is filled with aesthetic character of English literature, and became a literature translation classic. Translation by itself is a power struggle between the source and target cultures. The Gitanjali is on one hand an amorphosis of the Indian culture under western oppression Tagore’s poetry is the culmination of all his mystic experiences of his inherent faith in the fundamental unity of all creation. He disapproved of all fragmentation and segregation in name of religion, caste, nationality and a false sense of superiority. He prayed in his Gitanjali: Where the mind is without fear and the head is held high; Where knowledge is free; Where the world has not been broken up into fragments by narrow domestic walls; Where words come out from the depth of truth; Where tireless striving stretches its arms towards perfection; Where the clear stream of reason has not lost its way into the dreary desert sand of dead habit; Where the mind is led forward by thee into ever-widening thought and action--Into that heaven of freedom, my Father, let my country awake (XXXV). Tagore prays that his country should awaken into that heaven of freedom. He envisioned universal solidarity and want India to scale lofty altitudes and evolve as the supreme power. In many of songs of Gitanjali, God has been treated as the close friend. The benevolence and proximity of the supreme makes man to treat God as his friend. “Drunk with the joy of singing I forget myself and call the friend who art my lord (2) …..Oh my only friend, my best beloved, the gates are opened in my house—donot pass

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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar like a dream”(22) “ I am certain that priceless wealth is in thee, and thou art, my best friend” (28) are some of the lines from Gitanjali extolling God as a friend. Tagore here made an eternal encounter between Jeevathma and Paramathma. The paramathma is treated by his speaker as the lord, the lover, the maid, the servant and the child, the partner, the patriot, etc. As Chitra Anand points out the list is endless, proclaiming, “ for thou dwellest in me, and I in thee. Thou without me, /or I without thee are nothing” (XI). Both man and god complement each other. In recent times, particularly in the fields of literary and culture studies, translation activities have received an impetus, and Tagore's short stories have continued to attract attention. Rabindranath Tagore has been a leading exponent of the Bengali short story and has experimented with many styles and techniques. His stories are highly reflective of the socio-cultural climate of his times and yet convey ideas and feelings that are perennially relevant to a humanitarian society. Tagore the self-translator also showed an excessive and obsessive concern for his target readers. He nursed a grave anxiety about the degree to which the complex source specificities in his writings could be conveyed :across cultures. Tagore believes that there is a divine purpose behind what appears to us as varied cadences of pleasure and pain. All that happens is finally for the best. This is the attitude that Tagore also takes in the Gitanjali. He paints many a scene full of gloom and describes deep agonies of the mind but not once does he rave at a fate. He receives both apparent good and bad as gifts from Him who know what to give and when. It must be remembered that the Gitanjali was written after a series of crises in Tagore’s life. He had been for a time a leader of the Swadesi Movement in Bengal which sprang as a counterblast to the political partition of the state. For a time he was lionized everywhere and his heroic songs were on everybody’s lips. But when the movement turned violent, Tagore dissociated himself from this trend and as a result became suspect as a patient. He was reviled in the press and on the platform. Added to this were three personal bereavements. He lost in quick succession his wife, a son and a daughter. The public anger and the private sorrow would have been sufficient to depress a mind made of grosser stuff. But Tagore the poet could look far beyond the passing and the personal. His faith in a understanding providence was not shaken by these massive calamities. He learnt to accept them as gifts from the Beloved. When we witness a tragic play, a pang of sorrow brings tears to our eyes but we also feel a scene of joyous fulfillment. Likewise the joys and sorrows that come to us in life get sublimed into bliss which has no counterpart. The sting of pain is not inexorably painful. It depends on the angle from which we see it. Pain stings when it is looked at it isolatedly, but when it is taken in a widened horizon and looked on as a detached witness, the sting is lost and one can apprehend the element of bliss in the music of the dance drama. Creation and destruction only punctuate this music. Indeed the poet invites everyone not to remain silent spectators of the drama but to step on the stage and join it. He asks whether it is beyond us to be glad with the gladness of this rhythm- to be tossed and lost broken in the whirl of this fearful joy? Keeping steps with that restless, rapid music, seasons come dancing and pass away- colours, tunes and perfumes pour in endless cascades in the bounding joy that scatters and gives up and dies every moment. Both pain and pleasure are transitory. They die again to be reborn as bliss. Hence it is that in the Gitanjali one can find the poet singing in many moods, sometimes of overwhelming joy at the beauty of the world and the blessing that have
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar been showered on him. At other times he thinks of the ache and agony of a life which seems to be purposeless, in which things are going wrong and there seems to be no protest of better times. But even while pouring his heart and soul into the singing of these lines he is aware in his heart of hearts that finally his secret lover, God, is waiting for him and His footsteps can be heard if only one listens attentively. In the fragrant days of sunny April and the rainy gloom of July nights, in sorrow after sorrow, it is His steps that press upon the poet’s heart and it his golden touch of God’s feet that makes his joy to shine. For the poet, misery is as good a friend and teacher as merriment. Through joy and sorrow it is only the Divine bliss that is contacted. With this conviction the poet offers his sorrow to Divine Mother as specially his own and the Mother bends down towards him with a grace of tears. As people fight and make money and fill their head with politics and die a little each day, Gitanjali, promises to renew life of modern man and give the quiet peace of the soul the modern life has made difficult to attain. In the emerging context of a global village, translation and its translator acquire a symbolic significance. Works Cited Tagore Rabindranath. Gitanjali. London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd., 1962. Anand, Chitra. Valedictory Speech. Proceedings of the Second State level Conference 2010 (With special reference to Tagore). Dr. MGR Educational nad Research Institute, Chennai. Modinagar: Unnati Publications, 2010. Sarada, P.A. “Perception of God in Tagore’s Gitanjali. “ Proceedings of the Second State level Conference 2010 (With special reference to Tagore). Ramamurthy V. Tagore’s Gitanjali Delhi: Doaba House, 1972. Vivekanda, Swami. Nobel thoughts, New Delhi: Ramakrishna Mission, New Delhi, 1994. Yeats W.B. Essays and Introductions, London: The Macmillan Press Limited, 1974.

CHINESE DIGLOSSIA AND THE (UN-) TRANSLATABILITY OF LITERARY LINGUISTIC VARIATION Dr.G SOMASUNDARAM Assistant Professor of English, Alagappa Govt Arts College Karaikudi-630002 Introduction Within Translation Studies literature, the issue of the (un-) translation of linguistic variation has received a certain degree of attention (Catford 1965; Newmark 1988; Hatim and Mason 1990; Brisset 1996; Sanchez 1999, 2009). This attention, however, has been quite unflinchingly focused upon the (un-) translatability of dialect — in particular, socioand geographic dialect — and the problems associated with it. The present paper would like to suggest that the limited scope of the discussion has caused research into various other aspects of linguistic variation — bilingualism, multilingualism, and diglossia,1 to
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar name a few — to be left underdeveloped. The call for increased awareness and broadened scope for discourse related to translatability of linguistic variation is not new. The issue has been raised before with particular reference to diglossia (El-Badarien and Zughoul 2004; Meylaerts 2006; Anderman 2007). However, the Chinese diglossic situation, in particular, has never been considered within the Translation Studies literature. The aim of this paper is to address this lacuna within Translation Studies by presenting and explaining the Chinese diglossic situation, and the discourse on translatability of linguistic variation as it pertains to diglossia. In particular, the paper will investigate both the potentiality and importance of translation of diglossia as a form of linguistic variation. In order to address issues relating to the potentiality of translation of diglossia as linguistic variation, the paper will compare and contrast popular variety-for‐variety, equivalence‐fidelity‐based approaches to translation of dialect with more general, register‐based, relative‐distance styled approaches taken from Catford’s (1965) and Pym’s (2000) readings of the problem. A brief review and discussion of variation-related Translation Studies literature as presented in the following section below will function to identify an overall trend in the field toward discourse that focuses upon translation of linguistic variation issues that pertain to structuralist notions of equivalence and fidelity to source text. The trend, quite out of step with post‐structuralist translation theories, will serve as comparison to infrequently referenced relativist notions based upon the author’s reading of Catford (1965) and Pym’s (2000) treatment of the issue of translatability of linguistic variation. Finally, analysis of a representative instance of literary linguistic variation and its translation will serve to highlight the potentiality of a more register‐based, relative‐distance styled approach to the translation of variation. The importance of translation of diglossic variation will be addressed by way of analysis of a representative piece of Chinese fiction and its translation into English. Lu Xun’s (魯迅, 1881‐ and its association with the May literary discourse, Lydia Liu (1995Fourth) takes as her point of focus1936) novella Ah Q Zhengzhuan (阿Q正傳, The True Story of Ah Q) (1921) will serve the purpose.2 In her examination of the translingual reinvention of the national character myth in China Lu Xun’s Ah Q Zhengzhuan. Liu approaches Ah Q Zhengzhuan, the climactic event of the May Fourth discourse (1995:47), as a means to explore the complexity of twentieth century China’s intellectual battle with the singly contradictory paths of Chinese tradition and Western modernity contact situation.. The eempresent paper makes use of Lu Xun’s influential novella for a similar reason Translation Studies and Linguistic Variation The following section provides a brief overview of some of the major trends in Translation Studies research on the (un-) translatability of linguistic variation. Three specific points of focus — linguistic variation as relative deviation from norm, variation as standards-with-dialects, and variation as diglossia — will demonstrate a potential for further enquiry into under-researched areas such as translation and diglossia, bilingualism, and multilingualism. In order to expand the focus of the discussion, the present paper looks at a contrasting
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar — but, perhaps, more realistic —scenario in which speakers have access to more than one language variant at a time — namely diglossia. Ferguson coined the term diglossia in order to refer to a situation in which “two varieties of language exist side by side throughout the community, with each having a definite role to play” (1959:25). A more detailed definition is as follows: A relatively stable language situation in which, in addition to the primary dialects of the language (which may include a standard or regional standards), there is a very divergent, highly codified (often grammatically more complex) superposed variety, the vehicle of a large and respected body of written literature either of an earlier period or in another speech community which is learned largely by formal education and used for most written and formal spoken purposes but not used by any sector of the community for ordinary conversation (Ferguson 1959:34-35). In his investigation of this phenomenon, Ferguson focuses upon four diglossic language communities: namely, Arabic, Modern Greek, Swiss German, and Haitian Creole (1959:26) and describes nine variables — function, prestige, literary heritage, acquisition, standardization, stability, grammar, lexicon, and phonology — across which H and L differ within a given diglossic language community. Ferguson’s variables will serve to present details of the Chinese diglossic language situation. Increased distance between the H and L variants fixes differences in acquisition as well. What Snow calls “the first mechanism by which diglossia was created in East Asia” was a widening of the gap between wenyan and vernacular Chinese through a process of isolation and fossilization of the former, and a continual evolution and transmutation of the latter. This solidified the diglossic disparate relationship of acquisition in which L is assimilated naturally in the home, While H must be learned formally at school (2010a:126-127). The distance between wenyan and baihua in China was made even greater by the fact that as a logographic (as opposed to phonographic) writing system wenyan was almost entirely divorced from the phonetic details of vernacular speech (Chen 1999:67). As Chen notes, the logographic nature — lack of direct association between sound and graphic forms — of wenyan gave it “a degree of accessibility across space and time”, and “insulated it from changes in the vernacular language” (1999:68). As a result, Chen explains, wenyan was able to “serve as the medium whereby Chinese literary heritage was preserved and continued, and information could be spread across a land of great place in the Imperial examinations and selection of government office process have enabled it to reside at the heart of “a sizable body of written literature” that is “held in high esteem by the speech dialectal diversity” (ibid.). Consistent with Ferguson’s description of the diglossic variable of literary heritage, the unique characteristics of wenyan as a logographic writing system and its community” (Ferguson Text Excerpt: Analysis & Discussion of Two English Translations

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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar This section presents two examples of English translations of Lu Xun’s Ah Q Zhengzhuan. The first example is a translation produced in 1956 by Yang Xianyi and Gladys Yang. It choice not to represent the variation of the original. The second example is a translation demonstrates a complete lack of representation of the linguistic variation found in Lu Xun’s original. In my discussion of this translation, I will suggest possible reasons behind the Yangs’ produced in The following excerpt is taken from the second chapter of the novella. In the passage, the narrator begins by relating the exploits of the main character Ah Q. After a brief discussion of Ah Q’s utterly unremarkable existence, the narrator starts with a scathing description of the character’s exaggerated sense of pride: 阿Q又很自尊,所有未莊的居民,全不在他眼睛裡,甚而至於對於兩位“文 童” 也有以為不值一笑的神情。夫文童者,將來恐怕要變秀才者也;趙太爺錢 太爺 大受居民的尊敬,除有錢之外,就因為都是文童的爹爹,而阿Q在精神上 獨不 表格外的崇奉,他想:我的兒子會闊得多啦! (Lu Xun emphases) 2002:3, my

Ah Q also [is] very proud. The Weizhuang villagers are not worth his notice. Toward the two “young scholars”, in particular, he feels them not even worth a smile. It is said, one who is a young scholar, it seems, will become a talented literati. Mr Chao and Mr Qian enjoy the villagers’ respect, not only because they have money but also, because they are the dads of the two young scholars. However, Ah Q is alone in not being in the spirit of showing any particular worship toward them. He thinks, “My son gonna be much more richer!” (my translation, my emphases) Excerpt from Lu Xun’s 0riginal Text (1921): Hybridity of Voice and Juxtaposition of H-L Language Variants to Create Parodic Function Ah Q, again, had a very high opinion of himself. He looked down on all the inhabitants of Weichuang, thinking even the two young "scholars" not worth a smile, though most young scholars were likely to pass the official examinations . Mr. Chao and Mr. Chien were held in great respect by the villagers, for in addition to being rich they were both the fathers of young scholars. Ah Q alone showed them no exceptional deference, thinking to himself, "My sons may be much greater!" (Yang
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar 1956:82) Conclusion The present paper has attempted to identify and demonstrate a lacuna within Translation Studies literature pertaining to translation of diglossia as linguistic variation. Discussion presented in the paper suggests the need for a broadening of the scope of the (un-) translatability of linguistic variation discourse to include investigation of translation into, out of, and within diglossic, heteroglossic, and multilingual language communities and language contact situations. An example of a potential avenue for further exploration by Translation Studies researchers is provided through reference to and brief discussion of a register-based, relative-distance styled approach to linguistic variation based upon Catford (1965) and Pym’s(2000) investigation into the (un-) translatability of linguistic variation. In order to provide a backdrop against which to suggest a potentiality for the translation of diglossia by a relative-distance styled approach, Catford and Pym’s views are contrasted with certain trends in Translation Studies literature that seem to focus upon an unrealistic, disproportionately mono-lingual/mono- variant based treatment of (un-) translatability of linguistic variation. A brief discussion of ‘diglossia’ as a concept and its manifestation in the Chinese language contact situation have been presented in order to facilitate an exploration of Lu Xun’s parody of the Chinese diglossic scenario. In particular, the paper focused upon Lu Xun’s manipulation in the novella Ah Q Zhengzhuan of traditional H-L variant norms. Historical details relating to characteristics and norms of the Mainland Chinese diglossic language contact situation have been presented to help the reader understand parodic function as created in Ah Q Zhengzhuan through the juxtaposition of H-L language variants. Discussion of two English-language translations of Ah Q Zhengzhuan — Yang Xianyi and Gladys Yang’s The true story of Ah Q (1956) and William A. Lyell’s Ah Q — The Real Story (1990) — has provided an opportunity in which to examine translation from a diglossic language situation, Chinese in Mainland China, into a non-diglossic one, English in the US and the UK. Analysis has focused upon (non-) representation within the two translations of diglossia, heteroglossia, and linguistic variation as presented in the original. In particular, the discussion has related to representation of linguistic variation within the story’s narrative as it functions to foreground Lu Xun’s parodic treatment of Chinese traditional historiography and the diglossic language contact situation in premodern China. Translators to manage because it not only involves the representation of two distinct registers within a single voice, but also necessitates a third level of register in order to offset the villagers’ hybrid register from that of the narrator. Obviously, the nondiglossic nature of the modern day English language situation makes it difficult to effectively represent the diglossic situation presented in Ah Q Zhengzhuan. It may be possible, however, to make use of archaic English. References
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar

Anderman, Gunilla (2007) Voices in Translation: Bridging Cultural Divides, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Baker, Mona and Gabriela Saldanha (eds) (2011) Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies, second edition, London and New York: Routledge. Brisset, Annie (1996) Sociocritique de la Traduction: Théâtre et Altérité au Québec, 1968-1988, Quebec : Le Préambule; trans. by Rosalind Gill and Roger Gannon (1996) as A Sociocritique of Translation: Theatre and Alterity in Quebec,1968-1988, Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Catford, John Cunnison (1965) A Linguistic Theory of Translation: An Essay in Applied Linguistics, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chen, Ping (1993) ‘Modern Written Chinese in Development’, Language in Society, 22(4): 505-537. Chen, Ping (1999) Modern Chinese: History and Sociolinguistics, Cambridge and New Routledge Companion to Translation Studies, London and New York: Routledge, 141-.165York: Cambridge University Press. TRANSLATION THEORIES AND PRACTICES A.GOPALAKRISHNAN.Ph.D. ResearchScholar, DR.V.NAGARAJAN. Associate Professor & Head Alagappa Govt Arts College, Karaikudi Introduction Good theory is based on information gained from practice. Good practice is based on carefully worked-out theory. The two are interdependent The ideal translation will be accurate as to meaning and natural as to the receptor language forms used. An intended audience who is unfamiliar with the source text will readily understand it. The success of a translation is measured by how closely it measures up to these ideals. The ideal translation should be… • Accurate: reproducing as exactly as possible the meaning of the source text. • Natural: using natural forms of the receptor language in a way that is appropriate to the kind of text being translated. • Communicative: expressing all aspects of the meaning in a way that is readily understandable to the intended audience. Translation is a process based on the theory that it is possible to abstract the meaning of a text from its forms and reproduce that meaning with the very different forms of a second language. Translation, then, consists of studying the lexicon, grammatical structure, communication situation, and cultural context of the source language text, analyzing it in order to determine its meaning, and then reconstructing this same meaning using the lexicon and grammatical structure which are appropriate in the receptor language and its cultural context. As the course title indicates, this course focuses on translation and translation theory. The purpose is for you to gain insights into the principles of (advanced) translation theory, and for you to be able to apply the theoretical principles practically in translation. Now, we will

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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar of course not be able to cover all aspects of translation theory over the course of six weeks, therefore we will focus on a number of selected topics: ● The translation process ● Text analysis in translation ● Cultural differences in translation ● Translation of metaphors and idioms ● Componential analysis in translation ● Case grammar in translation Objectives of Translation I) The translator must fully understand the sense and meaning of the original author, although he is at liberty to clarify obscurities. II) The translator should have a perfect knowledge of both SL and TL. III) The translator should avoid word-for-word rendering. IV) The translator should use forms of speech in common use. V) The translator should choose and order words appropriately to produce the correct tone. Implications for ‘translation’ For the purposes of the present discussion, two major implications emerge, one about ‘translation’ and one about ‘semantics’. The first implication is that translation is not at all a merely practical activity of substituting words but rather a vastly complex process of co-ordinating two dialectics between theory and practice. Skilled translators continually assess the current stretch of discourses in the source language and the target language in respect to the theory and practice of the relevant discourse communities. The process is necessarily far beyond the reach of any conventional linguistic theory that theorises about ‘language’ disconnected from discursive practices, especially when the theorising is devoted to constructing a highly idealised mode of order existing nowhere but within those same theories. A corollary of this first implication would be that translating is a process of creating dynamic connections, many of them novel, between dual modes of order; but these are precisely modes of order which have not been adequately accounted for by the theories of language either in linguistics or in literary studies, just because the order is continually being created on line. This factor might explain why a number of early studies of ‘translation theory’ were not very informative for the practical concerns of professional translators (cf. Beaugrande 1978). On the one side, the linguistic studies tended toward premature idealisation, abstraction, and formalisation, especially when pursuing the prospects for developing mechanised algorithms. Little attention was devoted to the necessity for real translators to generate novel modes of order, or at least to generate familiar modes of order in novel degrees of delicacy and detail. On the other side, the literary studies tended, on the contrary, to present unsystematic or anecdotal lists of special cases and colourful problems together with ostensibly ingenious solutions. Here, novelty was highlighted; but, in keeping with the ‘vitalist’ tradition of attributing creativity to some unfathomable or even sacrosanct ‘inspiration’, literary translators were inclined to portray themselves in an intensely personal and esoteric dialogue with the literary author, and to marginalise the experience of the target language-reader (Beaugrande 1978). However, what still needs to be worked out would be a comprehensive science of text and discourse where translation can be assigned a strategic position: ‘interlingual discourse’ as a linguistic, cognitive and social activity (Beaugrande 1997a). Virtually all of the theoretical or practical issues and concerns that confront us in translation also

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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar confront us in other modes of discourse and deserve to be approached in correspondingly general terms: (a) What operations are required for data to be ‘translated’ from any modality into another? (b) What standards or measures can determine whether and how well those operations have succeeded? (c) What are the cognitive modalities of human knowledge of experience which can be ‘translated’ into language, and how? (d) How far are those modalities compatible with language? ( e) How far does this compatibility vary from one language to another? ( f) What operations are required for this compatibility to be maintained when translating a discourse from one language into another? (g) Again, what standards or measures can determine whether and how well those operations have succeeded? Viewed in such general terms, questions about ‘translation’ open out into very large questions of how data can be represented, accessed, and transferred in or among all types of modalities. We would be highly unrealistic to demand that the discipline of ‘translation studies’ or ‘translation science’ (‘Übersetzungswissenschaft’) answer such questions on its own when they have so seldom been raised in other disciplines with a view to genuinely reconciling theory with practice. And we would be highly unfair to charge the discipline with failing to achieve the status of a true ‘science’ when the ‘scientific status of its close neighbours in linguistics and literary studies remains profoundly uncertain (cf. Beaugrande 1988a, 1991a, 1997a). The rational alternative would be to co-operate in a large-scale inquiry about what sort of a ‘science’ could represent the evolutionary dialectics between theory and practice within human interaction and discourse in general and within translation in particular. Only then could we determine how far ‘translation’ in the ordinary sense is similar to or different from other operations of representing, accessing, and transferring data. We might also be able to describe what sort of implicit theories get applied during the practices of skilled translators to favour successful operations; and what sort of implicit theories get projected onto the real-world context of situation by the discourse itself in either the source language or the target language. Conclusion i) Translation as a scholar’s activity. ii) Translation as a means of encouraging the intelligent reader to return to return to SL’s original. iii) These two above mentioned types seem to produce the literal translation. iv) Translation as a means of helping readers become the equal of the better reader of the original, through deliberately contrive foreignness in SL text . v) Translation as a means of the translator offering his own pragmatic choice to the TL reader . vi) Translation as a means through which the translator seeks to upgrade the status of the SL text for it is perceived as being on a lower cultural level. WORKS CITED  Beaugrande, R. de. 1978. Factors in a Theory of Poetic Translating. Assen: Van Gorcum, and Amsterdam: Rodopi.

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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar  Snell-Hornby, Mary (ed.). 1986. Übersetzungswissenschaft Neuorientierung: zur Integrierung von Theorie und Praxis. Bern: Francke. Eine

ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY IN TRANSLATION AND COMMUNICATION Dr.T.K VEDHARAJA Asst. Professor of English, Alagappa Govt.Arts College, Karaikudi Mr. A.V. PONNALAGU, Asst. Professor of English, H.H. Rajah’s College, Pudukottai The globalization and the fast mobility of today’s markets—aiming to serve as many heterogeneous settings and audiences as possible—have posited a growing need for high quality products and optimal performance in nearly all areas of everyday life. Specialists in communication play an important, albeit often hidden, role in these processes. Translators and other international professional communicators operate as mediators to facilitate understanding across global, international, national and local contexts through diverse communication channels. Translating today often involves several agents with different roles, responsibilities and skills. This entails creative work, various innovative procedures, and collaborative networks in highly technological, distributed environments. All these agents can be seen as text producers with an increasing expertise in the tools and skills of their trades to find, manage, process, and adapt information to target audiences. Despite disperse attempts at acknowledging the importance of approaching professional communication as translation or as involving translation-related skills (e.g., Hoft 1995; Weiss 1995, 1997; Melton 2008), translation often remains invisible both in the literature and in the training of (international) professional communicators. The extant literature in Communication Studies that actually addresses translation usually tends to emphasize, and concentrate on, localization issues, and it often draws from functional approaches to translation as production of a communicative message or instrument (e.g., Vermeer 1996; Nord 1997; Reiss 2000). In Translation Studies, on the other hand, there is an increasing awareness of the need to tend bridges to Communication Studies in research (e.g., Risku 2010; Ehrensberger-Dow & Daniel 2013). However, more dialogue seems necessary to fully grasp the implications and commonalities in all areas of multilingual professional communication, not the least that they are usually ascribed peripheral roles in business, technical, and scientific endeavors. The emerging figure of the multitasked professional communicator has brought translation as part of the document production process to a different level of discussion. It is drawing increasing attention to translators’ profiles and training as competent communicators and vice versa, thus showing that the role translation plays in international professional communication, and the role of international professional communication in translator training cannot be downplayed (Gnecchi et al., 2011). Advances in information technology (IT) have combined with modern communication requirements to foster translation automation. The history of the relationship between technology and translation goes back to the beginnings of the Cold
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar War, as in the 1950s competition between the United States and the Soviet Union was so intensive at every level that thousands of documents were translated from Russian to English and vice versa. However, such high demand revealed the inefficiency of the translation process, above all in specialized areas of knowledge, increasing interest in the idea of a translation machine. Although the Cold War has now ended, and despite the importance of globalization, which tends to break down cultural, economic and linguistic barriers, translation has not become obsolete, because of the desire on the part of nations to retain their independence and cultural identity, especially as expressed through their own language. This phenomenon can clearly be seen within the European Union, where translation remains a crucial activity. IT has produced a screen culture that tends to replace the print culture, with printed documents being dispensed with and information being accessed and relayed directly through computers (e-mail, databases and other stored information). These computer documents are instantly available and can be opened and processed with far greater flexibility than printed matter, with the result that the status of information itself has changed, becoming either temporary or permanent according to need. Over the last two decades we have witnessed the enormous growth of information technology with the accompanying advantages of speed, visual impact, ease of use, convenience, and costeffectiveness. At the same time, with the development of the global market, industry and commerce function more than ever on an international scale, with increasing freedom and flexibility in terms of exchange of products and services. The nature and function of translation is inevitably affected by these changes. There is the need for countries to cooperate in many spheres, such as ecological (Greenpeace), economic (free trade agreements) humanitarian (Doctors without Borders) and educational (exchange programs), etc. Despite the importance of English, there is the commonly-held belief that people have the right to use their own language, yet the diversity of languages should not be an obstacle to mutual understanding. Solutions to linguistic problems must be found in order to allow information to circulate freely and to facilitate bilateral and multilateral relationships. Thus different aspects of modern life have led to the need for more efficient methods of translation. At the present time the demand for translations is not satisfied because there are not enough human translators, or because individuals and organizations do not recognize translation as a complex activity requiring a high level of skill, and are therefore not prepared to pay what it is worth. In other words, translation is sometimes avoided because it is considered to be too expensive. In part, human translation is expensive because the productivity of a human being is essentially limited. Statistics vary, but in general to produce a good translation of a difficult text a translator cannot process more than 4-6 pages or 2,000 words per day. The economic necessity of finding a cheaper solution to international exchange has resulted in continuing technological progress in terms of translation tools designed to respond to the translator's need for immediatelyavailable information and non-sequential access to extensive databases. This paper aims at examining the new technologies (machine translation, electronic dictionaries, terminology databases, bilingual texts, grammatical concordances, and translation memories) in order to determine whether they change the relationship between the translator and the texts, and if so, then in what way. We will try to answer the following questions:  Which computer tools are genuinely useful to translators?
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar  Do the new technologies threaten the livelihood of the translator?  Does automation imply the disappearance of translation as we know it? The use of translation tools and automated translation will increase due to the sheer volume of material to be translated. The job of the translator will become more diverse with increased use of tools such as machine translation. What benefits do MT systems bring and what challenges do we face? Many of the large corporations are already successfully implementing in-house machine translation for a variety of purposes. Microsoft has mastered machine translation for its white papers and developer site, and Symantec uses hybrid human/MT workflows for all of their materials. The Big Bang of MT came wh fragmentation of the market. Some companies may choose to concentrate on high-level human language services, and buy in their technology needs. Is MT better than bad human translation? From a cost-benefit perspective, this may indeed be the case. However, there is a risk of overuse of MT, and the translator must still learn to translate and possess and continue to possess an above-average command of their respective language, otherwise they will remain at the bottom end of the market. What other technology may influence our profession and the perspectives of the translator in the future? Without a crystal ball, it is difficult to know whatother tools we may use in the future. Speech recognition software has not seen widespread use in our industry with the exception of niche markets, although this may change with the spread of multimedia content and the need for translation of it into various languages. dotSUB, for example, uses it to script some of its content for translation. It has long been a subject of discussion whether machine translation and computer-assisted translation could convert translators into mere editors, making them less important than the computer programs. The fear of this happening has led to a certain rejection of the new technologies on the part of translators, not only because of a possible loss of work and professional prestige, but also because of concern about a decline in the quality of production. Some translators totally reject machine translation because they associate it with the point of view that translation is merely one more marketable product based on a calculation of investment versus profits. They define translation as an art that possesses its own aesthetic criteria that have nothing to do with profit and loss, but are rather related to creativity and the power of the imagination. This applies mostly, however, to specific kinds of translation, such as that of literary texts, where polysemy, connotation and style play a crucial role. It is clear that computers could not even begin to replace human translators with such texts. Even with other kinds of texts, our analysis of the roles and capabilities of both MT and CAT shows that neither is efficient and accurate enough to eliminate the necessity for human translators. In fact, so-called machine translation would be more accurately described as computer-assisted translation too. Translators should recognize and learn to exploit the potential of the new technologies to help them to be more rigorous, consistent and productive without feeling threatened. Some people ask if the new technologies have created a new profession. It could be claimed that the resources available to the translator through information technology imply a change in the relationship between the translator and the text, that is to say, a new way of translating, but this does not mean that the result is a new profession. However, there is clearly the development of new capabilities, which leads us to point out a number of essential aspects of the current situation. Translating with the help of the computer is definitely not the same as working exclusively on paper and with paper products such as conventional dictionaries, because computer tools provide us with a relationship to the text which is much more flexible than a purely lineal reading. Furthermore, the Internet with its universal access to information and instant communication between users has
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar created a physical and geographical freedom for translators that was inconceivable in the past. We share the conviction that translation has not become a new profession, but the changes are here to stay and will continue to evolve. Translators need to accept the new technologies and learn how to use them to their maximum potential as a means to increased productivity and quality improvement. Reference:  ARNOLD, Doug, BALKAN, Lorna et al. Machine Translation: An Introductory Guide. URL: http://clwww.essex.ac.uk. MTbook/HTML/ (consulted 13 May 2002).  BEDARD, Claude. Ce qu'il faut savoir sur les mémoires de traduction. URL: www.terminotix.com/Terminotix-fr/info/art_5html (consulted 17 June 2002).  BERTRAND-GASTALDY, Suzanne. La traduction automatique ou assistée par ordinateur. URL: www.esi.umontreal.ca/~moalv/blt6134/index.html (consulted 6 June 2002).  CHAMPOLLION, Yves. Machine Translation (MT and Future of the Translation Industry. URL: http://accurapid.com/journal/15mt.htm (consulted 2 May 2002).

TRANSLATION OF HARIVAMSH RAI BACHCHAN’S POEM AAJ PHIR SE TUM BHUJA DEEPAK JHALAVO Dr.J.VIJAYALAKSHMI, Assistant Professor in English, St.Aloysius College,Mangalore. Unknown is the fire which could enkindle me, Unknown is the flame which would enlighten my destiny. Raagini, the versifier of truth, I plead you to candle the darkness of my life. By, Shadowing the darkness of my heart, Will you not enkindle a new ray of hope? Will you not patronize the new sagas of existence? I request you, Thus, Please, ignite me with your living truth. Please, pour life Into me. As, I am, Hunger-stricken and thirsty for the “new” brilliance, Which, Would form the strength of my “new” belief. Friendship, care, Affection, Awaits me forever, Why don’t you form these genres? Tomorrow will be bright, As, I will struggle victoriously in midst of darkness, In the midst of evil, In the midst of bitterness,
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar In the midst of Hatred, In the midst of failures, And many more…, But, For “Today”, “Now” and “Here”, I require a drop of “love”, To surge beyond Life’s tranquility. -Translation of Harivamshrai Bachchan’s poem Translation and transliteration are the two bridges of hope which could act as a connector of two diverse cultures.Translating a work can be connotated as re-creating the entire text. This can be done either through “word-by word” translation or “meaning-tomeaning translation”.The job of the translator becomes a little complicated as he has to go back to the era in which the writer lived and thus understand the thought-process. The pains and the gains of this act goes beyond the creation of translation which forms a new saga of literature such as “World Literature”. In the era of globalization, consumerism and alienation, the real abhida and the lakshya of the phrases and the clauses remain polysemous. Even the” sign” and the “signification” varies into a bundle of “delay” and “postponement”. Furthermore, the broad valley of critics and their theories of criticism takes the original text, a step ahead to hybridity. The histories of “Eco-criticism”, “Techno”, “Postmodern”, “Postcolonial” gives a new semantic, structural and stylistic frames of vision-pattern. In this context, the present paper focuses on the similarities and differences of the source language and the target language(SL and TL) of “Enlightenment”. Structure: The SL forms a model of the couplet which has the rhyme-scheme- AABBCC…. Of sixteen lines. Each line follows the pattern of iambic pentameter. So the present poetry can be rightly termed as the one nearer to “Heroic Couplet”. But in the TL, as one can analyse, the poem does not follow the couplet form. But, a stanza consists of either two, three, four or seven lines. The meter scheme is also different: “Unknown is the fire which could enkindle me. “ Here, the trimester is more significant and in the next, “Unknown is the flame which would enlighten my destiny”. Here, the tetrameter is more significant. There is no rhyme-scheme followed at all. Thus, according to the meter,rhymescheme and rhythm- the “SL” is poetic and the “TL” is prosaic or in the free-style verse. The SL gives more importance to subjectivity which is retained to some extent in TL.The pattern of the refrain is also followed by repeating the words such as “unknown”,”please”,”new”, “in midst of”. The two texts equally balance the concept of polyptoton- the creative use of the parts of the speech for more emphasis. The declarative form is transformed into a request and a question in TL. The poetic device of pun, similie, metaphor and hyperbole is missing in TL. Semantics: The first stanza is entirely different in TL. Here, the technique of translation is applied which changes the two lines in to an unknown search or quest. The priority is changed from “where” to “Unknown”.In the second stanza, the person by the name“Raagini” is mentioned which can be understood as truth only in the final stanza. The shift of focus in TL is to candle-darkness, shadow-darkness from the light of SL. Eventhough, the words are different, the central idea of the poem is clearly portrayed. In the third stanza, a new ray of hope and a new saga of existence is revealed in a positive tone. But in SL,it creates a fusion of doubt and fear.The fourth stanza is of four lines: “I request you … Life into me”.The idea of hope and belief is

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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar turned into a pleading tone of the poet in TL. The words “ignite” and “pour” forms the dream for the future. In the fifth stanza, the meaning of “ one drop” in SL has a literal and a symbolical meaning. It may mean friendship,care or affection or the other realms of love which makes a human more humane. The sixth stanza visualizes the struggles and the traumas of a poet in midst of an earthquake or storm in SL. In TL,it is divided into various branches of signification such as: “ In Midst of Evil, In midst of bitterness, In midst of hatred, In Midst of failures.” The final stanza speaks confidently about the role of Ragini who will show a motherly-care and enlighten the poet’s darkness in SL. But in TL, the poet demands or insists for various factions of love’s abstract forces in order to surge beyond the arena of tranquility. Critical views: Originally, it is a poem of longing, love and lost life in SL. In TL, the poem forms a post-modern, post-colonial, the psychological and the feminist “other”. A Final word: The SL and the TL is different from the structural and the critical point of view, but it is similar in semantic construction. Even the imagery of the truth digresses as love. Thus, the cultural ellipsis of English and Hindi is broken down and is given the name “World Literature” or “Universal Literature”. Works Cited: Bachchan,Harivamshrai. 1890. Aaj Phir Se Tum Bhuja Deepak Jhalavo . Allahabad: Sumitra Publications, 1890. Print. VEMANNA: THE POET – SAINT OF TELUGU LITERATURE Dr. SHEILA JAYARAJ, HEAD, RVS CAS Why should we the pariah scorn, When his flesh and blood were born Like to ours? What caste is He Who doth dwell in all we see? Poet –saint, philosopher and prophet, outstanding in many ways, vemanna, the prince among ‘Sataka’ poets in Telugu literature, breathes out a message of classical universality. His words are more relevant to the present world enveloped in moral crisis, rootlessness and a sense of futility. His religion is the religion of man, his mission the mission of love, and his goal the establishment of a universal brotherhood. The essence of his teaching is contained in the sublime declaration that “only he who considers the sorrows of his fellow men as his own is worthy of being called a man”. Born in the last and worst phase of the medieval period in Andhra characterized by a poor spirit, vulgar thought and speech, and ugly in all aspects, vemanna stood up singly against it as a poet of the people , a philosopher of freedom and equality, and a fighting –saint. He was, from every point of view, a true and rare genius. Brought up in an obscure village, he took the whole world into his kin. A dissolute life ultimately transformed him into a saint. Without a formal education, he mastered his native tongue
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar Telugu to such a great extent that he invested it with a novelty and power. With no literary ambitions he became a great poet not only of his age but of all ages. Unlearned in philosophy, he was a philosopher par excellence. His own insights and rich experiences of life enabled him to propound three philosophies – a social, an ethical and a religious philosophy. His verses in Telugu are laced with his philosophical concepts. Poetry, any poetry, suffers in translation. The essential flavour rising out of the original word and musical cadence cannot be adequately translated. The metrical verses of vemanna from the Telugu language have all been translated into English by Charles E.Grover and those in prose by Charles Philip Brown. However the translations suffer a loss of the idiomatic graces of vemanna, his cadence, his rhythm and his terseness. As a social philosopher, vemanna is an advocate of human quality. He fervently believed that there can be no equality as long as the caste system exists. Besides caste, class is also a divisive force. He believes that class creates a wider gulf between man and man. He considers poverty a sin. Unable to think of a socialist solution to poverty he appeals to the rich to share their riches with the poor and the needy. The ethical philosophy of vemanna is dualistic in nature. To the yogi he advices renunciation and to proceed with single-minded quest for self- realization. To the rest he suggests that one could be a good man and a good citizen. “A good family man is indeed a yogi of family life”. The religious philosophy of vemanna is advaita (monism). Though he rejected the authority of the Vedas, he was a Vedantin by all means. To him Vedic rituals were meaningless. The puranas are “a farrago of lies”. He condemned idol worship. Vemanna did not write poetry; he spoke it. His poetic diction is unique. His verses conformed to the sataka type; they have common makuta (refrain). The refrain that echoes in his verses is “Visvada-abhiraama-Vimura-Vema”translated as “Hark! O vema! The delighter of the world”. The metre chosen by him is ataveladi. What the mandakranta is to kalidasa and the sikharini to Bhavabhuti, what the Kandam is to Tikkana and the seesam to Srinath, what the blank verse is to Shakespeare and the heroic couplet to pope, the ataveladi is to vemanna. If Kalidasa is a poet of smilies, vemanna is of analogies. Vemanna, by any test, is by far the greatest of Telugu poets of all times. To sum up in the word ofG.A.Grierson, a Western scholar, who had devoted a life –time to the study of Indian literatures and languages found that vemanna “is today the most popular of all Telugu authors, and there is hardly a proverb or a pithy saying which is not attributed to him”. A TOOL FOR TRANSLATION IN A MULTICULTURAL SPACE COUNTRY LIKE INDIA Dr. K. NAGARATHINAM, Associate Professor RVS College of Arts and Science Translation plays a significant role, explicit or implicit, deliberate or spontaneous in the interlingual, intercultural communication between the people of India, as well in the construction of multilingual, multicultural Indian Literature. It negotiates the power relations between various cultural formations and different linguistic mediums as a means of communication and as a language of translation, contributing to the egalitarian process by countering the hierarchical relationships between languages and cultures, reclaiming disappearing texts and cultures, and releasing knowledge from the control of a few. The paper addresses these complex interconnected issues of Indian Literature, multiculturalism and translation.
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar India is a multicultural space accommodating many races, castes, languages, religions and cultures. These exist paradoxically as distinct and, at the same time, interconnected, even overlapping, identities, at multiple levels. India can be described as a nation of nations, a land of many Indias, variously imagined by these communities/collectivities through various cultural forms and expressions. Out of this scenario emerge multilingual forms of Indian literature, and in this translation plays a role that can be explicit or implicit, deliberate or spontaneous. The aim of this paper is to discuss how translation participates in these complex interrelations and negotiates the power relationships between these various socio-cultural forces and different linguistic mediums, such as the choice of bhashas vis-a-vis English as the language of translation. Machine Translation is an important technology for localization, and is particularly relevant in a linguistically diverse country like India. In this document, we provide a brief survey of Machine Translation in India. Human translation in India is a rich and ancient tradition. Works of philosophy, arts, mythology, religion, science and folklore have been translated among the ancient and modern Indian languages. Numerous classic works of art, ancient, medieval and modern, have also been translated between European and Indian languages since the 18th century. In the current era, human translation finds application mainly in the administration, media and education, and to a lesser extent, in business, arts and science and technology. India has a linguistically rich area—it has 18 constitutional languages, which are written in 10 different scripts. Hindi is the official language of the Union. English is very widely used in the media, commerce, science and technology and education. Many of the states have their own regional language, which is either Hindi or one of the other constitutional languages. Only about 5% of the population speaks English. In such a situation, there is a big market for translation between English and the various Indian languages. Currently, this translation is essentially manual. Use of automation is largely restricted to word processing. Two specific examples of high volume manual translation are—translation of news from English into local languages, translation of annual reports of government departments and public sector units among, English, Hindi and the local language. As is clear from above, the market is largest for translation from English into Indian languages, primarily Hindi. Hence, it is no surprise that a majority of the Indian Machine Translation (MT) systems are for English-Hindi translation. As is well known, natural language processing presents many challenges, of which the biggest is the inherent ambiguity of natural language. MT systems have to deal with ambiguity, and various other NL phenomena. In addition, the linguistic diversity between the source and target language makes MT a bigger challenge. This is particularly true of widely divergent languages such as English and Indian languages. The major structural difference between English and Indian languages can be summarized as follows. English is a highly positional language with rudimentary morphology, and default sentence structure as SVO. Indian languages are highly inflectional, with a rich morphology, relatively free word order, and default sentence structure as SOV. In addition, there are many stylistic differences. For example, it is common to see very long sentences in English, using abstract concepts as the subjects of sentences, and stringing several clauses together (as in this sentence!). Such constructions are not natural in Indian languages, and present major difficulties in producing good translations. As is recognized

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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar the world over, with the current state of art in MT, it is not possible to have Fully Automatic, High Quality, and General-Purpose Machine Translation. Practical systems need to handle ambiguity and the other complexities of natural language processing, by relaxing one or more of the above dimensions. Thus, we can have automatic high-quality ‘sub-language’ systems for specific domains, or automatic general-purpose systems giving rough translation, or interactive generalpurpose systems with pre or post editing. Indian MT systems have also adopted one of these strategies, as we will see. Machine Translation in India is relatively young. The earliest efforts date from the late 80s and early 90s. The prominent among these are the projects at IIT Kanpur, University of Hyderabad, NCST Mumbai and CDAC Pune. The Technology Development in Indian Languages (TDIL), an initiative of the Department of IT, Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, Government of India, has played an instrumental role by funding these projects. Since the mid and late 90’s, a few more projects have been initiated—at IIT Bombay, IIIT Hyderabad, AU-KBC Centre Chennai and Jadavpur University Kolkata. There are also a couple of efforts from the private sector - from Super Infosoft Pvt Ltd, and more recently, the IBM India Research Lab. Reference : • Benjamin, W. 1969. “The Task of the Translator.” In Illuminations. Trans. H. Zohn, ed. H. Arendt. New York: Schocken Books. • Niranjana, T. 1992. Siting Translation. Hyderabad: Orient Longman. GLOBALIZATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON TRANSLATION Dr. D.ANAND KUMAR Assistant Professor of English Government Arts College, Ooty. The idea of globalization has different meanings to different people. However, many people believe the idea rests on the integration of economic, political, and cultural systems across the globe. The process that drives globalization is based on a combination of economic, technological, sociocultural and political forces. This purpose of this article is to discuss the impact of globalization on language translation services and how it has gained increasing important and has created several critically important focuses that include medical translation, legal translation and standard professional translation. By definition, globalization concerns the development of a single society but that is probably a huge exaggeration. Further, the pace at which internationalization takes place today is still limited by the same things that created limited when the term was first introduced. This includes it the trade sanctions, unfair trade deals, quotas, and wars. Similarly to good and services, people are also prevented from traveling past borders with approval and specific documentation that often includes notarized divorce decree translation, marriage certificate translation and birth certificate translation documentation. But while the growth of internationalization may have encountered some obstacles, it has still made a tremendous impact in our lives over the past 20 years. For instance, in the field of law, the globalization refers to Legal Translation Services workers and attorneys begin their day early by translating and securing international patents, trademarks, copyrights, and contracts into dozens of different languages ranging from Chinese and Korean to Russian. The legal profession is not alone in the change that it
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar has experienced from globalization. For instance, securities and exchange traders now follow global trends in trading throughout the day and invest in international markets. Even outside of our professional lives, we see the effects of globalization in multilingual broadcasts of sporting events like soccer championships. Each of these situations illustrate the dependence that the world has for accurate language translation services in globalization. It’s important to point out too that while multinational-ism as a subject has only been discussed or the past twenty years in the United States, the concept has been a subject of discussion in Asia for more than 50-years. Just to prove how young the concept is, it is interesting to note that Word Perfect still believes that I must have made a mistake in my spelling. However, I have ignored their suggestion for correction and have instead written an article about how globalization is changing the world of translation workers. In America, the origins of the term can be traced back social scientists, economists and historians. Despite how old the definition of globalization turns out to be, its effects have created ripples in every segment of our lives, including medical care, where Medical Translation Services workers are common in hospitals and work to translate all sorts of medical reports. Although concerns are still high about the impact that multinationalism will have on the economy, the vast majority of professional translation workers believe that they have benefited. Thomas Friedman, for example, an articulate popularized of the globalization idea, came up with the dramatic statement that no two countries that have McDonald’s restaurants have ever gone to war with each other –meaning that societies that successfully participate in global consumerism will become much more cautious about belligerence, because they will have other pleasures they seek to protect and a lot to lose. In the study English and French speaking consumers from the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada and France were used as test subjects. It appeared that the endorsement rates for the endpoints of the abovementioned agreement scales depended on the familiarity of the labels. If the associated labels were often used in everyday language (such as “completely agree” or “tout à fait d'accord”), response categories got more responses then when these scaled has less commonly used lables (“extremely agree” or “extrêmement d'accord”). This was true for both the English and the French language. Other research has shown that the self-reported awareness of the cholesterol level of different types of food was a lot stronger when the Dutch equivalent of “completely disagree” to “completely agree” was used then when the researchers chose a scale that used “strongly disagree” and “strongly agree.” These two studies reveal the importance of using the right labels when creating survey lists for research. This is why the authors conclude: “Survey researchers should pay more attention to the labels assigned to response categories on rating scales and make sure that the response category labels used in different languages are equivalent in terms of familiarity. Differences in the category labels used in different languages may lead to differences in responses resulting from poor translation.” As indicated above, and over the past decade, globalization has been fervently discussed by scholars in the field of translation and those in other fields, i.e. industry, management, politics, economics, etc. Interpretation of globalization varied from positive to negative. At one extreme, globalization has been perceived as an overpowering force for bringing economic affluence to people and nations throughout the world. At the other, it has been perceived as a pandemic for all modern problems. One key characteristic that can be ascribed to globalization is that it helped liberalize foreign and global trade. It also

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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar helped create global market competition, where international financial flows have been long-drawnout. This has come from several factors: one is the removal of national barriers and replacing them with money-making transactions, and this allowed the expansion of global markets and affected the range of goods and services. The second factor is the role of technology which has impacted areas such as information technology and all means of communication. Costs of transmitting information are greatly reduced, and time and distance barriers have been abridged. At the translation level, globalization has impacted the lives of everyone, including the profession of translation and the lives of translators. With the new technology and the emergence of new words and concepts, translators have to incorporate globalization into their daily practices. At the cultural level, translation can bridge the gap between peoples and nations, and globalization has contributed in a more effective way towards understanding the source language and culture. Reference: House, J., “Misunderstanding in intercultural communication: Interactions in English as a lingua franca and the myth of mutual intelligibility.” In Teaching and Learning English as a Global Language (Tübingen: Stauffenburg, 1999)73-93. “Maintenance and Convergence in Covert Translation English-German,” in Information Structure in a Cross-Linguistic Perspective (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2002) 199-213. “Communicating in English as a lingua franca,” in EUROSLA Yearbook 2 (Amsterdam: Benjamins, 2002) 243-261. “English as a lingua franca: A threat to multilingualism?” Journal of Sociolinguistics 7:4 (2003): 556-578. DEGRADATION IN INDIAN SOCIETY IN SILENCE! THE COURT IS IN SESSION T.ANANTHI M.A.B.Ed ASST. PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH Professional Group of Institution The original title of the play is SHANTATA! COURT CHALU AHE. The words of the title are very common in law courts where the honourable judges pronounce the words to bring back order and decorum if the parties concerned or the mob present in the court become unruly or create chaos and commotion. In other words the very words SILENCE THE COURT IS IN SESSION indicates the absolute authority of the judge in the court room to decide upon the manners of others. The judge has also the final authority to pronounce contempt of court in case of breach of discipline. In a civilized society the court system is in vogue for the sake of justice. The judiciary is considered to be one of the four main pillars of democracy. Vijay Tendulkar chooses a term of judicial register as the title of his play to make a powerful comment on a society with a heavy patriarchal bias that makes justice impossible and that converts the august judicial system into an instrument of oppression of women and the vulnerable. Ideally justice can be provided only if the judge and the judicial system are objectively detached. But the same objective detachment can become the face of a very repressive and dehumanized system if the persons involved in the process of justice are themselves devoid of human value and compassion.

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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar Translated into and performed in several Indian and foreign languages, Shantata! Court Chalu Ahe written by playwright Vijay Tendulkar was first performed in 1967. The play was written in 1963, for Rangayan, a theatre group, though it was performed much later. The play is political and is a social satire on hypocritical middle-class society. It is set as a play-within-a-play, where a travelling amateur theatre group, makes an unscheduled stop at a village in the course of the play, she is 'charged' of infanticide and as the charges get more vicious and personal, she can't take them anymore, as she is reminded of her predicament. Finally she breaks down, revealing the true story behind it all, and also the hegemony and hypocrisy of the male in general. A traditional male dominated society cannot relinquish its paralyzed values and customs. The society does not like to perceive or receive any social change. Tendulkar presents a treatment of those ugly ways of society in this play. It is a bitter satire against the social ills and an interesting attempt to criticize the follies that prevail in our society. In it we find a group of people who were planning to stage a play in a village. It so turned out that one of the members of the cast did not show up. A local stagehand was asked to replace him. A pass time was arranged and a mock trial was staged to make him understand the court procedure. A mock charge of infanticide was leveled against Miss Benare, one of the members of the cast. Benare is an educated woman about thirty-four years old, worked as a schoolteacher. She was also associated with an amateur dramatic alliance, whose prime purpose was to educate the public with social and current issues. The association chose to educate people with procedures of the court of law. When the players decide to have a rehearsal of a mock court, Benare is reluctant to perform the role of an accused but this reluctance is ignored. The playwright endeavors to create a game-like non-serious atmosphere. But soon the imaginary charges lead to personal dilemmas. Benare is seen in a cheerful mood of flamboyant mood, but she gets her first blow, when Ponkshe, a scientist, says, "She runs after men too much." Karnik, one of the characters, says that Benare was in love with her maternal uncle but the affair had ended in fiasco. He further "reveals' her past life by saying that she first proposed to Ponkshe and then tried to deceive Rokde, a young boy. "Prisoner Miss Benare, under section 302 of the Indian Penal Code, you have been accused of the crime of infanticide. Are you guilty of the aforementioned crime? Benare says: "I couldn't kill even a common cockroach. I'm scared to do it. How could I kill a newborn child” This falls deaf on the ears of men in the court. Benare's views are rejected by all of them, and it seems like a pre-planned conspiracy. Benare herself observes their odious nature by saying, “You’ve all deliberately ganged up against me! You have plotted against me." Benare tries to leave the court but becomes upset when all doors are automatically bolted from outside and she finds herself is trapped. Furthermore, Mrs. Kashikar executes physical violence to drag Benare to the dock. She has another damaging view against Benare. She does not hesitate to say that these young unmarried girls get everything without marrying. The fact that being is a matter of muchconcern to Mrs. Kashikar. Tendulkar has criticized middle-class morality that throttles the tender desires of Benare, a middle class woman, to mother a child in the play. Tendulkar seems to leave the play without suggesting any solution to the problem. None in the play is ready to sympathize with Benare. Only Mr. Kashikar, the judge, feels that they are going too far in their mock-trial but, then, he immediately silences his conscience. After all the Court is in session and everyone is expected to keep silence! Tendulkar covertly pleads for sympathy
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar for the victims of the society through this flash of humanism displayed by the kind hearted. Silence! The Court is in Session is not a propaganda play. It grapples with several problems of the Indian society, such as the degradation of the judiciary system, pretentious institutional social service organizations, and forceful male supremacy in Indian society, in a coercive way. However, the fact is that we look at the world and our friends, relatives, and value their roles only from their utility towards our ends. Conventional morality is only an imaginary issue. The play beautifully explains how the Indian society was degraded. References 1 Dass, Veena Noble. "Women characters in the plays of Tendulkar," New Directions in Indian Drama, ed. Sudhakar Pandey & Freya Barya (Prestige Books: New Delhi, 1994), p.10. 2 Tendulkar, Vijay. Silence! The court is in Session, trans. Priya Adakar (Calcutta: Oxford University Press, 1978). p. 25. 3 Ibid, p. 66 -76 4 Reddy,P.Obula. "The Violence of Middle Class: A Study of Vijay's Tendulkar's Silense! The Court is in Session," Indian Literature Today, ed. R. K. Dhawan (Prestige Books: New Delhi.1998, vol. I.), p.42-43. ETHNIC VARIATIONS IN VALMIKI’S RAMAYANA & KAMBAN’S RAMAYANA MRS. J. FARIDA ASST. PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH RVS CAS Kamba Ramayanam is a Tamil epic that was written by Kamban during the 12th century. Based on Valmiki's Ramayana in Sanskrit, the story describes the life of King Rama of Ayodhya. However, Ramavatharam is different from the Sanksrit original in many aspects - both in spiritual concepts and in the specifics of the story line. This historic work is considered by Tamil scholars as well as the general public as one of the greatest literary works in Tamil literature. The epic is quite well known, both in the Tamil literary world and in the Hindu spiritual world, for the colorfulness of its poetry and for its religious value. The book is divided into six chapters, called Kandam in Tamil. Bala Kandam (Chapter: Childhood) Ayodhya Kandam (Chapter: Ayodhya) Aranya Kandam (Chapter: Forest) Kishkinta Kandam (Chapter: Kishkintha) Sundara Kandam (Chapter: Beautiful) Yutha Kandam (Chapter: War). The Kandams are further divided into 123 sections called Padalam in Tamil. These 123 sections contain approximately 12,000 verses of the epic. This epic is read by many Hindus during prayers. In some households the entire epic is read once during the Tamil Month of Aadi. It is also read in Hindu Temples and other religious associations. On many occasions, Kambar talks about surrendering to Rama, who is a manifestation of Vishnu himself. Valmiki Ramayana and Kamba Ramayanam are two accounts of Ramayana scripted in the Sanskrit and Tamil languages in the above mentioned order. There are a number of differences between the two in regards to composition, style of poetry written and vice versa. Kamba Ramayanam is initially known as Ramavataram, even though Valmiki Ramayana is the actual description of the story of Rama, Kamba Ramayana is thought to be founded on the work done by Valmiki. Kamba Ramayanam was scripted in the 12th century AD by the legendary Tamil poet Kamban. Valmiki Ramayanam was written by Valmiki and the date of the version is not particularly known. However, the
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar whole compilation may have been written during the 1st century AD. Kamba Ramayanam varies in a lot of ways from the actual Ramayanam of Valmiki as well as in the story telling. Also, both accounts have a massive religious significance and worth associated with them. The Valmiki Ramayana is split into seven chapters also known as Kandams. These include Balakandam, Ayodhyakandam, Aranyakandam, Kishkindakandam, Sundarakandam, Yuddhakandam and Uttarakandam. Moreover, Kamba Ramayanam is split into just six chapters consisting of Balakandam, Ayodhyakandam, Aranyakandam, Kishkindakandam, Sundarakandam and Yuddhakandam. Kamban has not merely translated the Ramayana of Valmiki but has only taken the frame of the story and rendered it absolutely in his own way so as to make it an entirely original work. Kamban knew very well that the story of Rama was very popular among the masses of Tamilnadu. The treatment of the story, the additions and omissions he has made, the careful delineation of the characters, the rich morals embedded in the incidents of the story, the befitting dialogues of the characters, the similes, the metaphors and the choicest diction of his poem have given a new dimension to his epic. In the days of Kamban, Rama was worshipped as one of the incarnations of the Almighty Lord Vishnu. Rama and Krishna were synonyms for Vishnu. The cultural background of his land did not permit him to simply retell the story of Rama as depicted, long past, by the sage Valmiki for some of the incidents ran counter to it. The artist in Kamban thought that changes are necessary to make the epic grander. These compulsions he willingly obliged and made changes in such a way as to suit to the culture and literary taste of the populace of the soil. Sita was abducted and imprisoned in the Ashoka Park by Ravana. In spite of the fact that there was the curse that the heads of Ravana would go to pieces if he touched any reluctant woman, Valmiki writes that Ravana lifted Sita by her locks of hair and placed her on his lap and drove the aerial chariot to Lanka. One wonders what happened to the curse when Ravana lifted the unwilling Sita and brought her to Lanka. This makes the curse superfluous. Touching the locks of hair of a lady, according to the convention of the Tamils, is the sole right of her lover or husband. As Kamban knows it very well, he makes a change and states that Ravana without touching Sita uprooted the hermitage that she was in and placed it on his vehicle and flew to Lanka. He further states that most of the time she was staying in it without touching the hostile soil during her weary days of confinement in Lanka. Kamban has effected the change in tune with the curse that Valmiki himself has stated and saves Sita from the manhandling of Ravana. The pen of Kamban has portrayed the character of Akalya so adroitly that she wins our wholehearted sympathy and admiration unlike that of Valmiki. Akalya was the wife of the sage Gautama. They lived happily spending days in meditation. She had given birth to a son by name Sadananda. Indra, the lord of the celestials, uncontrollable as was his lust for Akalya, one day entered her cottage impersonating the sage with unholy desire and urged her for urgent solicitation. She was not deceived by the impersonation. She very well identified that it was Indra in the garb of the sage .Yet she succumbed to the lustful temptation and obliged. She even thanked him for fulfilling her desire. Artful as she was, she implored him to maintain secrecy of it and go away. As fate would have it, the untimely return of the sage Gautama from the Ganges made things public and both were cursed. The lord of the celestials became a eunuch and she was turned into a stone lifeless and hard. The ignominious Indra repaired to his place and got back his manliness by the help of the celestial beings. Poor Akalya after long years of
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar penance was freed from the curse on the arrival of Rama in her hermitage. Having regained her beauty and made pure by penance, she shone like the moon emerging from the clouds. Rama and Lakshmana touched her feet. She received them with all the customary rites of hospitality. The sage who returned to his hermitage then took Akalya, penitent and chastised by penance, as his wife. The portrayal of Akalya in Valmiki Ramayana may be realistic but does not earn the esteem of the readers and truly she is not a model to be emulated. One gets the feeling that she had gone astray unable to check her voluptuous desire and ruined herself. But it is not so in Kambaramayana. She not only earns the sympathy of the readers but also the utmost respect and regard. They would give her without hesitation a place in the galaxy of virtuous ladies. According to Kamban, Indra who impersonated the sage cheated her and she did not know the truth before he spoiled her. No sooner she came to know that he was not her husband while she drank the cup of sexual pleasure along with him than she was totally perplexed and helplessly resigned herself to fate. The readers feel that the indignation of and the curse by the sage are too much as she was innocent and had been seduced by the cunning Indra. Valmiki’s Akalya is a sinner deliberate but Kamban’s is a victim unfortunate. Rama, as he was the incarnation of Lord Vishnu, Kamban is careful in each minute detail of the epic and has made the grateful Akalya to touch the feet of Rama instead of he touching her feet as depicted by Valmiki. Kamban has made yet another change, definitely out of cultural compulsion, in the way of life of persons of high echelon. He has made a distinction even in the food habits of the good and the bad. On the day when Rama and Lakshmana along with Sita entered the woods crossing the Ganges the two brothers, according to Valmiki, hunted four big animals, a ram and three deers of different variety for their supper. During their stay at Chitrkut, Rama, sitting on the foot of the hill, made Sita happy by making her enjoy the idyllic beauty of the river Mandagini and feeding her with meat saying that they were baked well and delicious. Further Kabanda who guides Rama and Lakshmana to Kishkinda says that fatty birds that taste like ghee and a variety of fish are available at Pampha. In Valmiki, Rama, Lakshmana and Sita are portrayed only as nonvegetarians but they are not so in the Kambaramayana. Thiruvalluvar has emphasized long back that taking meat is a sin and advised people to refrain from eating it .He proclaimed that abstention of meat is the hall mark of culture. Kamban who holds Thiruvalluvar in high esteem and enriches his work freely borrowing his ideas, words and phrases, takes the clue from him and makes his noble characters adhere to vegetarianism. In the Kambaramayana the three are eating only edible roots and green vegetables throughout their stay in the forests and only the Rakshasas and such preternatural beings are portrayed as meat-eaters. Thus Kambaramayana and Valmiki Ramayana will surely make one understand the improvisations made by Kamban that enrich his epic and make it appear a different one from its original.

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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar THE ROLE OF BILINGUALISM IN TRANSLATION ACTIVITY N.R.GOWRISHANKAR, ASST. PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH, Sankara College of Science and Commerce CBE Introduction Throughout the world, translation is an everyday activity for many bilingual children. This fact inevitably raises a question in one's mind: Can every bilingual become a translator? In order to find an answer to this question, first the definitions of particular terms has to be made clear. The concept of bilingualism is a field of study in psychology and particularly in psycholinguistics, and different scholars attribute different roles to bilingualism in the general theory of translation. The way bilingual people interpret words is different from the dictionary translations of the same words. The aim of this paper is to attempt to examine the role of bilingualism in translation activity in a psychological framework. The innateness of translating skills will be questioned with the help of examples from various case studies conducted on bilinguals. The main terms such as 'natural translation, social bilingual, professional bilingual, native translator,' that were used by the scholars who discussed the matter of translation and bilingualism, will be explained and compared throughout this work. Definitions of 'bilingualism' and 'true bilingualism' What is bilingualism? Who is a bilingual and who is a true bilingual? Christopher Thiery defines bilingualism and explains how it differs from true bilingualism (Thiery 1978). "Bilingual: Having, speaking, spoken or written in, two languages",(Concise Oxford Dictionary). He argued that the term 'perfectly bilingual' suggests two things: "the subject speaks both languages equally well; the subject has two mother languages." However, the first condition is useless in defining bilingualism because it is not possible to measure whether or not one can speak two languages equally well for lack of a criterion for comparison. When we consider the second condition, the way a language is acquired gains importance and at that point the definition of the term 'mother tongue' needs clarification. Thiery considers it as "the language (or languages) which the child has acquired by 'immersion,' i.e., by natural reaction to the sounds made by its environment in order to communicate with it" (1978: 146). Hence the important characteristic of the mother tongue is that it is not taught via another language; so no matter how well one speaks a language, if he has learned it by tuition, he cannot be considered a true bilingual. As a result of consideration, Thiery's article proposes the following definition for 'true bilingualism': "True Bilingualism: a true bilingual is someone who is taken to be one of them by the member of two different linguistic communities, at roughly the same social and cultural level." According to this definition the subject is either rejected by his linguistic environment or accepted as a part of it. Here, the concept of cultural and social level emerges, which will be used in the following parts of the paper. Translation and bilingualism Paul A. Kolers (1973) discusses the relation between bilingualism and translation in his article "Translation and Bilingualism" through some real examples and case studies and mainly considering the lexical level of translation and the role of bilingualism. He uses bilingualism to examine some general questions in the use of language and to learn
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar more about how the human mind handles different kinds of information. He emphasizes the human factor in translation by humans comparing it with machine translation. He points out that there is no satisfactory translation machine. The reason for this is the complex structure of languages and the fact that the meanings of words have more than one interpretation depending on the context in which they are used, and a machine cannot make this distinction. Parallel to this argument, Catford (1965) argues that translation theory must be formed through a theory of meaning. His understanding of 'meaning' in a text can be analyzed at different levels and units; smaller units constitute the meanings of larger units. He assumes that "translation implies the substitution or replacement of textual material in one language by equivalent textual material in another language" (Catford 1965:20). The concept of equivalence is a problematic issue and, since it can be interpreted in different ways, we should clarify its usage here, in Catford's sentence. Stressing the importance of context, he argues that the equivalent meaning of a sentence can be entirely captured in a target language only at the sentence level. One interesting point that he focuses on is the fact that the way bilingual people interpret words is different from the dictionary translations of the same words. Kolers explains this situation through a psychological approach: "Our words are commonly used in contexts, in situations that are defined both by their physical characteristics and by our habits, attitudes, dispositions, and intentions toward them. These cognitive and emotional conditions affect the way we interpret a word when we hear it or see it; they affect the meaning we give to the world" (Kolers 1973: 283). Kolers (1973) applied some tests to bilinguals in order to measure their brain function during the translation process. In one of the experiments, bilinguals were asked to recite the alphabet backwards. Half of the group tried it in English and the other half in their native language (French, German, Arabic or Korean). When they learned to do it in one language they tried to do the same thing in another language; however the results showed that learning to do one thing in one language does not necessarily mean that you will be able to also do it in the other language. French and German speakers were more successful in reciting the alphabet backwards in English than Arabic and Korean speakers because the names of letters of the first two languages are similar to English letters. This result shows us that, unlike music or natural sciences, languages have different characteristics that affect the translation activity and make it more difficult. Think of a bilingual who has left his country and does not practice his native language anymore. After some time he will have difficulty in thinking in his own language and will find it easier to express his ideas in his second language. This has to do with getting used to one language, while the other language becomes "foreignized." The same explanation is valid in a situation where people who are fluent in language A but had their mathematical education in another language B prefer to calculate in language B despite being less fluent in that language. Psychological perspectives on bilingualism in translation Lambert considered translators as special people because they are more serious listeners when compared to other people. The reason for that is they must capture every detail of the speaker's message and convey it in another language without any loss. On the other hand, other people listen only enough to give an appropriate response. This difference as listeners makes translators special (Lambert 1978). Lambert (1977 cited in Lambert 1978:132) relates this characteristic of translators to their bilinguality. "It may be that their bilinguality, a prerequisite for membership in the profession, has the effect of providing them with special forms of intelligence, sensitivity, and skills at finding out what is meant and what is implied."
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar Although translators are considered to be very careful listeners, some examples contradict this view. Some people can interpret while knitting or reading a book. So the question is how is the attention of translator divided? Maybe they are not such careful listeners. We know that interpreters use some phrases to fill in the gaps that occur during interpretation but how much filling can be used? Attempts have been made to answer such questions through a psychological approach to translation and its relation with bilingualism (Lambert 1978). We have defined the terms 'bilingual' and 'true bilingual' above. Lambert uses different terms as he discusses the topic. He introduces the terms 'compound bilingual' and 'co-ordinate bilingual.' Actually 'compound bilingual' can be considered as another term for 'true bilingual' because it is defined as, "one who has learned his two languages simultaneously (e.g. from infancy on) and with interlocutors who used the two languages equally well, often, and interchangeably." In this article the term 'true bilingual' is used interchangeably with the term 'early bilingual.' On the other hand the word 'co-ordinate bilingual' is defined as, "one who had different acquisition settings for each language, different times of acquisition (the second language learned after infancy), and sociocultural contexts (one language at home, the other outside the home)" (Lambert 1978:137,138). These definitions help to explain how bilingual language processing occurs and why differences in acquiring the language also affect the translator's manner of translation. A co-ordinate bilingual would have a different network of meanings of concepts, so his/her systems of languages are more independent from one another when compared to the relationship between the compound bilingual's language pairs. That characteristic of the co-ordinate bilingual results in more independent translation. Lambert (1978) also used the term 'balanced bilingual'. This term evokes the idea of language dominance and equivalence, which is a delicate subject because measuring the language dominance of a bilingual, is not an easy thing and the results are not considered meaningful by some scholars. Thiery (1978) mentioned this equivalence, using the term 'perfectly bilingual.' However, no one can speak a language perfectly, so in order to evaluate equivalence, one has to measure the dominance of one language over the other. Lambert tested bilinguals for their language dominance. When applying the tests, it was assured that the frequency in the usage of the words used in the tests was similar in both languages. The things to be measured with these tests were the time taken to recognize words by the bilinguals in each language, their fluency in giving free associations of words in both of their languages, and the speed of reading words and translating them from one language to another. The results of the tests were interpreted according to bilinguals' time taken to recognize words. The ones who were balanced in their recognition of words were considered balanced in the other aspects as well (1978). A critical view on the idea of measuring language dominance in bilinguals has been contributed by Thiery (1978). He argues that there is no way meaningfully to measure equivalence or dominance between the two languages of a bilingual. Considering the lexical level, if we are to measure how many words one knows in one language and how many in another, this would not lead us to a real result. What if one is interested in a particular field, and experienced it in one country but not the other? Thiery gives the example of sailing in England and not in France, and then this person would know more words about sailing in English but that it does not mean that s/he speaks perfect English. Therefore, he finds direct comparison between two linguistic performances both meaningless and impossible. Is translation an innate skill?

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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar The innateness of translation as a natural skill has been studied by various scholars, who have come to different conclusions about this subject. One of the scholars who has taken up this topic “natural translation” is Brian Harris; The term 'natural translation' is defined as: "The translating done in everyday circumstances by people who have had no special training for it" (155). Depending on this definition Harris and Sherwood stated that all children can translate in every culture and in every language starting from the moment they become bilingual. In Harris and Sherwood's system, the stages that a natural translator goes through are the following: Pre-translation: is translation using "mostly single words, which is hardly surprising since the monolingual child too may still be in the 'one-word sentence' stage at that age" (166). Pre-translation is before interpersonal auto-translation and transduction. Auto-translation: when "a translator translates to others what he has said or written himself; and sometimes he translates to himself" (165). When the subject translates to himself, this is known as "intrapersonal translation" and when the subject's own words are translated to other people, this is known as "interpersonal translation." Transduction: where "the translator acts as an intermediary between two other people" (165). Transduction can be grouped as intrafamily (within the family) or extrafamily (out of the family). As we see, children do translate without receiving any special training in the field of translation. It is obvious that not all natural translators translate in the same way, but what makes the difference then? Is it the personal characteristic of the translator or his/her knowledge of the two languages or other factors? Harris and Sherwood (1978) again relate this situation to the age factor and the increasing linguistic proficiency with increasing age. However, according to Toury (1995), the difference in different people's translations is due to the fact that the capacity to transfer ideas from one language to another, i.e., the 'interlingual capacity,' is different in every individual. The term 'innate' and its implications Harris and Sherwood (1978) emphasize that the word 'innate' has double meaning in psycholinguistics. In its 'weak' sense it means "a specialized predisposition in children to learn how to speak from the language they hear in their environment"; its 'strong' meaning is "an inherited 'theory' of language which enables the child to speak sooner and more grammatically than can be accounted for by its contact with the environment" (168). Toury (1995) does not deny that there is a "predisposition" for translating, but he identifies translation with bilingualism--a sort of oversimplification. Some other factors such as personality, context, and environmental circumstances are necessary to apply the specialized predisposition to translation. At this point, we see the weakness of Harris and Sherwood's argument, which considers age the marking criterion when discussing translation ability. Toury points out that there is a gap between the innateness of translation and its emergence as an actual behavior and development as a skill in the hypothesis of Harris and Sherwood. We mentioned about the phases of natural translation (pretranslation, intra/interpersonal autotranslation and transduction). Toury carries this conclusion to an extreme by saying that the term 'natural translation' may ultimately become a mere synonym for the term 'bilingual.' At this point he introduces the term "native translator," which includes the importance of factors like social motivation for and social functions of translating. The notion of 'native translator' Toury (1995) approaches the notion of translator generally from a socio-cultural perspective and argues that it is a sort of "socialization" that is experienced by beginning
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar translators. It is inevitable to mention the existence of "environmental feedback" if we are talking about an interactional phenomenon such as socialization. Translation has been considered a way of communication by many theorists, including Toury. He defines translation as "a mode of communicative text production" (Toury 1995: 248). In this kind of socialization, feedback can come from the commissioner as well as the recipients or sometimes from the creator of the utterance. Toury suggests that, no matter from whom it comes, the feedback that the translator receives is "normative" because it concerns the way the translation is created. The norms in the feedback affect the relation between the source text and the produced translation because the feedback has an effect not only on the target culture and language, but also on the mode of new text production, i.e., the translation. Toury (1995) mentioned the terms 'generalization' and 'specialization' within the context of native translators. A process of generalization is said to realize as the translator internalizes the monitoring device as a strategy that consists of only one type of procedure used both for 'negative' and 'positive' sanctions. When another event which he refers to as 'specialization' occurs, the translator's translation competence and adaptability is reduced. On the other hand, when a novice is faced with different situations and different norms are applied to his/her translation, s/he translates in a more flexible manner and this means s/he gains adaptability (Toury 1995). As one can conclude from the explanation, specialization is the opposite of adaptability in terms of a translator's attitudes. It is also possible that the translator disregards or even changes the norms that are tried to be applied to his/her way of translating. Toury states the importance of one's social status in his/her attempt to change the norms in the culture s/he acts. This factor, however, is not enough to change the norms that have been adopted by that specific culture over the years. Toury suggests that one's professionalism is parallel to one's nativeness and "therefore lends it (nativeness) the power to change the very notion of translation for the society in question" (Toury 1995: 254). He marks the difference between the notion of 'natural translation' and 'native translator': Be that as it may, in contradiction to Harris' natural translation, where there was a distressing gap between the innateness hypothesis and the need to account for the emergence and development of translating as a skill, the notion of native translator applies to overt behavior only and is intrinsically developmental. It is therefore not only more flexible and convenient to work with; it also seems more in keeping with the actual process of initiation one would undergo on one's way to becoming a culturally acknowledged translator (Toury 1995: 254). Natural translation and meta-linguistic awareness Malakoff and Hakuta (1991) states that translation requires language manipulation at two levels. It must both convey the meaning of the source text and produce an appropriate target text. If one considers natural translation, the translator would have to go through four phases: a. understanding the vocabulary in the original work, b. understanding the message in the original work, c. reformulation of the same message in a second language, d. deciding on the adequacy of the produced text. It is not only the meaning that the translator reformulates while translating, but also the correct sentence structure in the target language. From this particular information Malakoff and Hakuta conclude that translation is both a communicative and a metalinguistic skill. Its communicative part consists in the translator understanding the message that is aimed to be given in the source language and conveys it in the target language. While doing this, the translator considers the sentence structure and linguistic
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar characteristics of the target language and this constitutes the metalinguistic part of translation skill. That is why translation proficiency requires both bilingual proficiency and metalinguistic knowledge. Conclusion The question whether or not any bilingual can translate obviously does not have one definite answer. The answer to this question depends on what is understood by the term 'translation.' We have seen that the translation is a subjective concept and as a result of the different approaches to this latter term it is possible to answer the question that was asked at the beginning of this paper in various ways. It is a fact that bilingualism is a necessary condition for translation activity, but is it enough for translation proficiency? We have seen that each scholar introduces his/her own terminology and that every term conveys a different meaning even though they sometimes seem to refer to the same idea, such as the terms 'natural translation' and 'native translator.' In the light of these different approaches I tried to take a closer look at the relation between bilingualism and translation and present the complex world of language from a cognitive perspective. RE-VISIONING OF MYTHS IN GITHA HARIHARAN'S THE THOUSAND FACES OF NIGHT S. JAYANTHI, M.A.,M.Phil., ASST. PROFESSOR,RVS CAS & Dr.SUGANTHI S KUMAR M.A.,M.Phil.,Ph.D,ASSO. PROFESSOR, PSG College of Technology, CBE The Ramayana and The Mahabharata are the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India. All the floating mass of tales, traditions, legends and myths for which ancient India was famous found a shelter under the expanding wings of this wonderful epic through translation. Translation has helped knit India together as a nation throughout her history. One can even add without exaggeration that India would not have been a nation without translation. This paper analyses English has imbibed so many words from Indian languages like “catamaran” and “decoction” which find their place in the Oxford English Dictionary. So the use of these words and sentence structures in the Indian English fiction may assist an Indian learner to enrich his use of English language. Githa Hariharan has added to this repertoire of knowledge through her mythological references in her novel The Thousand Faces of Night .It has been translated into a number of languages namely Spanish, German, French, Dutch, Greek, Urdu, Italian, and Vietnamese. Key words: Indian epics, Indian writing English, Indian words in English, Translation. Introduction The English language which we inherited from the colonization of British has been used as a vehicle of conveying our genre of life to the westerners. This genre is known as Indian Writing in English. Githa Hariharan, the Indo Anglican writer uses the genre of fiction and short stories as a medium to transmit the culture to learners exhibiting the Indian Myths in a detailed manner in order to correlate the contemporary life of our people. Hariharan surmounts her fiction with epics like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata and relates to everyday life characters. Besides inspiring generations of Indian artists and thinkers, Hindu mythology has appealed to many in the West as well. Ralph Waldo Emerson, an American writer of the 1800s, wrote Brahma, a poem celebrating the creator god. In the same era, English-speaking readers became familiar
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar with the legends of Savitri through Edwin Arnold's poem Savitri, or Love and Death. A poem by the German writer Goethe called The God and the Bayadere (dancing girl) deals with an appearance on earth of the god Shiva. English composer Gustav Holst wrote a chamber opera one meant to be sung, not acted; with a small orchestra called Savitri Holst also translated many hymns from the Rig-Veda into English and wrote music to accompany them. These four sets of songs are grouped together under the title Choral Hymns. Bertram Shapleigh, an American composer, wrote Vedic Hymn, also based on a text from the Rig-Veda, and a piece of orchestral music called Ramayana. A 1989 film of the Mahabharata written by Jean-Claude Carrier and directed by Peter Brook has brought the ancient epic to modern movie audiences. Re-telling of Myths India is the cradle of civilization with great tradition and heritage. The ethnicity of this country is prolific with a lot of myths. Though there are many religions and linguistic variations, all people live in harmony. From this land the rest of the world learn unity in diversity. We have great saints and Rishis in our land who taught their people the art of living. Githa Hariharan uses myth in her novel, The Thousand Faces of Night to establish the character's identity and able to lead their lives in a sophisticated way. The novel has won the Commonwealth Prize for the First best book. It mainly focuses on their struggles in the society to have a new track to lead their lives. In Hariharan's work, the old stories undergo subtle and gradual transmutations through narration as they are passed on from one generation to the other. Both the narrator and the narrate are engaged in an act of rewriting or re-vision as very narrate is in turn going to be a narrator herself, and every narration marks a variation on the earlier version. Re-visions myth-making thus becomes an act of perpetual remaking and insistent interrogation of the received tradition, affecting a constant renewal of culture. This is a novel about the elemental things of life about love and death, about women and men, story and myth, passion and loneliness and clashes of cultural of continents. Three women Devi, Sita and Mayamma, span three generations and encompass three Goddesses in their names. Each of them has their own story to tell that Devi, the daughter, educated in America, married to the pompous Mahesh; Sita, the mother, sacrificing herself to the Gods of reason, order and progress, and Mayamma the old servant, married when still a girl to a drunken husband and abused by husband, mother-in-law and son. Myth and reality Devi says that her grandmother fed the stories with her bony fingers, just as she fed the gooey medicinal potions she brewed when she was ill. She sprinkled it with powered jaggery and pretended it was sweet. She played the game by the rules and pretended to get better immediately. These rules, like the lives of the goddesses whose stories weave in and out of the story with silken threads, can be brutal. Devi's grandmother's stories throw strange reflections on lived reality; the princess Gandhari who found on her marriage that she ruled a palace where Priceless gems, the size of ripe pumpkins, hung at the tips of chandeliers. But when she finally meets her new husband, she sees he was white eyes, glazed and useless. Gandhari, in fury at the deception, tears off a piece of her thick red skirt and ties it around her own eyes. Devi is the protagonist of the novel being the youngest of the three. She has returned from the US and is trapped in a bitter marriage. Unlike Mayamma, Devi is least perturbed by her inability to conceive. Once the novelty of the marriage an arranged on that assures security wanes, she becomes restless. Mahesh's insensitive, nonchalant attitude makes her aware of the trap she is in. He contrasts her with other women who are not so well educated but are more efficient and happier to underline her deficiency and diminish her self-esteem. He thereby tries to establish his unquestionable authority over her.
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar Mahesh's self-complacence receives the blow when the sought after fatherhood eludes him. Devi does not seem to crave for motherhood. When he waits new of her pregnancy, her repeated dispassionate response is all bones and flat stomach. The fact that he is fine and she is the one to consult a gynaecologist does not help his ego. Childlessness can leave a woman utterly powerless. But it can also be used to tilt the scales of power. It helps Devi restore her self-esteem. It takes a downright chauvinist like Mahesh for Devi to be awakened to her own inner need for self-realization. Devi is an innocent but rebellious child trapped in a woman's body. The rebellious organ the straying tubes inside her would be her silent but potent strength. The sterilized instruments that would send her to make her whole, the fertility course and the wonder working harm ones will not make her an efficient receptacle for motherhood. The rejection of Mahesh's sperm is the unconscious but important step to the assertion of herself. Mahesh may possesses her body but cannot direct and control the functions of it. Devi moves from self-pity to thoughts of revenge. The Kritya in her begins to assert. Devi is simultaneously inspired by Amba and Durga then became a woman warrior, a heroine and also as Devi rod a tiger, and cut off evil, magical demon's heads. The Kritya reaction as a possibility is what Baba tries to keep away from Devi as a lethal weapon kept away from children. However it is the unread Kritya story that appeals to Devi the most. The novelist uses the recurrent image of garden to bring out the contrast in their approach to life. Baba tries to pull out the stubborn weeds from the garden. But Devi decides to grow a garden of weeds that could survive against all odds. By stepping out of marriage, Devi dismisses the voice of reason represented by both Mahesh and Sita. An identity achieved through relationship can never provide fulfilment. She realizes that her position as mistress is not very different from that of a wife. Neither of them offers enough space for her. Her secondary status is stressed through the image other being mere reflection on the mirror-studded buttons of Gopal's Kurta. Devi dismisses illusions and the maya of Gopal's music from her life. Temptation has no value once yielded to. Gopal is a mere prop to be dispensed with. Devi becomes alert to the inner call of self-realization. She seeks the real music that her mother could probably provide. The novelist parents the process of Devi's disenchantment through the image of peacock and peahen. The peacock coloured sari is finally cast away on the mirror to blot out the myriad reflection of herself. Unlike Mayamma, Devi liberates herself from the pressures of feminine role-play, to attain a state of free creative individuality. Now it is the self, the androgynous principle which is neither male nor female that is in quest of selfhood. The two choices Devi has made results in non fulfilment. While leaving Mahesh, she felt bold as a heroine. Now she is not on the run, but feels like a fugitive escaping from captivity to a stage of self-recognition. Her final union with her mother can be seen as frantic attempts of an alienated women trying to seek a heaven of shelter and security. Conclusion Githa Hariharan proves the strength and bravery are gained in the women characters through their knowledge of mythical stories. Hariharan selected the less prominent figures from the Indian epics and Puranas. She talks about Gandhari, Amba who are less known to the contemporary learners instead of talking about Sita and Savithri. She talks about Indian myths which are forgotten by many of us in the era of globalization and liberalization. Our sophisticated lives made us renounce our heritage. On the whole, this novel is the retelling of the past. Gita Hariharan not only indianite the incidents but also the use of language. She abundantly used the Indian words like agraharam, ashtapdi,
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar nadaswaram. Nagaligapushpa and so on. She takes the Indian culture to the English speaking countries through the chosen Indian vocabulary .She has indianised a genre English fiction. REFERENCES
    HariharanGitha (1992). The Thousand Faces of Night. New Delhi. Penguin Books.ISBN 13: 9780704344655. Patil SV (1999). The Whirligig of Taste: Essays in Comparative Literature. New Delhi. Creative Books. ISBN 8186318682. http://www.authorama.com/national-epics-2.html http://publishingperspectives.com/2013/12/why-translation-is-integral-to-indian-literarylife/

ROLE OF TRANSLATORS D. JOEL CHARLES ASST PROFESSOR & C.RAJESH M.Phil Research Scholar PSG COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCE “Translation is like a woman. If it is beautiful, it is not faithful. If it is faithful, it is most certainly not beautiful.” Yevgeny Yevtushenko Translation is an activity that aims at conveying meaning or meanings of a given linguistic discourse from one language to another. Translation can be defined in terms of sameness of meaning across languages. According to some researchers there can be no absolute correspondence between languages and hence no fully exact translations. Translation at some level is always possible however there are times when interlocutors are aware that they do not mean the same by particular phrases. Meaning is formed on each occasion of linguistic interaction and is therefore unique and not replicable. Therefore, a translation can never mean the same as the source text. But this does not matter because practice ensures that translators get away with’ translating sufficiently well sufficiently often. The role of a translator is basically to transform information from one language to another to make it more understandable. He is a trained professional who has the capability of addressing social and cultural differences when translating the text. The main thing is it is used to understand in all forms of their mother tongue. “A satisfactory translation is not always possible, but a good translator is never satisfied with it. It can usually be improved.” Newmark Translation is not an easy thing because the translator may know at least more than one language. When saying 'translation' one generally refers to the act of interpreting or rendering the meaning of the content in a text or utterance from a language to another, sticking to the message in the original text. The word 'translation' means to carry or bring
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar across. The Latin term 'translatio' designates a transfer, while the Greek 'metaphrasis' points to the meaning of speaking across during the middle Ages. Latin was the common language of the books. However, the Bible, as well as some scientific, historical and philosophical works, had to become accessible to regular people as well. The very first interpretation of the Latin Bible - St. Jerome's Vulgate - was recorded in 384 AD, but it was only partially translated and wasn't well received by the Christian Church. Still, even today, St. Jerome is considered the patron saint of translation. Alfred the Great also supported the translations into Anglo Saxon in the 800s The English language, the first translations of superior class were those of Geoffrey Chaucer in the 14th Century, who tried his adaptation skills in Italian, French and Latin. Also, the most notable translation of the Bible in English was the Wycliffe Bible, dating from around 1382 AD. However, the adaptation work in English language didn't achieve a higher standard until the Elizabethan Era. “A great age of literature is perhaps always a great age of translations” Ezra pound The 18th century was disastrous for the translated texts, as the translating authors used to omit whatever was unclear for them in the original text, so their translations were highly subjective. Consequently, through the so-called translations new creations were born - Ossian is a great example of this phenomenon. Generally defined as the process of transferring the meaning of a text from one language to another, translation is a millenniaold concept. Translation as a profession has been constantly evolving since its dawn in Ancient Greece, both technologically and from the point of view of the fields it is connected to. Initially considered a craft of the scholars who translated religious texts, translation has slowly spread into literature and science to eventually become an indispensable element in all the important cultural and economic aspects of modern life. A rewarding but also a challenging career, translating has reached its popularity peak in the 21st century on account of the internationalization of industrial concerns and their need to approach the clients in their own language. At the same time, the stress that post modern society lays or multiculturalism, together with the need of communication and cultural transfer among nations, brought about a greater interest in translation and languages. A career in translation is at hand especially for languages graduates. Apart from the fluency in at least one foreign language, a future translator must have various skills, among which perfect understanding and mastering of both the source language and the target language these involving both the grammatical structure and the vocabulary of the two languages. They are knowledge of the cultural and social environment of the target language specialized knowledge of one or several subjects like technology, law, finance, commerce, literature and last but not least genuine writing skills To define translation is rather simple; to explain what translation entails is quite another matter. Explaining this phenomenon has been the subject matter of translation theory throughout history. Luther wrote “We should question the mother in her home, the children on the street and the common man at the market, and then watch their mouths to see how they talk and then translate accordingly.”Luther’s Bible helped lay the basis for a standardized written language that came to be accepted throughout Germany.

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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar

Quality Translation should be:

   

A translator must use good judgment in order to select words in the target language that best represent the ideas of the original-language text. In addition, there is a need to structure the sentences in a way that conforms to the rules of grammar of the target language, making the text easy to read. At the same time, extremes in rewording the text must be avoided. A reliable translation must: Accurately convey the original message. Translate expressions literally when the wording and structure of the target language allow for such renderings of the original-language text. Communicate the correct sense of a word or a phrase when a literal rendering would distort or obscure the meaning. Use natural, easy-to-understand language that encourages reading. A professor of Hebrew, S. R. Driver, wrote that languages “differ not only in grammar and roots, but also . . . in the manner in which ideas are built up into a sentence.” Different languages require quite different thought patterns. “Consequently,” continues Professor Driver, “the forms taken by the sentence in different languages are not the same.” Some might conclude that a strict, word-for-word, interlinear-style translation would enable the reader to get closest to what was expressed in the original languages. However, that is not always the case. Consider a few of the reasons:

 

 

No two languages are exactly alike in grammar, vocabulary, and sentence structure. No modern language exactly mirrors the vocabulary and grammar of Biblical Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek, so a word-for-word translation of the Bible could be unclear or at times could even convey the wrong meaning. The meaning of a word or an expression may vary depending on the context in which it is used. The Scriptures use the expressions “sleep” and “fall asleep” to refer both to physical sleep and to the sleep of death. When these expressions are used in contexts that refer to death, Bible translators can use such wording as “fall asleep in death,” which helps the modern reader avoid confusion.—1 Corinthians 7:39; 1 Thessalonians 4:13; 2 Peter 3:4.

Three key Roles of Professional Translators 1. Communication “Start with good people, lay out the rules, communicate with your employees, motivate them and reward them. If you do all those things effectively, you can't miss." - Lee Iacocca. Communicating the intended message clearly and effectively is an important skill, which is often a key factor in deciding the chances of success. Communication is the process of transforming information from one entity to another; but communication skills are a set of important attributes that highlight one’s personality. You need to focus diligently on your communication skills to convey your ideas better. “Effective communication is 20% what you know and 80% how you feel about what you know” Jim Rohn The translator, before being a “writer” as such, is primarily a “message conveyor.” In most cases, translation is to be understood as the process whereby a message expressed in a specific source language is linguistically transformed in order to be understood by readers of the target language. Therefore, no particular adapting work is usually required from the translator, whose work essentially consists of conveying the meaning expressed by the original writer. Everyone knows, for instance, that legal translation leaves little room for adaptation and rewriting. Similarly, when it comes to translating insurance
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar contracts, style-related concerns are not paramount to the translating process; what the end reader needs is a translated text that is faithful to the source text in meaning, regardless of stylistic prowess from the translator. 2. Growth and Development: “All growth depends upon activity. There is no development physically or intellectually without effort, and effort means work”. Calvin Coolidge The role of the translator in mediating source ideas cross cultural and national boundaries places him or her in a unique position in particular for understanding a range of development issues. Translating narratives from the global south is an invaluable source of knowledge about unfamiliar languages, indigenous cultures and experiences, and is immensely useful for gaining and understanding of non-European societies. Moreover, translation can also have a critical influence in politics and can act as an agent for reconciliation or social integration. Translations can therefore have a distinct effect on how global and human rights issues can be conveyed and communicated. 3. Culture sharing Translation of various art forms like music, films and literature from a region is necessary for global understanding of a region and its life. The plight of Palestine refugees, the poverty in Brazilian streets, the colorful life in Spanish cities and the myths and legends of ancient India are spreading across the world, riding on the shoulder of good translation. Translated films and subtitled films generate more revenue for global film industry, while translated music and literature provides added royalties to the artists. Recognition from the world stage and international fame is an added bonus. “To be suspicious is not a fault. To be suspicious all The time without coming to a conclusion is the defect.” Luxun At finally Translators convert written material from one or more 'source languages' into the 'target language', ensuring that the translated version conveys the meaning of the original as clearly as possible. The target language is normally the translator’s mother tongue. Transcreating may also be part of the job and is a mix of translation, localization and copywriting, where the text is culturally and linguistically adapted to suit the reader. REFERENCES Baker, Mona. 2000. “Towards a methodology for investigating the style of a literary translator” Newmark, Peter. A Textbook of Translation. NEW YORK: Prentke Hall International, 1988. Print.

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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar UNDYING MORAL FROM THE CLASSICAL TAMIL POET AVVAIYAR M.KALAIARASAN. M.A., M.A., M.Phil. ASST. PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH, RVS CAS The real name of the Avvaiyar is unknown. She lived during the Sangam period. She is considered to be contemporary to poets Kabilar and Thiruvalluvar. Myth states that she was a court poet of the rulers of the Tamil country. She travelled from one part of the country to another and from one village to another, sharing the gruel of the poor farmers and composing songs for their enjoyment. Most of her songs were about a small-time chieftain Vallal Athiyamaan Nedumaan Anji and his family. The rest of her songs related to the various aspects of state governance. She also found great happiness in the life of small children. Her works, Aathichoodi and Kondraiventhan written for young children, are even now generally read and enjoyed by them. Her two other works, Mooturai and Nalvali were written for older children. All the four works are moralistic in character and they elucidate the basic wisdom that should govern ordinary life. In Muppandal, a small village in the Kanyakumari District of Tamil Nadu, there is an image of Avvaiyar. By tradition, this is stated to be the spot where the great poetess left the mortal world. Government of Tamil Nadu organizes annual Avvai Vizha to commemorate Avvaiyar's contribution to Tamil literature. Now the Government is continuing this function with more values which is conducted in the temple Avvayar situated at Thulasiyappattinam village, Nagappatinam District. Also this place is referred to famous interaction between Lord Muruga & Avvaiyar "Suttapazham Venduma Sudatha Pazham Venduma". In 2009, Red Hen Press published a selection of Avvaiyar's poetry from the 12th century, entitled Give, Eat, and Live: Poems by Avviyar. The poems were selected and translated into English by Thomas Pruiksma, a poet and translator who discovered Avviyar's work while on a Fulbright scholarship at The American College in Madurai, Tamil Nadu, and India. Her famous works include: Vinayagar Agaval, Aathichoodi, Kondraivendhan, Moothurai and Nalvali. Give, Eat, and Live is a selection of poems translated from the 12th century Tamil poet Avvaiyar. The one widespread work in English, Avvaiyar, a great Tamil poetess, by C. Rajagopalachari has long since been out of print and renders Avvaiyar’s poems in accurate but wooden translations. This book seeks to render her finest songs in flexible and poetically charged English that allows both her intellect and poetry to polish. Thomas Pruiksma’s translations present ancient wisdom-teaching poems in luminous, sparkling English as lively and rich as they must have been in the 12th century Tamil of their author, Avvaiyar. Read these poems; eat these poems; give them away; live with them. They are a joy. —Sam Hamill The selection includes poems from two of Avvaiyar’s major books on the good life, Muturai, “The Word that Endures,” and Nalvali, “The Right Road.” It also includes a generous sampling of poetry that was written separately and later gathered into collections. All of them use a Tamil form called venpa, dating back to the late Sangam period. Though they speak of ethics, they do not cease to be poetry, employing imagery drawn from the Tamil landscape as well as a deeply musical line. These are poems meant to be chanted and sung. Moral teaching is one of poetry’s oldest functions, but it is often solid for present poets to meet the confidence that Sangam age writers must have felt, both about their own wisdom and their position in society. They have told us how to live in the moral way. "Katrathu Kai Mann Alavu, Kallathathu Ulagalavu" has been translated as "What you
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar have learned is a mere handful; What you haven't learned is the size of the world" and. It can also be written as "Known is a drop, unknown is an Ocean". " Thol Ulagil Nallaar Oruvar Ularael Avar Poruttu Ellarkum Peiyum Mazhai" - The rain falls on behalf of the virtuous, benefitting everyone in the world. She said these world famous lines, almost thousand years’ back, even before most of today's developed countries had a matured civilization. She composed Atticuti,, simple and moral maxims, on morality and spirituality and all poems in praise of Lord Murugan. Works such as Kondraiventhan, Moodhurai and the Nalvali contains ethical values have also assigned to this Avvaiyar. In Kondraiventhan, she illustrates the aphorisms of the King Kondrai are, No temple is holier than the mother. There is no mantra greater than the father’s words. In Moodhura (Wise Saying), Though the milk is boiled, it does not loose its flavour. Though the non-affectionate be loved, no love is returned. The illustrations though ruined, are still great. Like the conch, though burned, gives forth whiteness. Three verses from the Mooturai and Nalvali are used to share her teachings on the intricacies of human nature. She says, There are only two divisions of human beings, high and low, depending upon their willingness to share their fortune and help others in a righteous manner. She advises, It is good to witness the noble people, listen to their noble words, talk about their graceful characteristics and share space with them in Satsangha. On the other hand she warns us that it is unrighteous to witness the evil people, listen to their words, talk about them or even come into contact with them in Kusangha. Avvaiyar’s famous song Aathichoodi was written for children in the order of the Tamil alphabet about desiring virtuous deeds; controlling anger, helping people, charity, humility, truthful effort, respect, learning, and sharing are brought out in her teachings. English translation of Aathichoodi, Desire doing righteous deeds / Calm your anger / Help others in whatever ways you can / Never stop others from providing charity / Never proclaim/boast about what you have / Never give up hope or motivation / Don't despise learning / Accepting alms (begging) is despicable / Share food with the needy before you eat Act virtuously / Never give up learning / Never talk jealous words / Never cheat on selling grains (Food) No home in Tamilnadu forgets the child, Auvaiyar. Poem of alphabet, Aathichoodi, written by her, as their first lesson is learnt by all Tamil children in the school in the elementary level. The values of these words give the moral values to children, who naturally sincere and eager to learn. These moral values enhance the children to maintain purity in their lives. It will be beneficial to them when they become youth. By imparting Avvaiyar’s moral teaching among the students, they can achieve tremendous victories and change in their personality. Avvaiyar poems help only to the Tamil community. These are great poems and pretty much no one outside the Tamil-speaking world knows about her poems. By translating her poems into other languages or common language like English, the rest of the world would be learn spiritual and moral values. The beautiful works of Avvaiyar and her underlying messages always shine in the heart of the people.
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar Avvaiyar was extremely devoted to Lord Ganesha, the God of Mukthi, since childhood. She always asked Him for three gifts, the gifts of poetry, music and drama. And she also crossed His brother Lord Murugan, the God of Tamil language. It is believed that Avvaiyyar did not die. Instead, she was transported bodily to Kailasha, where Lord Shiva, the Supreme God, by Lord Ganesha Himself. It is an everlasting service to human by Avvaiyar. Reference:  Akshay Ahuja. A Moral Education. A review published in Cerise Press. 2010.  Kamil Veith Zvelebel A History of Indian Literature:. Tamil Literature. Otto Harrasowitz. 1974. Print.  Krishnamurti, Dr. C.R. (Professor Emeritus, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. Canada) Thamizh Literature Through the Ages AN OBSERVATION OF AUROBINDO’S EPIC TRANSLATION OF SAVITRI S.KARTHICK M.A., M.PHIL., & E.KARTHIKEYAN M.A., ASST.PROF OF ENGLISH, MUTHAYAMMAL COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCE, RASIPURAM.. Sri Aurobindo's Savitri is an epic translation of high spiritual challenge in the Yoga or Divine Union or Goal of Self-Realisation it presents. Its spiritual conception is so all-embracing, the integral that it gives birth to a power which transforms life on earth to a life of divine activity rather than leading to an escape from life. The epic translation is a mantric expression of great Seer-sage's inner findings and conquests, leading to his vision of an age of truth-consciousness and immortality. It portrays in living drama the daring climb within of a king-soul through progressive states of consciousness to Nirvanic heights and beyond to summits never reached before. The poet reveals how at meditation's peaks at one with God, where many cease their search, of a Presence, God's Consciousness, Power and Bliss, which he calls the Divine Mother. Aurobindo relates how this Creatrix of boundless Love and Wisdom-Splendor comes down to transform Darkness into Light, the Unreal into the Real, and Death into Immortality. The famous Mahabharata (from the Pativrata Mahatmya Parva in chapters 291297 of the Aranyaka Parva) legend of "Savitri and Satyavan", the story of "Love Conquers Death" is made the basic symbol of this mystic scripture of "Divine Life on Earth". The legend tells of the noble and virtuous King Aswapathy performing all kinds of austerities in order that God might be pleased and grant him a child to uphold his kingdom. After 18 years the goddess Savitri, wife of the Divine Creator, issues forth from the sacrificial flames and promises the king a radiantly spiritual daughter to spring from her own being. The child is born and is named Savitri. She grows up "like unto the Goddess of Beauty" herself in embodied form and is blessed with godlike qualities. When she reaches maturity, kings and princes, overwhelmed by her divine character, dare not ask her hand. So her father sends her forth to seek her own lord. Her heart finds Satyavan, the faithful son of Raja Dyumatsena, a blind and exiled king who lives in a forest hermitage. When Savitri comes to declare her love to her father, she finds him in a conversation with Narada, the great heavenly sage. When Narada hears Savitri's words, he warns that Satyavan, though endowed with all high qualities and honor constant as the Pole Star, is destined to die in a year. The parents try to persuade their daughter to choose
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar another, but in vain. Narada advises the father, however, to allow Savitri to marry Satyavan. So the princess is married and lives a simple, quiet life in the forest. She pleases all with her tender service, self-denial, evenness of temper, her skill and gentle speech and her love for Satyavan. But night and day Narada's prophetic words are present in her mind, but she speaks of them to no one. When the appointed day for Satyavan's death approaches, Savitri fasts and prays, and on the fated day she begs permission to follow her husband into the forest in order to see the blossoming woods through which he passes daily. Never having petitioned anything previous to this day, she is granted her request and soon comes to where he stops to cut wood for the home fire. After a few strokes, Satyavan falls smitten with pain and Savitri, stricken with grief, sits and holds his head in her lap. Suddenly she beholds Yama, the God of Death, standing before her with noose in hand. She rises and asks why he had come himself instead of sending one of his emissaries as was his custom. Yama tells her that this prince is endowed with such a sea of virtue and accomplishment and beauty that he is too worthy to be borne away by anyone but the God of Death himself. Then Yama takes the soul of Satyavan and proceeds southward. Savitri, undaunted, follows him. Time and again Yama turns to stop her, but with wise and appealing words, she moves him to grant one boon after another, save the life within his hand. Still she continues to follow him, right into his dark cave, until finally her devotion and unparalleled love and wisdom move Yama to return the soul of Satyavan. Savitri hastens to the woods where her lord's body lay and woos the soul back into consciousness, and together they return to their home, and all the boons promised by Yama are fulfilled. Adapting this legend as a symbol for a great living spiritual experience, Sri Aurobindo changes King Aswapathy's sacrificial asceticism into the Tapasya, or conscious spiritualization, of an aspiring soul of humanity. Savitri is not only the incarnation of a goddess, but Divine Grace born in answer to Aswapathy's longing for help in bringing some living form of God on earth to relieve it of its burden of in conscience. The marriage of Savitri and Satyavan is the divine linking of their lives for the raising of the world and man to God and the bringing of God to earth to transform it into an abode of Divine Delight. Sri Aurobindo first gives a panoramic vision of the character and mighty events of the momentous day of Divine Conquest. Dramatically he opens the epic with a description of the dawn of the day destined for Satyavan's death and makes it the symbol of the dawn of the spiritual tomorrow which is to usher in an age of Truth-Consciousness and immortality. How this wondrous dawn appears to humans with "time-born eyes"(book 1, canto 1) and how it affects Savitri awaiting her mighty struggle with Death is compared. Telling verses give the key to the source of Savitri's power to rise above her lone grief and the thoughts oppressing her mind. Her godlike character and sensitive nature are set forth and reveal the source of her power and will in the battle of Death. As the significant day of death arrives, Savitri is pictured preparing within, struggling with the burdens of her karmic past, seeking the aid of her will born of Self to help her disown the trials and legacy of past selves which were "a block on the immortal road". As she reviews her past, the radiant prologue to this day, her twelve months' life in the secluded beauty of the woodlands where there was "deep room for thoughts of God".(canto 2) The secret knowledge follows, giving out the grandiose meaning of our lives, the story of the climb of the god-spark through the kingdom of the earth to Godhead, how the Spirit-guardians of the Silence of the Truth work in the vicissitudes of our lives, what the true sources of our beings are, who the cosmic managers are, and how the secret God within makes himself felt in our lives. But still unexplained problems make Aswapathy plunge into "unplumbed infinitudes" in order to find the key to what could join Spirit and
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar Matter, join "what is now parted, opposed and twain" and fulfill the Oneness that was the stamp of Being. So Aswapathy moves (canto 5) into the freedom and greatness of his Spirit dares "to live when breath and thought were still" and steps into the magic place where all is self-known, where the riddle of the world grew plain and "lost its catch obscure". In magnificent translation follows him as he rises, leaving earth-nature's summits below his feet. The treatment of art has to feel the ecstasy, might and sweetness of God's mystic power, as he is drawn from his loneliness into God's embrace. As he climbs, his sealless eye uncovers a series of graded kingdoms twixt life's poles through whose "organ scale of consciousness" souls move. Up this stairway of worlds he starts and enters into another space and time. With Aswapathy, we travel (book 2, canto 1) and become acquainted with the nature of these spheres and their godheads. Here Sri Aurobindo unveils the occult cosmogony in grandiose and vibrant detail in clarity of language that only direct experience can utter. Then up into the paradises of the Gods of Life and Hope are made to feel the sweetness and joys of this state. But this too he quickly leaves, journeying on to find something higher, that which makes all One; for to remain within the limits of Desire's satisfactions delays the discoveries of that Immortal One who gives all one could desire and more. The kingdoms and godheads of the little Mind show him their ceaseless analytical workings, of translation has introduced to the three dwarfs of mind: habit, desire, and reason. Then into the more luminous planes of Greater Mind, where few are guests, he enters and finds there a plane which God uses as a bridge to send his forms of Truth to man. A picture of what Savitri sees when she looks into herself and seeks her soul. Closing the door to the God within are serpents of temptations of all kinds, limitations luring to the easier paths of the all-negating absolute, to escape from the battle with life and to Nirvana. How she answers these and pushes them away is told. On seeking the occult Fire within, three Soul-Forces appear: the Mother of Divine Pity, the Mother of Might, and the Mother of her Secret Soul. Each relates her various forms and work in the world. Finally the poet chants Savitri's finding of her Secret Deity. But soon the portentous yet promising day of Satyavan's death arrives, and it is portrayed in verses of poetic pathos. At the moment of death Savitri enters the mystic lotus in her head, "a thousand-petalled home of power and light", and rises to meet the dreadful God, the limitless denial of all being. The two oppose each other, Woman and Universal God of Death. The poem shows Satyavan moving with Death into the silence beyond and Savitri casting off her sheaths and entering into the trance of her soul in order to stay with Satyavan. At the brink of the shadow world, Death peals forth his abysmal cry ordering her to go back. But silent, she dares enter into the Eternal Night with them. Death warns her to go no further and depicts his home of dark immensity and the helplessness of all in his power. After his ruthless speech, Savitri answers what to her is a black lie of Night and declares her spirit's power can resist him and then demands and challenges Death to give what Satyavan desired in his life for his parents. Death smilingly yields, but demands she return to earth lest she be destroyed. But Savitri boldly states her powers, which, like fire, can destroy him. Death in mocking verses cries out that he is the Originator and Destroyer of all. Savitri then meets scorn with scorn and in dynamic poetry proclaims the wondrous might of her God’s will and Love. Death refutes all her statements, claiming his Power can deny them all, make all things vain. Savitri's soul continues to wrestle with Death and to ridicule his words of Reason. Death challenges her to seek to know, for knowledge kills love. Drifting along with them as they move into the Land of Naught the debate continue, hear them pit all the contraries of life against each other, from Savitri the very reason of Death's existence. Death peals
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar forth a long proclamation of how he cancels all life's golden truths. To his dangerous music this warrior-maiden gives a picture of what her God of Love has done and will yet accomplish, and dares Death to produce a greater God to captivate her soul. Death sneeringly interprets her words as hallucinations of the mind and gives an oration on the deceptions of mind and raises Unconsciousness as the pinnacle of all. Savitri answers in Death's own words, calling him the dark- browed sophist of the universe masking divinity with his dance of death. She sings forth in glorious poetry the occult miracle of God's wonders from a tiny seed; and then again in lines of majesty power speaks of her assured triumph, of her love as stronger than his bonds of death. Death, suspecting her to be the Mother of the Gods embodied, challenges her to show a body of living Truth, for has matter ever been able to hold Truth? Savitri tells Death who he really is and warns him he will cease to be when he touches the embodied Truth Supreme, and then reveals her being all one with God. Death, still unconvinced, makes his last stand in support of his blind force and dares Savitri to reveal the Power of the Divine, for many have Truth, but who has the Power to radiate it? a picture of Savitri as she becomes transformed into a divine being with all her chakras or lotuses of Power scintillating. The most powerful speech of all follows, and Savitri exhibits her living Power of Truth and proves that death is needed no more. Death is shown gradually vanishing and finally defeated, eaten by light. In the silences of the beyond, Savitri and Satyavan were alone. Into the avenues of the Spirit they roam happily. But even there voices rise enticing them to come to a blissful home away from the battles of life, but Savitri again meets the test of strength. With sun-words she replies that she was born on earth to dare the impossible, that imperfect is the joy not shared by all. Then God, knowing Savitri now to be absolutely at one with his diamond Heart, rings forth the final joyous paean of the divine transformation that shall be on earth and sends Savitri as his Power and Satyavan as his Soul back to earth to change this earthly life into a life divine. Savitri falls to earth like a star and Satyavan invisibly drawn, soars past her. They reunite on earth and the epic closes unveiling the age-long secret deep-guarded in the stillness - the promise of a greater dawn.

THE HISTORICAL OUTLAW IN TRANSLATED CHINESE CLASSICAL NOVEL WATER MARGIN N.R. LAVANYA, ASST. PROFESSOR RVS CAS Translation is transfer of written text from one language into another. Although the term translation is often used interchangeably, by strict definition, translation refers to the written language. Translation is an act of interpretation of the meaning of a text, and subsequent production of an equivalent text, also called a translation, that communicates the same message in another language. The original text which is given to translate to another language is called “source Text” and the translation of the source text is called “Target Text”. Peter Newmark in his A Textbook of Translation says, “A satisfactory translation is not always possible, but a good translator is never satisfied with it. It can usually be improved.” This paper deals with the historical outlaw in Water Margin- a Chinese literature translated into English. The Chinese prose epic known as Shiuhu Zhuan (The Water Margin) was first published around 1368. The novel was originally titled in Chinese
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar Jianghu Haoke Zhuan. Water Margin is well-known as one of the four greatest Chinese novels in history. Many scholars believe that the first 70 chapters were written by Shi Nai'an, while the final 30 chapters were written by Luo Guanzhong. Luo may have been a student of Shi. It tells stories of a group of heroes, who stand for different classes of people daring to struggle against the evil and the government. There are 105 men and 3 women in all, who are oppressed by the corrupt and unjust official and then rise up. These stories take place at the end of the North Song period, describing various vivid pictures of love and hate of farmers’. Pearl S. Buck was one of the first English translators of the 70-chapter version. Titled All Men are Brothers and published in 1933, the book was well-received by the American public. Of the later translations, Chinese-naturalized scholar Sidney Shapiro's Outlaws of the Marsh (1980) is considered to be one of the best. However, as it was published during the Cultural Revolution, this edition received little attention then. It is a translation of a combination of both the 70-chapter and 100-chapter versions. The most recent translation, titled The Marshes of Mount Liang, by Alex and John Dent-Young, is a five-volume translation of the 120-chapter version. Water Margin is vaguely based on the historical outlaw Song Jiang and his 36 companions. The group was active in the Huai River region and surrendered to the government in 1121. The number of outlaws increased to 108. Folk stories of Song Jiang tells of how a group of 108 outlaws gathered at Mount Liang ( Liangshan Marsh) to form a sizable army before they are eventually granted amnesty by the government and sent on campaigns to resist foreign invaders and suppress rebel forces. The novel centers on the tales of the noble robbers in the Liangshan Marshes under Song Jiang’s leadership. There is some historical truth in this material. In the early years of the 12th century a gang led by a certain Song Jiang is known to have operated in districts near Kaifeng. Later, numerous tales of different origin came to be associated with the exploits of this gang. Eventually the band comes to comprise to be army, aside from the rank and file, 36 main and 72 secondary heroes and heroines, each with his or her unique background. i.e. 108 colorful, daredevil bandit-heroes. The first half of the novel tells the stories of the various individual heroes (more interesting, describing in detail the everyday life of people in all levels at that time). Most of them face injustice in a corrupt society and are forced into a life of banditry in Liangshan Marshes. The second half concerns the activities of the gang as a whole. The gang can be considered as a small community, and it contains various people to form a self-content society. In the second half, there are also stories that when the gang needs a certain person, they set up tricks to force/lead such persons to join them. As the imperial troops are unable to subdue the bandits, they are eventually granted official pardon. Subsequently joining the regular army, they take part in various campaigns against rebels, and a number of the gang’s leaders are killed. Ultimately, in order to ensure that the survivors will never again revolt, Song Liang poisoned his companion Li Kui during a final banquet: the virtue of zhong (loyalty) triumphs over yi (brotherhood). The 1st part of the novel is undoubtedly the more attractive, including as it does a great number of more or less independent episodes and stories of great variety. These stories provide many fascinating and un-retouched glimpses of pre-modern Chinese society. Heroes of the Water Margin are Bandits--originally landlords, runners, gentlemen farmers, monks, schoolteachers, military instructors, tailors, merchants, teachers, peasants, fishermen, and laborers etc. Their deeds are described minutely, often in detail. The heroes are same as Romance of the Three Kingdom. They are successful & vivid descriptions of heroic figures as that in. Every figure has its strengths and weaknesses, just as any human. The achievement/life of the heroes surpasses the everyday life of
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar ordinary people. The Figures in Romance are stereotyped, e.g. Zhuge Liang seems to be the most intelligent person, but why and how? No background, personality development is given, as there is a lack of description in one’s everyday life. Where as figures in Water Margin are detailed descriptions of their background, life experiences, even clothing, to reflect their personality. Then, the readers understand why he/she acts in such a way. The Government in late Ming Dynasty is corrupt. Not only the common people suffer, even high officials suffer a lot. The gang can attract so many members because more than half of them are being suppressed. Both the dialog and the narrative are written in the spoken language of the day. Much use is made of storytellers’ phrases, stereotyped ways of beginning and ending a chapter, of signaling a change of subject within a chapter etc. Couplets, poems, songs, and rhymed passages in the parallel style are often used in this fiction. The fiction has 108 Heroes- 36 heroes and 72 sub-heroes. The number of 108 has a special meaning in the most ancient text, The Book of Change (I-Ching). There are various reasons of the 108 Heroes join the Gang. People are being suppressed and forced by corrupted officials, e.g. Lim-zhung. They join as self-choice like the first leader of the gang. They robber a great deal of wealth from a corrupt official and he becomes the no.1 criminal. They actively choose to flee to the gang with the wealth. Few of them committed certain crime and joining the gang is the only way to escape punishment. e.g. the group who save Song Jiang at the beheaded area. The surrenders like the former military leaders who should destroy the gang, but they lose the battle. One of the main reasons is the corrupt government vs. brotherhood of the gang. As the story progresses, more people come to join the outlaw band, among whom include army generals and civil servants who grew tired of serving the corrupt government, as well as men with special skills and talents. Stories of the outlaws are told in separate sections in the following chapters. Connections between characters are vague, but the individual stories are eventually pieced together by chapter 40 after Song Jiang succeeds Chao Gai as the leader of the outlaw band, after the latter dies in battle against the Zeng Family Fortress. The plot further develops by illustrating the conflicts between the outlaws and the Song government after the Grand Assembly. Song Jiang strongly advocates making peace with the government and seeking redress for the outlaws. After defeating the imperial armies, the outlaws are eventually granted amnesty by the Emperor Huizong. The emperor recruits them to form a military contingent and allows them to embark on campaigns against invaders from the Liao Dynasty and suppress the rebel forces of Tian Hu, Wang Qing and Fang La within the Song Dynasty's domain. The story is famous among the people not only by the translation but also transformed into movie as well as TV serial. The Water Margin (1972), produced by the Shaw Brothers Studio and directed by Chang Cheh, Wu Ma and Pao Hsueh-li, starring David Chiang, Ti Lung and Chen Kuan-tai. All Men Are Brothers (1975), a sequel to The Water Margin (1972). The Water Margin (1973) is a Japanese television series produced by Nippon Television and filmed in mainland China in 1973. It starred Atsuo Nakamura and Kei Sato in the lead roles.[33] It was broadcast on television in other countries. The Water Margin (1998) is a Chinese television series aired on CCTV. The series was produced by Zhang Jizhong and featured fight choreography by Yuen Wooping. All Men Are Brothers (2011) is a Chinese television series directed by Kuk Kwokleung and featuring cast members from mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong. Based on historical events of the 12th century, "Water Margin" tells the story of 108 heroes referred to (by their enemies) as the "Liangshan bandits". They want to fight against a corrupt government, and therefore they ask two famous fighters to join them.
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar These two are reluctant at first, but get into trouble with the so-called law very soon. Thus they don't really have freedom of choice anymore. "Water Margin" is a fine example of Eastern classics literature. References:  Translation Theory - Rodney J. Decker, Th.D  Water Margin from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia  All-star cast in swordplay epic based on Chinese classic, - Brian Camp  Becomes more and more powerful, - sheen film  Large scale historical epic, - Chung Mo Book Review: The Water Margin - Steve Donoghue GUSTAVE FLABERT’S MADAME BOVARY: DREAMS SHATTERED BY REALITY MANGAYARKKARASI K.S. ASST PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH KONGUNADU ARTS AND SCIENCE COLLEGE CBE Gustave Flaubert was born on December 12, 1821 to father Achille Cléophas Flaubert and mother Anne Justine Caroline in Rouen (“Gustave Flaubert-Wikipedia”). Flaubert’s family had a strong medical and bourgeoisie background, both of which are key factors in his novel Madame Bovary. Flaubert wrote his most famous pieces such as Mémoires d’un fou, Salammbô, L’Éducation sentimentale, Trois contes, and his masterpiece Madame Bovary. Gustave Flaubert was an influential French writer widely considered one of the greatest novelists in Western literature. He is known especially for his first published novel, Madame Bovary (1857), for his Correspondence, and for his scrupulous devotion to his style and aesthetics. Madame Bovary is extensively regarded as Flaubert’s best literary work. Gustave Flaubert’s prominent masterpiece Madame Bovary is widely considered to be a foundation stone of the realism movement. Flaubert’s writing was detailed and his styles have been imitated by many authors. The novel tells of a disastrous dreamer who opts to affairs and excessive spending to fulfill her dreams. Meanwhile Flaubert analyzes and records in detail the society of provincial France during the 1840’s. Madame Bovary is set in provincial northern France, near the town of Rouen in Normandy. The story begins and ends with Charles Bovary, a monotonous, kindhearted man without much ability or ambition. As the novel opens, Charles is a shy, oddly dressed teenager arriving at a new school amidst the ridicule of his new classmates. As a child, and later when he grows into a young man, Charles is mediocre and dull. He fails his first medical exam and only barely manages to become a second-rate country doctor. Charles is married to a woman named Heloise, continuously visits his patient's daughter Emma, whom he has fallen in love with. As Heloise dies suddenly after Charles and his parents are upset with her about the fact that she lied about her wealth before their marriage, Charles now is no longer restricted and wastes no time to get consent from Emma's father so that they can get married. At this point, the novel begins to focus on Emma. Charles means well, but is tiresome and clumsy. After he and Emma attends an extravagant ball given at the home of wealthy nobleman Marquis d'Andervilliers, Emma grows disillusioned with married life and becomes dull and listless.
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar Emma begins to dream constantly of a more sophisticated life. She grows bored and depressed when she compares her fantasies to the humdrum reality of village life, and eventually her listlessness makes her ill. When Emma becomes pregnant, Charles decides to move to a different town in hopes of reviving her health. In the new town of Yonville, the Bovarys meet Homais, the town pharmacist, who loves to hear he speaks. Emma also meets a law clerk Leon, who, like her, is bored with rural life and loves to escape through romantic novels. When Emma gives birth to her daughter Berthe, motherhood disappoints her because she had desired a son. Romantic feelings blossom between Emma and Leon. However, when Emma realizes that Leon loves her, she feels guilty and throws herself into the role of a dutiful wife. Leon grows tired of waiting and, believing that he can never possess Emma, departs to study law in Paris. His departure makes Emma miserable. Rodolphe, a wealthy neighbor who is attracted by Emma’s beauty, declares his love to her. They begin having a passionate affair, all the townspeople gossip about her but Charles suspects nothing. His adoration for his wife and his stupidity combine to blind him to her indiscretions. Meanwhile, his professional reputation suffers a severe blow, when he and Homais attempt an experimental surgical technique to treat a clubfooted man named Hippolyte and end up having to call in another doctor to sever the leg. Disgusted with her husband’s incompetence, Emma throws herself even more passionately into her affair with Rodolphe. She borrows money to buy him gifts and suggests that they run off together and take little Berthe with them. Soon enough, though, the jaded and worldly Rodolphe has grown bored of Emma’s demanding affections. Refusing to elope with her, he leaves her. Heartbroken, Emma grows desperately ill and nearly dies. By the time Emma recovers, Charles is in financial trouble from having to borrow money to pay off Emma’s debts and to pay for her treatment. Still, he decides to take Emma to the opera in the nearby city of Rouen, there, they encounter Leon. This meeting revives the old romantic flame between Emma and Leon, and this time the two embark on a love affair. Emma grows bored with Leon and not knowing how to abandon him, she instead becomes increasingly demanding. At last in despair, she commits suicide when Rodolphe refuses her proposal. Charles idealizes the memory of his wife. He finds her letters from Rodolphe and Leon, and he is forced to confront the truth. He dies alone in his garden, and Berthe is sent off to work in a cotton mill. Emma’s life is described as “a tissue of lies” because of her shattered dreams. She invents story after story to prevent her husband from discovering her affairs. Similarly, Rodolphe tells so many lies about his love for Emma that he assumes her words are also insincere. Flaubert points out that by lying, the lovers make it impossible for words ever to touch at the truth in things. Although Flaubert was in some senses a realist, he also believed it was wrong to assert that realism provided a more accurate picture of life than romanticism. Emma Bovary’s hope that her baby will be a man because “a woman is always hampered” is just one of the many instances in the novel in which Flaubert demonstrates an intimate understanding of the plight of women in his time. Throughout the novel Madame Bovary, it is clearly pictures how Emma’s male companions possess the power to change her life. Even Charles contributes to Emma’s powerlessness. His laziness prevents him from becoming a good doctor, and his incompetence prevents him from advancing into a higher social stratum that might satisfy Emma’s yearnings. Though Flaubert does not use Madame Bovary to promote his philosophical views, it closely parallels his life. Therefore, while the book was heavily influenced by his ideas on lifestyle and society, its main intent was not to showcase Flaubert’s views.
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar He stated that “Madame Bovary is me” (Madame Bovary, Norton 826). The novel is a detailed analysis of the society surrounding Flaubert and, therefore, has been influenced by his ideas on society. Although parts of her failed dreams were a result of being trapped in a small provincial town without an escape, she also suffered from mental instabilities. As Emma was attempting to fulfill her dreams Flaubert was painting a picture of society in the 1800’s. Emma’s dreaming for what she does not have encourages readers to reexamine their desires. Flaubert’s critique of society compels his readers to critically think about their surroundings and take a second look at what they believe. Ultimately Flaubert and Madame Bovary provide their readers with a compelling story of love and hate, sadness and happiness while also focusing on how we view life and its meaning. When Emma Rouault marries Charles Bovary she imagines she will pass into the life of luxury and passion that she reads about in sentimental novels and women's magazines. Charles’ provincial life is very different from the romantic excitement for which she craves. In her quest to realize her dreams she takes a lover, and begins a devastating spiral into deceit and despair. Emma is the novel's protagonist and is the main source of the novel's title. Madame Bovary, on the whole, is a commentary on the vanity of hoping for glittering nullity, or a self-satisfied, deluded personal culture, termed 'bourgeois' associated with Flaubert's period. This is not just about a females' dreamy romanticism. Emma was a dreamer who failed to achieve her dreams because of societal constraints and self-constraints (Madame Bovary, Norton 824). Throughout her life she had dreamed of romances and the society in cities such as Paris. However, every advance Emma made towards achieving her goal pushed her further into alternating cycles of depression, happiness, and self-pity. WORKS CITED Flaubert biography. 5 Apr. 2008. http://www.springfield.k12.il.us/schools/southeast/ bovary/biography.htm.Web. "Flaubert, Gustave." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 29 Mar. 2008 http://search.eb.com/eb/article-2347. Web Flaubert, Gustave. Madame Bovary. Trans. Francis Steegmuller. New York: Random House,1957. Print. CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY AND ITS WOMEN AS DEPICTED IN THE TRANSLATED WORK “SILENCE! THE COURT IS IN THE SESSION “BY VIJAY TENDULKAR N.MYTHILI, LECTURER IN ENGLISH, SRI VASAVI COLLEGE, ERODE In the last several decades, literary works from around the world have made their way onto the wide variety of disciplines. This is a cause for rejoicing. Through works in translation, our monolingual society is at last becoming acquainted with the multilingual and multicultural world. Unfortunately, literature in English translation is frequently made as if it had been written in English, and readers are not made familiar with the cultural, linguistic, and literary context in which that literature was produced. As a result, they submit what they read to their own cultural expectations; they do not read in
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar translation and do not reap the benefits of intercultural communication. But translation has helped to project various culture and custom to the readers worldwide. With this intro about translation this paper is an attempt to show how Vijay Tendulkar has projected the contemporary world and its view on women through his work “SILENCE! THE COURT IS IN THE SESSION” INTRODUCTION Shantata! Court Chalu Aahe (Silence! The Court Is in Session) is a Marathi play written by playwright Vijay Tendulkar and first performed in 1968, directed by Arvind Deshpande, with Sulbha Deshpande as the main lead. The play was written in 1963, for Rangayan, a Mumbai-based theatre group, though it was performed much later. It was inspired after the playwright overheard the conversation amongst the members of amateur theatre group traveling on Mumbai local train to perform a mock-trial at Vile Parle suburb. The play was based on a 1956 short-story, Die Panne (Traps) by Swiss playwright Durrenmatt. Vijay Tendulkar got national recognition in the form of the Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay Award for drama in 1970 and Sangeet Natak Akademi Award (National Academy of Music, Dance and Drama) Award in 1970 for playwriting. TENDULKAR’S PROJECTION OF THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD AND ITS VIEW ON WOMEN THROUGH HIS WORK “SILENCE! THE COURT IS IN THE SESSION” Tendulkar has achieved a mile-stone in exploring the relationship between men and women at different levels. He has focused on men’s superiority complex and shown subtle, inverted and preservative relationship between men and women. He has studied the psychology of all the characters and put them together in the play in natural shapes. The play is an intricate mosaic of several seminal themes. First is juxtaposing the two worlds - games and reality. It shows their areas of similarity and difference, thus raising the significant question of the relationship between art and society. The play also reveals that there are several important facets of human psychology. The play also emphasizes on how the basic instincts and impulses in man continue to motivate human being in a civilized society. Radical feminist theory is chiefly concerned with the issues arising out of prostitution, sexual harassment, rape and woman battering. Kate Millet insists that the roots of women’s oppression are deeply buried in gender system of patriarchy. This ideology is weak as it separates women from the mainstream rather than integrating them into it. Radical feminism sees the oppression of women as fundamental and the most basic form of oppression. All other forms of oppression stem from male dominance. The purpose of this oppression is to obtain psychological ego satisfaction and strength and self-esteem. In patriarchal culture power is equated with aggression and masculinity; weakness with compassion and feminity. Women are supposed to bear male oppression silently and meekly. Where they fail to do so, they are branded as `loud’ hysterical, crazy and punished. Vijay Tendulkar is one of the prominent Indian playwrights. He is also known as screen and television writer, literary essayist political journalist and social commentator. He is a man of radical and progressive views. Vijay Tendulkar has powerfully articulated the socio-political situations in his plays. He has expressed it by saying, “As an Individual or rather as a social being, I feel deeply involved in the existing state of my society (because I am affected by it though not immediately in some cases or not as much as some other are) and in my way brood over it. Once in a way I even do something to
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar relieve myself of the tension and a nicely and agitation produced by this brooding. I participated in a protest meeting or dharma or a fast or morcha or a satyagrah. I align myself with some civil liberty organization. As a writer, I find myself persistently inquisitive, non conformist, ruthless, cold and brutal as compared to other committed and human As a social being, I am against all exploitation and I passionately feel that all exploitation must end” (Tendulkar 92) The silence the court is in session is a play about the difficult of a young woman, who is a victim of the male dominated society. Tendulkar has criticized the follies prevailing in the society. The original name of the drama in Marathi is Shantata! court chalu Ahe (1967). It was translated in English by Priya Adarkar. The words of the title are very common in law courts where the honorable Judges pronounce the words to bring back order and decorum if the parties concerned create chaos and commotion. In other words, the very words silence the court is the session indicate the absolute authority of the judge in the court room to decide upon the manners of others. The judge has also the final authority to pronounce contempt of court in case of breach of discipline. In a civilized society the court system is in vogue for the sake of justice. The judiciary is considered to be one of the four main pillars of democracy. In“Silence! The court is in session” Vijay Tendulkar chooses a term of judicial register as the title of his play to make a powerful common on society with a heavy patriarchal bias that makes justice impossible. A judicial court is supposed to be a seat of Justice, seriousness and decorum. Throughout this play, Tendulkar also makes a review of the present day court procedures, and points out the problem of degradation of the court. It depicted the tragedy of an individual victimized by society. The female protagonist becomes the victim of sadism of his male counterparts. The audience is made to witness a more enactment of what is rehearsal of sort of a mock-trial to be stage later in the day. The woman, Benare, who faces the mock charge of infanticide in the mock rehearsal of a play and whose affair with professor Damale exposed by her fellow actors. It is on Sukhatme’s suggestion they decide to make Benare the accused. It is notable that Benare is allotted the role of accused of silence! The world is in session. Benare is cross-examined in the court with full mockery. All the other characters like witnesses Mr. Gopal Ponkshe, Mr. Karnik, Rokde, Samant, Counsel for the defence and counsel for the crown Mr. Sukhatme and Judge, Mr. Kashikar and his wife Mrs. Kashikar all behave in a way of mockery. Benare is summoned merely as a witness while she remains the prime accused as the mother of an illegitimate child and having illicit relations with so many persons. In the beginning of the play, we find Benare bubbling with over-confidence. She represents the working class women who want lead a liberated life. Though she is a victim of incest, it is not in the main focus as it is referred to by way of reflection by Benare herself. She is robbed of her virginity when she hardly fourteen years old. The focal point of the play is the violent response of the male dominated society to ore-marital relationship and motherhood. The mock – trial holds a mirror to our social response to such things. It is pre-eminently male biased. What is wrong, immoral for a woman is not so far for a man. The character of Ms. Benare reminds us to various female characters depicted by Arundhati Roy, Shashi Deshpande and Anita Desai in their books. These writers also exposed the suffering of the women at the hands of the male dominating society. The mock - trial holds a mirror to our social response to moral values. Sex is a private affair in one’s life. But there certain social and moral values attached to it. Premartial or post-marital sexual relations are condemned in Indian society. The social rules in practice are more- strict for women than for men. Tendulkar throws light on the hypocrisy of the society that excuses men and women for the same offence. Benares
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar maternal uncle nowhere appears as an accused for committing incest with her. Similarly Prof. Damle is merely a witness in the trail of the case, where as Benare is an accused of the society of law. She has done no offence in the eyes and the law, but she has violated the social taboo. This false position of the men in the court, as he has done any infanticide, prompts them to an illegal wedding of the judicial laws and social laws to prosecute the woman challenging men’s authority. A feminist would discern a realistic depiction of the society and the court biased against the women as they are dominated by men. Leela, Benare competed for equality with men in their own world. On the other hand, Mrs. Kashikar is middle aged, married, a house wife and disapproving of childless. Mrs Kashikar thinks that it is woman because of being a man and husband. She does not oppose her insults and still seen, Mr. Kashikar as a caring husband because he has bought a string of flower for her hair, a token of romance not love. Mrs. Kashikar has damaging view against Benare. She does not hesitate to say that these young unmarried girls get everything without marrying. She shows her doubt, how can Benare remain unmarried till the age of thirty-four? Man has all the rights to be sinful in the society. All the rights too are reserved especially for him. On the other hand, a woman must be deserted, ignored, thrown away and should be punished for her sins. Women have been faced several problem and they have been exploited by the men and society at large. They have suffered in silence and feminism tilts exactly about her. Women in literature, through the centuries, have been based upon the mythic models from the Ramayana and the Puranas: Sita-silent sufferer. Benare represents all the women in India who are suppressed oppressed and are marginalized. She breaks down during the mock-trail because the story of the character in the play she is performing at the mock-trail is identical to her own. Benare was psychologically harassed but was still starving to search for her existence. Tendulkar depicts women as being equal underneath their socio-economic class.Silence is a symbol of oppression, a characteristic of the subaltern condition, while speech signifies self-expression and liberation. Leela Benare is refused to be cowed down by men. The last speech of Ms. Benare was skillfully constructed by Tendulkar. It echoes the irony, sorrow lampoon present in Indian society. Ms. Benare said, “But I was ignorant instead; I threw myself off a parapet of our house-to embrace death. But I didn’t die. My body didn’t die I felt as it feelings were dead – out they had not died either then.” (Silence 74) At the end Benare breaks her silence and speaks passionately about conspiracy against her. Vijay Tendulkar presented the court by converting the accusation into the verdict. The mock-trial ends up with an interruption by a visitor reminding them of their being late in the show. This interruption brings them back from illusion to reality. But Benare remains in the same condition engrossed in thought for she is overtaken by the reality implied in the illusion. Her reality is different from others. Parrot in the play is a powerful symbol of illusion of her own self and sparrow represents her reality. The green cloth parrot is also a symbol of the foetus taking human shape in her womb. But she would be losing in the due course of time in deference to the enjoinment of the fustian value holders of society. Tendulkar treats his female characters with understanding and compassion. In his feminist research on the effect of development of women, has clearly revealed that in many areas of the clearly revealed that in many areas of the country the rights of women are infringed, women are exploited emotionally, socially and physically. Benare is dismissed from the job. She cries in pain but she does not succumb to the social torture and stands defiant till the end. The cynical game is well-rooted in their sick psyche that informs the verdict they pass on her, with the sort of pleasure that can be envy of professional torturers. The verdict is that her baby should be killed because its existence
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar negates the very idea of moral values. The questions posed by the play call for a total overhauling of the society’s entire moral code. CONCLUSION Tendulkar throws light on a woman’s victimization due to men’s lust and prejudice. At the ageof fifteen Benare is molested by her own maternal uncle. At the age of fifteen she was innocent and her impulses were natural. Her maternal uncle was a matured person and she was drawn by her uncle in this affair purposely. However, her disillusionment in love, in winning a man through her body leads her to realization of its inevitable futility. The physical, sexual and psychological trauma is there under which she goes stinking. Because when she expresses her love towards her maternal uncle she is blamed by her mother also. She is continuously subjected to the torture and humiliation by the members of theatre group acting against her. Though Tendulkar is not a selfacknowledged feminist, he goes with the feminists in voicing women’s concern, their sensibility and their subjugation as well as their protest. Thus, Tendulkar’s dramatic world reveals his deep and uncanny insight into feminine mind. REFERENCES:
1. Beauvoir, Simone de, The Second Sex, Trans. And ed. H.M Parshley, (London:

Penguin,1974).
2. Dass, Veena Noble (1994): ‘Women Characters in the Plays of Tendulkar’ New

Directions in India, Drama ed. Sudhakar Pandey and Friya Barya, Prestige Books; New Delhi, p. 10.
3. http://passionforcinema.com/a-conversation-with-sir-vijay_tendulkar/

Indian Literature Today (1994): Vol. 1 Ed. R.K. Dhawan, New Delhi: Prestige Books, pp. 34-42.
4. Olive Banks, Faces of Feminism, New Delhi: St. Martin’s Press, 1981.

Tendulkar, Vijay (1974): ‘Silence! The Court is in Session’, Translated by Priya Adarkar,
5. Five Plays, and Oxford University Press : New Delhi, p. vii.

Tendulkar, Vijay (1992): ‘Silence! The Court is in Session’, Translated by Priya Adarkar, Five Plays, and Oxford University Press : New Delhi, p. Indian Streams Research Journal Vol - I , ISSUE - V [ August 2011 ] : English ISSN:-2230-7850 ROLE OF TRANSLATORS C.NAVANEETHA KRISHNAN ASST PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH RVS CAS Qualities of a good translator:
          The good translator is a translator who is providing an exact transfer of information, including preservation of the style. First, you must decide if you want to be an interpreter or a translator. Though the educational requirements are similar, consider other skills you will require for either interpreting or translating. A bachelor's degree is usually required. You do not necessarily need to major in a foreign language, but courses taken in various types of interpretation will enrich your resume. Native speaker of the target language Written translation Oral translation and its demands Simultaneous interpretations Gives you access to literary works written in a language you don’t understand. The translates that work in native language. Manual tools: Dictionaries and Encyclopedias 52
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar Electronic tools: Word processors and Electronic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Three Key Roles of Professional Translators Imagine a world with hundreds of languages having no one in the entire population who can speak a second language. Communication? A sure dead air. Growth? Impossible to achieve. Culture? Stagnant and unshared. Professional translators will never let this happen. With diverse cultures and languages worldwide, professional translators serve as instruments for three essential human functions: Communication, Development and Culture promotion. How? In Communication It is a basic need of man to communicate. And to communicate only means that the original message will be clearly sent in its equivalent context to the target audience. The main role of translators is to send the message across without any form of distortion or emphasis. That’s why it is an imperative that only professional translators handle the sending process. Also, maintaining and building good relationships is an essential to an individual’s healthy living. Communication is vital to maintaining and creating those relationships. But how can one build or sustain a sound relationship across the world if there’s lack of understanding to one another? With professional translators it is possible. The main job of translators is simple – provide an effective means of communication. Efficient communication is not only to translate an original text by wordper-word basis. It’s delivering the genuine context of the message to the language that the target person understands. This task of professional translators is not a piece of cake as it demands nothing less than accuracy. A single mistake in context translation can result to offensive message that can eventually lead to misunderstandings between people. With full content management, skilled translators take care of every single detail of the translation process, no matter how big or small. Professional language translation services make the client feel confident that every word reads and sounds locally correct. Accurate content and context are key to quality communication. Here’s a quick look at what it takes to become a professional translator. To become a translator you have to at least know two languages. Most of professional translators translate no more than four languages. Any more languages than four and it will start to take time away from practicing and mastering the languages. A college degree is essential but not necessarily a degree in a particular language is needed. It’s beneficial to have qualifications or experience in a different field and even more beneficial when you follow it up with postgraduate linguistic training. When choosing your language combinations think about also learning the cultures and the customs of the countries as well. You can do this by traveling abroad and immersing yourself in the language and culture. Most universities will give credits toward your degree for a semester abroad. There’s no substitute for first-hand experience. Besides classroom education, linguistic training and studying abroad you’re going to need some tools and resources for your language and document translations. First and foremost you’ll need a computer with internet connection. And, if you’re traveling abroad you might want to purchase an internet card so you always have the option of going online. You’ll also need to purchase word processing software, a telephone, answering machine and fax machine. Other resources include dictionaries, translation memory software and CAT tools. CAT refers to computer aided translations tools. These tools can be quite expensive but will be worth the investment in the long run. Role of Translators and Interpreters in Global Business

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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar Translators and interpreters play an important role in global business. They enhance communication by conveying information accurately from one language to another in different countries across the world. These translators and interpreters provide different services. Interpreters deal with verbal communication while translators deal with written communication. Role of interpreters and translators in global business: Interpreters and translators provide services in a number of business areas, and they specialise in specific fields. Some of the business areas in which translators and interpreters play a key role are: • Medical interpreters and translators: Medical interpreters help promote communication between hospital management and patients. Medical translators also help translate patients' journals and hospital information brochures into patients' languages. Medical interpreters and translators will have strong knowledge of medical and conversational terms in both languages, as well as the cultural aspect relating to how the patient receives the information. • Localisation translators: Localisation involves the complete adaptation of a product for use in a different language and culture. A translator possesses a high degree of knowledge regarding the local users of the product. The main goal of localisation translators is to adapt the product as if it had been originally manufactured in the country where it will be sold and supported. • Specialised business translators: Specialised business translation involves specialist translation in various fields such as, finance, economics, marketing etc. An interpreter or translator will have sound knowledge of the respective businesses and markets and current events. An example of this type of service is specialised business translation in financial markets. This involves the translation of documents such as financial statements, mutual funds reports, regulatory statements and reports etc. into the target language. • Conference interpreters: Conference interpreters work in international fora such as WTO, the World Bank etc. where the participants come from around the world. Some times, these interpreters are also used as mediators among international businesses that operate in foreign countries. Conference interpreters often have the ability to interpret from at least two passive languages to one active language, for example, from Spanish and French into English. Translators and interpreters assist cross-cultural communication among businesses by converting written or verbal language into the target language. Thus, interpreters and translators play a vital role in global business. O.V.VIJAYAN’STHE SAGA OF DHARMAPURI: THE BITTEREST POLITICAL SATIRE Mrs.M.K.PRASEEDA RAJESH ASST.PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH KONGUNADU ARTS AND SCIENCE COLLEGE O.V.Vijayan ‘s The Saga of Dharmapuri originally written in Malayalam and finely translated into English by the author, is a novel of anarchy which depicts a shocking fusion of history and pathetic condition of man. O V Vijayan occupies a covetous position among the modern intellectuals and writers of India. His novels are marked by the novelty of language and style and have a serious concern over the tragic human experiences. The Saga of Dharmapuri, a political satire, is perhaps the most controversial of all novels published in Malayalam. It is a story of the journey of Young Siddhartha through a community afflicted by the cancer of meanness ruthlessness craze for power and war, exploitation and corruption.
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar The novel is a noble and benevolent cry of humanity for justice, peace and welfare. The political background of the novel is the emergency period in India. The character of President is modelled on a number of political leaders both outside and inside India. The novel was written in 1970s when Indira Gandhi was in power. The agitation against her power was going all over India. At last emergency was declared and it suppressed all kinds of freedom including Press. Emergency indeed was a black chapter in history of modern India. During this period only sycophants could thrive in social and political life .Political corruption reached its culmination. India, known as a land of spirituality, turned into a waste land of moral and spiritual degradation. As a close observer of political and social developments, O.V.Vijayan was disgust with this situation of India’s total decay and destruction of moral and spiritual values. The Saga of Dharmapuri is obviously a spontaneous outburst of this degeneration in Indian polity. Vijayan's satire is devastatingly sharp, from what amounts to the opening scene, in which the President squirms on his throne in his ritual "Hour of the Second Defecation" Dharmapuri is a country where even every last bit of the President's excrement is venerated as they take their shit seriously in Dharmapuri and each bowel movement examined by the press , “Magnificent,' said one; 'great stability,' said a second" ,suggesting that this has become a land of mindless, grovelling courtiers, oblivious to reality. The novel primarily depicts the decadence of political power.It is symbolically represented by the character of President.The frequent references to his political perversions and other disgusting activities express this rotten state of affairs.He makes use of the power of language and attempted to transform into a highly political language inorder to expose the evils of the contemporary society and political life. In this novel,he mainly focuses on three things; the president’s defecation symbolising the filth of history, the presence of Guru thought he character of Siddhartha and the spirit of revolution that is yet to be realised. The President in the novel with all his perversities embodies the political and social corruption. His frequent defecation symbolises the filth of power politics. His sexual vulgarities represent the lack of discipline in social life.The Minister under the President behaves like his slaves. They are willing to share even their wives with the President. The Saga of Dharmapuri can be discussed as a political satire. The politicians are severely criticised in the novel for their craze and abuse of power. Most of them are sycophants whose servile behaviour fills our mind with contempt. In this description of these shameless and selfish politicians Vijayan has displayed his skill of a cartoonist. The craze for power is combined with their incest, and both of these evil together bring out the disaster in the society. The novel does not adhere to the actual historical facts. But the readers can sense and trace out very easily the close resemblance to contemporary history. Vijayan knew history by instinct and that is more important to writer tan a thorough knowledge about the real history. Today we could understand that the reality of history is nothing but fiction. The native knowledge of history have another advantage, it can go beyond the contemporary events and reach the level of universality. So The Saga of Dharmapuri is not just a political satire on contemporary India: it is indeed a critique of power politics as such with universal significance. The political background of the novel is the emergency period of India. The highly demoralised political leaders and their activities are represented through the scatological imagery in the novel. The character of the President is modelled after many leaders inside and outside India. He combines in himself some elements of Hitler andMussolini. He also resembles Indian leaders like Indira Gandhi, VV Giri and Fakrudeen Ali Ahmmed. Rumannuan, the Minister for sorrowing bears resemblances to
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar VK Krishnan Menon, the Defence Minister of Nehru’s Ministry. Thereare references to Sino-Indo War of 1962.The Indiansoldiersis called as “persuaders”. Mahatma Gandhi is represented in the novel as the great Mendicant. India’s freedom struggle finds a reference in the novel .British Empire is called Feringhee Empire. The Soviet Union and the USA are depicted as The Red Tarter Republican and The White Confederacy respectively Guided by infallible dialectical and materialist sorcery, the Republic claims to be the natural ally of all decolonized peoples. [...] Gives Dharmapuri solidarity and slogans" -and: The White Confederacy: A trans-oceanic capitalist imperialist power practising the sorcery of consumerism and hardshell. One of the traditional 'enemies' of Dharmapuri, the Confederacy yet replenishes Dharmapuri's armouries, and supplies the President with candy. . We can assume that Lavanya, the abused woman hood is Mother India herself. The character of Siddhartha is not entirely drawn from the life if Lord Buddha. As the novelist he points that it is parallel creation. He embodies all that is best in Indian trsidtion.We feels that through this character he attempts to re-read the Indian tradition. The English Translation of the novel begins with “The doggered of Innocence”. It is famous short poem which Kalidasa is supposed to have composed as demanded by Vikramadithya. The emperor had asked his court poet to write a poem ending with the consonants, Ka Kha, Ga Gha. Kalidas found it difficult to compose the poem. But one day he met a small girl on the way to her school writing something. When he asked about that she answered ,”Ka Kha Ga Gha”.The context of the poems explains that even the most complicated problems face by great people can be solved by innocent children. Innocence is a cure for the most of the serious illness of the time. Vijayan holds to this ideology that the life becomes simple and sweet when man learns live like plants and birds. Often they face defeat in heir battle,but there is no real defeat in such a battle. Even if there is a defeat one must face it as an inevitable part of human destiny .Says Parasara towards the end of the novel, “Defeat awaits the one who follow the seer”. Siddhartha is the incarnation of Indian tradition which has withstood the onslaught if many destructive forces both within and out. In the midst of the decay and decadence of modern political milieu, Siddhartha’s presence serves as a healing power. He is the beacon of wisdom in the darkness of moral and spiritual death. Siddhartha, modeled after the Buddha brings the message of love and peaceLike Lord Buddha,He stands for purity, innocence ,truth and love.. Vijayan superbly balances his narrative between the comprehensive political and social decay as well as the tiny but sure stirrings for change that Siddhartha symbolizes. His love for the down trodden and the suffering radiates light in this darkling plains of corruption and exploitation. His compassion for Lavanya,a victim of many sexual assaults is indeed compassion for Mother India. A.J.JoseAlilakuzhy comments on O VVijayan’s universality in his article, ‘The Revolt of a Sage’, Vijayan often generalises the particular to imply the universal and perennial nature of histheme .The exploitation of women by the ignorant and poverty stricken man is not a scene of Dharmapuri,but of every brown and black continents.(226) Ecology is another major concern of Vijayan in this novel. Vijayan seems to share the ancient pantheism of our ancient Rishis. Nature ,according to the Novelist, is the last resort of man tosave himself from the onslaught of modern culture and civilization.Siddartha gets revelation on the banks of the river Jaanavi. The novelist seems to suggest that all the evils portrayed in the novel are caused by the Man’s neglect of Nature. He says that Man should enjoy nature with our disturbing its innocence and beauty like a bee sucking honey without disturbing the petals. Nature’s law is more
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar powerful and permanent than man made laws on earth. The novel ends with this revelation, Now the knowledge dawned on Siddhartha: the love of one's country demands the killing of children... Siddhartha sat in contemplation with no papal tree to stretch its merciful canopy overhead; and the Judge finished the last cantos of the judgment, and all around were the sounds of the people... God, God! Siddhartha reflected what voice is this which is not of man or animal, neither of the mate nor of the offspring? I know now! He listened with the seeker's alertness and heard its echo down the centuries through the dark valleys of memory. It is, Siddhartha realised, the eunuch voice of history. Thus this paper presented the theme ofDharmapuranam orThe Saga Of Dharmapuri as a great political satire where the author knows no restraint in caricaturing political establishments. Works Cited Ailiakuzhy, A.J.Jose. ‘O V Vijayan’s The Saga of Dharmapuri: The Revolt of a Sage’.IndianLiterature Today Vol I Drama And Fiction.Ed. R.K.Dhawan.New Delhi: Prestige Books1994.Print. Vijayan, O.V.The Saga Of Dharmapuri .New Delhi: Penguin Books,1989.Print www.hindu.com/fline/fl2208/stories/20050422003113200.htm www.wikipedia.org/wiki/O._V._Vijayan

NEW TREND IN TRANSLATION RAMA PRABHA.R ASST PROFESSOR RVS CAS Recent trends in Translation Studies advocate a focus on translation as a form of intercultural communication. Yet in some cases there seems to be a lack of awareness as regards the theoretical problems involved in every cultural approach to translation. The aim of this article is to highlight some aspects of these problems by bringing to the fore the interconnections between the question of translation and the general issue of culture. More specifically, the emphasis will be put on the interpretive dimension of translation and the peculiarities of the translator’s interpretive moves within different worlds of significations. Introduction Recent trends in Translation Studies focus on translation as a form of intercultural communication. Translation Studies has gone through a period of radical change. Intercultural communication is generally “conceptualized as communication between people from different national cultures and many scholars limit it to face-to-face communication. To ensure steady employment, some translators have begun crosstraining as technical writers; correspondingly, a few technical writers have begun crosstraining as translators, as the two professions appear to be undergoing a gradual trend of convergence. Translation Studies Ever since the emergence of Translation Studies as a distinct discipline, theorizing about translation has been expanded in unprecedented ways. But this expansion has brought with itself a multitude of different and competing approaches, translation models etc. That is of course part of the overall attempt to consolidate an identity for the newborn discipline and establish a dominant paradigm. In the course of consolidating its identity,
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar Translation Studies has gone through a period of radical change and fragmentation (Baker 1996: 9). In this context there occurred what is commonly known as the cultural turn in Translation Studies (Bassnett and Lefevere 1990: 4) Translation and Intercultural Communication Intercultural communication is generally “conceptualized as communication between people from different national cultures and many scholars limit it to face-to-face communication. This straightforward approach is nonetheless of little help in itself, unless it is coupled with a concrete conception of culture. Defining intercultural communication as “communication between people from different cultures” is rather a preliminary move which opens a range of possibilities for dealing with the social phenomenon under discussion. A further range of possibilities is available, as far as the intercultural dimension of translation is concerned. For the purposes of the present article, intercultural communication cannot be limited to face-toface communication, since in that way the translation of written texts is excluded from the discussion. But apart from the question of translation, such a limitation is in any case unacceptable unless the specific objective of the research calls for it. For intercultural communication displays a further and equally important dimension that concerns the creation and interpretation of texts (here the term is taken in its broadest sense, covering both verbal and non-verbal semiotic systems). In this respect, it also relates to the question of inter textual. The dimension of intercultural communication that concerns textual and inter textual phenomena is of crucial importance for the question of translation. Thus, in what follows an attempt will be made to outline an approach to translation in terms of textual interpretation. Barrier to translation: Automatic machine translations can't think for themselves and don't understand the nuances of language and so often get it very wrong. This could mean a big barrier to our organization’s reputation. When translating, it is important to maintain the same style and level of writing as in the source language. Take particular care with colloquial expressions, puns and metaphors. If they are translated word for word they will make little sense, therefore it is best to translate the overall meaning, which is where a professional translator over a machine translation will definitely come in handy. Translators who translate into their mother tongue and still have close connections with their birth country, so that they understand and can use current and colloquial language. In addition, make sure that all documents are proof-read (ideally by a second translator) before they are sent to you as mistakes tend to be more common in translated documents. Finally, if the area you work in is specialist or technical, make sure that the translator you use is also an industry expert. When translating into other languages from English there is often an increase or decrease in the word count, known as the 'expansion factor' or 'contraction factor'. This means that when you are translating a document, brochure, website or any other material into a new language, be prepared for the fact that it may become considerably longer or significantly shorter. Conclusion In today’s globalised society, translation and interpreting are gaining visibility and relevance as a means to foster communication and dialogue in increasingly multicultural and multilingual environments. Practiced since time immemorial, both activities have become more complex and multifaceted in recent decades, intersecting with many other disciplines. New Trends in Translation Studies is an international series with the main objectives of promoting the scholarly study of translation and interpreting and of functioning as a forum for the translation and interpreting research community.

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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar

ENGLISH RENDERING OF JAYAKANTHAN’S ORU PIDI SORU: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF TRANSLATION AND CULTURE SARANYA.R & CHARLY JEROME. J ASSISTANT PROFESSOR Introduction Translation restates the meaning of the source language text in an equivalent target language text. Translation enriches the written literature of the target language. The translators carry over not just the text into the target language literature but also the culture, tradition and values of the source language. The word by word translation cannot bring out the meaning and spirit of the source language text as it may only lead to confusion. Dryden’s theory of finding the equivalent of the source language highly serves the needs of the translators. The liberty of the translator in changing the syntax pattern of the source language helps in full filling the requirements of the target language. The translator also enhances the vocabulary list of the target language by carrying certain terms that does not have the equivalence in the target language. “Translation is the type of drawing after life…..” - Dryden The translator must maintain fidelity and transparency as the two ideals of translation. Fidelity is the extent of being faithful to the meaning of the source text and transparency includes conforming to the grammar, syntax and spirit of the target language. The distortion of the source text leads to misconceptions of it in the target language. Incomprehensible details and information fails to satisfy the target audience and results in failure of the translated text. The translator's role as a bridge for "carrying across" the values between cultures is very efficient in reproducing the text. The paper discusses the role of a translator in preserving the culture of the source text in the translated version of Jayakanthan’s Oru Pidi Soru as A Handful of Rice in English. The Role of a Translator A complete knowledge of the source and target language is essential to produce a genuine translated text. Familiarity of the subject matter of the source text helps in rendering the translated version. More than being bilingual, the translator has to be bicultural to transfer the cultural soul of the source language text. Diversity in the speaking style of the characters also varies from source language to target language. Translator’s language intuition helps in grasping various expressions, idioms and specific vocabulary and their uses. Jayakanthan’s Oru Pidi Soru The story revolves around the Madras city pavement dwellers. Rasaththi is a poor migrant to the city from South Arcot district who came to the city in search of jobs and income. Having found nothing permanent, she joined the thousands who live on the city's pavements. She has no husband. If and when she finds some job, it was hardly enough to feed herself and her son. If not, she goes hungry or lives on the charity of some neighbour. But she is not a regular prostitute. Her little son Mannangkatti is the offspring of just one such liaison. Neither Rasaththi nor the boy has any clue as to the identity of his father. As the story begins, Rasaththi is pregnant, almost at term, and expected to give birth anytime. She is not in great physical shape. She is looking for her son and yells out for him. Mannangkatti suddenly appears and pesters her for some money to buy something. She has nothing to give and starts to yell at him as he pulls at her and she is about to fall. In her distress, she wants to catch hold of him and give him a thrashing. But he is too nimble for her and escapes her. Suddenly he feels the sting of Mariyayi's hand
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar on his bare back as she shouts for stealing her food. On finding her son beaten and abused, Rasaththi gets mad and starts abusing Mariyayi. Soon, harsh words are exchanged laying bare each other's sexual escapades and the two women are at each other's throats and in the ensuing confusion, the kid runs away. As Mariyayi is getting worst in the fight, she tries to escape by punching Rasaththi in her stomach. Just then Manikkam appears and scolds her for punching a pregnant woman in her stomach and pulls her away. Rasaththi is in great pain and retires to her corner in the pavement. Suddenly she feels hungry and also pangs of pain. She is unable to move and shrieks in pain. Mariyayi runs in, and examines her. She thinks that Rasaththi is beginning to go into labour. But Rasaththi doesn't think so but believes that it is just hunger. Mariyayi gives her a little rice and asks her to go get some water for steaming the rice while she will try to get some firewood. Rasaththi is barely able to drag herself to the public water pump. Mannangkatti who had run away earlier to escape the beatings is nowhere to be seen. The other women at the pump give her some water and she moves to her corner and a makeshift stove (aduppu). But her legs give way. She goes into labour and is in svere pain. It is obvious that it is going to be a difficult birth. As Mariyayi and the other women rush to her, she just pushes an aborted fetus out and in the process bleeds to death. Mariyayi is just devastated at the death of her friend. As the sun is about to set, the kid returns "home" hungry and expecting his mother to feed him. But as he nears his place he senses that something has gone terribly wrong. Once he finds out that his mother, his sole relative on this earth, is dead he is completely lost. Mariyayi and Manikkam return home and they cook something to eat. But instead of eating it Manikkam puts it away. As she tries to persuade him to eat, he says: "No, no. I am saving it for my mom." And then he begins to cry. Mariyayi also holds on to him crying and calls out. The setting of the story is some obscure corner of one of the nameless pavements in downtown Madras and the period is around 1950-1955. The depiction of the characters like Rasaththi, Mariyayi, Manikkam and Mannangkatti is explicit from their external appearance, physical appearance, surroundings, and reactions of other characters, speech, and action and by the authorial statements. The main theme of the story is to be humane and to maintain life – sustaining mother – child relationship with the fellow citizens. Rendering A Handful of Rice – Translation & Culture The story can easily be summarized but while translating the text, there were culture bound words that were to be retained in the target language in order to transfer the soul of the text. The translator has adopted the technique of calque and loan word (a word or phrase borrowed from another language while translating its components from a donor language and incorporated into a recipient language) so as to create a new lexeme in the target language. The story is written in Chennai dialect which was difficult to be carried over to the target language (English). It was difficult to translate the abusive language used by Rasaththi and Mariyayi. The profundity and the impact of the original text are conveyed with the change in the sentence structure of the source language. Sense based translation was preferred with the equivalence where the equivalents did not convey the exact meaning. The usage of bilingual dictionary helped in identifying the meaning of certain terms. The glossary is given to expose the target language readers to the meaning of the culture bound and difficult words. The conversation between Rasaththi and Mariyayi was made as a descriptive passage. The regional culture bound words are retained in the glossary (mandapam, yammov, kovil, kanji, nastha, thatti, alagu, Sadayamman, etc.) Conclusion

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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar Translation process involves stages like comprehension and expression stage. In the first stage, the translator decodes the sense of source text and in the next stage the translator recodes the sense of the text in the target language. The penultimate rendering helps to rectify the errors and to offer a better final version. The English rendering of Jayakanthan’s Oru Pidi Soru as A Handful of Rice is an attempt to spread and preserve the culture across the borders. References Jeyakantan. Oru Pidi Soru.Meenakshy Puthaka Nilayam,2000. “Translation”.en.wikipedi.org<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Translation> www.tamilnation.co.in www.googlebooks.com EXPLOITATION OF WOMEN IN VIJAY TENDULKAR’S PLAYS SILENCE! THE COURT IS IN SESSION AND KAMALA M.DEVENDRAN ASST PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH RVS CAS Vijay Tendulkar (1928-2008) is a leading contemporary Indian playwright in Marathi. He has definite contribution to the contemporary Indian Marathi theatre along with Badal Sarkar, Habib Tanvir, Girish Karnard and others. Here is to reflect on how selfishness, hypocrisy and lust among the male counterparts caused the depreciation of women as human being in our society. Vijay Tendulkar is undeniably a great Indian playwright and he is known for his multifaceted creative genius. As a versatile Marathi playwright he has given us twentyeight plays (28) full-length dramas ,eleven plays for children and twenty-four one-act plays. He has also contributed to literary essays, political journalism, screen and television writing, translated works and social commentaries, novels and short stories, though his creative soul is found only in dramas and for his great contribution to dramas as well as theatre is Marathi; he has been honored with several awards such as Sangeet Natak Akademy Award, Padma Bhushan Award and Maharastra State Government Award. He was the sub-editor of Nababharat journal. Tendulkar exhibits how women in our society are victimized, suffered, tortured and exploited. This paper concerns the exploitation of women in Silence! The Court is in Session and Kamala. Silence! The Court Is In Session(1967), a play which won him a palce among the leading Indian playwrights, is a play originally written in Marathi and later translated into English by Praya Adarkar and staged in 1971 at museum Theatre, Madras and later translated into Bengali language and produced by ‘Baharupi’ under the direction of Sri Sambhu Mitra. This play took its original from a real life incident in which Tendulkar happened to overhear a group of amateur players whom he was guiding to their destination, vile parle, the Mumbai suburb in which he lived where the group was going to stage a mock-trial. Here the playwright by using the techniques of dramatic irony and satire portrays how w young woman of thirty-four is made a victim to conventions and shameful hypocrisy of the middle-class male-dominated society and also the deplorable legal system found in contemporary society and she undergoes deep mental agony when she is betrayed by the other members of the group. In the play, Silence! The Court is in Session with three acts Tendulkar introduces a theatre group called ‘The Sonar Moti Tenement (Bombay) Progressive Association’ come to a suburban village near Bombay to stage their play on the Trial of American President Lydon B. Johnson on the charge of producing atomic weapons. In the play Tendulkar
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar depicted the plight of a young educated urban woman in male dominated society. A traditional male-dominated middle class society is reluctant to any social change. Benare, the heroine of the play is in search of a happy life after a few frustrations in her life. But society does not allow her to live quietly. Benare is an educated woman of about 34 years. She is a school teacher by profession. She loves life and is full of spirits. She is proud of her performance as a teacher and feels that her life is her own and no one has got the right to interfere in it. She is a member of an amateur dramatic association which stages plays in different places to create public consciousness on some social or sociological issues. Silence! The Court is in Session presents a play within a play where Benare, as the accused is tried for an imaginary crime of infanticide. Though the trial is conducted in game like and non-serious manner, it exposes the past life of Benare and authenticates the feeling of superiority of men over women in Indian society. This play deals with the mental state of educated woman in a traditionally male-dominated Indian society. The socalled social workers like Kashikar and his troupe show social concern for social reform and Tendulkar attacked them ironically and satirically throughout the play. In this play an Indian society is presented where a woman is quite suppressed and any small attempt y an woman for her freedom is highly detoriated. Tendulkar is highly artistic manner withdraw from making any statement which saves the play from being propaganda. A play, in order to be staged successfully needs to be rehearsed. The main body of the play concerns the rehearsal of a drama on the theme of a court trial of an accused on some imaginary charges. Act-I exhibits that all preparations for such a rehearsal of a mock courts have been made. Act-I is an introduction to the main action of the real play which starts in Act-II. The play begins with the arrival of dramatic troupe in a village to stage a mock trial of a court in order to educate the rural folk about the functioning before the time of the actual performance they pal to spend the prime period of time in some sort of game like activity. The rehearsal of the play in the village suggests the main action of the play. The Act-I reveals the entire course of the drama. While engaged in conversation with Samant, Benare tells him about her experiences as popular teacher in a school. She further narrates how people around her are jealous for which they have instituted an enquiry against her for one bit of slander. This slander related to her affair with Prof. Damley as it has been shown in the course of her trial as the accused. Arundhati Banerjee says that the accusation brought against Benare at the beginning of the trial turns into the verdict because contemporary society can not allow the birth of a child out of wedlock. Tendulkar exposes the condition of women of the middle class family in Indian context. Both Benare and Mrs. Kashikar are presented as women who have fallen victims to male supremacy in Indian society. They both are not free to act independently. Benare’s attempt to lead an independent life of her own has been frustrated by the group of men surrounding her during the course of the mock-trial. Her freedom has been mercilessly crushed. She Argues: Don’t’ you think that maturity comes to a person only with experience? And experience comes with age, with an unusual way of life. She gradually becomes serious and depressed because all the male characters try to unravel her past life with a view of humiliating her. Even Mrs. Kashikar joins her hands with them to expose her. When she visited Kashikar on birthday he listens the communication : It is a sin to be pregnant before marriage. It would be still more immoral to let such a woman teach, in such a condition..There is no alternative. This woman must be dismissed. It is further revealed that Benare is carrying the child of Prof. Dambley in her womb, Karnik discloses the fact that Benare in her youth, was in love with her maternal
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar uncle and when that affair ended in fiasco, she attempted suicide. Further it is disclosed in the court that after her pregnancy through Prof. Dambley, Benare attempted to get married to anyone to save herself from defamation. Sukhatme points out to the court that man is liable to error and youth leads a person astray. He appeals to the court to keep this in view and take a lenient view of his client’s alleged crime and show mercy to her for humanity’s sake. Man is the last analysis, prone to error. Youth leads a person astray. Let the terrible crime that the accused has committed and is committing be regarded with mercy. However, Benare admits all her crimes. She refers to her love affair with her maternal uncle and Prof. Damble. But both the men had deceived her. She confesses: “It isn’t love at all...its worship! But it was the same mistake. I offered my body on the altar of my worship. And intellectual god took the offering…. and went his way” She pathetically states: He wasn’t god. He was a man for whom everything was of the body, for the body; Thaat’s all. Unable to bear the bitter experience of her frustrated love Benare feels weak and mental agony and finally cries out. Yet no one comes forward to help her and soothe her. No one feels pity for her. They simply observe the whole scene with indifference. She then tells the Judge that she wants to live for the sake of ‘my god - my whole existence’. She is very firm that she wants her body now for her son and ‘he must have a mother…..a father to call his own—a house – to be looked after – he must have a good name!’ Kamala by Vijay Tendulkar is a naturalistic play inspired by a real-life incident. It is the story of an unfortunate woman, Kamala, sold away in the flesh market and being a victim of sexual slavery in this male dominated world. The play deals with the issue of buying and setting of tribal women. Tendulkar uses the play to dwell on the characteristic sufferings of the Indian middle class woman made to suffer by selfish, malicious and hypocritical male chauvinists. Here in the play we find Jadhav is indifferent to humanness. He is capable of humanity itself. The husband-wife relationship between Jaising and Sarita is typical of the sort existing in the cities like Mumbai, where husbands, having been in employment do not have enough time for their wives and kids and therefore they have to content themselves by being mere social beings. This article concern the exploitation of women is well as women’s victimization by male-dominated society. Sarita’s speech in the play, Kamala focuses on the evolutionary process of Tendulkar’s women. The women characters in Tendulkar’s dramas suffer a lot as the victims of the hegemonic power structure. The female body is the object of male sexual fantasy and desire is theatrically presented by Tendulkar. All women characters in his plays are the marginalized objects in interlocking system of sexual politics and power politics. Gayatri Chakraborty Spivak’s study of the unhappy lot of subaltern people in Can Subaltern Speak? Has great similarity with Vijay Tendulakar’s female characters. Michel Foucault views that women in our society fall into an extremely complex system of relations and this system is based on ‘highly intricate mosaic’ (power/knowledge) of man-woman relationship. Kamala is treated as an object and she has to serve his role as the male-dominated society wants and called by Sarita ‘an innocent the poor thing’. It is really shocking that Kamala was bought from an auction of women. Through Kamala and Sarita, Tendulkar expresses the male-chauvinistic spirit where male believes in liberty of themselves and at the same time they try to suppress the voice of women in the society either by force or trickery. Sarita converses with Kakasaheb and his conversations suggest that exploitation of women in male-dominated Indian society is perpetual process iin the past and coming future. Kakasaheb also is a part of that patriarchal society as he forced his wife to follow him silently without any grudge: 63
Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar Kakasaheb: It Amy be unpleasant, but it’s true. If the world is to go on, marriage must go on. And it only goes on like this However at the end Sarita asks why are women not masters like men? Why must only a man have the right to be a man? She insistently asserts the need of change in the concept of manhood as she cries out:‘This must be changed. There who do manly things should be equal to men’ Thus this article displays how women desires are repressed under the onslaught of reactionary ideas of the fundamentally orthodox society. It also displays how women are disrupted to do certain things. She cannot talk freely, walk freely and live freely. If she does this like Benare and some mishappening occurs, this misfortune will inevitably fall upon her head. It is important that it man who ruin society but accused will remain Leela Benare. Prof. Dambley is equally guilty but the trial cannot be set against him. The situation becomes complicated when Ponkshe reveals that Benare lives only for the child in her womb and will give birth to it. Works Cited: 1) Banerjee, Arundhati. “Introduction”, Five Plays, New Delhi; Oxford India Paperbacks, 1995, Eight Impression, 2006, p.VIII 2) Foucault, Michel. Power/Knowledegs: Selected Interviews and other Writings 1972-1977.Ed. Colin Gordon.New York;Pantheon Books,1977.print. 3) s Gokhale, Vikram.”on Kamala”,Vijay Tenndulkar plays: An Anthology of recent Criticism,Ed.V.MM Madge,Delhi;Pencraft International,2009.Print 4) Gokhale, Shanta.”Tendulkar on His Own Terms’, Vijay Tendulkar. Eds. Shoma Chaudhury and Gita rajan.New Delhi: Katha, 2001.Print 5) Spivak, Chakraborty, Gayatri. “Can Subaltern Speak?” 6) Tendulkar, Vijay. “Kamala”, Five Plays, New Delhi: Oxford India Paperbacks, 1995, Eight Impression, 2006. 7) Tendulkar Vijay: Silence! The court is in Session,Presto publisher,Kolkata,2004 RESPONSIBLE ACT AND IRRESPONSIBLE ACT IN TRANSLATION K. VIJAYA KUMAR ASST. PROFESSOR, NEHRU ARTS AND SCIENCE COLLEGE Introduction Translation is an occupation that warrants certain practices to be followed in order to make it a professionally successful career. A good translator should be well versed in any two languages that which he feels comfortable and has excellent language proficiency in both those languages. For few authorities in translation observe that the translator’s mother tongue should be one of those two languages in which the translator is engaged in translations. Technically this is not a vital point for consideration. The Responsible Act The foremost requirement is the use of right words at the right context. One has to master the words in both the languages and also be familiar with their equivalency. This would immensely solve majority of the problems arising out of translations. The next important task is the usage of the correct tone for the translation. For example the language and tone used in the source content and the target language should be of the same kind. A humorous content in English should not be disturbed or lost while
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar translating into Tamil. The same essence and flavour should be maintained in the translated work in order to make the effort worthwhile. Similarly a poetic genre in source language should be suitably adopted in the target language also. Being objective is very important for the translator in translations. There should not be any slant or bias while translating the source language to target language. Normally the translators are tempted to use their own thoughts and ideas while on their translation assignments. This inadvertently hampers the originality of the work and ultimately the job would loose its credibility. The next important aspect is pertaining to culture and time. An Elizabethan time work should be translated using the same dialect, phrase, language style into the target language. This preserves the sense of period and its values in the work. Similarly the translator is better advised to know and understand the culture of the people who are the readers of the target language or the translated work before the attempt is made towards the same. Proper choice of words to express is very crucial to good translations. Choosing the best suited, viz. Between formal and colloquial expressions makes immense sense for any good translation. Mixing up or swapping between these two types would lead to vocabulary chaos in translations. To put these above factors in simple terms for the understanding and guidance of fresh aspiring translators, I am giving few tips that which I have personally acquired from my practical experience in this translation field. I would like to put forth or emphasise the four point check for any translation work in general to ensure quality in translation. Accuracy, Brevity, Clarity and Dexterity are the four watch words in this arena to be followed religiously for a guaranteed completeness in translations. The first check is to see the translation for accuracy, in simple words it means to see there are no omissions or additions to the source language while in the process of translation. For it is a common mistake that one is prone to commit, that is add their own points or remove certain points that which they are not comfortable while executing the task.. The second check is for brevity of the translation. Use of apt words to attain crispness and to avoid the translated work becoming lengthier than the source language content is very essential for any good translation. This factor can be overcome by repeated reading of the text to be translated. The overall idea of the text should be absorbed by the translator before proceeding to do the job. The third check is for clarity. Clarity refers to the clear understanding of the source text by the translator, particularly the technical terminologies in source language. This problem can be sorted out by using a bilingual technical dictionary or through talking to the technical person connected with the subject. The fourth check is for dexterity. Dexterity refers to the neat output of the target language translated from the source text. Revising the translated language once or twice for complete thoroughness or flawlessness of the content makes sense and pays dividend as well. The Irresponsible act Coming to the point of irresponsible act of the translator, we observe that many translations made in media, particularly the foreign content in children’s program contains more of colloquial words. The Tamil version of content contains words such as mokkai, kalaikiruthu, dharu, sathaikiruthu, appatucker, gethu and similar words (words not found in the dictionary). Apart from these, there is blatant violation of content
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar distortion from original English to Tamil target language pertaining to cinema posters found pasted in walls. For example a movie named “Its hot in paradise” is translated in Tamil as Sorgathil Sudana Sundarigal. Another factor that distorts the content is the used of certain words in the wrong sense and in the wrong context. For example in Tamil the Aapu refers to a wooden piece (technically used by carpenters in workplace, which means a wooden peg). This same word is used in most of the Tamil television medium in dialogues (in this context, it means to harm someone), or conspiring for a bad act towards a person. Another word that is frequently used is vechukiren; in normal context it has a positive meaning. Whereas the same word in media means to take revenge on a particular person. Few other words that are frequently misused in media are thalikiruthu (in this media context it means to curse), the original meaning is to season while cooking. All these words are freely used while translating certain English content in media for Tamil audience. Practically these words are simply manipulated or substituted for English words that really don’t mean anything relevant to these translated Tamil words. Conclusion This paper on translation has really enabled me to get to know the theoretical concepts and the insights involved in this occupation. My final observation on the above paper is that any sincere input or attempt finally brings forth excellent outcome from a task. Be it translation or writing or publishing a good book. The simple mantra is to be logical, think analytical and act practical. The ultimate result will be amazing and appreciated by common people and the authorities in the concerned field. A SHORT HISTORY OF TRANSLATION K.PANCHATCHARAM, LECTURER IN ENGLISH, ALAGAPPA GOVT. ARTS COLLEGE, KARAIKUDI. Every educated man that has the spirit of enquiry and thirst for knowledge is motivated by the adage: “Art is long and life is short”. Within a short span of life and with the knowledge of his/her mother-tongue only, it is impossible for anyone in this terra-firma to become a master of all languages. Translation has proved very useful to acquire the knowledge of their literary works. It has prepared the ground for the availability of various literary works in one language to the readers belonging to other languages. Thanks to translation, ideas have flown from one cultural group to other cultural groups. In this context, every translator is a philanthropist. Writers are also benefited by translations. For instance, Shakespeare borrowed stories from famous Greek and Latin classics. They had been translating into English and art made readily available to Shakespeare. New Standard Encyclopaedia defines translation as passing a meaning in writing from one language to another. Translation is basically a change of form. Translation is the interpreting of the meaning of a text and the subsequent production of an equivalent text. It communicates the same message in another language. The text to be translated is called the Source Language text, and the language that is to be translated is called the Target Language or the Receptor Language. Thus, the translations consist of transferring the meaning of a Source Language into a Receptor Language because meaning is the property of a language. Translation must take into account constraints that include context, the rules of grammar of the two languages, their writing conventions and their idioms. A misconception is that there exists a simple word-fir-word correspondence between any
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar two languages, and that translation is straight forward mechanical process; such a wordfor-word translations, however, cannot take into account context, grammar, conventions and idioms. Eugine Nida formulates a three-stage procedure for translation. He proposes the following model to present diagrammatically the related procedure of translations process. Text Translation Analysis Reconstructuring

Transfer Jointly with Tabor, Nida opines “Translating consists in reproducing in the Receptor Language the Closet Natural equivalent of the message and secondly in style.” The translator’s task is much harder than that of the original author. The original author has many words available in his own language and he can choose anyone of those words easily to express his experience or thought. But the translator has to opt for the nearest equivalent taking into consideration the probable thoughts of the author. New trends such as Structuralism and Deconstructionism have facilitated in the Twentieth Century. With the ‘indeterminacy of meaning’ the need for translation in the Twenty-first century is now greater than before. In the Indian context, translation assumes added significance in view of the fact that India is a multilingual country. So, translation is an inevitable need in India. English serves as a link language to break language barriers. Kautilya’s Arthasastra and Kalidasa’s Sakuntala are the Sanskrit works translated to in English. But for translation, The Ramayana, The Mahabharatha, The Thirukkural and The Gitanjali would have remained inaccessible to most people the world over. Translation of regional literature and the concept of Tamil literature will in turn, promote national integrations. Theodre Savory says, “Translation is almost as old as original authorship and has a history as honourable and complex as any other branch of literature.” The Rossetta stone, found on the banks of the Nile in 3000 B.C, marked the beginning of translation. In the first century B.C, the Roman orator Cicero translated Greek works into Latin adopting sense-for-sense approach. Likewise, during the fourth century A.D., at the behest of the Pope, St.Jerome translated The New Testament from Hebrew into Latin adopting sensefor-sense approach. The sixteenth century, that is, the Elizabethan age, witnessed tremendous development in the field of translation. Translation of the Bible followed one after another in England. In the eighteenth century, Pope translated Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey. Even in Tamil Nadu, people have a feeling that the old version has holiness and that it should not be changed. The Christian Tamil has been known for its mixture of Sanskrit words with Tamil words but the Tamil Christians are against purifying Christian Tamil. They are for retaining Sanskrit words. K.R.Srinivasa Iyengar says, “The competent translation can play the good broker between the poet and the reader. Good translation can create trust and it can stimulate the interest.” References: Bassnet, Sussan, Mc.Guire. Translation Studies. London:Metuan,1980. Print. Catgord, J.C. A Linguistic Theory of Translation. Print. Iyengar, K.R.Srinivasa. Indian Writing in English. Delhi: Sterling Publishers Pvt.Ltd, 2012. Print.

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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar Nida, Eugine.A and Charles Tabor. The Theory and Practice of Translation. E.J.Brill,1969. Print. Sapir, Edward,. Culture, Language and Personality. Los Angeles:University California Press,1956. Print. Savory, Theodore. The Art of Translation. London: Jonathan Cape Limited, Print. Steiner, George. After Babel. London: Oxford University, 1975. Print. NATIONAL INTEGRATION THROUGH TRANSLATION D. RAMSINGH PRABHU ASST PROFESSOR SANKARA COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND COMMERCE Literary translation bridges the delicate emotional connections between cultures and languages and furthers the understanding of human beings across national borders. In the act of literary translation the soul of another culture becomes transparent, and the translator recreates the refined sensibilities of foreign countries and their people through the linguistic, musical, rhythmic, and visual possibilities of the new language. Some hold the view that putting an idea into a language is a translation in itself. When once an idea is expressed in a language taking the idea and feeling in it into another language is translation. Then there are different kinds of ideas and different kinds of translation. For example in manuals some instructions and explanations are given but this is not related to creative expression and for that reason it is not called literary translation with feeling, thought and imagination. Translating a literary discourse, story, poem or fiction is not a mere simple act. In this act, the practitioner transforms the text in one language into another, not always a similar language. Each regional language has its own ways of expression and delicacy of nuances. Though English is now recognized as an Indian language, translating regional language nuances into English is not always an easy task. The practitioner has to be patient and wary with a special skill. Aesthetic considerations play a crucial role in practicing this art. In creative writing there is a special significance in the use of vocabulary, syntax and expressive devices. These lead to complex problems which the practitioner has to tackle with his ingenuity and commitment. There may be many ways in which a literary text can be rendered into another language. Poetry, for example, is a highly imaginative writing which usually lends itself to a variety of interpretation or exegesis. The literary translator needs to be deft trying to carry the suggestiveness implied in the original text Indeed, translation of texts from a source language to a target language isn’t a very easy job. Geo-anthropological and cultural differences in the societies linked with the languages, among other things, are the reasons behind this. These differences cause significant divergence in the expressions of people. Translation in each and every field isn’t at the same level of difficulties. It varies on subjects, peculiarities of items, languages involved and the style of expressions. Everybody knows that translation relating to advanced science and technology is tough, but it’s mainly due to scarcity of terminologies, as all target languages have not yet been enriched with these. However, there’s a custom of using the English terminologies in the cases where there’s lack in this regard in the target language. This approach has made the translation of hi-tech issues much easier than it’s widely thought. This is also true for translation of academic issues where, in some cases, a lot of terminologies are used. What’s also needed here in a translator is the basic things- word stock of the target language and also knowledge of sentence structure of that. It means in
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Leiden: of 1957.

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar these cases one can show excellent performance as a translator mainly based on his language proficiency. In fact a good translation work also needs creativity in the translator. So it can be said that apart from language skills, knowledge on respective issues, understanding of cultures and realizing human feelings, competent translators should also have creativity in them. This is why, with all the difficulties,translation of lyrics is interesting and it brings satisfaction for the translators and gives them insight pleasure after the job is done. This joy and satisfaction arises in view of their creation of the work, though the entire activities are not fundamental for them. All writers have their own unique style, tone and rhythm, and tell their stories in their own way. The translation of literature is a delicate balancing act between conveying the meaning and capturing an author’s distinctive voice. A too-literal translation might not make any sense, but trying to convey the general sense and ideas can change the author’s style. Both translation and methods should therefore balance each other. This is probably one of the main problems when translating a foreign text translation into one’s native language. Literary translators need far more than just linguistic knowledge. The translation has to open up an unfamiliar culture to its readers. Their task lies in making a foreign text accessible, but simultaneously keeps the uniqueness of the original. One the one hand cultural barriers must be crossed, on the other hand we as readers still want to recognize the foreign. If the original text deals with specific cultural events that are not spelled out by the author, these might require more detailed descriptions in the translation. This can be essential to understanding the book’s message, and letting readers grasp its full meaning. India is not just a vast country. It is also a country with many languages, many beliefs and many cultural variations. Our literatures are multi lingual and multi-cultural. During the last decades our educational system has been undergoing many changes to vie with advanced countries for rapid development. What is needed immediately is an activity for national integration in a systematic manner. People, and to begin with, students, should be helped and enthused to understand literatures in other languages. Good understanding of other regional language literatures promotes integration. While under foreign rule, our students were being taught English and little real encouragement was given to knowing regional literatures. No effort was made to bring together our regional languages and still less to our regional literatures. About seventy years ago, when we were students, a feeble effort used to be made to teach translation from regional language into English but it was not literary translation at all. We did not have any opportunity to learn anything about the literature of even our neighboring states, called provinces then. In recent decades Translation Studies are offered as a course in universities though not in colleges. Students are taught translation but no real effort is put forward to make literary translation an interesting or productive activity. Still, regional literatures are coming out in translation by many practitioners who did not have any formal training in literary translation or rendering. This is done out of love for literature with a capacity to understand a text in one language and an ability to express the object and beauty of the text in a target language. The courses are not always put in the activity for rapid practice. What is really needed is the artistic activity for cultural understanding and eventual integration. Knowing, reading and understanding at least one regional literature besides one’s own language is essential for the student to become a competent practitioner.

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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar Literature of the regional languages need to be translated into English since English, the world language, has become the language for our country to go up in the comity of nations. We have twenty-two languages in the Eighth Schedule of our constitution and in most of our schools English is taught. Besides our mother tongue in the regional language, another regional language too needs to be taught. Understanding the literary compositions in the regional languages would be possible with the activity of literary translation. For those in the South, the great texts of the East, North and West, if made available in English would be extremely useful. Already some translated texts from other regional languages may be available in English but no systematic effort is made to encourage renderings with a view to enhancing the understanding of texts from many regional languages. Extensive literary translation has to be pursued as an urgent necessity in view of the multiplicity of our regional languages and the availability of texts that need to be taken into another language or, for wider coverage, into English for our readers with a flair for understanding cultural variety and richness. Translating texts in a foreign language into an English language is a more different and difficult job than translating texts from one Indian language into another. Though ours is a ‘plural’ society and multi-lingual situation, ours is a single cultural entity in the larger context for we share a basic heritage and tradition. Terms relating to food, kinship, things we use in daily life, occupations etc. draw from an almost single large matrix. Our epics, legends and beliefs and convictions are similar though there are differences too. Even when there is variety and difference there is never so much of a communication breakdown. The context in most cases gives some kind of clue to what is being mentioned. A common system of belief and way of living makes terms easy to find in other language communities. When we translate a foreign language text, say a language like French or Russian, the life styles and the heritage being totally different make translation of terms difficult Translating an Indian Language Text into another Indian language is less difficult than translating a foreign language text into an Indian language. Translating a French, Russian or English text into languages like Hindi or Telugu is more difficult. This is so because of the differences in cultural background, customs and beliefs, life styles and so on. “Nation Building” has always been linked to national integration and the creation of national identity. For a country like India, it is a very delicate and challenging matter to deal with a national identity that derives its strength from its multiple layers of social, political, religious, economic, cultural, ethnic and linguistic diversity. However, the communication gap which inevitably arises out of such a diversity of boundaries is constantly being bridged by the people themselves It was, we might argue, the existence and subsequent translation of the great Indian classics that acted as a catalyst in creating a pan-Indian ethos. Epics – especially the Ramayana and the Mahabharata - have been translated into almost all regional languages. Cutting across religious beliefs, the legends of Rama and Krishna have stirred the minds of Indians living in almost all corners of India. These myths, whose nature is patently nationalistic, were made available to the Indian population through translation, without which it is inconceivable that the deeply entrenched cultural and linguistic boundaries within India could have been bridged.

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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar ROLE OF TRANSLATION IN CHILDREN’S LITERATURE M. SAMUNDEESWARI ASST. PROFESSOR PSG COLLEGE OF ART AND SCIENCE The electronic media explosion of the 1990s and its implications for the processes of globalization highlighted issues of intercultural communication. Not only has it become important to access more of the world through the information revolution, but it has become urgently important to understand more about one’s own point of departure. For globalization has its antithesis, as has been demonstrated by the world-wide renewal of interest in cultural origins and in exploring questions of identity. Translation has a crucial role to play in aiding understanding of an increasingly fragmentary world. The translator, as the Irish scholar Michael Cronin has pointed out, is also a traveler, someone engaged in a journey from one source to another. The twenty-first century surely promises to be the great age of travel, not only across space but also across time. Significantly, a major development in translation studies since the 1970s has been research into the history of translation, for an examination of how translation has helped shape our knowledge of the world in the past better equips us to shape our own futures. A language, any language, is a map, cartography, a representation of reality and an evolutionary device which has made the cultural identity of peoples possible with the best of its artistic and social expressions. The utopias of the 19th and 20th centuries, in search of a perfect tongue, of a universal language, have given way to another type of more pressing debate: economic predominance versus cultural identity in a world which is progressively less diverse. It seems evident that subjects related to languages, and especially to translation, are of increasing interest. What is at stake is the very cultural identity itself, as well as the exchange of information and knowledge. We are the generation, or generations, who are living a revolution in technology and communications. Globalization is a fact, for better or worse. There are few borders left that have not been breached by the great Internet, electronic mail and telecommunication. Borders may hardly remain but imbalances do, and the flow of information and the control of the media are hardly proportional. Translation Studies is indeed a discipline in its own right: not merely a minor branch of comparative literary study, nor yet a specific area of linguistics, but a vastly complex field with many far-reaching ramifications. The relatively recent acceptance of the term Translation Studies may perhaps surprise those who had always assumed that such a discipline existed already in view of the widespread use of the term ‘translation’, particularly in the process of foreign language learning. But in fact the systematic study of translation is still in swaddling bands. Precisely because translation is perceived as an intrinsic part of the foreign language teaching process, it has rarely been studied for its own sake. What is generally understood as translation involves the rendering of a source language (SL) text into the target language (TL) so as to ensure that (1) the surface meaning of the two will be approximately similar and (2) the structures of the SL will be preserved as closely as possible but not so closely that the TL structures will be seriously distorted. The instructor can then hope to measure the students’ linguistic competence, by means of the TL product. But there the matter stops. The stress throughout is on understanding the syntax of the language being studied and on using translation as a means of demonstrating that understanding.

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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar It is hardly surprising that such a restricted concept of translation goes hand in hand with the low status accorded to the translator and to distinctions usually being made between the writer and the translator to the detriment of the latter. Hilaire Belloc summed up the problem of status in his Taylorian lecture On Translation as long ago as 1931, and his words are still perfectly applicable today: “The art of translation is a subsidiary art and derivative. On this account it has never been granted the dignity of original work, and has suffered too much in the general judgement of letters. This natural underestimation of its value has had the bad practical effect of lowering the standard demanded, and in some periods has almost destroyed the art altogether. The corresponding misunderstanding of its character has added to its degradation: neither its importance nor its difficulty has been grasped.” Translation has been perceived as a secondary activity, as a ‘mechanical’ rather than a ‘creative’ process, within the competence of anyone with a basic grounding in a language other than their own; in short, as a low status occupation. Discussion of translation products has all too often tended to be on a low level too; studies purporting to discuss translation ‘scientifically’ are often little more than idiosyncratic value judgements of randomly selected translations of the work of major writers such as Homer, Rilke, Baudelaire or Shakespeare. What is analysed in such studies is the product only, the end result of the translation process and not the process itself. When it comes to the study of children's literature, its concept must be clearly defined. Different scholars hold totally different views to its concept. From the perspective of attribution, we reach the conclusion that: children's literature is books written for children. With rich artistic and aesthetic value, children's literature is beneficial for children's mind in the combination of education and recreation and inspires childrens feelings. (Wang, 2000) Children's fiction rests on the idea that there is a child who is simply there to be addressed and speaking to it might be simple. It is an idea whose innocent generality covers up a multitude of sins.(Rose,1984) World-known children's literary works, such as Alice in Wonder Land, Fairy Tales by Andersen, Harry Porter, stands in culture as a monument, for they represent the child, speak to and for children, address them as a group which is knowable and exists for the book. The difference between adult literature and children's lies in the target reader. Age and cognitive development determine their understanding level and acceptability. Detailed differences can be found in language, content and cultural specificity. Children's literature is usually understood to comprise books intentionally for children to read. Children's literature deserves a special attention because it plays a fairly important role in children's growing-up process. From the angle of linguistics, children's literature is basically child-centered, dialogue-based and event-oriented. The language of children's literature is featured by accuracy, simplicity, vividness and rhyme. Its educational function suggests that too much language variation and untraditional ways would mislead children. With regard to mental and physical characters, obscure words also deprive them of interest of reading. The rhyme means that the language of children's literature presents a sense of music and beauty. Imaginal thinking, as the primary thinking pattern of children, let them be accustomed to thinking in terms of images concrete, audio-visual language inspire sense of image in children.

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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar The content of children's literature can be generally described as dualism, such as the relationship between hero and villain, beauty and ugliness, truth and lies, conquer and failure, freedom and bondage. Dualism is generally applied in plot, narrative method and perspective. In addition, the prominent feature of children's literature is cultural specificity. According to its educational function, children's literature is used as an indispensable tool to conveying moral values and ethic identity, which is widely applied in school and family learning. In the process of narration, the author builds a cultural utopia for children to some extent. Children, at the same time, have 'access' to visit imaginary places, adventure with the hero and accomplish achievements they ever dreamed of. Experiencing the sense of achievement, children are unconsciously taught to be what the society wants them to be. The society by this way successfully sets examples for the new generation, cultivating them according to a long-standing tradition. For this reason, children's literature is developing under a clear and designed moral structure. Cultural convention is thus widely applied, which combines the literature and its particular culture. The features of children's literature above are so important that they distinguish children's literature from other forms of literature, at the same time, provide basis for further research on translation skills. The translation of children’s books is not a straightforward matter. Beyond the forces of manipulation and profit lie several problems connected with the actual translation process. Because of the limited experience of children, translators encounter problems adapting their texts to the level of children’s knowledge. Differences in culture between source text and target text, which may even lead to censorship, have to be considered. This shows that the subject of children’s literature and its translation is a very complex one and that many different aspects have to be taken into account. Children experience the world around them in a very different way from adults. Adults have learned to see correlations, to reason and, in general, their senses have become dulled through experience. Children do not have knowledge and skills which adult have had years to acquire. They experience their surroundings in a completely unbiased way and within an immense wealth of fantasy. They have no preconceived ideas; they are open to everything. Because of this, their abilities deserve special attention and consideration. This must be taken into account when writing books for them. A text suitable for children means, therefore, anything that children can understand that interests them and that meets their needs. Much research has been done with respect to the language typical of children of various age groups. Texts have been examined for sentence length, grammatical difficulties, frequently used words from everyday life and similar criteria. Some – unfortunately rather general – conclusions have been reached:
    the narration for younger children has to be clear and effective; the language for older children has to be more complex and more words of a higher register should be used; the type of sentence must be taken into consideration; the younger the reader, the simpler the sentence construction; more basic vocabulary should be used. 73
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar

More detailed investigations have been undertaken, for instance regarding the sender perspective and receiver perspective, in other words, what linguistic means do children actively use as sender at different ages (performance) and what children are able to understand as receiver (competence). Findings have shown that children, like adults, exhibit a higher degree of competence that performance. That fact that reading involves the child’s competence, i.e., as a receiver, is important for authors to know. Consequently, books can be written in a slightly more elaborate way. Dynamic style, using simple syntactic constructions with finite verbs, should be preferred because it is easier to read and understand. Static style with its non-finite verbs complex constructions, passive sentence constructions and more embedded clauses is to be avoided because it has low redundancy, puts a strain on the reader’s short-term memory and thus interrupts the reading flow. As children’s literature, to a large extent, is literature to be read to a child, this difference in style becomes an essential factor and a dynamic style is even more important. The translator has to perform three different roles during translation: the role of the reader, the listener and the painter. Translating children’s literature is not an easy task, especially when the translators have to translate for a dual audience – the adult, who is a reader and the child, who is a listener. In this situation the translator has to put himself in his reader’s and listener’s shoes in order to be able to make a clear, accurate and appropriate translation. Thus, translation of children’s literature builds bridges between different cultures, the source culture and target one. Children’s literature has a very important role in shaping the minds and thoughts of children. Further, more and more translations have been dedicated to the children’s literature. Yet translating children’s literature has its own special importance and is not just a peripheral literary phenomenon; but, in the dynamics of the literary field it fulfills a basic role. Work Cited
1. BASSNETT, SUSAN (1991). Translation Studies. (3rd Edition) London: Routledge. 2. BASSNETT, SUSAN & TRIVED HARISH (1999) Post Colonial Translation. London: Routledge. 3. MUNDAY, JEREMY (2001). Introducing Translation Studies: Theories and Applications. London: Routledge.

ROLE OF TRANSLATORS IN THE PRESENT SCENARIO D.R. SANGEETHA ASST PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH RVS CAS The present day is booming with new ideas and opportunities. The world has become a global village. Unfortunately, all the people in this village are not speaking the same language. Had there been only one language, then we would have lost the opportunity to articulate the unique sounds of different languages. It is not humanly possible to learn all the languages in one’s lifetime. But confining oneself to a smaller radius will not assist in the intellectual growth. Intellectuals all over the world have presented new thoughts and ideas in their languages. Languages may be confined to countries, but intellect is common for everyone. This is where translation comes into
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar picture. It serves as a messenger that carries the message from one part of the world to the other. Several literary works around the world have been translated into many languages. This serves as an access to the vast literary ocean, where numerous great minds coalesce. By reading great minds in their language, people expand their intellectual capacity. ‘Thirukkural’, which consists of all the worldly truths, is written in Tamil. The language is different, but the sayings and morals are common to all the people in the world. Thus the translation of ‘Thirukkural’ has opened the doors to the other language people inviting them to delve in this sea of wisdom. This is made possible only with the help of the translators. Translators are language professionals. They know the nuances of the languages. The true duty of the translator lies in translating the work without losing the original context and essence. Nowadays, several translating softwares are available to translate words into almost all the languages. But they translate only literally and do not carry the essence of the text. Whereas, translators understand the text of the original source and try at their best to bring it out with the same effect that the source language readers had while reading. The main role of the translators is to communicate the idea without any distortion or exaggeration. To communicate efficiently is not to communicate on word-per-word basis. It is communicating the genuine ideas of the source language to the language of the target audience. Translating a literary work demands accuracy to the core. A translator cannot distort the information given in the original text, by doing so the translator has defied the norms of translation. However translating everything word for word is also not possible since several words and terms are found only in the original language. In the current scenario, there is a high need for translation. The literary world is witnessing blooming authors and the fresh thoughts of literary giants from time to time. Since all the genius do not write in the same language, translation is essential to make a wider access to the people. When Paul Coelho wrote ‘The Alchemist’ in Portuguese, it was known only to a smaller population. But only after its translation, it has become famous worldwide. People have come to learn about the new philosophy. Similarly is the translation of the Bible. Had it not been translated into several languages, it would have been impossible for the Christian missionaries to spread the religion worldwide. From this the importance of the translation can be understood. A translated work, rather than the original work, is capable of the changing the way the world moves. The need for translation in the current scenario is indispensable as everyone has to compete with this fast pacing world. The translators are holding in their hands the way to turn the world because they spread the philosophies and ideas that are confined to a smaller population to a larger population. Translators work on subjects that interest only few people and the language that only very few people around him know. Such tedious and hectic work culture is admired only by few people and only such translators contribute to the betterment of the literary world. TRANSLATION – BRIDGING THE CROSS-CULTURAL DIVIDE P. SUDHA, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR PSG COLLEGE OF ART AND SCIENCE Know – How The 1980’s the discipline translation studies emerged on to the world stage. Throughout the 1980’s interest in the theory and practice of translation grew steadily. Then, in the
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar 1990’s translation studies finally came into its own, for this proved to be the decade of its global expansion. Once perceived as a marginal activity, translation began to be seen as fundamental act of human exchange. The electric media explosion of 1990’s and its implications for the processes of globalization highlighted issues of intercultural communication. Translation has a crucial role to play in aid to understand an increasingly fragmentary world. The translator, as the Irish scholar Michael Cronim has pointed out, is also a traveler, someone engaged in a journey from one source to another. The twentyfirst century surely promises to be the great age of travel. The increasing global and multi cultural world in which we live has rendered a translation more and more important both as an actual, material practice and as a cultural phenomenon to be critically analyzed. The relative increase in human contact across linguistic-cultural boundaries that has occurred in the late 20th century and early 21st centuries has generated in turn, an increased need for communication across boundaries. The translation will allow us to open the doors to an unknown cultural and linguistic world. A Growing Need for Translation As the world gets smaller and the demand for language services grows bigger translation helps in cutting across language barriers and interacting with people in different countries. Literary texts, books and novels need to be translated into various languages so that they can be read by people in other countries. Translation open new vistas in various fields like comparative study, culture-studies, creative writing and multi-lingual proficiency.

The terms “Comparative Literature” and “World Literature” have emerged. Comparative literature is a field whose practitioners study literature across languages, across boundaries between literature and other arts (Music, Painting, Dance, film etc) across disciplines. Study of “literature without borders”. The scholars desire to study literature beyond national boundaries and an interest in languages so that they can read foreign texts in their original form.

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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar Translation Credentials
Understanding cultural identities and differences. Reach a wider audience. Translation helps to bridge the divide among nations to a large extent by bringing different people together enabling them to communicate effectively. Importance of translating a literary text is to interpret the meaning of the original literary text into other languages. Translation widens our vocabulary. We gain knowledge in various disciplines which makes us to know the history.

The Act of Translation We live in a techno-electronic age, when the world has become ‘a global village. Classical writers of the east are now read with interest in the west vice versa. We now talk in terms world literature and world classics. Writers like Shakespeare, Tolstoy, Homer, Whitman, and Kalidas are now read with interests all over the world. But the question is how do we read the world classics and the classical writers? Not certainly, in the original languages in which the writers wrote or the books were written, but through translation. Hence translation has become a kind of bridge that enables the readers to pass from one language to another. Translation has become a unifying medium that brings literatures in different languages as one. The role of translation has become vital to bring different literature and readers together translation studies has flourished rapidly in India, in the Chinese and Arabic speaking world, in Latin America and also in Africa. Translation has been gaining status in the post-colonial era and while it was described earlier “as no-man’s-land; a zone between two hostile zones”, it is now accepted as “a cross-gendering process, a bridge between the living and the dead”. The act of translation is perhaps the ultimate performance of reading. By translating a text translators rework the source text into a reflection of their reading experience. In fact all reading is translation as each reader in corporate associates and responses into the reading process
Work Cited 4. BASSNETT, SUSAN (1991). Translation Studies. (3rd Edition) London: Routledge. 5. The Art of Translation.

THE ALLURING MODULE OF THE LEARNABILITY THROUGH TRANSLATION M.ANITH PREM MALARAVAN ASST. PROFESSOR KUMARAGURU COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY This paper exclusively discusses how it is to expand our understanding of how words make meaning. Content of this paper will analyze language on several levels. Acquisition of language through translation is the most important facets of this paper. Teaching English to non-natives is always regarded as a daunting task for the teachers of ESL. English is a must. Teaching for ESL students is not just interesting, but also requires skills for teaching English for specific purposes. Language is everything. Through words whether it is spoken, written, or signed, it is proposed and seal, agree and argue, analyze and worship, amuse and enlightened. Languages and its words are between us, around us, and within us. Because language reflects a great deal about the people who speak it, it also will continue to discuss with to look closely at how humans think and interact. On
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics, for example, it is studied on how children's acquisition of language, the way the brain processes language, and the nature and effects of dialect, register, slang, taboo, and other linguistic phenomena. It also examines many fascinating facets of English, including its structure, history, acquisition, and use. It will explore some fascinating subjects, such as slang and dialect. Key words: Translation, theory , Metaphrase , Paraphrase , Learnability theory and Universal grammar, First Language (L1), Second Language (L2), Learnability model, Machine Translation. To discuss, Translation and its theory it is a great age of literature is perhaps always a great age of translations. (Ezra Pound).Translation is said to be the communication of the meaning of a source-language by means of an equivalent target language text. Translators have done a work of art for the target language. Indeed the translators have given innate features for the target language as they do not only translate with the equivalent words, they do carry beatifies of the source language from any form to the target language. The western theory states that what is beautiful in one language becomes or may not be the same, sometimes barbarous in another language. It is because of the two methods of translations in distinguished between metaphrase (literal translation) and paraphrase. Metaphrase is a translation term referring to literal translation, i.e., word by word and line by line translation. Paraphrase is restatement of a text or passages, using other words. The term "paraphrase" derives via the Latin "paraphrasis" from the Greek para phraseïn, meaning "additional manner of expression". The act of paraphrasing is also called "paraphrasis." Unlike a metaphrase, which represents a "formal equivalent" of the source, a paraphrase represents a "dynamic equivalent" thereof. While a metaphrase attempts to translate a text literally, a paraphrase conveys the essential thought expressed in a source text — if necessary, at the expense of literality. Translation as a paraphrase helps to contribute a dynamics in bridging the constitutions and sometimes in the country like India in building up the society in a better way. It also helps to share the technical and scientific information. “Any translation which intends to perform a transmitting function cannot transmit anything but information -- hence, something inessential. This is the hallmark of bad translations” (Walter Benjamin). Sometime or the other metaphrase translation fail in its task, consequence of such failure lead to transmit the wrong structure of the L2. Most of this could be witnessed in media, specifically through advertisements, which are originally directed in Hindi and translated to the other languages through other channels. They fail to take the message only due the word to word translation. Example of one such is “Pappu bangayana” it’s a Hindi word which means “foolish act/ act fool” the word to word translation in Tamil is as such “Appa ahittingala” means “have become father”. The entire meaning of the context has been taken away while translating. There are several more. Getting on to Learnability theory and Universal Grammar, the theory brings down the various methods of language acquisition with the principles and strategies of the linguists, who have analysed the difficulties in learning the second language. It helps to explain how a language learner progresses from one state of knowledge to another based on language input. If taken in limit, the formal Learnability theory could be very mathematical. This may have a derivation for the language and the function of the input method or the method of acquisition. The Logical Problem of first Language and Second Language Acquisition:

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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar First Language (L1): Why all children manage to acquire L1 despite the degenerate nature of the input? Second Language (L2): 1. Same as L1; 2. Why people fail to learn despite the available evidence? (Orwell’s Problem,the problem of unlearnability). Linguist take up the task of analyzing the various factors to find out the real difficulties in second language acquisition in which one such description is given by Gregg. The elements of the First Language acquisition and the Second Language acquisition are noted as follows: Elements of L1 Learnability model (Gregg, 2001) The initial state of the learner The final state of the learner Input Learning mechanism Evaluation metric Elements of adult L2 Learnability model (Gregg, 2001) The adult L2 learners’ initial state vis-a vis the L2 The L2 learner’s final state L2 input L2 learning mechanism Evaluation metric Universal Grammar as the general human ability to learn and use the language is assumed to be innate in the learners’ mind (Chomsky, 1975:29); Cook, 1988:1: Haegeman, 1991:12; Safir, 1985:2). This is in line with the rationalist view to language learning which concludes that one cannot really teach language but can only present conditions for the learners to develop it in their mind. If this is related to second language acquisition research, there are still controversies on whether or not universal grammar (UG) is available to adult second language learners. Universal grammar is a theory in linguistics that suggests that there are properties that all possible natural human languages have. Usually credited to Noam Chomsky, the theory suggests that some rules of grammar are hard-wired into the brain, and manifest without being taught. It has been analysed through various research by the linguists that learning a language cannot be done through memorizing rules. Learners are insisted to have linguistic creativity. The creative construction that learners have refers to the subconscious process by which language learners gradually organize the language they are exposed to in other words, children learned their mother tongue by simple imitation, listening to and repeating what adults said. The learners generate sentences by constructing rules. The form of the rules is determined by mental structure (language acquisition device) which is responsible for human language acquisition which is believed to be natural. Reaching down to Machine Translation, it is recent and widely accepted technique. Translation proves to be the most required element. Research has proved that the internet users are significantly more likely to read to content in their own language. There are simply not enough translators in the world to translate the text, one need in local language at the speed and quantities required. Scientists and research institutions for machine translation believe machine translation will become an integral part of creation and strategy of various organizations and industries. Within few years from now machine translation might have translated the most of the content from one language to another. Most of the content available through the web
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar today has increased dramatically and includes marketing content, manuals and support content as well as user generated content such as blogs and tweets. The availability of human translators makes the big difference with the content available for translation. Scientists and technologists believe that machine translation is the only solution for this problem. Telecommunications and supersonics have made the world shrunk, but the translation as an ancient techniques helps impart knowledge from various resources. Seeming to simplify the requirements of an individual searching for the knowledge enrichment quenches his thirst through the translation. Translation from various resources for simple need pays way for linguistic analysis. Linguists try to bring down the different analytical study to prove without the ‘linguistic structure’ in the language they may not exist or could not be inherited by the second language learner. Translations strictly express the meaning of source language text to the target language text. But the penmanship is the ultimate texture that one realizes when reading the translated works. They do not only follow the interpretation of meaning but as a paraphrase techniques has made so many translators to look beyond what have been achieved. On a particular period of time translation was strictly prohibited from the language classes, but not from every country. Translation is very much essential for the Foreign Language Learning classes. The students are made to understand the methods and the rules of the Second Language might be imparted through the First Language of the particular set. Translation becomes the ultimate need for the Second Language Learners, the set of rules for the Second Language has to be defined and redefined in the First Language. That becomes necessitate for the acquisition of the Second Language in most cases. The Bridge needs to be built by Second Language Teachers, where the classes do not fill in only with the First Language. It needs to be utilized judiciously. As one has acquired the Second Language, he does not stop to translate. Hence the refinement of the Second Language either in the Language or in the Culture of the Second Language is carried in his daily routine. The empirical research has proved that the translation if effective and beneficial. The need for translation in the present scenario pays way for the literary foresight and the contributions of the great writers in any language. A Bengali writer’s work of art in Bangla language becomes familiar to the literary world most of the time by translation. It destines to access the world literature. “Translation is not a matter of words only: it is a matter of making intelligible a whole culture”. The Various regional literatures in India are promoted through the translation with its best outcome. Literature could be in any form, the contemporary writers translate to the required target Language with the paraphrase translation, so then the additional information and contemporary issues like social, economical and cultural from the society is best registered in their work of art. This type of translations has a greater demand in the literary world and the critics add up further more. It is evident that speaking the foreign Language does not help too much in the transfer of knowledge to human communities as translation does. So translation is considered to be the fifth language skill. Taking up the contribution of theories, Universal Grammar and Media for translation evolves to be the facets of Language, to refine the statement “The world Literature is Translation”. Literature is all alive in its own perfect world – Translation.

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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar BILINGULISM IN BAMA’S KARUKKU M.ANITHA M.A ASST. PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH RVS CAS Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. Translators always risk inappropriate spillover of source-language idiom and usage into the target-language translation. Translation studies deal with the systematic study of the theory, the description and the application of translation. Translators A competent translator shows the following attributes:  a very good knowledge of the language, written and spoken, from which he is translating the source language;  an excellent command of the language into which he is translating the target language;  familiarity with the subject matter of the text being translated;  a profound understanding of the etymological and idiomatic correlates between the two languages; and  a finely tuned sense of when to metaphrase “translateliterally" and when to paraphrase, so as to assure true rather than spurious equivalents between the source- and target-language texts  Bama is the pen-name of a Tamil Dalit woman, from a Roman Catholic family. Bama also known as Bama Faustina Soosairaj, is a Tamil novelist. She rose to fame with her autobiographical novel Karukku, 1992, which chronicles the joys and sorrows experienced by Dalit Christian women in Tamil Nadu. She subsequently wrote two more novels, Sangati,1994 and Vanmam, 2002 along with two collections of short stories: Kusumbukkaran, 1996 and Oru Tattvum Erumaiyum (2003) Karukku means palmyra leaves, which, with their serrated edges on both sides, are like double-edged swords. By a felicitous pun, the Tamil word Karukku, containing the word hare, embryo or seed, also means freshness, newness. In her foreword, Bama draws attention to the symbol, and refers to the words in Hebrews (New Testament), "For the word of God is living and active, sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing to the division of soul and spirit, of joints and marrow, and discerning the thoughts and intentions of the heart." (Hebrews, 4:10) Karukku is the first autobiography of its kind to appear in Tamil, for Dalit writing in this language has not produced the spate of autobiographies which have appeared, for example, in Marathi. It is also in many ways an unusual autobiography. It grows out of a particular moment: a personal crisis and watershed in the author's life which drives her to make sense of her life as woman, Christian, Dalit. Many Tamil authors, both men and women, use the convention of writing under a pseudonym. In this case, though, this convention adds to the work's strange paradox of reticence and familiarity. It eschews the "confessional" mode, leaving out many personal details. The protagonist is never named. The events of Bama's life are not arranged according to a simple, linear or chronological order, as with most autobiographies, but rather, reflected upon in different ways, repeated from different perspectives, grouped under different themes, for example, Work, Games and Recreation, Education, Belief, etc. It is her driving quest for integrity as a Dalit and Christian that shapes the book and gives it its polemic. "Bilingualism exists as a possession of an individual. It is also possible to talk about bilingualism as a characteristic of a group or community of people societal
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar bilingualism. Bilinguals and Multilingual are most often located in groups, communities or in a particular region. Bilingualism is the regular use of two fluent languages, and bilinguals are those individuals who need and use two or more languages in their everyday lives. A person's bilingual memories are heavily dependent on the person's fluency, the age the second language was acquired, and high language proficiency to both languages. High proficiency provides mental flexibility across all domains of thought and forces them to adopt strategies that accelerate cognitive development. People who are bilingual integrate and organize the information of two languages, which creates advantages in terms of many cognitive abilities, such as intelligence, creativity, analogical reasoning, classification skills, problem solving, learning strategies, and thinking flexibility Bilingualism is complex and varies widely among individuals. In order to understand a bilingual speaker’s language ability, we need to know when they learned their languages, how proficient they are in the languages, and in what contexts and with whom they use the languages. Bilingual speakers learn their languages either simultaneously, as they grow up, or sequentially, learning the second language after the first usually at school. The degree of proficiency bilingual people achieve in their languages often depends on the wider society’s attitudes to the languages concerned and the opportunities available to use them. Bilingual speakers may use their languages equally, but they often use particular languages in particular contexts, for particular purposes, and with particular people. Karukku succeeds as an autobiography for another reason: Bama's constant selfquestioning, her courage and dignity in the face of impossible odds and the process of self-discovery which causes her so much hurt and anguish. Bama looks back on her life at a point of deep personal crisis. She has just left the religious order of which she had been a part for seven long years, realising with shock that the Roman Catholic Church is as casteist and as discriminatory as the world she had left behind; that all its talk of "serving the poorest of the poor" will never amount to much. Having given up a job as a school teacher to enter the convent, Bama is out of work and out of grace with the world. She has to pick herself up by the bootstraps, find new strength in her own changed understanding of the world. Through a series of sometimes poignant, sometimes funny reflections on her childhood in a caste-divided village in Tamil Nadu, Bama recreates for us her experiences as a dalit child. There is not a single false note or shrillness in the narrative. The innocence of the child Bama who "had't yet heard people speak openly of untouchability" is gradually shattered. When an elder from her community (the Parayas) brings a Naicker some vadais, he holds the parcel by its string - not touching it directly. Bama expresses her grief over the pathetic and helpless condition of Dalits. Dalit women are easy targets of the non-Dalit men for sexual harassment, mental torture and education. Conversion to Christianity has not reduced the pathetic state of Dalits. The non-Dalit Christians never assimilate the Dalit Christians into their fold. In India, Christians also follow the same caste system of Hinduism, resulting in caste hierarchy, caste subordination and exploitation. Above all, spousal exchange between Dalit Christian castes and non-Dalit castes is very rare. Karukku, among other things, depicts the casteist practices of a Christian priest who shows preconceived notions about Dalit Christians:“The priest’s first response was to say, ‘After all you are from the Cheri (Dalit colony). You might have done it. You must have done it’”. (Bama 19) Life as a Paraya is hard to live from the very childhood. Everyone has to work in order to earn their living by laboring either for the Naickers or in the fields. Apart from this, they work as construction labourer by digging wells, carrying loads of earth, gravel and stone
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar and even if this work is not available they go to the hilltop to gather firewood. Each Paraya family is attached to a Naicker family as bonded labour. There are Nadar men who have shops in the Paraiyar streets. Paraiyars would exchange the goods, which are brought to them and in return Nadars used to give what the Paraiyars needed. The Paraiyars are badly cheated during their bartering session. They exchange the harvest grain, cotton pods. Every time they take the advantage. But the Dalits are the ones who toil hard to make good. In the churches, Dalits are the most, in numbers alone. In everything else, they are the last. It is only the upper caste Christians who enjoy the benefits and comforts of the church. Even amongst the priests and nuns, it is the upper-castes who hold the high positions, show off their authority and throw their weight about. And if Dalits become priests or nuns, they are pushed aside and marginalized first of all, before the rest go about their business. It is because of this that even though Dalits might take up the path of renunciation. As Ajay Kumar observes: The condition of a Paraiya under Catholic Church is not different from the ill treatment that he or she suffers within Hindu society. Irrespective of their religious affiliations or even financial position the lower caste people suffered humiliation from the dominant sections of the society.(131) The Tamil Paraiyar nuns are considered lowest of the low. The Paraiya caste nuns are not given any kind of respect and positions in the convent. It is a kind of artificiality. Their treatment is different towards Dalit nuns. They do not consider Dalits as human beings. Dalit Christians are fighting against this partiality. In Bama’s case nobody can interpret her story. It is something that is very personal. Her life is related to her people. She had the opportunity to tell something that others in her community did not have. She documents the reality of the whole people of her community who were not allowed to voice their own story. Seven years after she wrote the book. She says,“It is a great joy to see Dalits aiming to live with self-respect, proclaiming aloud, ‘Dalit endrusollada; talainimirndunillada’. You are a Dalit; lift up your head and stand tall”. (Bama 138). Through Karukku, she is not just revolting against the caste oppression, but celebrating her Subaltern identity also. In the beginning, Bama was ‘nurtured as a Catholic’ but ‘gradually realized herself as a Dalit’ Works Cited  Bama.Karukku.Trans. Lakshmi Holstrom. New Delhi: OUP, 2000.Print.  Kumar, Ajay. “Karukku: Essentialism, Difference and the Politics of Dalit Identity”. Littcritt, June 2007: 126-134.Print.  Bama.Interview by Manoj Nair.Outlookindia.25 Apr 2001.Web. 28 Dec. 2011. EPITOME OF WISDOM IN KURAL MS. VIDYA DASS ASST. PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH, RVS CAS “Translators barely receive a mention, but they deserve a Nobel Prize”. Daniel Weissbort The words explicitly reveal the existence of an art form of the ancient world. Translation is a phenomenon that which has not proclaimed its existence by singing its own glory but has existed by singing the glory of the others. The truth is that it has taken a silent route to walk to its glory today where people now recognise its existence from the ancient times. The world today in one way knows lives and entertains itself because of this phenomenon called translation.
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar The translation is derived from the Latin word “translation” which means “to carry across” or “to bring across”. The phenomenon of translation is a practice which has existed throughout history. It dates as far back as that of the myth of the Tower of Bable. As believed by many that the destruction of the Tower is the birth of varied languages of the world. The birth of the varied languages has consequently resulted in the birth of translation. This myth about the birth of languages and translation could be easily brush aside in terms of its authenticity because it relates to a particular myth. But the other myths and mysteries or age old facts about the ancient world and the different civilizations speak of the existence of language along side with the process of translation. History of the world certainly does not speak of the existence of only one civilization of the world. It speaks of civilizations such as Indus valley civilization, Egyptian civilization, Roman civilization, Greek civilization, Mongolian civilization, Mayan civilization and many others. Fundamentally all these civilizations found the need of one another and the need for exchange of resources which ultimately paved way for an exchange of languages. All kinds of human social activities posed a constant need for communication. It was quite impossible for all to know other languages because only people who had direct contacts with the foreigners were able to learn the language. So the need for translation arose and spread widely. The advancement in the field of science and technology is another reason for the process of translation to flourish. The impact of translation was of utmost need in the academic field which later moved to religion, art and literature. Through literature the culture of one nation was made known to another which strengthened the cross-cultural relationships of various countries around the world. Translation later became the most important tool of communication. It paved way for many revolutions to take place around the world. The Holy Bible, Bhagavat Gita, The Holy Kuran are some of the holy books that claimed to have been translated into almost all the recognised languages of the world. These translations led people to follow a religion of their choice which was accepted with great difficulty because it meant to break the walls and walk ahead. The translations done by Wycliff, Coverdale, Erasmus and many others in England resulted in the translation of many other great classics of the world. The English through colonization implanted their language in the different nation of the world. The translation of the classics into English showed to the world the great passion of the Greeks and the Romans towards literature. It also meant that literature was not written for pleasure but also with a purpose. It was to impart the values of the past to posterity. The works of Plato, Aristotle and many other philosophers still stay alive because of translation i.e. translation of multiple level. Geoffery Chaucer streamlined the art of expression in written form only through translation. He later advanced to the level of being called as the father of English poetry. John Dryden, Alexander Pope are some of the writers of English literature progressed translation with their contributions. Translation of literary works did not stop with writers of the western world but also spread to the eastern world. Among the mostly translated texts of the eastern world is “Thirukkural” written by Thiruvalluvar. Born in Kanyakumari, Thiruvalluvar is said to have lived between the 1st and the 8th century B.C. There are other claims of his birth place that it could be Madurai because of the importance given to literary men of those times by various kings of the region. Some prove that he hails from places in and around the present day Chennai. Whatever might be the claims Thiruvalluvar hasn’t associated himself to a particular region through his expressions. He has rather appealed to a larger group or region which could have been for the goodness of the whole world.

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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar It solely due to the arrival of a monk named Constanzo Beschi - Veerama Munivar in the year 1730 from the western world that the book Thirukkural has been translated into Latin. In the year 1886 G U Pope translated the work into the English language. It was later translated into many other European languages. The popularity and greatness of Thirukkural lies in the crispness of the word selected and used. The uniqueness of the entire 1330 verses is that each verse carries only seven words packed abundantly with wisdom. It is remarkable that people respect the book with all reverence and call it as the Holy Book of the World. The book comprises of 133 chapters containing 10 verses each and is broadly classified into three parts: Aramright conduct, Porul- right way of conducting worldly affairs, Inbam- love between men and women. The wisdom that the three broad classifications have is almost complete. The depth of thought and the level of clarity are highly remarkable. The loftiness of thought could be known because there is no argument laid but only solutions and resolutions given. Mahatma Gandhi, the father of our nation says that; I wanted to learn Tamil, only to enable me to study Valluvar's Thirukkural through his mother tongue itself. There is no one who has given such treasure of wisdom like him. The depth of thought, level of loftiness, clarity and completeness could be understood by analysing only one couplet which stands as an exemplary of all other couplets. The first verse of the book; ‘A’ leads letters; the Ancient Lord Leads and lords the entire world. (1.1 Kural) The author starts his work with the remembrance of the Lord Almighty who is the alpha of whatever exists in the entire universe. In the same way the letter ‘A’ is the beginning of whatever letter or sound structure that follows it. ‘A’ which is believed to be the only sound that was heard before God created the world. The sound it derives is from the ‘aum’ sound pattern that believed to have existed. Likewise, the author says that God is the only one to exist before anything in the world and all living creatures are part of him or reflections of him. It from him that living creatures derive life and source for their existence. The sense and sentimentality of the verse is that the author drivers the reader’s mind to a higher and loftier plain that he has an overall view of things. His perceptions become broad-minded right in the beginning which is an excellent opening to the huge ocean of all the 1330 kurals. The statements are generalized and so simply put forth that even a common man could enter the realm of universality. The translation of this Holy Book of the Tamils into all the most popular languages of the world is indeed an honour. The man from the earliest known times of the world has not brought fame but also earned an undue respect for the Tamils. This is a responsibility that the Tamils have to shoulder and show to the world the loftiness of their culture which is the basic need of the translation. In the words of Dr. Albert Schweitzer, Nobel Laureate, Germany & France, There hardly exists in the literature of the world a collection of maxims in which we find such lofty wisdom. Biblography http://en.wikipedia.org/ http://www.squidoo.com/thirukural www.squidoo.com › Books, Poetry & Writing › Poetry › Poetry Reviews http://www.turkiyeburslari.gov.tr/index.php/en/turkiyede-egitim-2/one-cikanbolumler/449-translation-studies http://www.translation-centre.am/eng/Tr_Work/Tr_Work.html
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar

ROLE OF TRANSLATOR Mrs. B.PAVITHRA, ASST.PROFESSOR, DEPT OF ENGLISH PSG COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCE Following the invention of printing techniques in the fifteenth century, the role of translation underwent significant changes, not least due to the great increase in the volume of translations undertaken.At the same time,serious attempts to formulate a theory of translation were also made.The function of translation, together with the function of learning itself changed. For as the great voyages of discovery opened up a world outside Europe, increasingly sophisticated clocks and instruments for measuring time and space developed and these, together with the theory of the Copernican universe, affected concepts of culture and society and radically altered perspectives One of the first writers to formulate a theory of translation was the French humanist Etienne Dolet (1509-46). In 1540 Dolet published a short outline of How to translate well from one Language into Another and established five principles for the translator: 1. The translator should fully understand the sense and meaning of the original author, although he is at liberty to clarify obscurities. 2. The translator should have perfect knowledge of both Source language and Target language. 3. The translator should avoid word-for-word renderings. 4. The translator should use forms of speech in common use. 5. The translator should choose and order words appropriately to produce the correct tone. Dolet’s principles, ranked as they are in a precise order, stress the importance of understanding the Source Language text as a primary requisite. The translator is far more than a competent linguist, and translation involves both scholarly and sensitive appraisal of the Source Language Text and an awareness of the place the translation is intended to occupy in the Target Language system. So the Translator acts as a bridge between two languages providing intelligibility not only to the words of the text itself, but also to the sentiments and cultural thoughts behind those words. To acquire these attributes a good translator should know the emerging theories in the Translation Studies, compare and evaluate translations in the light of the theories, discriminate between different translation alternatives and improve upon their translations. Roger Chriss in his Excerpt from “The Translation Profession” says: "Translators are language professionals. They are applied linguists, competent writers, diplomats, and educated amateurs. Like linguists, translators have to be capable of discerning subtleties and nuances in their languages, researching terminology and colloquialisms, and handling new developments in their languages. Like writers, translators have to be accustomed to working long hours alone on a subject which interests few people and with a language that few people around them know. Like diplomats, translators have to be sensitive to the cultural and social differences which exist in their languages and be capable of addressing these issues when translating. And like educated amateurs, translators have to know the basics and some of the details about the subjects they deal with... ...The fundamental rule when you're not sure of a term or phrase is asked. An important part of the translator's role is to communicate with the client -- and a good translator knows when to ask questions."

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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar The talents and attributes of a translator include his knowledge of Language, Subject, Cultures, Components of Word, Strategies and Imaginative Resources. Knowledge of Language: According to Dryden, “A translator should be a nice critic in his mother-tongue before he undertakes to translate in a foreign language. Neither it is sufficient that he be able to judge of words and style but he must be a master of them too, he must perfectly understand his author’s tongue, and absolutely command his own : so that to be a thorough translator, he must be a thorough poet”. To fulfill the above said statement, a translator should have a sound knowledge to master two languages (Source Language and Target Language) at a time. If not mistranslation will arise out of linguistic ignorance. To avoid such mistranslation, the translator has to keep the language level of the translatable text at the lexical, syntactic and grammatical level. Nature of the Text: The main representative of this approach is Christiana Nord, who in 1991 presented one of the more exhaustive attempts to deal with the methodology and didactic application of text analysis in translation. Nord puts her model of translation-oriented text analysis at the centre of training translators. Her model is based on the so-called New Rhetoric formula and expressed in a series of wh-questions which are used to analyse the ST as well as the translation brief to point out where the ST and TT differ and which ST elements can be maintained and which must be changed to produce a functional TT. The questions are as follows: Who transmits To whom, what for, by which medium, where, when, why,a text with what function? On what subject-matter, does he say, what (what not), in what order, using which nonVerbal elements, in which words,in what kind of sentences,in which tone to what effect? The first set of questions enquires about the extra textual features, which refer to the communicative situations in which the ST and the prospective TT function. By answering these questions the translator gets information on the author or sender of the text (who?), the intended recipient of the text (to whom?), the sender’s intention (what for?), the medium or channel by which the text is communicated, e.g. in written or spoken form or as a flier or brochure (by which medium?), as well as the place (where?) and time (when?) of communication (text production and text reception) and the motive of communication (why?). The answers to the above questions will indicate the function the text is to achieve (with what function?). With this a translator must decide his nature of the text to be translated. Translation theorists classify the texts in terms of the subject matter: non-literary, scientific, terminological etc., well known translator Peter Newmark distinguishes four types of text on the basis of their languages – Narrative, Descriptive, Discussion and Dialogue. A translator has to design his translation and its style of presentation to the requirements of his readership. Knowledge Of Culture: Soviet Semiotician Juri Lotman declares “No language can exist unless it is steeped in the context of culture”. Language is culture-bound. Unless the translator is through with the language and culture of a particular country, he cannot be a successful translator. The man off letters and the translator have to be closely bound. Knowledge of Components of Words: A translator should have knowledge of all components of word-meaning – Denotative meaning and Connotative meaning and paradigmatic relation between words.
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar Denotation gives one the dictionary meaning of the word and Connotation gives one the suggestive meaning and not exact meaning. The synonym and collocation are also important for a translator while several words share a similar meaning and group of words naturally go togeather. Strategies: There are seven strategies were a translator is exposed to the various methods of translation. Transference, Imitation, Literal Translation, Variation, Cultural Adaptation, Idiomatic Equivalence and Change in Grammar. These varied types of strategies help the translator to translator his works for both illiterate and literate. Imaginative Resources: The translator makes the original more appealing with his imaginative resources. He has the freedom to modify the original without distorting its original spirit. Therefore it willhave their own creative value. Translation is not merely an interlinguistic process. It is more complex than replacing source language text with target language text and includes cultural and educational nuances that can shape the options and attitudes of recipients. Professional translators are neither walking dictionaries, nor machines that swallow words in one language then spit them out whole in another by inculcating the cultural and educational nuances. References: Susan Basnett, Translation Studies, L:ondon 1988 J.C Catford, A Linguistic Theory of Translation, Edinburgh 1964 Flora Rose,Early Theories Of Translation, New York 1973, Betty Carlson – Google Books WIDENING THE TRANSLATION HORIZONS D.PRIYA DEVI ASST. PROFESSOR DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH, RVS CAS A translation horizon is a core area in the studies of comparative literature. Historicity and subjectivity are the basic characters of horizons. Horizons are both historically restricted and subjectively confined. A translator at his work is guided by horizons of expectations from the original author horizons, his own horizons and the implied reader’s aesthetic expectations. Ideal translation should be the successful dialogic process and result between the horizons of these three entities. Horizons of expectations widen people’s space of cognition other forms of literary works. Introduction Literary translation first appeared as an independent concept in western translation theories. Most westerners tend to treat literary translation as creation of literary work of art. They refer to literary translation as the translation of literary works (novels, short stories, plays, poems, etc.). There are mainly two kinds of “horizon of expectations”: firstly, the narrow horizon of experience, the horizon of literary expectation, which includes presumed artistic or literary norms and conventions of a particular period. It is related to genre, style, and form of the literary texts; while secondly, the wide horizon of experience, the horizon of experience of everyday life, includes the assumptions of the whole socio-cultural world of a community or of an individual, whether as the author, the initial reader or the later reader. People out of different periods and experiences will have different horizon of expectations, no matter it is the literary horizon or the wide one. In translation, “the translator stands at the centre of communication, as a mediator between the author and reader. We cannot ignore the translators mediator status---firstly
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar as the reader of source text; secondly as the producer of translated text. These two identities determine that a translator mainly has two jobs: firstly reading, then interpretation. Through him, the mediator, two different languages and cultural norms are shared among the readers. The translators mental conception on the source text is important for his production of translated text. The translators role in literary translation shows that he is an actively independent agent. Out of different experiences as well as different cultural backgrounds, different translators have different horizons in creating the translated text. The translator’s task is never to copy what is said, but to place himself in the direction of saying, what is to be said into the direction of his own.” Generally the historicity of the translator restricts his understanding. Everyone who reads an original text tries his best to get the meaning of the text, but ends up by getting only some parts of the meaning. No one can confidently claim that he has got all of the meaning of the text. With the development of culture, succeeding translators may be able to discover features and implications of an original text which previous translators neglected or distorted. Literary work, have a great role in development of a countrys language, culture, thought, politics, etc, bears great historical features rather than just a passive reflection of the real world. Translators changing horizons directly influence their understandings of a literary work. Even the same translator may have different understandings when he rereads the same work again and again. New era requires new interpretations which can bring new characters from one world to the other. At this time, it is necessary for translators to widen their horizons in making new translated texts. Technical Study Limitations in translation Translating culture-specific items in literary translation is one of the most delicate situations in which the translator would encounter with. The foremost concern of the translator is how successfully he recreates these situations form source language to the translation language. The style of expressing the translated text is another limiting factor which a translator has to focus while translations. Culture Culture is main aspect which translator has to focus when they introduce new culture among the readers society. Sometimes it may receive a welcome wave or otherwise some controversies which the author has to keep in mind while translating. Bassnett (1980) emphasizes the importance of this issue and states that language is “the heart within the body of culture”, that is, they are both dependent to each other. Paraphrasing was another observed strategy in the above instances. The translator reproduces the source text function by applying a cultural filter, modifying cultural elements and adapts the target text to the preferences of the target receivers. On the other hand, in overt translation, the translator attempts to reproduce the function of the source text to the target text by staying close to the original text. This cultural bias while translating can be solved if the translator knows his audience and the style of expressing the source text to his readers. Style of writing In order to widen the dimensions of translation, the translator should select source text which can cover diverse reading audience in the society. Such works will create an impact on the author for his translating skills. The translator should also focus on the style of translating the source text which should break the barriers in the minds of readers that they are not reading a translated work. For this the style of the translator is an important factor to be considered in cross-cultural, cross-lingual translation. There are three factors that work subtle constraints on the style of the translated text: competence for analyzing
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar authorial style, weighing “manner” against “matter”, and literary traditions in target culture. Despite such constraints, the translator’s artistic pursuit finds expressions in creativity. The style of the target text is, therefore, a product of both the original author and the translator, a fact that qualifies the translator to share with the original author the authorship to the work he has helped transplanted into the target culture. The task of the translator is a humble one, because he is a mediator he is not to be too present in the text; very often, when a great writer translates a literary work, one can find signs of his style, vocabulary or linguistic preferences in the text, then the author is not really a good translator. To translate one has to be chameleonic and respectful of the otherness of the text, conscious of the changes and aware that there has to be a reason for them, that they ought to come from a deliberate choice based on study and the reading of the classics as well as the innovative works in both traditions This aspect completely depends on the skill and creativity of the translator in presenting his work to his readers. Widening the work For years and years history have seen many translations. Such translations helped people to know the culture, tradition and lifestyle of people across various parts of the globe. The translations were not only limited to literary work but it has extended in scientific works in the great past. So people knew the importance of translations and there is a huge welcome for such works always among the people. But sometimes critical criticism from the readers have led down the interest of translators in contributing more and more of such works. In UK the most optimistic statistics indicate that 6% of books are translations but these include technical and non.fiction translations. Literary translation only makes up 2% of the total output. In Australia, things are even worse. Barbara McGilvray and collaborators in Sydney indicate that fewer than half a dozen books are translated every year. Translated literature contribute a lot in learning many aspects of human society like civilization, culture, lifestyle and other aspects prevailing in different communities of the world. Such works should be encouraged by giving awards of global recognition, Creating associations for translators, Organizing seasonal meet for translators’, students club and other activities like seminar, conference and poster presentations which will bring a forum of people involved in translation to create more and more such work and collaborate with other friends in bringing the best translated literary works. Conclusion Translation is a communication between the source-language author and the targetlanguage reader mediated by the bilingual translator confined within source and target language and culture. It has been said that translators are tied down by the source text in their creation of the target text and their work is re-creative rather than creative. Of course, translators are not as free in their productions as the original authors. It is true that although confined by many constraints, the literary translator’s initiatives for creativity are never to be curbed. This is because all artists, literary translators included, are urged by a strong motivation, a hidden deep desire, to share something new to their society. This urge for creation is the driving force that empowers him to look for the best way of expression for his conceived idea, and he is convinced that he will find it, despite all the hardships and setbacks. So a translator should always look at the possibility of widening his horizons in translating new works which he enjoyed with his society. References: 1. Rosanna Rion, translation and tradition: the translator as mediator between two literary systems coolabah, Vol.3, 2009, ISSN 1988-5946 Observatori: Centre d’Estudis Australians, Australian Studies Centre, Universitat de Barcelona.

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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar 2. Qing Wang, Translating Style: Constraints and Creativity, Journal of Language Teaching and Research, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 406-411, July 2010. 3. Ali Reza Ghanooni, A Review of the History of Translation Studies, Theory and Practice in Language Studies, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 77-85, January 2012. 4. Azizollah Dabaghi, The Issue of Translating Culture: A Literary Case in Focus, Theory and Practice in Language Studies, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 183-186, January 2012. 5. Jinfeng Zhang, Translators Horizon of Expectations and the Inevitability of Retranslation of Literary Works, Theory and Practice in Language Studies, Vol. 3, No. 8, pp. 1412-1416, August 2013. TRANSLATION AND MODERN INDIAN THEATRE V. C. SANTHI LAKSHMI & B. UMAA DEVI ASST. PROFESSOR, PSG COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCE Post - Independence Indian theatre was marked by a search for a common “national” identity, which resulted in the playwrights exploring the past to uphold the “Indianess of Indian Culture”. This new theatre engaged with the twin themes of identity and roots in experimental modes of performance. The playwrights of the 60s and 70s endeavored to rediscover or borrow the idea of self-representation from the ‘theatre of the Roots’ movement. During the last five decades, since the 1960s, a new generation of playwrights and directors, have appeared on the scene, who have given a new shape to the stage, helping it to acquire the identity of a modern Indian theatre. This has been possible by a pluralistic experimentation with the various prevailing trends in theater in different parts of the country. This gave rise to the birth of a group of playwrights and directors with distinctive styles of their own and yet sharing certain common contemporary social concerns that make them Indian at the core. One of the experiments was translation. This paper attempts to understand the role of translation and translators in the making of contemporary modern Indian theatre. The period after the 1970s marks the beginnings of a new movement in Indian theatre. During this ‘golden period’, major playwrights like Vijay Tendulkar, Girish Karnard and Ratan Thiyam translated each other’s work while leading directors like Shombhu Mitra, Ebrahim Alkazi, B.V. Karanth and Alyque Padamsee explored the potential of translation by including classical, modern and contemporary Indian as well as Western plays in their respective repertoires. Due to the diversity of languages on the subcontinent, India has been a ‘culture of translation’ since the post-classical period. In the history of Sanskrit literature, the Westerner’s Sanskrit learning and teaching has been an important stage. European scholars in their attempt to understand Indian languages and literature have translated many classical works including the Vedic texts. William Jones’s translation of Kalidasa’s Sanskrit drama Shakuntala (1789) announced the ‘discovery’ of the national drama of the Indians and marked “the starting point of Sanskrit philology” and drew the attention of the historians, the philologists and the philosophers to Indian writing. The establishment of the Universities in 1857 resulted in the growth of a new class of Indians who were introduced to a new language and literature which influenced their way of thinking. Fascinated with this language these young men tried to translate European classics into their regional language.

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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar The extended nineteenth-century encounter between India and the West, which shaped the definition of Indian modernity, was fundamentally dependent on the ‘carrying across’ of works from one language to another: from European languages (especially English) to the Indian languages; from Indian languages (especially Sanskrit) to the European languages; from Sanskrit to modern Indian Languages; and from one modern Indian language to another. Where drama was concerned, this ‘multidirectional traffic’ highlighted the two canonical figures of Shakespeare and Kalidasa, and placed the innumerable modern versions of their works at the core of a ‘national theatre’ in the colonized nation. (A. Dharwadker) The frequent transformations of both western and Indian plays in the process of translation also indicate that the method of interpretation was not merely inter-lingual but also inter-textual and inter- cultural. Every translation is in some aspects a transformation; however, the activity of translation substitutes the cultural codes of the original with those of the modern Indian languages of translation, and becomes inter-cultural rather than inter-lingual. The resulting text is usually called an ‘adaptation’, but properly speaking it is the product of a process of ‘trans-culturation’ which carries a text across from one historical –cultural register to another and assimilates canonical texts to modern Indian languages and contemporary experience. The importance of translation in the ‘making ‘of contemporary theatre was envisaged by playwrights who demonstrated the importance of making drama as –text potentially available to national and international audiences. As Aparna Dharwadkar observes” the activity of translation became ‘intrinsic’ to the very formation of a modern print and performance culture in India”. The Sangeetha Nataka Academy, the Oxford University Press and the Seagull Theatre Quarterly together have initiated a program of play publication, which paved way for translating many Indian works into English. Thus regardless of language there has been a strong connection between translation, publication and performance that has fostered a vital multilingual culture in post- Independent India. The total effect of active multilingualism, translation, and circulation has created at least four distinct levels for the dissemination and reception of contemporary Indian plays- the local, the regional, the national, and the international. Marked by a complex interrelation of languages, Indian theatre is now an interconnected field with well established channels of publication and performance. In contrast with print genres like poetry and fiction, drama and theatre also offer radical variations on the idea of a national tradition because individual plays can become both texts and performance vehicles in multiple languages through inter lingual translation. A major play in a language other than English soon acquires a national and sometimes international audience through translation, especially into English, but with some key exceptions, plays written originally in English remains on the fringe of contemporary Indian theatre and is rarely translated into other Indian languages. For the creation of original performance for stage the preferred media are the indigenous languages, especially those which have had strong performance traditions since the precolonial period. The reason for this preference is that, theatre has a quality of lived experience when its language is the natural language of the characters it represents. Mimetic demonstrations are then intercedes only by theatrical conventions, not by the additional refractions of language. As Karnard comments “ writing in English about characters who are presumably speaking in an Indian language for audiences for whom English is a second language is not a situation conducive to great drama”. Employing themes from the folk, myths and history has helped the playwrights to adapt plots from various regions and cultures. The stories are derived from epics, the puranas,
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar ancient legends, folk tales, regional and foreign romances, history etc. By using a well known story the playwright in the contemporary context does not attempt innovation or suspense. Like the traditional drama a performance is not an imaginative innovation, or an exploration into unknown regions but a kind of living again a common cherished experience of the community, in which both the performers and the spectators have a sense of identity with what is unfolded in the play. Modern playwrights, use local myths and legends and try to find parallels with contemporary social issues using innovative techniques. Such an attempt known as ‘hybridization’ allows the play to be translated into other languages both Indian and English. For example, Ratan Thiyam’s play Chakravyuha, (1983) is based on an episode from the Mahabaratha and deals with the life and death of Abhimanyu, the son of Arjuna and Subhadra. The plot, well know to the Indian audience provide ample opportunity to the creative directors to use innovative technologies to discuss about the lives of misguided youth. This play originally written in Manipuri was performed to Manipur spectators. The play has been translated into English by Kavitha Nagpal and is published by Seagull books . The translator provides a note or pre-text, foreword, biographical information and reflects on translation process in general and specific terms to enable precision to Indian and foreign students. Many translations carry notes and annotations. This critical material offers insights into the theory and practice of translation on such a scale that, ironically, the act of translation rather than the original composition emerges as the most significant critical occasion tin contemporary theatre. The selection of the text or performance for translation recognizes its importance in the original language of composition, and even more, the important work it can do for readers and viewers in the target language. A successful translation requires equal facility in both languages, and involves consistent critical choices relating to meaning, forms, tone and texture. Furthermore, translation creates an open –ended life for a text or performance well beyond its original location in time and space. Translation also enables a play to be in constant circulation among readers and viewers , creating layers of textual meaning and stage interpretation , thereby offering a convincing evidence of the existence of a ‘national theatre’. Therefore it is through the process of translation that ancient, premodern and modern, Indian and Western dramatic traditions coexist and provide a multilayered quality to the present –day culture of performance in India- a phenomenon that is central to the making of contemporary Indian theatre. Works cited 1.Dharwadker, Aparna. Theatre of Independence: Drama, Theory and Urban Performance in India since 1947. New Delhi: OUP, 2006. Print. 2.Dalmia, Vasudha. Poetics, Plays and Performance: The Politics of Modern Indian Theatre. New Delhi: OUP, 2006. Print. 3. Thiyam, Ratan. Chakravyuha. Calcutta, Seagull:1984. Print . ERUDITION OF CULTURE THROUGH TRANSLATION M.JOHN SUGANYA ASST PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH Prof. RANIJEBASHANTHI, HOD, DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH, PSG COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCE This paper exclusively discusses the most important aspects for translation and language acquisition. And it is where the author takes up the role of language imparter. The more the author translates the more he expresses the world to the promotion of
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar regional literature. Language stands as a chariot or as any cheap scrap; it is destined by the work of art of the translator from the original work. Translation in wider aspect is looked upon as the need of the hour for world literature. Most of the renowned writers are familiar merely through the translated works. Language acquisition through translation is the wider platform than any other source of work in which any language teacher tries to impart ESL. Translation fills in the gap between the author and the foreign reader, who is unaware of traditional and regional language. Acquisition of language through translation for the learners of English as a second language has been widely discussed. English as a second language is now of greater demand due to the raise in demand for the English speakers and a profound language of English does feed a group. Time from now and a decade back have a higher difference in the raise in the learners’ crowd. It is always the bridge language between the countries. Country like India being the multi-lingual nation would have faced so many problems if it hasn’t taken English as the common language. Even though we have more than twenty two official languages in our nation, English has the major role and it widely plays its part. Key words: Translation, bridge language, contemporary literature, socio-economic status, target language, suppressed This paper exclusively discusses one most important aspect of translation and language acquisition. Translation fills the gap between the author and the foreign reader, who is unaware of traditional and regional language. English is always the bridge language between the countries. Country like India being the multi-lingual nation would have faced so many problems if it hasn’t taken English as the common language. Even though we have more than twenty two official languages in our nation, English has the major role and it widely plays its part fair and effective. Mahasweta Devi is a major literary force in contemporary literature. Born on14th January, 1926 in Dhacca, she shared literary tradition with her parents. Her father Manish Ghatah was also a poet. Her mother was a social worker. From her mother, Mahasweta Devi inherited a concern for the poor and the downtrodden. After Partition, she shifted to West Bengal with her parents. Mahasweta Devi has enriched the Indian Literary tradition. She has been recipient of prestigious awards such as the Jnanpith Award (1995), the Magsaysay Award (1996), Padmasri, Sahitya academy Award. In 2006, she received the prestigious Padma Vibhushan Award. After retiring from her teaching profession Mahasweta Devi has focused on the portrayal of the poor tribal in Eastern parts of India. She has traveled a lot in these remote parts to gain the first hand knowledge of their lives and problems. She has published more than forty books including novels and stories in Bangla. Her literary works are a commentary on the simplistic lifestyles of the tribes as well as on their suffering and exploitation and helps the readers to know about the style of language that tribal people use in their life. Mahasweta Devi’s ‘Rudali’ is a powerful work that deals with the exploitation and misery of the poor tribals in the Eastern part of India. The story is a powerful indictment of socio-economic and religious system. The two female characters Sanichari and Bhikhani are shown as suffering. They do not see any hope of redemption. They are exploited by the rich feudal Lords. Death has been presented as an occasion of jubilation because they get an opportunity to earn money. The profession of rudalis’ unites the poor women and prostitutes, and they become empowered. The novel helps us to earn the life of a community. The text evolves around a central character, Sanichari, who emerges at the end as better equipped to adapt, survive and manipulate system. The opening sentences of Rudali situate Sanichari in a socio94
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar economic context, which shares the condition of poverty with the other villagers, is one of a community; In Tahad village, ganjus and dushads were in the majority. Sanichari was a ganjus by caste. Like the other villagers, her life too was lived in desperate poverty. Sanichari is a victim of that dichotomy where woman is worshipped as a Goddess and whipped as a Goddess and whipped as slave. Her mother-in-law would often remark that, being born on an unlucky day of the week (Saturday or Sanichari, hence her name, Sanichari), She was cursed, manhoos, doomed to suffer. To herself she would say: Huh! Because I was born on and named after Satiurday, that made me an unlucky daughter-in-law! You were born on a Monday –was your life happier? (p.54) It is not fate, not a question of being born on this or that day. It’s an economic condition, and the problems of Sanichari and common to her class, caste and gender. Thus the very first paragraph shows the tension between the fate/karma and a politically and economically constructed situation. Right from the beginning, the Novella places the central character and provides a socio-economic context and emphasizes that her problem are common to her class. Through the description of Sanichari the readers can get the clear picture of their (community) habits of speech, appearance, clothes, mannerism and dialect. In the village everyone is unhappy. They understand suffering. There is a continuous suturing of her private life to the socio-economic situation. When her mother-in-law died, Sanichari does not cry. At that time, her husband and his brother were in jail because of Malik-Mahajan Ramavatar Singh. Enraged at the loss of some wheat, ha had all the young dushad and ganju males of the village locked-up. When her brother-in-law and sister-in-law die, she is unable to weep because she is tense over the fact that Ramavatar is trying to have all dushads and ganjus evicted from the village. Ramavatar’s oppression is a constant presence. If we look AT ALL ‘THE EVENTS’ IN Sanichari’s life as shown in the text, we find a direct connection between the proposal event and the exploitative system. Every death is mediated by the religious demands that follow for rituals which further impoverish the already poor. Sanichari’s husband dies of cholera after drinking the contaminated and sanctified milk donated to the Shiva idol by the rich. She is made to pay twice over for ritual offerings. In another occasion, to appease the local village priest, she is forced into indebtedness to Ramavatar. The author shows the subaltern view of local politics and the hypocrisy of the privileged classes. By showing the dire poverty of the villagers, the ways in which they are exploited, the burden of ritualized religion, the absolute power of the MalikMahajans, the corruption within the privileged classes, the author constructs a powerful indictment. This indictment is spoken by the villagers and address ‘everything in this life is a battle’. The references for getting on a half-empty stomach, the hard struggle to produce food, the imposed austerity like bangles or a comb appearing to be impossible dreams, are juxtaposed against the wanton ways in which the rich spend money on funerary ceremonies. The prince for this paid by the people, from the hides of whom the overloads extracted the sums they had overspent. Sanichari, who borrows a meager amount of rupees twenty for her husband’ s Shradh, has to pay back as rupees fifty through bonded labour of the next five years, while thousands of rupees are carelessly spent on the lavish of her masters. Malik-Mahajans like Ramavatar and his son Lakshman Singh are shown as controlling and influencing almost every aspect of the lives of the lower caste villagers.
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar It impoverishes and enslaves, causing indebtedness through demands and obligations. When Sanichari’s mother-in-law dies at night, in the pouring rain, Sanichari’s is hard pressed to carry out the necessary rituals before daybreak, with no grain in the house and no men folk to help lay out the body. When her brother-in-law and sister-inlaw died, ‘There was no crying over their deaths, either, was one to weep or to worry about how to burn the corpses and feed the neighbours cheaply at the Shradhs?’ when her husband is dead, she has barely had time to register the fact when Panda of the Siva temple at Tohri demands that she makes ritual offerings before returning to the village. It is a perfect example of how religious and economic exploitation reinforce and strengthen one another. Sanichari is careful to show the clan and class solidarity among the rich when facing a challenge. There may be bitter infighting amongst them over land riches, but they band together to present a united fond when threatened from without. If community can be a tool of offence and defense for the exploiters, it has to be a form of protection and strength for the exploited. After Budhua’s death when Sanichari finds her totally alone, she experiences the support and bonding that a community can offer. She is having hard time tending to her infant grandson, who won’t stop crying. One day Dulan’s wife comes and picks up the baby, stating that her daughter-in-law would breastfeed this child along with her own. She also brings Sanichari news of a job which can help her to earn some money. Sanichari herself is shown as being fully aware of how essential the community is. She thinks, ‘In order to survive, the poor and the oppressed, without that support, it is impossible to live in the village even on milk and ghee provided by the Malik.’ The men and the women of the lower classes/castes are as helpful and supportive of each other. Sanichari and her husband are shown as partners, both working equally hard, but together for home and livelihood. She leaves her six year old son at home and goes for the cattle and at harvest season words shoulder to shoulder with her husband. Together the two of them erect a hut on the piece of land they have inherited after the death of her brother-in-law. She draws decorative pictures on the walls, he plans a vegetable patch in their courtyard, and she arranges to rear one of the Malikin’s calves. Sanichari’s son Budhua is shown as a sensitive, thoughtful, gentle, caring both towards his mother and wife. He understands both these are very different women and is capable of being compassionate and not judgemental. There is a detailed description of how Budhua laboured to develop the vegetable patch in their courtyard. So Sanichari cannot imagine a life without him, but the experience of losing him makes Sanichari to feel the loss of a sympathetic, supportive, caring companion. She couldn’t remember a time when he wasn’t there with her. While she was enslaved in the Malik-Mahajan’s fields, he would clean the house and fetch water from the river. The author balances this close relationship with Bikhni’s sad tale of a selfish son who walks out on his mother for a better life. The relationship between Sanichari and Bikhni, childhood playmates who rediscover each other as aging, lonely women and decide to team up, is the major statement of bonding and supporting within a community. These women are not related, they have only their circumstances in common both are poor, struggling to find means of survival. The author clearly traces their evolution into a professional team. Bikhni would visit the markets and bazaars, the shops near the bus-stop. She would bring news of the death in the bighouses to her friend. Two of them would wrap black cloth around them and knot a sack into their anchals. They would present themselves at the bighouse, negotiating directly with the account keeper (Gomastha) showing no hesitation or
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar shyness. A social ritual evolves into a profession, a business. In addition to ease and accord between them, the women are sensitive to each other’s emotional states. When Bikhni returns from her visit to the Tohri prostitute quarter, she reports, ‘I saw your son’s wife there as well’. When Sanichri refuses to discuss the subject, she tactfully keeps quite. This delicate sensitivity to one another’s inner emotional states itself again when Bikhni suddenly announces that she wants to go to Ranchi for a brief visit in the hope that she will meet her son. Afterwards Sanichari learns of Bikhni’s death and feels for her. She will not cry for Bikhni; tears are a commodity now, part of a commercial transaction. Her loss lies deeper, but life must go on. Through translation the acquisition of the language is in great deal. However, translations contribute socio-economic, cultural, religious and tradition of the source language to the target language. Reader who posses the translated work of art as his first language acquires the above from the source language. Taking in account of the novel discussed has given up the socio-economic system of a particular class/caste to the foreign language reader, which is absent in their systems. The concealment of the language through various dictions in the source language were been learnt by the reader. Few to digest: Shrad – a ritual performed in remembrance for the elders’ demise. Gomastha - account keeper or accountant Manhoos - ill omen Rudali - Female weeper, weeping woman, professional mourners Sanichari - Named after Saturday carries a meaning unlucky Malik - Rich man Ramavatar, Lakshman – names from Hindu Myth. As a writer Mahasweta makes it clear that her aim in writing is to highlight the miserable condition of the poor tribal in eastern India. She is fired with zeal of work for the downtrodden and the oppressed. She is concerned about the exploitation of poor tribal by the feudal Lords. She wants the poor people to get their basic needs fulfilled. So the novella ‘Rudali’ traces the evolution of the protagonist, Sanichari from a suppressed ‘voiceless’ subaltern woman to an empowered and empowering agent of resistance carrying the potential of deconstructing the exploitative forces. Reconstructing Sanichari’s saga of suffering, Mahasweta Devi puts her ion a specific Socio-historical context, and a powerful narrative of the subaltern being dehumanized and dispossessed by the socio-economic politics of repression emerges out of the story is only incidental to the broader narrative of the subaltern life and its struggle the story records. This narrative of the marginalized is pervaded by eternal huger, poverty, deprivation. While charting the course of the lived lives of the individual characters, the narrative traces the historicity of the socially and economically constructed situation that causes their plight. TRAGIC SATIRE PRESENTED IN THE TRANSLATED WORK OF MAHETHA SWEDA DEVI’S “MOTHER OF 1084” SIVARANJANI.G ASST PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH RVS CAS INTRODUCTION Satirical works plays an important role in the historical study of any culture or society. The flaws, reactions, rectification sought and transformation took place in a society need to be studied in order to understand the gradual changes, which took place in a
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar community or a society. Similarly, several literary satirical works have been produced and gained popularity. Such works are sought by other language people. Most of the time when the translation is done: then the main essence of the original works will be lost or the real sense of the original works may be mis-interpreted based on the language it is been translated. Satire is socio-culture specific. Generally, they are written in order to rectify the flaws of an individual or a society. In doing so, the author quotes or makes use of some happenings or examples or some citations from the particular literature, culture and history. Only the people of that society can identify and enjoy the satirical tone or the elements in such writings. There is no guarantee or need that the very such flaws exist in the T.L society. Even though they exist, the sufferings of those flaws may not be the same in T.L society. If they do not exist, then the citations, examples related to Source Language people may not be relevant or knownto the Target Language people. As per Encyclopædia Britannica 2010, “Satire” is an artistic form in which human or individual vices, folly, abuses, or shortcomings are held up to censure by means of ridicule, derision, burlesque, irony, or other methods, sometimes with an intent to bring about improvement. A feature of satire is strong irony or sarcasm To Horace the satirist is an urbane man of the world who sees folly everywhere but is moved to gentle laughter rather than to rage. Juvenal's satirist is an upright man who is horrified and angered by corruption. Their different perspectives produced the subgenres of satire identified by John Dryden as comic satire and tragic satire. In Juvenalian satire the speaker (or narrator) is a serious moralist who uses a dignified and public utterance to decry modes of vice and error which are no less dangerous because they are ridiculous, and who undertakes to evoke from readers contempt, moral indignation, or an un illusioned sadness at the aberrations of humanity. (Abrams, pg. 354) Note*:In this paper the term “satire” invariably refers to Juvenalian/ tragic/indirect satire. In Satires, not only the content, but also the form is very important. "In a broad sense 'contrast' is present in all comedy, all irony, all satire." (Leonard, Feinberg. 1972:124). Identification of Satire: Understanding a satire is not an easy task, because of its subtlety. Every society has its own flaws and follies. They vary from time to time. One vice may not be vice in another century in the same language society. Some people may not consider some of the flaws as flaws in the same society as views change from person to person. It is certain "no literal translation of any satirical works can be just to an excellent original in a superior language: but it is a great mistake to imagine (as many have done) that a rash paraphrase can make amends for this general defect; which is no less in danger to lose the spirit of an ancient, by deviating into the modern manners of expression.Intention of a satirical author is more important as well as the sentences/form he uses in his text. Generally the goal of a satirical work is to correct the society or an individual for its/his follies and flaws. So, a translator of such works must be aware of the social setup, historical facts, mythological texts, common beliefs of the S.L people and understand the flaws prevailed in the society. He must also trace out the way they are criticized by the original author. Such a difficult task been beautifully carried out by SamikBandyopadhyay through the novel Mother of 1084. This is a novel originally written in Bengali language by Mahasweta Devi and named HajarChurashirMaa. Satirical points in Mother of 1084. In SamikBandyopadhyay’s translated work Mother of 1084 is stuffed with many Juvenalian satirical characteristics. Few of them can be listed as follows:
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar Mother of 1084 of Mahasweta Devi a disturbing radical novel dictating historical past, voicing self-determination, condemning violence, glorifying motherhood, demonstrating women at the centre, seeking revolution and demonstrating the exploitation of the weak and minority section of the society which is often deprived of the basic human rights. Devi has concentrated on the political upheavals and unrest in West Bengal is tried to justify the reasons for revolt and agitation condemning the massacre of the innocent people that results in claiming political self-determination. It can be defined as claims of people to establish their own separate political identity. Themes of self-identity, selfprotection, betrayal, and tyranny of the government or ‘police’ are presented in a tragic satirical tone. The symbol of death has been used as a mark for the revolution, protest, war cry, upheavals and unrest.The device of race, extremism, social protest and politics of representations, intersections of race and gender are few of the issues that dominate the works of Devi. Mahasweta Devi’s Mother of 1084 is set in the background of the Naxalite movement in West Bengal, focusing on the economic and the social exploitation in rural as well as in the urban areas. The landless peasants and the tribal were the victims who suffered mostly. The political upheavals in India in 1970s and the violence that broke out during the mid-term poll of March 1971 and the fights between CPI (M) and CPI (M-L) had left the people in utter chaos and destruction. This works is a clear depiction the various violence in the society Keeping these historical facts in mind and mastering the socio-political background of the troubled Bengal, Mahasweta Devi has relived the past and presented the aftermath of Naxalite movement of 1970s in Mother of 1084. She always has focused her attention on the welfare of the downtrodden and the tribals at the same time she has not failed to document the ugly face of urban areas. Her feelings for the welfare of the humanity have been so tremendous and overwhelming that she says, “Life is not arithmetic, man is not made for the game of politics. For me all political programmes and creed should aim at the realization of the present social system. I do not believe in narrow party politics.” (xviii) She never believed that politics would uplift the needy. For her it has always been a corrupt and a destructive Force. Most of the youth who revolted against the rigid, partial, and tyranny system were killed in large numbers. Brati, Sujata’s son and his friend Somu and many other comrades become prey to the tyranny of the corrupt government behind the curtains of violence. Nandini, Brati’s lover who is tortured in the jail by the police tells Sujata, “... Do you think they’ve stopped only because the newspapers do not report them? Arrest?Torture?Murder in the name of encounters? A whole generation between sixteen and forty is being wiped out.”(M 1084:21) Nandini’s revelation shows how brutal and senseless are the killing and torture of the innocent people that bring catastrophe not only to a family or a group or a society but also to an individual. The assault on women like Nandini cannot be denied as she confesses to Sujata, “My right eye’s blind from the gleam of the thousand walt lamps. There is a little sight left in the left eye.” (26) Saroj Pal, the police inspector misbehaves with her and physically assaults her affecting, her heart and mind equally as Nandini is unable to forget. She tells Sujata, “I wont be able to tell you all that happened after. (Pause) the sores on the skin have healed but I’ll never be normal again. (Draws her finger across her face and chaste).” (25) History repeats as violence does not cease. For a good and greater cause many have to sacrifice their lives as it happens in the Mother of 1084. Nandini’s statement hints that there has been a solid purpose behind the protest and violence. Most of them wanted a political freedom and geographical space, a free state as the government was unable to care for their welfare hence the idea of political self-determination gained momentum.The exploitation of masses in every form is universal and is clearly examined in Mother of 1084.
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar The condition of Somu’s mother is even worse than Sujata. She says, “I lost my son, my son’s father, and I, with this tortoise life of mine, shall live on forever, the two funeral pyres burning within.” (17) The pain of loss is so intense that the characters start feeling isolated from the rest of the world. Mahaswetha depicts her views in the following about the aristocratic society and the way they uses their power, influence and their money. Even its understood that the poor people have the attachment towards the family which is missing the aristocratic family of Dibyanath. How could she believe that they tried not to mention Brati in that house? How could she see the point of Brati’s father running around to ensure that Brati’s name did not appear in the press? Somu’s father had never thought of saving his skin, never thought such behaviour possible. Somu’s father - the poor shop keeper who had no capital! had never come to know the kind of people who could think in such ways. The two fathers, Somu’s and Brati’s, lived in the same country, but poles apart. (Mother, p.66)In Sujata’s gradual comprehension, we see one mother's grief reaching out to so many other mothers' grief, and we see the human aspect of a chapter of Indian history, regardless of which side one might be on.Keeping women at the centre and projecting that they too could voice against injustice Devi aroused the feeling of protest, encourage men to decide and take action. Sujata’s voice at the end becomes demagogue asking the audience to speak out, to break the silence and voice against the injustice. The injustice done to the common mass, the massacre of innocent people especially of youths, a corrupt and unreliable government’s is hold responsible for which the unrest and protest against such practices spring certain regions. Mahasweta voices such unheard cries of the people. Mother of 1084 has a close ending. With the death of Sujata, the revolt comes to an end as no other person dares to support her.Mahasweta Devi has a “revolutionary fervour to recording the present instead of reconstructing the past.” (Mukherji: vii) Devi’s concern is more with the tribal communities of the north-east in particular and all over India in general.Amidst the tyranny and torture, violence and vices, suppression and suffocation, fate and fury, the plays provide optimism and hope, a hope for a better tomorrow at the cost of today. Few reasons for SamikBandyopadhyaya to translate the novel so perfectly without missing the original essence from the source language to targeted language are : though Mahasweta Devi and SamikBandyopadhyay have presented the play and novel in different languages, both these writers have the same linguistic, cultural, social and geographical Unities in their life span. Works Cited Devi, Mahasweta.mother of 1084. Trans.SamikBandyopadhyay. Calcutta: Seagull Books, 2011 Devi, Mahasweta .“Bayen” Trans. SamikBandyopadhyay. Mahasweta Devi: Five Plays. Calcutta: Seagull Books, 1997. 75-91. Mukherji, Sujit. “Mahasweta Devi’s Writings - An Evaluation.” Book Reviw, Vol. XV, No. 3. (May-June, 1991), p. vii. Satayanarayana, E. The Plays of Mahasweta Devi. New Delhi: Prestige Books, 2000. Abrams M.H., Geoffrey Galt Harpham. A Glossary of Literary Terms:Cengage Learning India Pvt. Ltd. Delhi, 2013. Print. "satire." . Encyclopædia Britannica 2010 Ready Reference CD. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2010.

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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar GLOBALIZATION OF TRANSLATION STUDIES S. BALAMURUGAN & K. NITHYANANTHAN, ASST. PROF. RVS CAS Here we shall attempt to model globalization as an economic process with certain consequences for the social role of translation. Those consequences will then be seen as affecting the political organization of Translation Studies as a scholarly discipline. That general process is held to have certain elements of irreversibility thanks to its grounding in technological change. Translators will mostly have to come to terms with those elements, as will everyone else. There are, however, political processes that build on globalization but should not be identified with it. Those processes also have consequences for translation but are not to be considered inevitable. Some of them can be resisted or influenced by the use or non-use of translation. Those political processes can thus be indirectly affected by a scholarly Translation Studies, which might thus develop its own politics with respect to globalization. This means that Translation Studies should seek to understand and explain the effects of globalization, without pretending to resist them all. At the same time, it should attempt to influence the more negative political processes within its reach, developing its political agenda and cultivating its own political organization. In this, the dialectics play out between the technological and the political, between the things we must live with and the things we should try to change. Only with this double vision should we attempt to take a position with respect to globalization. The Technological Globalization, results from a progressive reduction in the costs of communication and transport. The term can mean many other things as well; the current theories cover everything from the state of markets to the condition of the soul; but for us, here, globalization will be no more than a set of things that can happen when distance becomes easier to conquer. Let us model those things; let us try to connect them with translation and its study. Here is one model. As technology improves, we can move things further and more efficiently, just as we can potentially communicate more efficiently and over greater stretches of time and space. What consequences might that extended process have for translation, upto and including our electronic age? With cursory glances at recent history, a certain chain of reasoning can be linked as follows: As transport and communication become cheaper, more things are moved and communicated over greater distances. There is thus more communication. This is not only because it is easier to communicate but also because there are more moving things about which to communicate, more possible communication partners to talk to, more possibilities for communication about the resulting communication, and indeed more technology to talk about in the first place when communication regularly crosses the borders of languages and cultures, it tends to wash away those same borders. Thus were the local patois and fiefdoms swamped by the vernaculars and nation states. Globalization thus creates the need for common languages, therefore the need for fewer languages, and now the need for just one lingua franca, English. Globalization, in our technological sense, mostly affects the discourses where the technology for crosscultural transport and communication is actually used. That kind of intellectual community carries the weight of history, if nothing else. Thanks to its principles, there can be no excuse for the collective exclusion of scholars simply by virtue of their national affiliation. Further, there are good arguments, embedded
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar in the very nature of an intercultural community of scholars, for collectively excluding those who seek to impose such measures. Our own globalization requires at least that ethical stance. There is a final irony, however, in the more recent avatar of the debate. Those who would apply an exclusive nationalism are now, in a classical fuite en avant, initiating moves for an International Association of Translation and Intercultural Studies. Their model would be based on individual membership, effectively setting up a structure parallel to the existing national and regional associations. What becomes of that initiative remains to be seen. It certainly aims to fill a very real gap, encouraging Translation Studies in countries where the discipline is incipient or still weak.

TRANSLATION THEORIES AND PROCESS V.KAVITHA M.A.,M.PHIL.,B.ED, ASST. PROF. SRI KRISHNA ARTS AND SCIENCE COLLEGE, KUNIMUTHUR, COIMBATORE Introduction “Translation is a technical act” quotes Susan Bassnett. Translation is the most effective way of breaking the language barrier and promoting better communication. According to Collin’s Cobuild English language Dictionary (1987).The term “Translation” is a piece of writing or speech that has been translated from a different language. It is the translating of speech or writing from one language to another. Translation typically has been used to transfer written or spoken SL texts to equivalent written or spoken TL texts. In general, the purpose of translation is to reproduce various kinds of texts—including religious, literary, scientific, and philosophical texts—in another language and thus making them available to wider readers. Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. Translators always risk inappropriate spillover of source-language idiom and usage into the target-language translation. On the other hand, spill-overs have imported useful source-language calques and loanwords that have enriched the target languages. Indeed, translators have helped substantially to shape the languages into which they have translated. The word translation derives from the Latin translatio (which itself comes from trans- and fero, the supine form of which is latum, together meaning "to carry across" or "to bring across" A translation study is an academic interdiscipline dealing with the systematic study of the theory, description and application of translation, interpreting, and localization. The term “translation studies” was coined by the Amsterdam-based American scholar James S Holmes in his paper "The name and nature of translation studies" Strictly speaking, the concept of metaphrase — of "word-for-word translation" — is an imperfect concept, because a given word in a given language often carries more than one meaning; and because a similar given meaning may often be represented in a given language by more than one word. Nevertheless, "metaphrase" and "paraphrase" may be useful as ideal concepts that mark the extremes in the spectrum of possible approaches to translation. “At the very beginning, the translator keeps both the [s]ource [l]anguage...
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar and [t]arget [l]anguage... in mind and tries to translate carefully. But it becomes very difficult for a translator to decode the whole text... literally; therefore he takes the help of his own view and endeavors to translate accordingly.” The Role of Translator A competent translator shows the following attributes: a very good knowledge of the language, written and spoken, from which he is translating (the source language); an excellent command of the language into which he is translating (the target language); familiarity with the subject matter of the text being translated; a profound understanding of the etymological and idiomatic correlates between the two languages; and a finely tuned sense of when to metapharse (translate literally") and when to paraphrase, so as to assure true rather than spurious equivalent between the source- and target-language texts.[29] A competent translator is not only bilingual but bicultural. A language is not merely a collection of words and of rules of grammar and syntax for generating sentence, but also a vast interconnecting system of connotations and cultural references whose mastery, writes linguist Mario Pei, "comes close to being a lifetime job." To sum up, our perception of the role of the translator is that he is a performer of a dual task. On the one hand, he has to adhere as much as he can to the content of the message, including its form (if it is part of this content); on the other hand, he tries to reflect his identity and tends to produce a 'natural' text. Classification of Translation Roman Jackobon suggests a three way classification of translation. i)Intralingual Translation means paraphrasing- an interpretation of verbal sings by means of other sings in the same language ii) Interlingual Translation means an interpretation of the verbal sings of one language by means of other sings in the another language iii) Intersemiotic Translation means concerned with internal sings and symbols. An interpretation of verbal sings by means of non-verbal signs systems. “Different lines of approach” coexist during any period. The major “lines of approach” to translation have been a) the sense to sense approach b) the word to word approach. Effective translation has to strike a balance between these two approaches. The three important models proposed by Western scholars are outlined in order to point out the nature of the processes and problems involved in Translation. J.C Catford(1965) defines translation as “the replacement of textual material in one language(SL) by equivalent textual material (TL) in another language”. He makes a distinction between “Textual equivalence and Formal correspondence”. A textual equivalence is defined as “any TL form (text or portion of text) which is observed to be equivalent of a given SLform(text or portion of text) . In Formal correspondence any TL category which may be said to occupy the same place in the economy of the TL as the given SL category occupies in the SL. Popovic various types of shifts in translation: Popovic (1976) analyze various types of shifts in translation at various levels of linguistic and paralinguistic description. In his attempt to transfer meaning from one language (SL) to another (TL) by means of the universally known practice of translation, the translator faces a plethora of linguistic, stylistic and even cultural problems. In this regard, Popovic (1970: 79)
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar confirms that "this transfer is not performed directly and is not without its difficulties." This means that the act of translation can be analyzed along a range of possibilities, which brings about a number of shifts in the linguistic, aesthetic and intellectual values of the source text (ST). i) Constitutive shifts - This takes place as a result of difference between SL and TL. ii) Generic shifts -The constitutive features of the text as a literary form may change from one language to another. iii) Individual shifts - It takes place owing to the translator own style and idiolect. iv) Negative shifts- It takes place as a result of incorrect translation due to mis interpretation. v) Topic shifts- This happens in changing the topical facts in the original. The rich tradition of translation theorizing concerns primarily literary and philosophical texts. Texts that are viewed as valuable, not for any commercial purpose but for aesthetic or ethical purposes, require great care in the translation process. Again and again around the world and across the millennia we find translation theorists stressing the need for translators to be aware of the multi-facetedness or multi-layeredness of what it is that they are trying to translate. The Western notion of word for word versus sense for sense has been around for over 2,000 years and exists in many other cultural systems also. i) A recognition that ideas about beauty can be transferred across time and space but also that such ideas change. ii) Translation enables us to have access to work that we would otherwise never be able to encounter. iii) Translation enables the writing of great figures from the past to survive and to continue to be read by subsequent generations. The translator of any sacred text needs to be very aware of what he or she is doing and that awareness can only come from a full understanding of what has been done by predecessors. The Major contribution made by “Peter Newmark” (1981) is his classification of different kinds of translation. He points out two methods-Semantic Translation and Communicative translation. Semantic Translation that remains faith full to the semantic and structure of the SL. Communicative translation that attempts to produce the same effect on TL readers as produced by the original on the SL readers. Source language Bias LiteralFaithfulSemantic Target language Free Idiomatic sCommunicative. Machine Translation: Translation theory, particularly in the modern technological age, is influenced as much by science and technology.Sophisticated computers, Word Processors, and Artificial Intelligence have contributed much to the actual translation of texts. As Translation theory moved from sentence to discourse level, it was found that machine could not cope with a high degree complexity. In Machine Translation (MT) instructions will have to be formulated in as such a way that they are intelligible to a computer. All issues like equivalence and relevance, polysemy and ambiguity, meaning literal metaphorical,cultural,interlextual etc and all things expressed and suppressed in atext will have to be worked out before a machine is asked to translate a text. A "back-translation" is a translation of a translated text back into the language of the original text, made without reference to the original text.

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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar Comparison of a back-translation with the original text is sometimes used as a check on the accuracy of the original translation, much as the accuracy of a mathematical operation is sometimes checked by reversing the operation. But the results of such reverse-translation operations, while useful as approximate checks, are not always precisely reliable. Back-translation must in general be less accurate than back-calculation because linguist symbols (words) are often ambiguous, whereas mathematical symbols are intentionally unequivocal. In the context of machine translation, a back-translation is also called a "roundtrip translation." Meaning should be the main preoccupation of all translation. Since translation proper is concerned with the transfer of meaning, the analysis of shifts in translation should take into account the non-linguistic factors—in addition to the linguistic ones—so as to achieve a comprehensive analysis of these shifts. Translation involves far more than replacement of lexical and grammatical items between languages and, as can be seen in the translation of idioms, the process may involve discarding the basic linguistic elements of the SL text so as to achieve Popovic's goal of 'expressive identity' between the SL and TL texts. But once the translator moves away from close linguistic equivalence, the problems of determining the exact nature of the level of equivalence aimed for begin to emerge. Reference works: Bassnett, Susan and André Lefevere (eds). 1990. Translation, History and Culture. London and New York: Pinter. Munday, Jeremy., Introducing Translation Studies, Theories and Applications,London and New York: Routledge, 2001. Bassnett, Susan., Translation Studies: Revised Edition, London and New York: Routledge, 1991. http://www.asymptotejournal.com/article.php?cat=Interview&id=4#sthash.eJXtNeFl.dpuf TAMIL CULTURE AS PORTRAYED IN KALKI R KRISHNAMURTHI’S PONNIYIN SELVAN
S. ANIN LEEMA, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH DR. ASEDA FATIMA R, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH NIRMALA COLLEGE FOR WOMEN

Culture is the wholeness of the values, customs, traditions and norms that people share with one another. It represents the society of an age. In this respect john H. Bodley believes that it involves these three components. They are ‘What people think, what they do and the material products they produce. Thus mental processes, beliefs, knowledge and values are parts of culture. The Tamil culture has got its own heritage and richness. Dr. Kamil Zvelebi, a Czech Professor states that “ there is no doubt that the culture of the Tamils belongs to the great and immortal treasures of the world’s civilization. It gives a crystal clear idea of the routine life of the common man. It also gives a telescopic view of the social life and customs of he people. The age between the third century B.C. and second Century A.D is called the Sangam Age. The history of TamilNadu has been recorded with the three kingdoms. They are the cheras, the cholas and the Pandyas. The popular kings of these dynasties are mentioned in Sangam Literature. During this Age, the popular genre in Tamil Literature was ‘Ceyyul’ (poetry). It clearly picturizes Tamil people’s custom, habits and their lives.
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar In th beginning of the fourth century A.D, the Pallavas dissiminated their Kingdom. Kancheepuram was their capital. They ruled Tamil Nadu incessantly for five hundred years. It has left a strong imprint on Tamil Nadu’s history. The sculptures of Mahabalipuram stands a proof for their way of life and culture. During the middle of the ninth century, there was a decline in Pallava dynasty. From then till the thirteenth century the Chozha Empire became a super power. The choza dynasty has left their stamp in the field of irrigation and also in the village development. The theme of a tamil poem revolves around either Akam or Puram. The Akam poems focus on the love and relationship between man and woman. Love in all phases – premarital love, marital and extramarital love is the subject of all Akam poems. Premarital love is termed as ‘Kalavu and extra marital love is termed as ‘karpu’. The Puram poems revolves around outside the matrix of family relationships. It brings out the relationship between man and the outer world with a special reference to pace and time. The golden age of Tamil history is the age of Chozhas. The Chozha country was ruled by a Charavarthy. The king was more or less like a God for the common people in Tamil Nadu. So, they called the King as ‘Deva’ which means God. This is proved by one of the heroes of the novel Ponniyin Selvan, Vandiyathevan says to his Emperor as “For the on, the father is God. For the people the King is God. The Pranas tells us that a king has aspect of Vishnu”. (PS (VOl 1)144) The novel Ponniyin Selvan is a historical novel. It portrays the life of Tamil society in Chozhanadu. This chozhanadu was ruled during the tenth century by the Charavarthy Sundara Chozhar. In English the novel is divided into six parts (ie) the fifth part has been divided into two volumes. Whereas in tamil it is only five parts. The six parts of the novel is 1. The Frst Floods. 2. The Cyclone. 3. The Killer Sword. 4. The Crown. 5 aand 6. The Pinnacle of Sacrifice – Volume I and II. Vallavarayan Vandiyathevan, though a warrior of the royal belongs to Vana Clan. He is sent by the kanchi prime Aditha Karikalan to deliver two scrolls. One scroll to be delivered to the Emperor of Tanjavur and the other one to the princess Kundavai. Sheis fondly clled a Iaya Pirati of Pazhuyarai. In Ponniyin Selvan the entire novel revolves around two themes – love and war. Women always at the back of Akam themes. Love and its emotions were always ssociated wit women. The world of a women is always limited to the domestic life. Love plays a very vital role in this novel. Love between Vandiyathevan and Princess Kundavai, Prince Arulmozhivarman and Vanathi, Sendhan Amudhan and Poonkuzhali, Prince Adita Karikalan and Nandhi Devi forms a main plot of the whole novel. The first five tinais representing the five different phases of love are treated between Vandiyathevan and Kundavai. In the first voume of the novel, when Vandiyathevan and kundavai are about to meet, the predominant mood of the novel is that of Kurinchi. The author describes the river Arisilar as “Adada! What a marvelous sight! It is like beauty beautified! Like honey sweetened futher!”. (PS Vol I - 52) The words ‘honey and nectar are symbolic of the Kurinchi tinai. Similarly when the readers are introduce to Princess Kundavai at the banks of the river Kaveri also known as the Ponni. The mood reflected is that the lover’s union. The author ‘s voice describes the singing as ‘Adada! The lyrics, the melodies, the emotions they evoke, somehow seem to mingle and flow like a stream of nectar’. These descriptions clearly portrays that the backdrop is set for Kurinchi tinai. The way of life in this region of dense foliage is told to the readers as “Kundavai and her companion spent most evenings in this garden. Sometimes they wouldsit together and tell each other stories or gather in groups or twos and therees and exchange secrets”, (PS Vol I - 240). This mood of the stealth reflects the kurinchi tinai.
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar The author has set the tone to the kurinhi landscape before the lovers meet and he gradually leads the eaders to the highest effct of the kuronchi landscape. When pricess Kundavai and Vandiyathevan meet in the garden at Pazhayarai, the author narrates the story of the union of the first man and women in the world. She lived on the other side of the mountain’ says the author and on a summer day ‘when the het sparked a forest fire’ and spread rapidly, ‘the man and the woman climbed the mountain. They met at the top and couldn’t take their eyes off each other. (PS Vol I – 258) The next phase is Mullai. It represents the heroine’s patient waiting over separation. It is normally filled with a sense of anxiety. The heroine is worried of her man. In the novel, kundavai is very much worried of Vandiyathevan. She cautioned then about dangers they could meet on the way’. Thus her mind was fully occupied with doubt regarding her lover. Deeply disturbed by the safety of her man she tries to analyse her emotion. This emotion is full of anxiety but she waits patiently for his return. Marutam is the next tinai. This attributes over lover’s quarrels or wife’s irritability. A tinge of jealousy and possessiveness is predominant in this tinai. In the novel one finds quarrel between Kundavai and Vandiyathevan. She suspects that he had fallen into Nandhi’s web. Is anxiety filled with curiosity clearly depicts psyche- a feeling of jealousy. Neytal is the next tinai. In this tinai, the novelist portrays Kundavai’s grief over her seperaton of her lover. Though she was aware of the dangers involved, she sends her man on a mission to price Aditi Karikalan. After her departure, she is worried again about her lover, when the name of her man was uttered by his brother her face turned bright and it brought joy on her face. This a typical characteristic associated with tamil women. The next tinai is Palai. It refers to longest separation and dangerous journey by thehero. In this Kundavai fails to take any effort to wipe away the slur brought about on her lover. When he was accused, she just remained doing nothing but when Manimekalai interferes and puts the blame on her I order to set vandiaythevan free. This is the longest and dangerous phase of journey took place between the lovers. Finally they got married. Thus readers were directed from Kurinchi phase to Pala phase in the love between Vandiyathevan and Kundavai. Culture is the identity of a society, it is a legacy which is passed down from one generation to another. But at times, this treasure is corroded by time. On this note Keats rightly puts in his Ode as ‘Art is unravished’ by time. Though Ponniyin Sevan is a novel written I the modern twentieth century, the technique employed by the author to conver his message is derived from the culture of the ancient tamil society. Thus the rich tamil traditions, customs and culture are conveyed to the readers using the tenets of Akam elements.     Krishnamurthy, Kalki R. Ponniyin Selvan. Trans C.V. Karthik Narayanan Chennai: Macmilian India Ltd, 1999. “Chola Dynasty”. WWW. Wikipedia.Org 2013 http://en . Wikipedia.org/wiki/chola dynasty. Culture: WWW. Tamu.edu. http:// www. Tamu.edu/classes/cosc/choudhury/culture.html. ‘Tamil Sangams’. www. Wikipedia.org. 2013. http://en Wikipedia.org/ wiki/ Tamil Sangams.

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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar THE MOST TRANSLATED LIVING PAULO COELHO FOR THE SAME BOOK THE ALCHEMIST ANITHA A &DEEPA C, MA ENGLISH Government Arts College, CBE This paper brings out the greatest work of Paulo Coelho’s The Alchemist. According to The New York Times, The Alchemist has been translated into 67 distinct different languages. This gave Coelho the position as the world's most translated living author, according to the 2009 Guinness World Records. Paulo Coelho has led an extremely interesting life. Rebelliousness defined his youth. He was a hippie. He wrote popular lyrics for some of Brazil's most famous pop music stars. Shortly after, he worked as a journalist. In 1986 Paulo Coelho walked the Road to Santiago, a medieval pilgrim's route between France and Spain where the remains of St. James are. He later described this experience in ‘The Pilgrimage’, published in 1987. The following year, his second book ‘The Alchemist’ established his worldwide fame. The Alchemist (Portuguese: O Alquimista) is a novel by Paulo Coelho first published in the year 1988. Originally written in Portuguese by its Brazilian-born author, it has been translated into at least 56 languages as of September 2012. An allegorical novel, The Alchemist follows a young Andalusian shepherd named Santiago in his journey to Egypt, after having a recurring dream of finding treasure there. The book is an international bestseller. According to AFP, it has sold more than 30 million copies in 56 different languages, becoming one of the best-selling books in history and setting the Guinness World Record for most translated book by a living author. The Alchemist follows the journey of an Andalusian shepherd boy named Santiago. Santiago, believing a recurring dream to be prophetic, decides to travel to a Romani in a nearby town to discover its meaning. A gypsy woman tells him that there is a treasure in the Pyramids in Egypt. Early into his journey, he meets an old king, Melchizedek, who tells him to sell his sheep to travel to Egypt and introduces the idea of a Personal Legend (which is always capitalized in the book). Your Personal Legend "is what you have always wanted to accomplish. Everyone, when they are young, knows what their Personal Legend is". He adds that "when you want something, the entire universe conspires in helping you to achieve it". This is the core theme of the book. Along the way, he meets an Englishman and continues his travel with him. They traveled through The Sahara desert and during his journey, he meets a beautiful Arabian woman named Fatima, whom he falls in love with. He then asked Fatima to marry him, however she says she will only marry him after he finds his treasures. He was perplexed by this and he later learns that true love will not stop one's Personal Legend and if it does, it is not true love. Santiago then encounters a lone alchemist who also teaches him about Personal Legends. He says that people want to find only the treasure of their Personal Legends but not the Personal Legend itself. Santiago feels unsure about himself as he listens to the alchemist's teachings. The alchemist states: "Those who don't understand their Personal Legends will fail to comprehend its teachings". It is also stated that treasure is more worthy than gold. The book's main theme is about finding one's destiny. According to The New York Times, The Alchemist is "more self-help than literature". An old king tells Santiago, "When you really want something to happen, the whole universe conspires so that your wish comes true". This is the core of the novel's philosophy and a motif that plays all throughout Coelho's writing in The Alchemist.
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar The Alchemist was first released by an obscure Brazilian publishing house. Albeit having sold "well", the publisher of the book told Coelho that it was never going to sell, and that "he could make more money in the stock exchange”. Needing to "heal" himself from this setback, Coelho set out to leave Rio de Janeiro with his wife and spent 40 days in the Mojave Desert. Returning from the excursion, Coelho decided he had to keep on struggling. Coelho was "so convinced it was a great book that [he] started knocking on doors". Fate is constantly intertwined with will, and a key theme of the book focuses on how much in life is under one's control, and how much is controlled by fate. The old king states that the world's greatest lie is that "at some point during our lives, we lose control of what's happening to us, and our lives become controlled by fate. Love is described as a part of the Soul of the World. Love occurs in life and Nature. As everything supports each other, they love each other. Santiago tells the desert that it shows love for the alchemist's falcon by offering it game, after which the falcon shows love to man as it offers the game to eat, and the man shows love for the desert as after one dies, his body is reintegrated into the desert sands. There is also love in people, demonstrated by Santiago's love of Fatima's beauty, and Santiago's knowing that it is part of his Personal Legend to love her. Also, there is true love, a brief definition given by the alchemist; "True love is love that allows you to reach your Personal Legend." The theme of controlled luck is prominent in this book, as the old king and the alchemist both tell Santiago about how if one really wants to fulfill his or her Personal Legend, the whole universe will conspire to help make it happen. Coelho refers to this as the idea of "beginner's luck", or the concept of favorability. Santiago is blessed with beginner's luck, when he decides to go to Africa. He manages to sell all of his sheep very easily, and is given "a taste of success" that whets the appetite to fulfill one's Personal Legend. In The Alchemist, a kind of spiritual enlightenment is accomplished by fulfilling one's Personal Legend, and adding to the Soul of the World, which is the "light" of most religions. The spiritual influence of this book is omniscient, for example in Santiago's "turning himself into the wind" stunt. He learns the Language of the World, which is basically the language of the Soul of the World. As the Soul of the World is related to the Soul of God, Santiago is able to perform miracles after he has reached into the Soul of the World. Published in the U.S. in 1993 with a run of 50,000 copies The Alchemist holds the Guinness World Record for the most translated book by a living author by being translated into 67 different languages. Has sold over 65 million copies worldwide Reference:  The Alchemy of the Alchemist: How Paulo Coelho became the most translated living author for the same book. Arashhejazi.com. Retrieved November 1, 2011.  The Alchemist: Reviews on Sant Jordi Associados.  Paulo Coelho Biography on PauloCoelho.com. DIFFICULTIES IN TRANSLATING MALAYALAM IDIOMS AND PROVERBS INTO ENGLISH ANUSHA P. V. M A ENGLISH ST. ALOYSIUS COLLEGE (AUTONOMOUS) MANGALORE Translation is both a literary activity as well as a creative writing. It is a process of replanting the traditional notion of rendering of Source Language (SL) text in to Target
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar Language (TL) text. In the opinion of Ayyappa Paniker, a notable Malayalam writer, “till the 19th century, Indian translators were not affected unduly by the anxiety of being through to the original and the spirit”. This accounts for the different versions of the Ramayana, The Mahabharata, Upanishad and Gita in different Indian languages. We can see that the Ramayana of Kamban in Tamil is more Dravidian epic than the Sanskrit classic. Malayalam language is known for its varieties of word usages. Through these usages, its cultural background and hierarchical discourses are seen. Each word is unique in its original language. When it is translated, its irony and cultural values moves onto unfamiliar scenarios. In the process of translation, the essence of a text is more prominent than words and phrases. Words will not be used in its ordinary sense, but in different implication. The main drawbacks of translation includes the use of footnotes in each and every page and without the footnotes, one cannot appreciate the significance properly. As a result, the reader loses his/her attention and focus .Kerala is very rich in cultural practices and traditional beliefs. So, they are very concerned about their ancient customs. Let us examine the popular folksong in Kerala to show the difficulties in translating a culturally bounded text. The poem in Source Language “Maveli Nadu vaneedum kalam Maanushyar ellarum onnupole Aammodathode irikkumkalam Aapathonnarkum ottillathanum” Translated Version “When Maveli rules over the land All people form an equal band And as they live in joy and charm Everyone is free from harm” Here in the Source Language, the poem talks about the historical background and the rule of Mahabali. The words which are used here can understood only by the Keralites. But when it comes to translated version, the essence is gone. For Keralites, Maveli is a God and he is the one who make his people live happily without any fear of danger. In the translated version, Maveli is like an ordinary man. So, one culture cannot express another culture accurately. In the translated one, its main focus is on structure more than its theme. This leads to ta rhyme and rhythm pattern which is similar in Target Language and Source Language. Idioms and proverbs in Malayalam are closely related to peoples’ life, family, and their occupation. So the readers from other communities find it difficult to understand what exactly it meant. Some examples are here to examine it; 1) Aattin tholitta chennaya ( A woolf in a lamb’s cradle) In Malayalam this idiom shows the extreme nature of cruelty. But in the translated one, its importance gets lost. 2) Chayakoppayile kodungat (Typhoon in a tea cup) When a non-Malayali looks into this idiom, he will definitely think it as funny phrase. This idiom is usually seen in English as “A storm in a tea cup” instead of “Typhoon in a tea cup“ . Its effect is losing. The proverb literally meant that there is a great hue and cry for a silly matter. In the idiom, word by word translation mostly occurs. Since, we cannot translate the tricky Malayalam cultural bound idioms into English without having footnotes. But in
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar the case of proverbs, it tries to attain its theme in the Source Language into Target Language. Few examples are given below; 3) Puthanachi purappuram thookkum (A new broom sweeps clean) The proverb shows the new broom’s harsh character in the first few days in her inlaws home. While translating into the target language, it talks about the new brooms cleanliness. In Malayalam, a mother calls her child as “Ente thanga kudame”. But, when it comes to the question of translation, we cannot replace it as “Oh my golden pot”. Here the mother’s love and care is lost while translating. Problems are more if the text belongs to a certain community or place. The poem loses its significance as it is far removed from the context in which it is being translated. Each and every genre of literature contains the original order and the proper arrangements. It gets destroyed the moment it is translated. A poem cannot be translated to get the original form, rhyme and rhythm. It is impossible to translate keeping both these aspects in mind. The Reader can only assume that form is an external decoration in the translated works. Translation of the cultural and traditional terms in Malayalam is the major challenge during translation. Common words are very hard to translate .It is not an easy task to transplant the text from one culture in to another. The originality of the meanings are thus lost in the act of translation. WORKS CITED Catford, J.C. A Linguistic Theory of Translation. London: Oxford University,1965.Print. ROLE OF TRANSLATOR: PRACTICAL DIFFICULTIES IN TRANSLATING WORKS B.R.ARCHANA & S. SARAYU PRIYADHARSHINI II- M.A.English Bharathiyar University, University of Madras Translation has got a dynamic role in this 21st century scenario virtually in all the fields in order to favour the demands of globalization. Translation in all ages, basically an act of transmitting the meaning of the source language into the target language. Nevertheless, the translator must maintain his/her faithfulness to the source language text; translation is neither imitative nor creative. So, the sole aim of translation is conveying the meaning. Sense for sense translation well fits this purpose rather than the ritualistic word-to-word translation. In a broader sense, translation is done mainly for the readers of other cultures. The common difficulty the translators have been facing is conveying the sense. Language and the culture of its speakers are inseparable so a translator’s job is to render the culture along with the language. This is not possible when there is no equivalent word or phrase for the source language in the target language. This paper presents the need for translation in literary scenario and the role of translators. Achchamillai Achchamillai Achchamillai Achchamemba thillaye Ichakka thallorellam Edhirthu Nindra Pothilum Achchamillai Achchamillai Achchamemba thillaye Thuchchamaaga Yenni Nammai thoor Seitha Pothinum Achchamillai Achchamillai Achchamemba thillaye Pitchai Vaangi Unnum Vaazhkai Petru Vitta Pothilum Achchamillai Achchamillai Achchamemba thillaye
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar Ichchai Konda Porulellam Izhantha Vitta Pothilum Achchamillai Achchamillai Achchamemba thillaye Kachaninthu Kongai Maathara Kangal Veesu Pothinum Achchamillai Achchamillai Achchamemba thillaye Nachchai Vaayile Konarandhu Nanba Ruttu Pothinum Achchamillai Achchamillai Achchamemba thillaye Pachchai uniyaindhu Vera Padaigal Vantha Pothilum Achchamillai Achchamillai Achchamemba thillaye Uchchi meedhu Vaana idinthu Veezhukindra Pothinum Achchamillai Achchamillai Achchamemba thillaye NO FEAR The people of this world, if against they stand, There is no fear, there is no fear, nothing like fear. Although, we are counted cheap and rebuked, There is no fear, there is no fear, nothing like fear. If to beg for food, a life to be attained, There is no fear, there is no fear, nothing like fear. If lovable possessions are lost, There is no fear, there is no fear, nothing like fear. If clothed bosomed damsels; cast their eyes, There is no fear, there is no fear, nothing like fear. Poison in the mouth, if fed by friends, There is no fear, there is no fear, nothing like fear. Shielded armies, if to approach attack, There is no fear, there is no fear, nothing like fear. On the acme of my head if the sky did crash and plummet down, There is no fear, there is no fear, nothing like fear. I have identified three types of translation difficulty: (1) distinguishing between general vocabulary and specialized terms, (2) distinguishing between various meanings of a word of general vocabulary, and (3) taking into account the total context, including the intended audience and important details such as regionalisms. Translation, is a collaborative creative enterprise, whose purpose is to communicate the meaning of the original text in a different language and to a different audience. But the process of translation is however not bereft of problems. The problem of translating a text can be broadly divided into two—linguistic and cultural. is a collaborative creative enterprise, whose purpose is to communicate the meaning of the original text in a different language and to a different audience. But the process of translation is however not bereft of problems. The problem of translating a text can be broadly divided into two—linguistic and cultural. . As cultural meanings are intricately woven into the texture of language, translation becomes all the more difficult. For a writer, a word is essentially a cultural memory. The words that the writer uses are always strongly linked to the specific cultural context from where the text originates. The translator must be able to capture and project a similar situation and culture of primary importance and that should be reflected in the translated work. A translator has to recreate the participatory experience of the readers of the original text. This enables the readers of the translated text to participate in the alien cultural experience. Announcing the cultural turn in Translation Studies, Andre Lefevre and Susan Bassnett remark that, it is neither the word nor the text but the culture that becomes the operational unit of translation. Caught between the need to capture the local

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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar culture and the need to be understood by an audience outside the original cultural and linguistic situation, a translation must be aware of both cultures. One of the main goals of literary translation then is to initiate the target language (TL) reader into the sensibilities of the source language culture. The enterprise of translation is thus an interpretation/conversion of a text encoded in one semiotic system into another. The difficulties in translation are not only linguistic but also cultural and political. Transmitting cultural elements through literary translation is a complicated and vital task. Culture is a complex collection of experiences which condition daily life. It includes history, social structure, religion, traditional customs and everyday usage. This is difficult to comprehend. As the word in the source text (ST) may be strongly rooted in the source culture (SC), it may be too difficult for the addressed readers. In addition, translation may have to deal not only with lexical expressions, but also with problems of register, syntactic order, regional varieties (dialects) etc which are culture specific. The interpretation/translation should be based not just on the words of the text, but on the intent of the author, the relationship of the author with the intended audience, the culture and worldview of the author and original audience, and the receptor audience. The similarity of the cultural structures of the source and target language thus determines the degree of translatability. Therefore translating a text from one regional language to another is a far more natural and satisfactory activity both for the translator and the reader. This is because they share more or less common socio-cultural and historical bonds. But when the same text is rendered into English, it will be different. In the latter, negotiating semantic and cultural hurdles to achieve equivalence of meaning tends to be a relatively uphill task. The problems involve lexical usage (the choice of words), complexity of grammatical expression, and word forms. A number of languages in which honorific structures define three major levels i.e., speaking to honorable persons (as to royalty or deity ), speaking to non-honorable persons (as to servants or persons of inferior status ), and speaking to peers (as those on the same level).And also there are some differences in grammatical categories particularly in lexis of source and target languages by which the students make confusion to choose the proper equivalent word into target language, and also in which the students are unable to fix the grammatical meanings of the bound morphemes, like choosing tense suffix, person- number - gender suffix etc., come under the problems at morphological level. The problems of equivalence in translating English into Tamil are the different equivalent forms that are available in Tamil for English indefinite articles ‘a’ and ‘an’ and also for English definite article ‘the’ are enumerated with suitable examples. Further a detailed analysis and a description of the linguistic context in English that determines the choice of a particular equivalent in Tamil are carried out and the contexts are listed out accordingly. it is that the English indefinite article ‘a’ and ‘an’ can have (1) Adjectival form ‘oru’ (2) Ordinal numeral‘oru’ / cardinal numeral ‘ou’ / Pronominalized cardinal numerals ‘oruva’ / orutti / oruva / oruvar (3) Zero article and (4) Adjectival phrase ‘oree maatiriyaaa’ as equivalents depending on the linguistic context in which it occurs in English. Likewise, the equivalent forms that occur in Tamil for the English definite article ‘the’ has the definite article ‘the’ can have (1) Demonstrative determiner ‘inta’ / ‘anta’, (2) Zero equivalent and (3) Emphatic clitic ‘ee’ / ‘taa’ as equivalents depending on the linguistic context in which it occurs in English sentences. I Conclude that translation is the significant one in this contemporary era to know about one other culture. But, it is as well as difficult to the translator to translate source text into target language without mastering two languages and cultures in all the aspects. Hence translation is inseparable part in literature.
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PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED IN TRANSLATION ARUNA A, II MA ENGLISH, ST ALOYSIUS COLLEGE (AUTONOMOUS) MANGALORE Translation has been traditionally perceived as a secondary activity, a mechanical rather than a creative process, and it has never been granted the dignity of the original work. However in recent times, the importance of studying the process of translation itself and the issues to be addressed therein have gained the attention of the literary community. Tremendous strides in transport and communication has literally shrunk the world into a global village and there is an increasing need for cross-border, cross-cultural interactions and for translating technical and literary matter into languages other than that in which it is written. It is in this context, that an extensive study of the translation process and the problems faced in recreating the original work in another language, conserving all the factual, cultural and contextual meanings, is utmost relevant. Translation is the process of communicating the meaning of the source language (SL) text by means of an equivalent target language (TL) text, recreating the content, tone, and style of the SL document in TL text. Ideally, translated documents should be read as if they were originally written in the target language by a subject matter expert. A translation, in general has to conform to the dual qualities of Fidelity or faithfulness and Transparency. Fidelity is the extent to which a translation accurately renders to the meaning of the source text and Transparency is the extent to which a translation appears to a native speaker of the target language to have originally been written in that language, and conforms to its grammar, syntax and idiom. These two qualities are often at odds with each other, but are not always mutually exclusive. Translation is both a linguistic and cultural activity and is concerned with communication of meaning. A professional translator has to face many difficulties in achieving his/her task. For technical or instruction material exact word for word translation may actually be mandatory. Mathematical formula, instructions for dismantling a pump so on have to accurately produce the same understanding in both the SL and TL. However in the literary realm, each word in the SL is charged with memory, associations and literary echoes and to find a total equivalence in the TL is next to impossible. The linguistic indeterminacy due to perpetual change and the uncertainty of knowing the exact meaning of a text pose considerable difficulties in translation. The social reality and cultural context which the words represent in the SL cannot be ignored and word for word translation will be inadequate to convey their true essence. The translator has to recreate the meaning of the words within the context of the social and cultural setting in the TL using its grammar and syntax judiciously. Colloquial expressions, slangs, proverbs, swear words, culture words, greetings and exclamations are not amenable to translation. ‘Dharma’, ‘Abhiman’, ‘Rasa krida’ are specific Indian culture words which do not have exact equivalents in foreign languages. ‘Silver fish’ cannot be translated to Hindi as ‘Rajat Matsya’ nor can ‘Herculean Task’ be termed as ‘Herculeus ka kaam’. Pongal, Thiruvathira and Onam are native festivals which do not have parallels in British culture. “Hello’ in English can be translated as ‘namaskar’ in Hindi, but the words are not equivalent in meaning. In some languages like French, the greeting words when seeing face to face are different from the ones used while conversing over telephone. Here the translator has to take into account the situation. There are many words and phrases which are untranslatable. The word ‘bus’ has been used as it is to denote the function of transporting people, in many Indian languages.
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar Likewise the South Indian delicacies ‘dosa’, ‘sambaar’, ‘idly’, ‘chutney’ etc. are now named as such in English also to retain the flavour. God and Bhagawan do not invoke the same images for a devotee. Chanting of the English translation of a Sanskrit sloka will not produce the same feel good effect for a Hindu devotee. There are many words like sacred, secular and communal which convey different meanings to different people and a unique phrase in the TL which will serve an identical purpose is impossible to find. For translating English idioms and metaphors, it is necessary to identify and use words in the TL which convey the message rather than the literal meaning. ‘Beating about the bush’ cannot be translated as ‘poudhe ko maarna’. ‘Bread and butter’ may rightly be translated as ‘dal roti’ and not ‘dal makkan’. ‘Bringing home the bacon’ and ‘breadwinner’ are terms which need handling with care. The children in Enid Blyton’s short stories eat a lot of toasted bread with ham and sausage rolls and in an Indian translation it would be more appealing if poori masala and parathas are substituted. The general terms cousin and uncle are inadequate to describe relationships in the Indian context, as relationships on the father’s and mother’s side have to be separately identified. It is evident that translation involves much more than replacing lexical and grammatical items between languages. Linguistic equivalence is possible only when there is homogeneity on the linguistic level of both SL and TL texts. For achieving identity of expression between the SL and TL texts, it may be necessary to sacrifice the basic linguistic elements of the SL text. The main purpose of translation is to transfer the function the groups of words perform in the SL into the TL and to evoke identical response in the TL audience. The translator may have to translate paragraph by paragraph rather than word by word. The meaning, function and spirit of the written matter have to be reproduced in the TL using, as far as possible, exactly equivalent words but not at the expense of functionality. Translation of poetry is much more intricate, as it is not enough to convey the verbal meaning alone. In a poem, rhythm, pictures, symbols and so on interact to produce the effect intended by the author of the work. The act of translation here is assimilating the essence of the poem in the SL in its entirety taking into account the linguistic and non-linguistic aspects and recreating the same using words and symbols in the TL, so as to produce as close an effect as possible as the poem in the SL. Thus translation here involves interpretation to a great extent. In the translation of dramatic texts conversational and colloquial language used in dialogues and the way of rendering dialogue with accent and intonation make the task very difficult. The purpose of translation theory is not to outline a set of rules for effecting perfect translation, but to arrive at an understanding of the various processes that go into it. The process of writing text in any language is, in itself, a translation of the non-verbal world. The author hears the sounds, sees the images and feels the emotions in the living and non living things around him and he translates them into written language using words, phrases and idioms from his vocabulary. The quality of his product is a direct function of the depth of his experience and the faithfulness of his translation into written text. A successful author possibly experiences the world through his senses much more intensely and passionately and uses his mastery over the language to translate them into written text for the readers to cherish. The same mastery over experience and language is required on the part of the translator in double measure, because he has to think and feel in two languages. If the translated work has to appeal as a literary master piece in its own right, the translator has to first experience the literary dimensions of the work in its original language and cultural setting. Once the work is appropriated in its entirety, s/he must be able to use his/her imagination and the linguistic prowess in the other language to create a work of art that is
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar as appealing as the original work or more. Needless to say, this requires a high degree of proficiency in both the languages. This raises the status of translation work from a mundane task of copying to a literary exercise worthy of respect. It is worthy of mention here that many translated works have evoked much more response in the TL audience than the original work in the SL audience. It is possible for the translator to feel and see much beyond the original author and he may have superior grasp of the TL. The thing that matters most is that the translated work performs its intended function effectively. There can be no hard and fast rule for the process of translation, because ultimately its success is measured by the acceptance by the literary community. Needless to say, it is influenced considerably by the expectations of the readers of the work who ultimately appreciate and evaluate the creation. Works Cited Bassnet, Susan. Translation Studies. London: Routledge, 1991. Print. Ray, Mohit. Studies in Translation. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers, 2002. Print. ROLE OF A TRANSLATION AS A MEDIATOR IN CULTURAL TRANSFORMATION JENASREEN.P, II MA ENGLISH, ST. ALOYSIUS COLLEGE (AUTONOMOUS) MANGALORE Translation means an intense form of cultural and social act of understanding a context and conveying it to another language and culture. Studying on language theories, culture and translation and the relationship between these factors are valuable issues dueto the growing importance of human communication in the world. The variety of languages with different culturesand necessity of communications in human life caused translation to be a very effective factor in communication, exchange of cultures, and knowledge. Translation studies emerged as a distinct discipline in the past few decades and it expanded in unprecedented ways. This expansion has brought with itself a multitude of different and competing approaches, translation models etc. This shows the acceptance of the new born discipline and it established a dominant paradigm. The main job of translators is to provide an effective means of communication. The translator is simultaneously a mediator, creator, manager, producer and sometimes a critic. Efficient communication means translating an original text by word to word basis and meaningmeaning transliteration. It’s delivering the genuine context of the message to the language that the target language user understands. Translators work beyond the boundaries of languages, cultures and societies. They position themselves between the poles of specificity and adaptation in accordance with the strategies of their translational behaviour. Translation is not a simple process of translating word by word and by using a dictionary, it requires a lot of cultural awareness and understanding to be able to say it just like a native language would.Change of ideas, concentration of mutualefforts in different directions, communication among different people in different ways, all these are aconstant necessity of spiritual and material life. Not only cultural acts are achieved by means of continuityprocess alone, but also being discontinuous can be as creative at certain times. Each language has its own culture and religion. Each society propagates its own specific culture throughtranslation. Culture translation helps to know the variety of worship of different cultures. For e.g. Muslimpray in Masque, Christian in Church, Jews in Synagogue or celebrating "Christmas Day" has beenexpanded. Thus, translation links cultures as a chain. Thus, translation obviously is a cross-culturalcommunication; it is
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar beyond structures and sentences, and not simply a mere language. It is a basic instinct of a man to communicate. And to communicate only means that the original message will be clearly sent in its equivalent context to the target audience. There are lots of employment opportunities for a translator. Translators are language professionals. It takes years of practice and understanding of the language. A professional translator must be able to understand, assimilate and reproduce the information and meaning of the translation and do it all naturally. Translation is not only a way of earning but also a productive activity. The main role of translators is to send the message across without any form of distortion or emphasis. But a single mistake in context translation can result to an offensive message that can eventually lead to misunderstandings between people. With full content management, skilled translators take care of every single detail of the translation process, no matter how big or small. There are different obstacles faced by the translators. Common problems faced during translation are:  Apart from the verbal fluency of the language, the skills to read and write both the target and source languages are more important.  Sometimes, the translator brings in his own belief systems and experiences in interpreting a text. This could potentially harm the texts accuracy, intent and effect.  Lack of knowledge of the source language. The translator should ideally be a native to that language. This is the only way to ensure comprehensive translation of the content, complete with colloquial understanding of expressions, humour, slangs, hidden meanings, culturally significant content, etc. Some translators only deliver the word to word translation or the superficial meaning of the text. This leads to a loss of the text’s core meaning.  Semantic and the cultural difficulties of translation. Translators should know all the characteristics of the language.  Language can be misused unintentionally. While using a particular expression, the intentions of the translator could be innocent, but the actual meaning of the expression in the targeted language could be offensive or sordid.  There are rules and cultural differences to be considered in both languages. It is difficult to express exactly the same meaning in another language at times. There are sometimes no equivalents for certain words or expressions.  Difficulties arising out of differences of cultures constitute the most serious problems for translators and this has produced the most far-reaching misunderstanding among readers. Culture itself has its own limitation in transferring the source text into target text. Each society or group of people is based on their historical background, local situations, and religion with their specific language, construct their own culturewhich is respected, performed and accepted along with its limitations.  Limitation in translation is one of thespecific features of culture, not necessarily imposed from outside world. Behaviours which are acceptable will vary from location to location.  Nowadays, the major problem in translation is being certainly influenced by different cultural norms in the source language and target language. The translator's responsibility is to choose the norms that take priority over others. It depends on the translator's decision if the cultural norms of thesource language, target language, or a combination of both are essential to be considered.  Religion is one of those obstacles which could cause problem in translation. Religion can be understood only by its cultural language and to translate from this
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar religious context, we face some limitations that cannot betranslated. Because religious texts are described in an implicit way, natural and effective translation is almost impractical. Besides, religion and culture are intertwined and religion has taken its root from human mind and soul, people accept them by the core of their hearts. Therefore, it cannot be changed or distorted by any one because it leads to stimulate people and evoke negative reaction by them. Therefore translators' job is more difficult and must avoid such distortion or any work which is against their religion in the process oftranslation. Translation plays a vital role in making a culture universal and general. It acts as a bridge tocommunicate all kinds of languages specially those similar to each other considering their linguistic features and cultural customs in all parts of the world. So, it links all units of the world in the global network.Moreover translation presumes the existence of boundaries between different cultures and the translator mostprobably is aware of these boundaries and the inevitability of crossing them. Without cultural similarities and universalities, there is no way for people of different cultures to communicate with each other and translationwill be impossible. When speaking of two languages which are to be translated equivalently, translators mustconvey the same referential, pragmatic and interlinked meanings. However, due to differences between two cultures, semantic equivalence is limited to some.A proper translation makes the reader ponder over the cultural context of the source language. Cultural borrowing is one of the advantages that transfers ideas, customs, and social behaviours from another culture.By an adequate translation, readers or audience of the target language culture will acquire a lot of useful benefits. On the interaction between translation and culture beliefs, translation is not only a linguistic act, but it is also a cultural one; i.e., an act of communication across cultures. Translation always involves both language and culture simply because the two really cannot be separated. Language is culturally embedded. It expresses and shapes cultural reality, and the meanings of linguistic items, be they words or larger segments of text, and it can only be understood when considered together with the cultural context in which these linguistic items are used. WORKS CITED Ray, K. Mohit. Studies in Translation. Delhi: Nice Printing Press,2008.Print. TRANSLATION THEORY AND PRACTICE T.JEROLIN M.Phil. SCHOLAR M.S. UNIVERSITY TIRUNELVELI The age of translation is as old as human beings. The history says that translation begins after the collapse of communication structure in the Tower of Babel. Whatever it is, translation started its initiation many centuries back and achieving greater tasks today almost in all creative areas. Translation consists in reproducing the receptor language, the closest natural equivalent of the source language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style. Translation in a narrow sense, any translational action where a source text is transferred into a target culture and language. It can be understood as the result of a text-processing activity, by means of which a source-language text is transposed into a target-language text. Between the resulting text in L2 (the target-language text) and the source text L1 (the source language text) there exists a relationship which can be designated as translational, or equivalence relation. Amongst the above definitions, Nida and Taber may serve as a basis for our concept of translation as a TL product which is as semantically accurate, grammatically correct, stylistically effective and textually coherent
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar as the SL text. In other words, the translator's main attention should not be focused only on the accurate semantic transference of SL message into the TL, but also on the appropriate syntax and diction in the TL, which are explicitly the translator's domain of activity which displays his true competence. Good theory is based on information gained from practice. Good practice is based on carefully worked-out theory. The two are interdependent. So Translation is a process based on the theory that it is possible to abstract the meaning of a text from its forms and reproduce that meaning with the very different forms of a second language. While in practice, there is considerable variation in the types of translations produced by translators. Some translators work only in two languages and are competent in both. Others work from their first language to their second language, and still others from their second language to their first language. Depending on these matters of language proficiency, the procedures may sometimes get vary in different aspects. For almost two thousand years, translation theory has been concerned merely with outstanding works of art. The science of translation or ‘translatology’ has not emerge until the 1940s in an attempt to establish itself as a new discipline involving radical changes in the approach and classification, away from the age-old dichotomy of ‘word vs. sense’ or ‘literal vs. free’ translation, which has dominated the traditional translation theory since Cicero. George Steiner in his “After Babel” divides the literature on the theory, practice and history of translation into four periods which extend from Cicero to the present, even though they overlap and loosely chronological in structure. Initiation This period starts with the Romans. The structuralist, Eric Jacobsen goes so far as to hyperbolically propound that translation is a Roman invention though translation is as old as language itself. He maintains that there are three kinds of translation, that is, intralingual, Inter lingual and inter semiotic. It is inter lingual translation that has been the focus of translation studies. More specifically, when addressing the thorny problem of equivalence in meaning between words in different languages, he immediately stresses the fact that there can be no full equivalence between two words. Jakobson does not propose that translation is impossible but rather pinpoints the differences in the structure and terminology of languages. Translated documents were discovered in the third and the second millennium B.C., in ancient Egypt and in Iraq. It extends from the statements of Cicero and Horace on translation up to publication of Alexander Fraser. Tytler’s Essay on the Principles of Translation in 1791. It is perhaps the longest period as it covers a span of some 1700 years. The main characteristic of this period is that of ‘immediate empirical focus’, i.e., the statements and theories from the practical work of translating. Both Horace and Cicero, in their remarks on translation, make an important distinction between word for word translation and sense for sense translation. The underlying principle of enriching the native language and literature through translation leads to stress the aesthetic criteria of the TL product rather than the more rigid notions of ‘fidelity’. Horace in his Art of Poetry, warns against overcautious imitation of the source model and slavish litertalism, This period concludes by Tytler’s definition of good translation as, “That in which the merit of the original work is so completely transfused into another language, as to be as distinctly apprehended, and as strongly felt, by a native of the country to which that language belongs, as it is by those who speak the language of the original work”. From the above definition, Tytler introduces three ‘laws’:
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar 1.The translation should give a complete transcript of the ideas of the original work. 2. The style and manner of writing should be of the same character with that of original. 3. The translation should have all the ease of original composition. Development: The second period, according to Steiner, runs up to the forties of the twentieth century. It is characterized as a period of hermeneutic inquiry with the development of a vocabulary and methodology of approaching translation. ‘Hermeneutics’ is an interpretive approach developed by German Romantics, and named after the Greek word hermeneuein, meaning ‘to understand’. One of the early theorists in this period is the French humanist Etienne Dolet who had propounded in 1540 a short outline of translation principles, entitled Lamaniere de bien traduire d’une langue en aultre and established five principles for the translator: 1. The translator must fully understand the sense and meaning of the original author, although he is at liberty to clarify obscurities. 2. The translator should have a perfect knowledge of both SL and TL. 3. The translator should avoid word-for-word renderings. 4. The translator should use forms of speech in common use. 5. The translator should choose and order words appropriately to produce the correct tone. Dolet’s principles, ranked as they in a precise order, stress the importance of understanding the text as a primary requisite. His views were reiterated by George Chapman, the great translator of Homer. In his dedication to the Seven Books, Chapman asserts that “The work of a skilful and worthy translator is to observe the sentences, figures and forms of speech proposed in his author.” He repeats his theory more fully in the Epistle to the Reader of his translation of The Iliad, stating that a translator must: 1. avoid word for word renderings; 2. attempt to reach the ‘spirit’ of the original; 3.avoid over loose translations, by basing the translation on a sound scholarly investigation of other versions and glosses. John Dryden, in his Preface to Ovid’s Epistle, tackled the problems of translation by formulating three basic types: 1.metaphrase, or turning an author word by word, and line by line, from one language into another; 2. paraphrase, or translation with latitude, the Ciceronian ‘sense-for-sense’ view of translation; 3.imitation, where the translator can abandon the text of the original as he sees fit. Dryden claims to have steered “betwixt the two extremes of paraphrase and literal translation” which he likens to a person dancing on ropes with fettered legs. Modern age: The third period is the shortest as it extends to less than three decades, starts with the publication of the first papers on machine translation in the 1940s, and is characterized by the introduction of structural and applied linguistics, contrastive studies in morphology and syntax among others which help the translator identify similarities and differences between Native Language and Foreign Language, and communication theory into the study of translation. It comprises two eras: first the pioneering era, the second the invention of the first generation of machine translation. At Present:
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar The last period coexists with the third period as it has its origin in the early 1960s, and is characterized by a recourse to hermeneutic inquiries into translation and interpretation, i.e., by a revision of translation that sets the discipline in a wide frame which includes a number of other discipline. This contemporary period has witnessed the emergence of many new theories such as the polysystem theory, which has first arisen from the work of a group Russian literary theorists. The concept of the ‘polysystem’ has received considerable attention in the work of certain groups of translation scholars since the mid-1970s. The theory offers a general model for understanding, analyzing and describing the functions and evolution of literary systems, its specific application to the study of translated literature. These systems, whether in the original or translated texts subsume several levels: linguistic, cultural, and social, all of which overlap and interact with each other. ‘Skopos theory’ is another theory which was developed in Germany in the late 1970s. It reflects a shift from predominantly linguistic and rather formal theories to a more functionally and socio-culturally oriented concept of translation. The word ‘skopos’ is derived from Greek as a technical term for the purpose of translation, i.e., skopos which must be defined before translation begins. The theory endeavours to meet the growing need in the latter half of the twentieth century for the translation of non-literary texts: scientific, academic papers, instructions for use, tourist guides, contracts, etc. According to this theory, the contextual factors surrounding the translation should not be ignored. These factors include the culture of the intended readers of the target text and the client who commissioned it, and more significantly the function which the text aspires to perform in that culture for those readers. The fourth period flourished with the contribution of Eugene Nida which cannot be overstressed, with his two famous books in the 1960s: Toward a Science of Translating (1964) and the co-authored The Theory and Practice of Translation attempting to give a more “scientific” sense to translation. Borrowing theoretical concepts from semantics and pragmatics, and being influenced by Chomsky generativetransformational grammar, Nida adopts a more systematic approach to exploring the field of translation studies. Catford too contributed more in the field of translation studies which lies mainly in the introduction of his idea of types and shifts of translation. Shifts refer to the changes that take place during the translation process. More specifically, Catford describes very broad types of translation according to three criteria. Firstly, full translation is contrasted with partial translation which differs according to the extent of translation. Secondly, total translation differs from restricted translation according to the levels of language involved in translation, and, thirdly, Catford distinguishes between rank-bound translation and unbounded translation, depending on the grammatical or phonological rank at which equivalence is established. Adopting pragmatic theories of language use, yet another person, House has come up with a translation model in which the basic requirement for equivalence of ST and TT is that original and translation should match one another in function. This function should be achieved by employing equivalent pragmatic means. The translation is only, therefore, considered to be adequate in quality if it matches the textual profile and function of the original. In more detail, carrying out contrastive German-English discourse analyses, House has distinguished between two basic types of translation, namely, overt translation and covert translation. As the term itself denotes, an overt translation points to a TT that consists of elements that betray that it is a translation. On the other hand, a covert translation is a TT that has the same function with the ST

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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar since the translator has made every possible effort to alleviate cultural differences. In conclusion, it could be argued that Houses theory seems more flexible than Catfords since it incorporates the pragmatic aspect of translation by using authentic examples. This paper would have been incomplete without reference to Peter Newmark, one of the founders of the Institute of Linguists and a fervent advocate for the professionalization of translators. Newmark’s Approaches to Translation and A Textbook of Translation do not aim to promote any monolithic translation theory but rather attempt to describe a basis for dealing with problems encountered during the translation process. More specifically, Newmark replaces Nidas terms of formal and dynamic equivalence with semantic and communicative translation respectively. The major difference between the two types of translation proposed by Newmark is that semantic translation focuses on meaning whereas communicative translation concentrates on effect. By analysing all the theories of great translators, anyone who is ready to translate any work of art, can readily accept the role of translator. Any author can produce any number of books through his creative knowledge, but translating a work of art from another language needs the theoretical knowledge of the past translations by the addition of wit, fidelity and intelligibility. The practical usage of any theory is very essential. In the current era of technology and literacy, people are trying to submerge themselves in the globalized village and so everything must need its translated version. Of course yes, machine is playing its part well but, can a machine replace human beings in the reasonable translating area? Translation has a greater scope today, don’t try to hesitate when opportunity knocks at the door. TRANSLATION AND GLOBALIZATION KAVYA U, II MA ENGLISH, ST ALOYSIUS COLLEGE, MANGALORE Translation has created its own deep impression in literature. Worldwide communication has been successfully obtained with the technique of translation. Translation has become increasingly and intensively globalised and is an integral part of the expansion of travel, tourism and the service industries. Presence of translation has made global communication a reality. Ideas of one area are shared with another through translation. It would have been impossible for the idea to flourish in other regions without global communication. Two individuals living in two different language speaking areas have one idea each, if the ideas are translated to each other’s language then the two individuals will end up having two ideas each through the method of translation. People from one nation would have not known the culture, history, belief systems of other nations if there was no translation. Translation of the world history into different languages has evidently marked the spread of knowledge to different parts of the world. Man cannot master every language. Translation has become essential to understand global relations in terms of Arts, Science, and Commerce. For the promotion and development of literature, art, business, technology, medicine translation is inevitable. In a country like India where multilinguistic culture exists inter- linguistic communication is enabled through translation. Translation recreates and intensifies the channel of life and diversifies human activities. World’s greatest works like the Bible, epics like the Iliad, the Ramayana, the Mahabharata and tales like Panchatantra, Arabian Nights, the histories of ancient Rome, Indus, Babylonian, Sumerian and Chinese civilizations are known to the people living in all the spheres of the globe through translation. The word translation is derived from the Latin term translatus the prefix ‘tran’ means passing something, while the stem ‘slate’ means cover. The generic term
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar translation has several implications such as change, conversion, rephrasing, rewording, transcription and transformation, while the specific meanings of the word are translating, rephrasing, interpretation, rendering and decoding. Religious books share many valuable messages, the messages would remain known only to the people of the particular language in which it has been written. Translation of the works has made it possible to spread the ideas all over the world. Likewise, when we speak about novels, short stories, poems, essays it intends to share something unique. It is a literary work and the fact that it is produced it should come to light and should achieve its goal by appealing the minds of the reader, arousing new feelings and thoughts in the reader. Fantasy of one author can be understood by another with the help of translation. Translation can be considered as a boon to Indians. India is land of multiple languages and we cannot expect people to know all the languages. If the works, ideas and doctrines were not translated to most of the languages, then it would have been difficult or people to understand what it meant. Translation has left its mark in almost all fields be it law, medicine, transportation, food science or any other field. The fact that translation has its impact on all these areas itself reveals the role played by translation. Looking at the aesthetic level of translation, a valid text must first be rid of misprints, gaps, lexical errors, repetitions, redundancies and uncoordinated paragraphs. A valid text has to be elegantly written: the language, thought, the content, it must be as neat, accurate as possible. Translation has its deep impression in media where in advertisements and movies are translated to various languages. Keeping the visuals intact and doing changes only with the audio saves lot of time and energy. People can relax a bit as they are exempted from doing the whole thing again as they can spread the message only by translating the language. Translation has become increasingly and intensively globalised and is an integral part of the expansion of travel, tourism and the service industries. Translator has a very responsible role of translating the text, she should see that all aspects of translation is met and cannot take a chance to commit errors during translation. The translator should be true to the source language. The essence, feelings present in the source language should be very well brought out in the target language. The translator should be well off in both source and target language. The rules of grammar such as the subject verb agreement, noun, adverb or adjective should be understood very well to do justice to the translated work. Another important aspect of translation is the comprehension of the tone as the tone of the content will also determine the meaning of the text. Peter Newmark defines translation as “a dynamic reflection of human activities”. Translation enables the dissemination of new ideas in the developing countries. Translation is desirable and essential for spreading knowledge. J P Postgate in his work Translation and Translations defines translation in literature as “an art of rendering the writing of one language into another language. The art of translation lies not merely in translating the literal sense of one language into another but also in the art of translating the feeling, thought and character of the work, so that the finished translation is equal in quality to the original. The 19th century favored the globalization of culture as part of the process, translation came to acquire a good deal of importance. A few decades after the works Kalidasa were translated into European languages, they came to be translated into many Indian languages- about the same time as the works of Shakespeare began to be translated into Indian languages. The growing familiarity of Indian readers with the works of

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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar European authors is clearly indicated by the history of translation. The reception of translated literature is an index to the broadening of the literary taste. WORKS CITED Anderman, Gunilla and Margaret Rogers. Translation Today: Trends and Perspectives. New Delhi: Vinod Vasishtha Viva Books,2010. Print. Ray, K. Mohit. Studies in Translation. Delhi: Nice Printing Press,2008.Print.

RECENT TRENDS IN TRANSLATION S.KEREN SAHANA, II M.A. ENGLISH, PSG COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCE “The poet moves from life to language, the translator moves from language to life; both, like the immigrant, try to identify the invisible, what’s between the lines, the mysterious implications. “ ̶ Anne Michaels Starting off with a discussion of the disciplinary nature of the recent trends in translation , an overview of some developments emphasising the source text, the process of translation, the reception of the translated text, and the cultural-social bound character of translation, is offered. Since the early eighties there has been a tendency within translation studies to move away from the normative and prescriptive approaches to translation and to adopt a descriptive approach towards the study of translated literature. Descriptive translation theorists attempt to account not only for textual strategies in the translated text, but also for the way in which the translation functions in the target cultural system. A valid translation strategy (for example turning prose into verse or vice versa) in the past may be completely unacceptable today. This tendency within translation studies becomes noticeable from the early eighties onwards. Recent trends in Translation advocate a focus on translation as a form of intercultural communication. Yet in some cases there seems to be a lack of awareness as regards the theoretical problems involved in every cultural approach to translation.. The approach outlined here draws the conclusions inevitably to the rejection of some deepseated metaphors about translation, such as the meaning transfer metaphor. For instance, A computer cannot replace human writers and translators. However, their tasks can be sped up by using computerized dictionaries, language tools, and research materials. Driven by the growth of a global economy and developments in high technology, the process of creating and translating technical documentation has been evolving rapidly. In particular, machine translation (MT) has shown increasing capabilities of efficaciously accomplishing the early stages of the eight stages of translation identified years ago by Robert Bly. As a consequence, translators have learned to use MT as a tool to accelerate their work, but they have also grown wary of MT’s potential for replacing them. To ensure steady employment, some translators have begun cross-training as technical writers; correspondingly, a few technical writers have begun cross-training as translators, as the two professions appear to be undergoing a gradual trend of convergence. Academic programs are urged to respond to the evolving trends. “Translation is a kind of transubstantiation; one poem becomes another. You can choose your philosophy of translation just as you choose how to live: the
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar free adaptation that sacrifices detail to meaning, the strict crib that sacrifices meaning to exactitude.” All translations seek to convey what was communicated in the source text, but the translation style will depend on factors such as:  the type of text being translated  the purpose of the translation  the intended audience Translations are often described with such terms as literal or idiomatic, formal or dynamic, etc. Literal translations, for example, seek to follow closely the lexical and grammatical forms of the source text, whereas idiomatic translations seek to express the meaning of the source text in the most natural and communicative way in the receptor language For instance, The Bible was originally written in ancient Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek. Today it is available in whole or in part in about 2,600 languages. To point out some ideas,  One must keep your language clear and simple so that the readers or listeners can understand.  Sentences should be short - no longer than 20 words or three concepts (ideas). Sentence structure should be simple; it is best to write in the active voice.  Explain any new words whenever you use them.  Avoid jargon, unnecessary words and clichés.  Check all the work to make sure that everything you write obeys the rules of grammar and punctuation.  When translating, translate the meaning of sentences, not the individual words.  Always keep the readers or listeners in mind whatever you write. Since the appearance of commercial implementations in the early 1990s, the technology itself has not advanced much. The translation tools built on top of TM technology have indeed evolved considerably in the last two decades, but the improvements have been mostly concentrated in the complementary features offered by integrated translation environments, rather than significant increases in the level of reuse of previous translations. Gutt asserts that the many principles, rules and guidelines of translation handed down by commentators through the centuries are in fact applications of the principle of relevance. In short, instead of making subjective and arbitrary judgements on the extent to which one translation is “better” than the other and insisting that “goodness” resides in the faithful adherence to a body of injunctions imposed, the orientation in translation theory must be towards the objective specification of the steps and stages through which the translator works as the source text in the original language is transformed into the target text and the strategies followed; the emphasis is on the process bringing about the translation rather than on the translation itself. Theory of Translation including the theory of translation, translation and interpreting as a profession, and translation practice. Focus is on application of principles of translation in guided practice. Considering the Terminology and Computer applications for Translation computer-assisted terminology management and a survey of applications in translation technology and language engineering. Pragmatic application of computer aided translation tools ranging from term extraction to terminology management to translation memory. The Localisation and internationalization for translators focuses on the methodologies and representative functionalities involved in the localization process, with the opportunity to learn representative localization programs.

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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar "Translation in its multifarious social, cultural, economic and political contexts is impossibly more complex a field of study than abstract linguistic equivalence (which is already complex enough); but the chance of perhaps coming to understand how translation works in those contexts, how translation shapes cultures both at and within their boundaries, offers a powerful motivation to push on despite the difficulty of the undertaking." ROLE OF TRANSLATORS KOWSALYA P &NANDHINI B.C II M.A.ENGLISH LITERATURE, PSG COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCE “Writers make national literature, while translators make universal literature.” -JOSESARAMAGO Translation is the communication of the meaning of a sourcelanguage text by means of an equivalent target-language text. Translation is an attempt to carry the cultural identity implicit in the source language to the target language. Translation has helped to knit India together as a nation throughout her history. It brought, and still brings languages closer to one another and introduces diverse modes of imagination and perception and various regional cultures thus linking lands and communities together. Ideas and concepts like 'Indian literature', 'Indian culture', 'Indian philosophy' and 'Indian knowledge systems' would have been impossible in the absence of translations with their natural integrationist mission. The main role of a translator is to provide an effective means of communication. Translators are language professionals. They are applied linguists, competent writers, diplomats, and educated amateurs. Like linguists, translators have to be capable of discerning subtleties and nuances in their languages, researching terminology and colloquialisms, and handling new developments in their languages. Like writers, translators have to be accustomed to working long hours alone on a subject which interests few people and with a language that few people around them know. Like diplomats, translators have to be sensitive to the cultural and social differences which exist in their languages and be capable of addressing these issues when translating. Our first writers too were translators. Indian literature is founded on the free translations and adaptations of epics like Ramayana and Mahabharata. Upto the nineteenth century our literature consisted only of translations, adaptations, interpretations and retellings. Most of our ancient writers were multilingual: Kalidasa's Shakuntala has Sanskrit and Prakrit; poets like Vidyapati, Kabir, Meerabai, Guru Nanak, Namdev and others each composed their songs and poems in more than one language. By translating masterpieces from other Indian languages as also from foreign ones, we enrich our own literatures. Thus we also raise our writing standards: this happens especially when we translate great masters of world literature like Shakespeare, Homer, Dante, Vyasa, Valmiki, Kalidasa and Bhasa or more contemporary writers from Tolstoy, Dostoevsky, Kafka, Beckett, Lorca, Eliot and Thomas Mann to Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Mario Vargas Llosa, Orhan Pamuk, J. M. Coetzee, Pablo Neruda, Octavio Paz and others. These exchanges also create new movements and trends. Translators are different from the interpreters. Interpreters and translators perform similar tasks, but in different settings. While an interpreter converts any spoken material from one language (the source language) into a different language (the target language), a translator converts written material in the same manner. The literary translator is therefore the person who concerns himself with translation of literary texts. According to Peter Newmark, a literary translator generally
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar respects good writing by taking into account the language, structures and content, whatever the nature of the text. The literary translator participates in the author's creative activity and then recreates structures and signs by adapting the target language text to the source language text as closely as intelligibility allow. He needs to assess not only the literary quality of the text but also its acceptability to the target reader, and this should be done by having a deep knowledge of the cultural and literary history of both the Source and the Target Languages. Literary translation may be said to have the greatest number of peculiar problems. Problems in literary translation largely depend on who is translating and what he knows. The problems of literary translation include cultural, linguistic, psychological, deceptive cognates, equivalence, and style. Language and culture are closely related and one is indispensable to the other. In fact, language acquires its meaning from the country's culture. A single language may cross several culture borders. For instance, English and French are Indo-European languages but belong to different cultures. There are generally problems in the translation of cultural words in a literary text unless there is a cultural overlap between the source language and the target language. It is not enough for a translator to know what words are used in the target language; he must also make the reader understand the sense as it is understood by the reader of the original. For instance, in a text where there is a cultural focus, there can be translation problems due to the cultural gap between the source and the target languages. The literary translator also faces the problem of style. Style is not an easy term to define, however, it can readily be said that style is how one says a thing. In other words, style is the way in which something is written or said, as distinct from its subject matter. Naturally, each language poses its own problems of style, but the practical considerations that go into the making of translation do not seem to differ much from one translator to another. New translation is always encouraged in the context of new historical and literary experiences. Sri Aurobindo remarks that a scripture like The Gita means to be restated in every age in the contemporary thought and idiom, because it embraces within itself the dialectical experience of the temporal and the eternal. But with the changing concepts of nationalism and the national languages, inter-cultural barriers are created in the art of translation. So the translator becomes not a creative artist but an element in the master- servant relationship with the SL text. Hence Dante Gabriel Rossetti could declare that the work of the translator involves self-denial and repression of creative impulses. A competent translator should have the following qualities: A very good knowledge of the language, written and spoken, from which he is translating (the source language). An excellent command of the language into which he is translating (the target language); familiarity with the subject matter of the text being translated; A profound understanding of the etymological and idiomatic correlates between the two languages. A finely tuned sense of when to metaphrase (“translate literally") and when to paraphrase, as to assure true rather than spurious equivalents between the source- and target-language texts. The role of translation can hardly be over-emphasized in a multilingual country like India with 22 languages recognized in the eighth schedule of the constitution, 15 different scripts, hundreds of mother-tongues and thousands of dialects. Translation has served as a school of writing for many authors. Translators, including monks who spread Buddhist texts in East Asia, and the early modern European translators of the Bible, in the course of their work have shaped the very languages into which they have translated. They have acted as bridges for conveying knowledge between cultures; and along with ideas, they have imported from the source languages, into their own languages, loanwords and calques of grammatical structures, idioms and vocabulary. Thus the role of the
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar translator in mediating source ideas across cultural and national boundaries places him or her in a unique position in particular for understanding a range of development issues. Translating narratives from the global South is an invaluable source of knowledge about unfamiliar languages, indigenous cultures and experiences, and is immensely useful for gaining an understanding of non-European societies. TRANSLATION OF “NAA BARI BHRUNAVALLA” MALLIKA ML & SHWETHA K IIMA ENGLISH ST.ALOYSIUS COLLEGE, MANGALORE “I am not only an embryo” Mom... Iam your girl baby, Part of your body , Blossom of your dream, Am not only embryo. O...Mom... Medicine became poison , Tablet cause for sedation , All became barrier for my breath, I am not only an embryo. O ... Mom..., My world is so small , Full of darkness , Thought spoilt me mom , I am not only an embryo? Listen to me Mom... I did not seen , Deep of the life , Greenery of the earth, Soft touch of the air, I am not only an embryo. My dear mom don’t you know blood of your daughter? Not only blood, blood of love , I will come again your daughter , I am not only an embryo. My dear Mom... Bless me soon, For my breath , For your successful life , I will become flower of your name , I am not only an embryo. Attempts to define ‘translation’ are legion and various often reflecting the specific aspects of the social and ideological context of culture and tradition . Translation can be described as a dynamic reflection of human activities. Translation lets one’s consistent share in the creative process. Here ,the translator experiences the aesthetic joys of working with great literature-of recreating a work in a new language ,a work that would otherwise remain beyond reach.
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar Originally this poem is written by a famous kannada writer Malathi Pattanashetty. Society has become patriarchal for a girl child .The society does not require a girl baby on basis of sex. There exists the partiality and cruelty which accounts for the problems in the society .The society should not treat girl as a mere representation of body , there is an immediate need to respect her identity in every part of life .With these above mentioned concepts, the poet has written this particular poem. The pleasure of reading such a seemingly simple ,brief is realised a poem is a work of art which every one likes to read and enjoy if it is translated into another language . SL refers to the source language and TL refers to a target language In this particular paper, when the original poem was translated into source language, minor changes has occurred. Some similarities and differences of the TL and SL are analysed as below. Rhyme and rhythm In this context, there is difference between rhyme and rhythm .In SL, the rhyme pattern which is followed is ABBCC but there is slight change in the rhyme scheme of the target language which is ABBAC .There is also great change in rhythm or tone of the poem with respect to TL and SL .In SL, the poem follows the rhyme and the rhythm from beginning to end of the poem, but in the TL one cannot see such rhythmic voice . There is some similarity in the SL and TL. Some words are repeated in SL and TL which shows that the pattern of refrain is followed in the usage of words such as ‘mother’ in TL as same in SL. The refrain ‘Avva’ and the theme of the poem is same in both SL and TL. The structure of the poem is also the same in both SL and TL. Both of them has six stanzas. The first three stanzas has 5 lines each and the fourth stanza consists of six lines and the fifth stanza is followed by four lines and the final stanza again consists of six lines .In SL, one can see the poetic diction ,but in TL it is missing . The original effect of poetry is lost in TL in. SL is more poetic and emotional which portrays the feeling but in TL it sounds more prosaic .In order to bring out the same meaning I have used words like ‘baby’, ‘blossom’, ‘body’, ‘embryo’ as in both SL and TL, the idea is to represent the woman as an object of sex and suppression. Semantics In the first stanza, there is similarity between SL and TL .Translation is done word by word through which the same meaning is also retained by the usage of words like ‘girl baby’, ‘embryo’ which depicts the same meaning. In the second stanza, there is the usage of half rhyme or slant rhyme. Here, positive tunes and the negativity of the woman in the society can be seen. In the third stanza, the poet questions the patriarchy of the world which is used to depict the idea of negativity-‘small’ ‘darkness’ ‘spoil’ ‘embryo’. In the fourth stanza, the view of the poem turns from negative to positive tone. This stanza shows the sensation of a human being by using the words such as ‘listen’ ‘seen’ ‘soft touch’ and ‘greenway’ . The poets uses these words to satisfy his five senses . In the fifth stanza, idea of rebirth is revealed by the usage of words such as ‘embryo’ ,so that the poets hope for betterment which can be read as a hope for freedom and re-birth. In this stanza, the pattern of refrain is followed by repeating the words such as ‘blood’ and ‘Mom’. This poem can also be compared to a Wordsworthian lyric who uses terms to worship nature.
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar The final stanza ends with a positive tone. The poet wants to give identity and freedom to a woman.This positive view can be seen by the words used such as ‘breath’ ‘success of life’ and ‘flower’. Critical views This poem reveals the emotions and feelings of a girl child and a trace of feminism in both SL and TL. Work cited Pattana, Malathishetty. Sahitya Sanchalana. Bangalore: Sri Venkateshwara Publishers.2013.Print. TRANSLATION THEORY MENUKA THAPA, II MA ENGLISH, ST ALOYSIUS COLLEGE,MANGALORE Any writer for the creation of any work of art needs language, emotions, feelings, ideas, thoughts and intensity of commitment besides the heart and soul. The language consists of three aspects namely substance (signs must have some kind of physical existence), form (signs must have consistent pattern) and situation (signs must take place in the context which gives meaning). Translation is an art that undergoes the process of change into another language retaining the sense which is indeed the basic objective. It is not an imitation of a text only but is a creative process in itself. The first writer to formulate a theory of translation was the French Humanist Etienne Dolet in 1540. There were some insightful observations on translation from time to time but it was only from the seventeenth century onwards that Translation Studies or Translation developed leading to the establishment of independent fullfledged departments in the universities. Translation is a process of retextualising the essence of the Source language (SL) text to the readers of the Target language (TL). Scholars have defined translation differently. According to J.C. Catford: “Translation is the replacement of textual material in one language (SL) by equivalent textual material in another language (TL)” (A Linguistic Theory of Translation, 20).Eugene A. Nida definition of translation “Translation consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source language (SL) message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style.” (The Theory and Practice of Translation, 12) Translation requires two languages i,e Source language (SL) and Target language (TL). The meaning of the SL text is primary and the style is secondary. An ideal translation will adhere to both meaning and the style of the SL text. Translation must create the same reception in TL as well as in the system of SL. While translating, we must consider the meaning of SL text, the linguistic feature and the cultural background of both SL and TL readers in addition to the similarity in meaning and style and the expected response in the TL. Roman Jakobson in his paper on ‘Linguistics Aspect of Translation’ talks of three types of translation namely : 1. Intra-lingual translation (interpretation of verbal signs by means of other signs of the same language) 2. Inter-lingual translation (interpretation of verbal signs by means of other language) 3. Inter-semetic translation or transmutation (interpretation of verbal signs by non-verbal sign system. A translator must be a poet, master of both SL and TL and should understand the style and characteristics/features of the source writer. Translators must keep in
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar mind that translation depends on the requirements of the readers. So, the interest of reader is important in deciding the type of translation. The process of translation is a complex one and the work is worthless if the SL and TL are unrelated. I.A. Richards rightly observed: “Translation may probably the most complex type of event yet produced in the evolution of the cosmos.”(‘Towards a Theory of Translating’ in Studies in Chinese Thought, 250) We cannot deny the fact that the translation of literary text has resulted in globalization of culture with promotional bonding. Also, the credit of our introduction to the World’s greatest minds like Socrates, Homer, Karl Marx and so on undeniably goes to ‘Translation.’ Again, there is an equal agreement which can be linked to Salman Rushdie’s remark on translation: “Its generally believed that something is always lost in translation: I cling to the notion- and use, in evidence, the success of Fitzerald – Khayyam that something can also be gained.” (Midnight’s Children, 29) K. Krishnamurthy in his essay “Translation Theory” divides translation studies into four categories. They are: a) the history of translation, a component part of literary history: it involves investigation of theories of translation, response to translations, work analysis of individual translators, role of translations etc. b) Translation in the target language: This category includes works of single texts of authors, textual influence and the norms of the SL text into the TL text. c) Translation and linguistics: This category includes the comparative arrangement of the linguistic elements in the SL and the TL texts with regard to the phonemic, morphemic, lexical syntactic and syntagmatic levels. d) Translation and poetics: It includes the entire area of literary translation in both theory and practice. Among these four categories, the studies in category one and three viz ‘ the history of translation and linguistics’ are more popular and wide spread than those in categories two and four viz ‘ translation the Target Language’ and ‘Translation and Poetics.’ We can enrich our language by translating the best works from other languages to our language. English language has also enriched itself through translation. Translating poetry is considered more problematic because in poetry the mere change of word from SL to TL will not do. A person who intends to translate a work into another language does not concern the vision and expression of the work as the original writer. His only concern is to adjust a word from one language to another. The success of a translator depends on his endeavours to share the similar qualities of the source creator. A good translation should be comparable with the source text and contain the value of original creative work within the capability of standing independently. The translators should meet three important requirements – the Source language, the Target language and the subject matter. The translator has to discover the meaning behind the SL and produce the same meaning in the TL. While the form and the code are supposed to change, the meaning and the message on the other hand should remain unchanged. The translator must have a wide knowledge in both the SL and the TL because the deficiency of the knowledge of both the languages will result in translation without logic and sense. Etienne Dolet published a short outline of the principles of translation entitled “La maniere de bieu traduire d’une langue en aultre” (How to translate well from one language to another). The principles of a translator according to Etienne Dolet are:a) The translator must understand the meaning and sense of the original author although he is to clarify obscurities. b) The translator should have the perfect knowledge of both SL and TL.
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar c) The translator should avoid word for word renderings. d) The translator should use speech forms in common usage. e) The translator should select words approximately for correct tone. In multi-lingual country like India, ‘Literary Translation’ is of great importance as the mode of cultural exchange. With the help of translation, our partial perspective can be widened breaking the boundaries of prejudices. Translation studies, therefore, can be considered as a bridge that connects the areas of linguistics, stylistics, semiotics, aesthetics and literary history. Translation indeed links and spreads a nation’s culture, tradition, art, architecture and so on. It should be adopted for broader purpose of narrowing the space between the different countries of the world. WORKS CITED Anderman, Gunilla and Margaret Rogers. Translation Today: Trends and Perspectives. New Delhi: Vinod Vasishtha Viva Books,2010. Print. Ray, K. Mohit. Studies in Translation. Delhi: Nice Printing Press,2008.Print. ROLE OF TRANSLATOR R. PRINCE & P. KALPANA DEVI ERODE ARTS AND SCIENCE COLLEGE, ERODE Translation is not merely an inter linguistic process. It is more complex than replacing source language text with target language text and includes cultural and educational nuances Translators and translates documents from two or more official languages into their main language. Translators strive to make the United Nations documents faithful to the original, respect established terminology (when it exists), and be readily understood by a reader of the language from any part of the world. The documents they translate cover a broad range of technical, political, scientific, social, economic and legal issues. Translator’s other major activity, précis-writing, or preparing summary records for all the bodies, affords an opportunity to attend meetings and experience the proceedings of inter-governmental bodies. They need to have excellent oral comprehension skills, versatility, and an ability to stay calm under pressure and complete their work within prescribed deadlines. Translators normally spend their first six months to two years being trained at United Nations Headquarters; after successfully completing their training period, they may transfer to the translation services of the other main duty stations, United Nations Office at Geneva, United Nations Office at Vienna and United Nations Office at Nairobi, or one of the regional commissions in Asia, Africa or Latin America. A competent translator shows the following attributes:  a very good knowledge of the language, written and spoken, from which he is translating (the source language)  an excellent command of the language into which he is translating (the target language)  familiarity with the subject matter of the text being translated  a profound understanding of the etymological and idiomatic correlates between the two languages  a finely tuned sense of when to metaphrase ("translaute liuterally") and when to paraphrase, so as to assure true rather than spurious equivalents between the sourceand target-language texts.

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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar A competent translator is not only bilingual but bicultural. A launguage is not merely a collection of words and of rules of grammar and syntax for generating sentences. The complexity of the translator's task cannot be overstated; one author suggests that becoming an accomplished translator after having already acquired a good basic knowledge of both languages and cultures may require a minimum of ten years' experience. Viewed in this light, it is a serious misconception to assume that a person who has fair fluency in two languages will, by virtue of that fact alone, be consistently competent to translate between them. The translator's role in relation to a text has been compared to that of an artist, e.g., a musician or actor, who interprets a work of art. Translation, like other arts, inescapably involves choice, and choice implies interpretation. Don’t trouble to be too scrupulous... it is better to interpret than to translate. A translator may render only parts of the original text, provided he indicates that this is what he is doing. But a translator should not assume the role of censor and surreptitiously delete or bowdlerize passages merely to please a political or moral interest.Translation has served as a school of writing for many authors. Translators, including monks who spread Buddhist texts in East Asia, and the early modern European translators of the Bible, in the course of their work have shaped the very languages into which they have translated. They have acted as bridges for conveying knowledge between cultures; and along with ideas, they have imported from the source languages, into their own languages, loanwords and calques of grammatical structures, idioms and vocabulary. Language Requirements: Perfect command of one relevant official language of the United Nations; this is considered the candidate’s main language. Arabic, French, Russian and Spanish translators must have excellent knowledge of at least two other official languages, as tested by the relevant United Nations competitive examination. English translators must also have excellent knowledge of at least two other official languages, as tested by the relevant United Nations competitive examination. What does a Translator do? Translators typically do the following:  Convert concepts in the source language to equivalent concepts in the target language  Speak, read, and write fluently in at least two languages, including English and one or more others  Relay style and tone  Manage work schedules to meet deadlines  Render spoken ideas accurately, quickly, and clearly. The goal of a translator is to have people read the translation as if it were the original. To do that, the translator must be able to write sentences that flow as well as the original did while keeping the ideas and facts of the original accurate. They must consider any cultural references, including slang, and other expressions that do not translate literally. Translators must read the original language fluently but may not need to speak it fluently. They usually translate only into their native language. Nearly all translation work is done on a computer, and translators receive and submit most assignments electronically. Translations often go through several revisions before becoming final. Translators’ services are needed in many different subject areas. Although these workers often do not specialize in any particular field or industry, many focus on one area of expertise. What does it take to be a Translator? Although translators typically need a bachelor’s degree, the most important requirement is that they be fluent in English and at least one other language. High school students interested in becoming a translator should take a broad range of courses that includes English writing and comprehension, foreign languages, and computer proficiency. Other

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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar helpful pursuits for prospective foreign-language translators include spending time abroad, engaging in direct contact with foreign cultures, and reading extensively on a variety of subjects in English and at least one other language. Beyond high school, people interested in becoming a translator have many educational options. Although a bachelor's degree is often required for jobs, majoring in a language is not always necessary. An educational background in a particular field of study can provide a natural area of subject-matter expertise. However, translators generally need specialized training on how to do the work. Formal programs in translating are available at colleges and universities nationwide and through non-university training programs, conferences, and courses. Many self-employed translators start a business by establishing themselves in their field. They may submit resumes and samples to many different translation and interpreting agencies and work for agencies that match their skills with a job. Many then get work based on their reputation or through referrals from existing clients. Work experience is essential. In fact, some agencies hire only translators who have related work experience. A good way for translators to learn firsthand about the occupation is to start working in-house for a translation company. Doing informal or volunteer work is an excellent way for people seeking to get interpreter or translator jobs to get experience. New translators should develop relationships with mentors to build their skills, confidence, and professional network. Mentoring may be formal, such as that through a professional association, or informal, such as with a coworker or an acquaintance that has experience as a translator. What is the workplace of a Translator like? Translators typically work from home. They receive and submit their work electronically. They must sometimes deal with the pressure of deadlines and tight schedules. Because many translators are self-employed, their schedules often vary, with alternating periods of limited work and periods of long, irregular hours. Still, most work full time during regular business hours. The median annual wage of a translator was $43,300 in May 2010. The lowest 10% earned less than $22,950, and the top 10% earned more than $86,410. Being fluent is only the first step in becoming a professional translator. Like any other profession, it requires practice, experience, and training. There’s no one path to success, but here are some good guidelines: Step 1: Get Certified The first thing that people who wants to know how to become a translator is to get some sort of accreditation or certification. Top 10 U.S. Translation schools and The American Translator’s Association offers certification programs for translators. Overall, certification may not be required to be a successful translator, but if you’re starting out in this industry, it is the best place to start. Step 2: Get Tested Another resume builder is to take language proficiency test such as the Defense Language Proficiency Test (DLPT) or other language proficiency tests to show potential clients that you are indeed fluent in your specific language. Step 3: Gain Experience The next step is to gain experience. All of us have had to start out doing internships or working entry-level jobs in order to climb the ladder, and the language industry is no exception. If you’re enrolled at or live near a college, take classes in translation and look for opportunities to perform translation or interpreting work on campus for various departments. It is crucial to get experience where you can show samples of your work to potential clients and get recommendations.

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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar Step 4: Market Yourself After getting credentials and some experience. The best indicator that an aspiring translator or interpreter is not a professional is when they have no idea what their rates should be! If you don’t know what rates to charge, call other interpreters and translators and find out what theirs are. Step 5: Keep Learning! As you progress as a translator, If you have had success as a translator, maybe you could consider diversifying and becoming a certified court or medical interpreter. Overall I hope I have not discouraged anyone from becoming a translator or interpreter. My purpose here is to provide a helpful guide to entering this highly competitive industry. How to Be a Good Translator Translation is a highly skilled warding and satisfying job. Experienced translator Lanna Castellano has described the translator’s career path as follows: “Our profession is based on knowledge and experience. It has the longest apprenticeship of any profession. Not until thirty do you start to be useful as a translator, not until fifty do you start to be in your prime. The first stage of the career pyramid – the apprenticeship stage – is the time we devote to investing in ourselves by acquiring knowledge and experience of life.” Tips for translators You can be a good translator here are some tips that might help:  Love language, especially your own. And keep studying it.  Learn to write well.  Learn about and study your passive language and the culture it comes from.  Only translate into your own language.  Select a specialist area of expertise, and study and be prepared to learn more about your specialist subject. Constantly.  Read: books, newspapers, blogs, magazines, adverts, style guides, cereal packets…  Listen: to TV, the radio, friends, strangers in the street, on the bus, in bars, in shops…  Attend workshops, seminars and conferences in your subject area – listen to the experts, absorb their language. Even their jargon – but try not to use it.  Keep up with current affairs.  Keep your IT skills up-to-date.  Practice and hone your skills – keep up with your training.  Listen to the words that you write (some writers and translators read their texts out loud to themselves). Languages each have their own rhythm. If your writing doesn’t “sound” right, try changing the word order, not just the words.  Use your spell-checker. Use it judiciously, but use it. Always.  Print out your translated text and read it on paper before delivering it to your client. Always. Especially if you use computer-assisted translation (CAT) software. Print it out.  Ask yourself if your translation makes sense. If it makes you stop, even for a second, and think “what does that really mean”? Then there’s something wrong.  Write clearly and concisely, using the appropriate sentence- and paragraph-length for your target language. Use simple vocabulary. You can convey even complex ideas using clear, straightforward language.  Inform your client of any mistakes, typos or ambiguous wording you find in the source text.  Find ways to add value for your clients.  Always keep your reader in mind. As you’ve probably noticed, most of these tips also apply to writers, not just translators. After all, translation is a form of writing, and good translators should be good writers too. The
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar important thing is to practice and hone your skills. And always use your brain. That’s what makes a good translator a really good translator. Conclusion Translation is not merely an inter linguistic process. It is more complex than replacing source language text with target language text and includes cultural and educational nuances. Translations are never produced in a cultural or political vacuum and cannot be isolated from the context in which the texts are embedded. As David Katan in Translating Cultures puts it: ‘...the translator is a bilingual mediating agent between monolingual communication participants in two different language communities’. Therefore translators not only have to be intermediaries between different language systems, but also have to be intercultural mediators. they have to be both ‘bilingual and bicultural’. Moreover, translation can also have a critical influence in politics and can act as an agent for reconciliation or social integration Translations can therefore have a distinct effect on how global and human right issues can be conveyed and communicated. The translation of a language will allow us to open the doors to unknown cultural and linguistic environments. The results will arguably introduce rich developing world reference points to translation methodology and development education. Finally, in summary, the translator’s creative role, which often involves creating a new vocabulary in order to successfully convey the message of the source text. In doing this the interaction between the disciplines of translation studies and development education will become more apparent. Translation can play a number of different roles such as a ‘unifying’ or constructing new words but also, most crucially, as a source of knowledge about foreign, lesser known cultures. Thus, translation is not merely a linguistic process, but can also make a political and social impact - as in the aforementioned cases in South Africa and India. The translation process can be viewed as a way of introducing linguistic as well as cultural equality. Moreover, translation can act as a ‘bridge’ between the global North and the global South. The translation of language will allow us to open the doors to an unknown cultural and linguistic world. It will also introduce a rich developing world reference point to translation methodology and development education alike. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF TRANSLATION IN THE LITERARY SCENARIO B.SAKTHI SARAVANA KUMAR I M.A.ENGLISH LITERATURE, GOVERNMENT COLLEGE, COIMBATORE Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. Translating is not simply transferring texts from one language to another, the knowledge of culture of both languages and the knowledge of such texts and its target audience plays a very important role when it comes to making a good translation. Translation of literary works is considered a literary pursuit in its own right. The purpose of translation in literary scenario is to reveal the ideas of author globally. Through translations, one can explore other’s nation’s culture, tradition, social, philosophical, human values, etc…In literature through translation, writers insist onpeople to pursue virtue and ignore vice. In literary script, need for translation is significant because, a writer in his work of art he has brought moral values, attitude of the people in his society, women welfare, social background and all virtuous concepts which he request people to follow. If it is accepted by the people it is the success of his creation. After its success, it gets translate
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar into multi languages. The whole world get access to the particular ideasof an author. In literature through translation,many books have been appreciated like the Holy Bible, Les Miserables, AnnaKarenina, Thirukural, Mahabharata, Ramayan, Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening and King Lear. Through the globalized translation of the literary works, books are available to all without racial discrimination, and no secularism. The Holy Bible has an inevitable place in conveying moral values to human beings.The Bible has been translated into more than two thousand languages. About 95% of world’s population has access to the Bible through their respective languages.The Bible was translated into a number of European languages like English, Dutch, Swedish, Spanish and French.WilliamTyndale translated the Old Testament from Hebrew and the New Testament from Greek.Theodore Savory states the reasons for the translation of the Bible. The first and the most fundamental is that the subject matter of the Bible and especially of the Old Testament touches man’s very existence; it tells him something of his origin, his purpose and his destination. For countless generations, men have been instructed to seek the reason of their lives in the pages of the Bible. Bible preaches moral values through parables like Good Samaritan, The Prodigal Son, The Last Sheep, The Two Builders, The Parable of the Talents, The Parable of the Ten Virgins, Parable of the Sower, Parable of the Vineyard Workers. So because of the translation of the Bible into several languages people can follows its preachings. The significance of the translation ofLes Miserables,is focused upon a French novel written by Victor Hugo published in 1862 and is considered one of the greatest novels of the 19th century. In schools and colleges, it is prescribed in the titles of The Benevolent Bishop and The BishopsCandlesticks. The main theme of the novel is Forgiveness, Self Sacrifice and Courage. It is complete amalgamation of those three qualities. At the very beginning, when Jean Valjean stayed with the bishop, Valjean stole his silver and ran off. He ends up being caught by police, but when the police questioned the bishop, he claimed to have given the silver candlesticks to Valjean. Jean was confused and the bishop claimed that with the silver, he had purchased the convicts soul, and had given to God. From that day onwards valjean became a good man. This French novel after the translation into multiplelanguages, has proved to be useful to the world. Charles E.Wilbour first translated the novel into English published in 1862. Anna Kareninais a novel by the Russian writer Leo Tolstoy published in serial instalments from 1873 to 1877 in the periodical The Russian Messenger. The novel begins with one of its most often quoted lines, “Happy families are all alike everyunhappy family is unhappy in its own way” (Anna Karenina,18) It is the Magnum Opus of Tolstoy, he considered Anna Karenina his first true novel. The key message of the novel is, “No one may build their happiness on another’s pain” (Anna Karenina,289) The major themes of Anna Kareninaare hypocrisy, jealousy, faith, infidelity, family, marriage, society and passion. It speaks about the anguish of Anna, though she was born in an aristocratic family she suffers mentally lot, at last she commits suicide by throwing herself in front of the train. Princess Diana’s life resemblesAnna Karenina. Fyodor Dostoyevsky declared it to be “flawless as a work of art”. His opinion as shared by Vladimir Nabokov, who especially admired “the flawless magic of Tolstoy’s style and by William Faulkner, who described novel as “the best ever written.” In 2007 in “The Top Ten” in Time which declared Anna Karenina is the “greatest novel ever written”.
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar Rosemary Edmunds well translated it in English. The highlight of the novel Anna Karenina was Tolstoy has focused on feminism boldly in nineteenth century. In Indian literature, the two most popular epics areTheMahabharata andTheRamayana both are written in Sanskrit language by Vyasa and Valmiki. The Mahabharata teaches us to overcome our ideas of self-righteousness and see the legitimate claims to justice of those with whom we fight. The theme is triumph of the good over evil. The Mahabharata has translated into several Indian languages. In English, first, it was translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguly in 1883.The Ramayan also a great epic in Hindu religion, it speaks about chastity of Sita and monogamy of Rama.It is also translated into several languages. Today, all Indian movies adopt the concepts of these two great epics. The novel Chemmeen by Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai is widely regarded as a landmark in the history of Indian Literature. It is a Malayalam novel, published in 1956. Chemmeen tells the story of the relationship between Karuthamma, and Pareekutti, the son of Muslim fish wholesaler. The theme of the novel is about the myth among the fishermen communities along the coastal Kerala State in the Southern India. The myth is about the chastity. If the married fisher woman was infidel when her husband was in the sea, the Sea Goddess would consume him. The myth was perpetuated by Thakazhi in his exquisite novel. Widely successful Chemmeen was translated into English, German, Russian, Italian, Arabic and French. Chemmeen has been translated into English many times. Narayana Menon’s translation titled Anger of the Sea-Goddess remains very popular even to this day. Other English translation are by T.S.Pillai and Anita Nair , both titled Chemmeen. The custom and myth of the South Indian fishermen communities has globally come to an exposure through the multi language translation. Of the world's languages, the Tamil language is very ancient, equal to that of Sanskrit and few have placed their origin and antiquity correctly. Tamil literature is vast and varied. Many poems and literary marvels were created 2000 years ago; apart from depicting the life of people living at that age; these have lessons for the future, which are immortal and applicable to all ages.‘Thirukkural’ was authored by a great and saintly poet and philosopher named Thiruvalluvar. The Thirukkural is "Thiru" plus "Kural". The second portion of its name is given because of the short length of the verses; the word "Thiru" denotes its sanctity. The Kural is considered equivalent to the Vedas of the Hindu scriptures. In the simple two lines couplet author stuffed all moral, discipline, chastity, generosity qualities of life.The Thirukkural, considered equivalent to the Vedas of the Hindu scriptures, has been widely translated both in Indian and European Languages and is among the oldest literary works of the world.The English translation done in the early twentieth century was by the great freedom fighter and patriot Late Sri V.V.S. Iyer who lived between 1881 and 1925. Selected couplets have been translated in English by the well-known freedom fighter and statesman, late Sri C. Rajagopalachari. In recent years, a full English translation is published by the M.P.Birlas Foundation in 1988. Its immortality and universality are unquestionable. One of the reasons for its wide translation in different languages of the world is the undeniable fact that the ethics and the values it carries are applicable to all religions, all countries and all times. This viability and universality is a unique feature for any literary works of ancient or modern times. All the examples given above highlights the significance ofthe need for the translation of literary texts for global well-being. Works Cited;

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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar Even-Zohar,Itamar.The Position of Translated Literature within the Literary Polysystem. Translation AcrossCultures.Ed.GideonTourey. New Delhi: Bahri Publications, 1987.Print Gentzler, Edwin.Ed. Contemporary Translation Thories. NewYork: Routledge,1993.Print http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ literary translation http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/annakarenina http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ les miserables http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/thirukural ROLE OF TRANSLATORS S.SINDHU II MA ENGLISH PSG COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCE "Nothing which is harmonized by the bond of the Muse can be changed from its own to another language without destroying its sweetness." (Dante, 14th Century) Introduction: Translation is said to be implicit in every act of communication. Even in a dialogue situation, when a message is emitted by the speaker, it signals are received by the listener, and subsequently, understood in a manner commensurate with the receiver’s interpretive and receptive capabilities. In interlingual translation, one of the modalities defined in Jakobson’s typology, the communicative act acquires an indirect, more complex character through the involvement of a translator who makes possible communication between emitter and receiver. The complexity of the translation act is enhanced when translation is adopted to render a piece of foreign literature into a version intended for local readership. Despite the complexities, and often, disappointments, however, translation has always played a significant role in the study of literature, especially of the comparative kind. A Layman’s Approach To Translation : Translators convert written material from one or more 'source languages' into the 'target language', ensuring that the translated version conveys the meaning of the original as clearly as possible. The target language is normally the translator’s mother tongue. Transcreating may also be part of the job and is a mix of translation, localisation and copywriting, where the text is culturally and linguistically adapted to suit the reader. Translators usually need an excellent command of two or more languages. The languages most in demand are the official languages of the European Union (EU) and the United Nations (UN) . Translators work on: Scientific, technical, commercial, literary, legal and educational documents. Most translators work freelance from home, either for translation agencies or directly for clients, although some organisations employ in-house translators. Three Essential Human Fuctions : Imagine a world with hundreds of languages having no one in the entire population who can speak a second language. Communication? A sure dead air. Growth? Impossible to achieve. Culture? Stagnant and unshared. Professional translators will never let this happen. With diverse cultures and languages worldwide, professional translators serve as instruments for three essential human functions: communication, development and culture promotion. a) In Communication

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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar It is a basic instinct of man to communicate. And to communicate only means that the original message will be clearly sent in its equivalent context to the target audience. The role of translators is to send the message across without any form of distortion or emphasis. That’s why it is an imperative that only professional translators handle the sending process. The main job of translators is simple – provide an effective means of communication. Efficient communication is not only to translate an original text by word-per-word basis. It’s delivering the genuine context of the message to the language that the target person understands. b) In Growth and Development Growth and development can be achieved through fair trading or exchange of knowledge and resources. Universal growth of any business requires employing not less than professional translation services to convert a single message to almost all languages in the world. The more languages a single message can be translated, the higher the possibility to reach diverse people. It is only when there’s freedom in exchanging goods and skills that global progress can be attained. And nothing can aid in this better than professional translators. c) Culture Sharing In able to appreciate, promote or share culture across continents, it is important that to have an in-depth understanding of it. Again, with the help of skilled translators, it is feasible. The best manifestation of this role of translators is seen on beauty pageants. Candidates can freely promote their culture to the international scene but the job of professional translators can’t be taken for granted. Without them, culture promotion will remain unshared and uncultivated. Events that encourage culture sharing are quite impossible, if not chaotic. Translating is a complex task that demands expertise. It offers three indispensable functions that man constantly needs. With such great and crucial responsibility only professional translators have the ability to carry out the tasks. Translator As Communicator : From the translator’s point of view, the limited scope of simultaneous translation is often seen as a deficiency of the discipline, a step down from the more complete, more consistent written translation. It is similar to the difference between improve comedy and prepared screenwriting: they serve different purposes and different audiences, because of this they have different qualities: one is a unique performance and the other is something that is set down and repeatable. In The Translator as Communicator, Basin Hatim and Ian Mason make a similar point of showing that interpreters rely heavily on rhetorical keywords more so than translators, in order that they may have a decent guess as to what will said later on in the discourse. A translator will largely ignore these rhetorical devices where they occur, and instead opt to regulate them based on the finished text. Also, there is “less matching of current input with previous text than other forms of processing,” (Hatim Mason, 63) there is less contextual consistency. A written translation may retain context, but it also forces the reader to be more wide minded, to always have one eye on what has been stated before rather than both eyes on the text at hand (as with oral texts). Translator As Reader-Interpreters : Translation represents a source text, understands translators as reader-interpreters. The translators are creative readers who are at once literary critics and creative writers, who in those translations become critical interpretations of source texts. The choices made by translators in literary translations must necessarily include cultural
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar considerations, considerations of cultural and linguistic-based meanings such as connotations, allusions and idiomatic meanings, and literary traditions, such as stylistic and formal traditions in the respective languages. Therefore it is crucial that literary translators be bicultural as well as bilingual. Translators face the challenge of not only rendering the contents of the source text, but also the challenge of understanding what deeper elements need to be rendered, elements which often are not readily apparent. If literary translators are unfamiliar with source language cultural contexts and the cultural values within which these source texts have been created, much will be lost in the translation to target texts. Translator as Mediator: Translator is not only to translate but also to mediate or negotiate. In other words, the translator acts as a bridge between two languages, providing intelligibility not only to the words of the text itself, but also to the sentiments and cultural thought behind those works. The sheer untranslability of certain words, puns, expressions which exist in every language make this a difficult task. The translator must make some attempt to convey the joke/pun at that particular point in the narrative. Balancing these two factors can lead to some interesting compromises on the part of the translator. The benefits and drawbacks to translators, while translating are : literal and loose translations, inconsistencies in translation of names and titles, jokes dependent on pronunciation or word play cultural specific references and untranslatable terms and concepts. Translator as Role Models: The ideal literary translator, who shares the source text writer’s overlap of experience, memory and imagination, will successfully convey the writer’s awareness of complexity of cultural content and context to readers. The readers themselves are individuals who share the culture with writers and their translators in nothing more and nothing less than individual luminal intercultures. Translators and the translation process involve the process of mediating and communicating individual persons with individual (liminal) cultural backgrounds that escape monocultural definitions. There is an overlap of cultures in the space where literary translators work and live, resulting in a third culture or interculture where national identity and a sense of globalness intersect and interact. Once literary translators are recognized as being the mediators or transmitters of culture, we can then look to the translator as a role model for the nation. Translators today are confronted with the realization that translation is a process of choosing – a difficult process when the best linguistic choice could have unintended political, legislative, or even wider social consequences. The role of translators has gained such increased political and social importance, methods such as foreignizing and domesticating have taken on new political significance. Simultaneously, issues based on linguistic and cultural dichotomies have been challenged and nowhere is the confrontation of subjective and objective textual constraint more hotly debated than in literary translation where texts are by their very nature artistic and aesthetic creations, and often regarded as embodying elements of language, the essence of which is untranslatable as it transcends the actual words of the text. Ideas of Brkhudarov And Borodulina: As Barkhudarov wrote: “Translation into the foreign language constitutes (…) an excellent way to develop speech abilities (…) both oral and written. Translation into the foreign language is often much more effective than the so-called students’ ‘free production.’” (1966). One of my favorite quotes on the importance and value and translation activities is that from Borodulina, professor of German and former Moscow Linguistic University Chancellor, who said that “Translation…presupposes an optimal
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar mastery of skills such as reading, listening, speaking and writing…it demands combinations and simultaneity in time as well as constant coordination of linguistic systems and parallel use of speech in two languages: the foreign and the native.” (1982) A New Role : The role of translation and its importance in comparative literature have changed gradually over the decades. In the twenty-first century, expanded interdisciplinarity and the rise of multiculturalism held sway in the development of the comparative endeavor. A number of scholarly writings focusing on translation were published in the aftermath of this new spring in comparative literature. One of them is highlights the linguistic specificity and materiality of texts studied in comparative literature , and because it also opens new dimensions to explore where comparative literature and translation studies could further collaborate intre pares, equals in the proper sense of the word, and in which translators are no longer just intermediaires. But for comparatists to do their work well, they must begin by paying close attention to the text, its language and cultural context, and the theoretical issues they bring up. Translation is indispensable in such an undertaking. Gone therefore are the highly prescriptive demands of older-generation comparatists for facsimile-like target texts purportedly necessary in the influence studies of yesteryears. Translation is instead, a renewal and a rejuvenation of an original text through the comparative scholarship that it inspires, thus in a way achieving Benjamin’s concept of “afterlife.” It would pave the way for the arrival of a new age of dynamic collaboration between the two disciplines. Conclusion : In sum, literary translators today are faced with overcoming the paradox of maintaining differences and alterities while simultaneously striving to achieve the common goal of unity, a paradox analogous to the political paradox of struggling to form one union and yet wishing to maintain the linguistics and the human sciences separate national identities of member nations. By virtue of their translation endeavors, literary translators are readers, writers, interpreters, mediators, and communicators. Within themselves new intercultures are created, a melding of target texts, source texts, and each individual translator’s own cultural experiences. It is precisely the merging of these at times diverse and even competing or conflicting elements, which allows them to become role models with shared but yet different cultures. REFERENCES : Tee Carols, A. (2014). Compilation and Translation Review : Translators’ Role As Intermediaries In Comparative Literature. Jenkins, Kirsty. (2012) Crossing Boundaries Translations And Migration: The Role Of The Translators As Mediator In The Case Closed Manga. Hatim, basin & mason, ian. The Translator As Communicator Trotter, Evelyn & Decapua, Andrea. Linguistics And The Human Science: The Role Of The Literary Translator In The New Europe And The Literal Translators Role Model TRANSLATING THE BIBLE: LANGUAGES, ISSUES AND CONFUSION SAM ANTONY. K.C, II M.A ENGLISH, ST. ALOYSIUS COLLEGE, MANGALORE Nothing which is harmonized by the bond of the Muse can be changed from its own to another language without destroying its sweetness – Dante Alighieri
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar The main concern of translation is always to provide the very essence of the source text to the target language, which unfortunately is not fulfilled very often. If a translation should occur without destroying the sweetness of the text, it requires lot of hard work, expertise, patience and knowledge about the social settings, cultural significance and historical backgrounds of the source text. If the translator is an expert in these fields, then we could expect a more or less true translation; yet as Venutti points out that, “since no two languages are identical, there can be no absolute correspondence between languages. Hence, there can be no fully exact translations. The total impact of a translation may be reasonably close to the original, but there can be no identity in detail” (Venuti, 127). Thus all translations can be said as reasonably close to the original but it cannot be a true identical copy of the source text with all its liveliness and essence. The Holy Bible is the most translated book in the world. According to the United Bible Societies, among the estimated 3,000 languages in the world, 341 languages had complete Bibles that are both New Testament and Old Testament, 822 languages had some parts of the Bible which could be mainly New Testament, and that Bible translation was in progress in an additional 1,000 languages. The inability to speak the languages in which the Bible was written, that is Hebrew and Greek, and the evolution of many languages which we speak created the inevitability of translation of the Bible from Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek. Thus, there have been lots of translations of the Bible, which were considered as authorized and unauthorized among the Christians. But being a religious text as well as a literary text translating the Bible was not an easy task then and it is not even now. There exits many problems inherent in Bible translation which causes various sorts of confusion and issues. Many consider that translating a modern language to be a hard task, then how hard would it be for translating a language which has the history of some 3,000 odd years. The major purpose of this paper is to understand the issues in language and other issues which are faced during the translation of the Bible. The issues faced in the present during the translation of the Bible had been encountered in the past and without any doubt would certainly be encountered in the future. One basic problem inherent in Bible translation is that the translators do not have the original manuscript of the Bible, but rather copies of copies of copies. This causes many problems because this causes confusion among the translators about which of these copies are correct and which are not, since none of them seem to be identical. Unlike the Old Testament which does have some sort of similarities, the New Testament document shows astounding differences which again makes things confusing. The recent research relating to the texts or manuscripts confirms that, “about 3 per cent of the Bible’s texts vary across all the manuscripts. Nowadays, we have about 1,500 complete or partial manuscripts of the New Testament” (Robert Beecham, ourworld.compuserve.com) Scholars make use of two approaches to solve this problem. The most common approach is called the Eclectic Approach. In this approach, scholars combine together a text from all the available manuscripts using various rules to sort out the differences. Since this approach gives more scope to human judgment, it is not accepted by many as The Holy Bible is believed to be God inspired. The approach created by Ivan Panin was another famous approach which was followed by the scholars of the past. After his conversion from atheism in 1890, Ivan Panin, discovered that the Bible was full of hidden numerical patterns largely based on the number seven. This discovery had two major implications. First, it gave proof of the inspiration of the Scripture. This proof once again underlined the divine inspiration which made human beings write this book because these patterns could never have been placed in every single place there by human wit. On the other hand, this discovery gave him a method of deciding every instance which was the

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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar correct text and which was not; it even made Panin resolve the ambiguities of punctuation but however Ivan Panin’s work had been almost entirely ignored by academics. Another problem that many translators face in Bible translation is that the Bible is addressed to a variety of audience – it is addressed to theologians, adults, children, believers and non-believers so on. It is very relevant here to notice what Snell-Hornby states. He states that the Bible is written for multiple purposes. It is a book which is : “written for both readers and listeners” (275). Thus, through this we could understand how hard it is for a translator to translate the Bible since s/he must ‘reproduce’ an equivalent or even identical text in the Target Language, which can be ‘used’ for the same purposes as that of the Source Language. But it is well accepted that exact translation is ‘impossible’ since meanings of words and grammatical structures in any two languages do not generally correspond as Nida says. Pronouns in the source languages such as Hebrew and Greek are also full of problems. Hebrew has four words for you which distinguishes between masculine and feminine and singular and plural. But in English, there is only one. If we look into the book of the Songs of Solomon, in the Hebrew manuscript it is always clear from the gender whether the bride or the bridegroom is speaking, but some English versions lose this distinction. In conclusion, we can understand that it is totally impossible to take a document in one language and make an exact word for word equivalent of it in another. It might work out in some cases, but it may not all the time and if attempted it can create massive errors. Frequently, the role of the translator lies in the grasping the meaning of the original source text as best he can transliterate and then seek to reproduce that meaning in the Target Language. But this can be only done if the scholar translates the Bible : “respects the features of the receptor language and exploits the potentialities of the language to the greatest possible extent” (Nida and Taber, 4). The major problem inherent in Bible translation is the understanding of the intended meaning. There are in fact, at least three problems in this case. Firstly, it is the problem of understanding the ancient languages in which the Bible was written. Since no one speaks these languages now, it is really hard to really comprehend the exact meaning which the writer meant. As all languages evolve from time to time, so do the cultural spheres. Without the knowledge about the cultural setting in which the Bible was written, it becomes hard for the scholar to render the exact translation of the text. To understand this better let’s take an example. For instance, the King James Version translates 1 Samuel, 17.22 like this: “And David left his carriage in the hand of the keeper of the carriage, and ran into the army.” The translators had difficulty with one of the Hebrew words in the manuscripts they used, but based on the context of narrative they translated ‘his carriage’ and ‘keeper of the carriage’. When scholars learned more about the Hebrew language and its vocabulary they understood that the verse did not talk about David's ‘carriage’, rather about the ‘carried things’ or ‘baggage’ which he had with him for the soldiers in the army. As an impact if this knowledge the scholars who were the translators of the Revised Standard Version which was published in 1952 were able to translate the same verse more accurately as: And David left the things in the charge of the keeper of the baggage, and ran to the ranks. Even at this point to, we should not forget to mention that even if translators know the cultural setting of the Biblical era, it is very hard for them to reconstruct that same old cultural setting in which the writing first took place since there are great differences between it and the current one.

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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar “The natural mind does not receive things of the Spirit of God” (1 Cor 2:14). This is the third problem face by the translators. It is actually belived that its only through spiritual enlightenment one would be able to understand the inner meanings of the Bible. People believe that, its through spiritual understanding, the Bible would continually reveal its inner meanings. Hidden gems may well lie beneath the surface of its every sentence. The last problem in the course of translation is the comprehension of the translator about his/ her position or role. Could s/he be an artist or a scientific researcher? S/He could be both. Before answering that question, let us discuss another question. Is translation, an art or a science? According to Nida, the practice of translating the practice of translating : “has far outdistanced theory; and though no one will deny the artistic elements in good translating, linguists and philologists are coming increasingly aware that the processes of translation are amenable to rigorous description” (3). If considered as a skill, translation would be perfect only by practicing. As a science it has some steps or procedure which has to be followed in order to reach perfection. When we speak of the ‘science of translating’, we are of course concerned with the descriptive science, so the transfer of a message from one language to another is likewise a valid subject for scientific description. According to Nida, those who have insisted that, translation is an art and nothing more: “have often failed to probe beneath the surface of the obvious principles and procedures that govern its function” (ibid, 3). In conclusion, we need to admit that the task of the Bible translator is not an easy one since there are many problems in the translation of Bible. The Bible is a book that was written long ago in three ancient languages, which are unfamiliar to present-day laymen. As a literary text it has a greater variety of literary styles than can be encountered in any other literature in the history of the mankind. As the Bible is addressed to a huge variety of audience and because it was written for different ‘uses’ such as listening and reading; makes the Bible hard to translate, to transfer all the essence and features from the Source Languages into the Target Language. Without any doubt we could say that Translations will always be imperfect, for a variety of reasons. No doubt bad translations have been printed, and with no doubt interesting theologies and church practices have been based on these inadequate translations. Whatever be it, there are thousands of languages and people still waiting to receive a complete reliable translation of the Bible. Works Cited Nida, E. A, Towards a Science of Translating. Leiden: Brill Publications, 1964. Print. Nida, E. A. and Taber, C. R, Theory and Practice of Translation . Leiden: Brill Publications, 1974. Print. Snell-Hornby, M., Hönig, G. H., Kussmaul, P., Schitt, P. A. Handbook for Translation. Leiden: Verlag Publications.1998. Print. Venuti, L, The Translation Studies Reader .London: Routledge Publication, 2000. Print. THE ROLE OF TRANSLATOR SUBASHCHANDRABOSE.V II M.A ENGLISH PSG COLLEGE OF ARTS & SCIENCE "All meanings, we know, depend on the key of interpretation" George Eliot TRANSLATION The word translation derives from the Latin translatio.

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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar The process of turning an original or "source" text into a text in another language. Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. Whereas interpreting undoubtedly antedates writing, translation began only after the appearance of written literature. According to Nida, Translation is, “Translating consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source-language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style”. TYPES OF TRANSLATION Intralingual translation – translation within the same language, which can involve rewording or paraphrase; Interlingual translation - translation from one language to another, and Intersemiotic translation - translation of the verbal sign by a non-verbal sign, for example music or image. TRANSLATOR A translator is an individual who fluently reads, writes, and speaks a minimum of two languages, and renders (translates) written words into another language. Translators generally specialize in a category, for example, science, math, social work, law, medicine, technical, poetry, geography, art. Terminology is specific to various subjects, so it helps when a translator is familiar with a specific subject. ROLE OF RANSLATOR In Communication It is a basic instinct of man to communicate. And to communicate only means that the original message will be clearly sent in its equivalent context to the target audience. The main role of translators is to send the message across without any form of distortion or emphasis. That’s why it is an imperative that only professional translators handle the sending process. Also, maintaining and building good relationships is an essential to an individual’s healthy living. Communication is vital to maintaining and creating those relationships. But how can one build or sustain a sound relationship across the world if there’s lack of understanding to one another? With professional translators it is possible. The main job of translators is simple – provide an effective means of communication. Efficient communication is not only to translate an original text by wordper-word basis. It’s delivering the genuine context of the message to the language that the target person understands. This task of professional translators is not a piece of cake as it demands nothing less than accuracy. A single mistake in context translation can result to offensive message that can eventually lead to misunderstandings between people. With full content management, skilled translators take care of every single detail of the translation process, no matter how big or small. Professional language translation services make the client feel confident that every word reads and sounds locally correct. Accurate content and context are key to quality communication. In Growth and Development Growth and development can be achieved through fair trading or exchange of knowledge and resources. In business, not only that it is essential to understand the culture of the target clients but to communicate efficiently using their local language. This is another key role of professional translators. Universal growth of any business requires employing not less than professional translation services to convert a single message to almost all languages in the world. The more languages a single message can be translated, the higher the possibility to reach

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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar diverse people. It is only when there’s freedom in exchanging goods and skills that global progress can be attained. And nothing can aid in this better than professional translators. Culture Sharing In able to appreciate, promote or share culture across continents, itis important that to have an in-depth understanding of it. Again, with the help of skilled translators, it is feasible. The best manifestation of this role of translators is seen on beauty pageants. Candidates can freely promote their culture to the international scene but the job of professional translators can’t be taken for granted. Without them, culture promotion will remain unshared and uncultivated. Events that encourage culture sharing are quite impossible, if not chaotic. Translating is a complex task that demands expertise. It offers three indispensable functions that man constantly needs. With such great and crucial responsibility only professional translators have the ability to carry out the tasks. A competent translator shows the following attributes: • a very good knowledge of the language, written and spoken, from which he is translating (the source language); • an excellent command of the language into which he is translating (the target language); • familiarity with the subject matter of the text being translated; • a profound understanding of the etymological and idiomatic correlates between the two languages; and • a finely tuned sense of when to metaphrase ("translate literally") and when to paraphrase, so as to assure true rather than spurious equivalents between the source- and target-language texts. A competent translator is not only bilingual but bicultural. A language is not merely a collection of words and of rules of grammar and syntax for generating sentences, but also a vast interconnecting system of connotations and cultural references whose mastery, writes linguist Mario Pei, "comes close to being a lifetime job." The complexity of the translator's task cannot be overstated; one author suggests that becoming an accomplished translator — after having already acquired a good basic knowledge of both languages and cultures — may require a minimum of ten years' experience. Viewed in this light, it is a serious misconception to assume that a person who has fair fluency in two languages will, by virtue of that fact alone, be consistently competent to translate between them. The translator's role in relation to a text has been compared to that of an artist, e.g., a musician or actor, who interprets a work of art. Translation, like other arts, inescapably involves choice, and choice implies interpretation. English-language novelist Joseph Conrad advised his niece and Polish translator Aniela Zagorska. Don't trouble to be too scrupulous... I may tell you (in French) that in my opinion "il vaut mieux interpréter que traduire"["it is better to interpret than to translate"].... Il s'agit donc de trouver les équivalents. Et là, ma chère, je vous prie laissez vous guider plutôt par votre tempérament que par une conscience sévère.... [It is, then, a question of finding the equivalent expressions. And there, my dear, I beg you to let yourself be guided more by your temperament than by a strict conscience....] A translator may render only parts of the original text, provided he indicates that this is what he is doing. But a translator should not assume the role of censor and surreptitiously delete or bowdlerize passages merely to please a political or moral interest. Translation has served as a school of writing for many authors. Translators, including monks who spread Buddhist texts in East Asia, and the early modern European
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar translators of the Bible, in the course of their work have shaped the very languages into which they have translated. They have acted as bridges for conveying knowledge between cultures; and along with ideas, they have imported from the source languages, into their own languages, loanwords and calques of grammatical structures, idioms and vocabulary. In short, a good translator should be a competent and proficient bilingual, familiar with the subject/area of the SL text chosen for translation. He should never try to insert his own ideas or personal impressions in the TL text. His objective should be to convey the content and the intent of the SL text as exactly as possible into the TL text. A good translator ought to be a good writer. He does not need to translate everything that has been written, but to translate the best only. A good translator adjusts/accommodates and not compromises with the original text. Translators are like ambassadors representing and exchanging the best of their literary world. NEED FOR TRANSLATION IN THE LITERARY SCENARIO K.PRIYADHARSHINI & P.BRINDHA KUMARI II M.A.ENGLISH PSG COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCE A translation of a literary work is, in fact, a criticism of that work, a point of view on the author and the text. Poggioli’s idea that translation is an interpretative art, like music, half way between reproduction or craft and a complete original creation is vital for this approach. This paper discusses the impact of translation on literary traditions and the sociological elements which contribute to the shift of the canon. The effort of translation to enlarge and enrich a literary system makes it a powerful tool for the introduction of new aesthetics and trends as well as the ideology implied in them. The study of translated texts reveals that literatures which are stable tend to impose their own codes on the translated works, while those literary systems that are in crisis try to maintain the codes of the foreign texts to revitalize their culture and canon. But translators are always more worried about the trends and style in the language they are translating into, and therefore a translation can always tell us a lot about the receiving literature at a certain time. Translation studies today are concerned with the translated text and they no longer centred on the idea of faithfulness to the source text. A relevant issue is to know the fate of a literary work, what has been called the target text orientated approach to translation, which comes from a literary view of translations rather than a linguistic one. In translation studies today, scholars compare texts and contexts, not languages, as used to be done in the past, among other reasons, because linguists have failed to produce a general theory of translation. Traditionally, Literary Translation is one of four broad categories of translation, the other three being Interpreting, Scientific and Technical Translation and Commercial/Business Translation; there are also a number of special fields such as Legal Translation. Literary Translation is not confined to the translation of great literature. A translation of a literary work is, in fact, a criticism of that work, a point of view on the author and the text. Poggioli’s idea that translation is an interpretative art, like music, half way between reproduction or craft and a complete original creation is vital for this approach. This paper discusses the impact of translation on literary traditions and the sociological elements which contribute to the shift of the canon. The effort of translation to enlarge and enrich a literary system makes it a powerful tool for the introduction of new aesthetics and trends as well as the ideology implied in them.
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar The study of translated texts reveals that literatures which are stable tend to impose their own codes on the translated works, while those literary systems that are in crisis try to maintain the codes of the foreign texts to revitalize their culture and canon. In addition to language knowledge, translator should really “feel” language and understand cultural heritage of its speakers. Do not forget that simple knowledge of any foreign language is just starting point in translation process. In some cases, there are even worst errors in translation that produce meaningless structures. It is possible to be a translator without holding any formal qualifications. Some translators develop their skills naturally through having a bilingual family background or having lived for long periods in different countries. However, there is no doubt that a formal university education in Modern Languages is helpful, especially if it includes classes in Translation. There are courses and workshops designed to improve translation techniques and these may be useful even though there is no guarantee that after attending such a course the translator will actually obtain commissions. People with qualifications in addition to Language diplomas often find they are in great demand. For example, a publisher who wants someone to translate a book on Genetic Engineering may be keen to commission a translator with a degree in Biology. But translators are always more worried about the trends and style in the language they are translating into, and therefore a translation can always tell us a lot about the receiving literature at a certain time. . But translators are always more worried about the trends and style in the language they are translating into, and therefore a translation can always tell us a lot about the receiving literature at a certain time. Translation studies today are concerned with the translated text and they no longer centred on the idea of faithfulness to the source text. A relevant issue is to know the fate of a literary work, what has been called the target text orientated approach to translation, which comes from a literary view of translations rather than a linguistic one. In translation studies today, scholars compare texts and contexts, not languages, as used to be done in the past, among other reasons, because linguists have failed to produce a general theory of translation. We read translations all the time, but of all the interpretive arts, it is fascinating and puzzling to realize that only translation has to fend off the insidious, damaging question of whether or not it is, can be, or should be possible. In attempting to identify the term “literary translation”, a range of related literature is reviewed and evaluated so as to draw as much a clear image for the concept of literary translation as possible. It is then essential to introduce the central component in literary translation that is literary language. The necessity to describe literary language before accounting for literary translation is derived from the fact that language is the means by which any piece of literary writing can reach its core effects. Widdowson (1984, p. 151) says that no matter how literature may be expressed, its effects are certainly attained via language. To start with, literary translation, as its name reveals, is concerned with translating texts written in a literary language that is distinct from any other sort of language. According to Adewuni (2004, p. 1), every literary writer has his own lexical and stylistic peculiarities that constitute the highly connotative and subjective character of literary language. By means of his powerful imagination, any literary writer makes use of various literary skills such as figures of speech in order to draw literary constructions. Literary language is also deviant and capable to communicate intellectual, emotional, and spiritual interests of individuals. To put it in other words, literary language is a unique form of language that enlightens a variety of aspects of humankind through a variety of modes differing from one literary writer to another. Literary translation is agreed to be the most challenging form of translation. It is described by Wechsler (1998,
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar p. 9) as an “odd art” because “it consists of a person sitting at a desk, writing a fiction or poetry that has already been written, that has someone else’s name on it...” To simplify somewhat, it is the strange nature of literary translation that dictates its complexity, since it involves the literary translator in the burden of rewriting, in the target language, the same literary work written in the original. . The sense of delight that literary texts creates among readers is gained through the fine choice of words the literary writer makes, the excellent arrangement of words to build sentences, and the wide range of figurative tools, mainly metaphors and similes, the author employs. These features, all in all, compose the aesthetic effect of literature on the readers and thus must be given much consideration in the literary translation process and reflected in the TL with the utmost force in order to provide the target readers with nearly the same aesthetic effect experienced by the readers of the original. These are principally the features on which the present comparative study is built; that is to say the texts are analyzed and compared on the basis of lexical choice, sentence structure, and the use of metaphors and similes aiming at discovering the extent to which the aesthetic effect of literary texts is kept when translated.

NEED FOR TRANSLATION IN THE LITERARY SCENARIO
DIVYA RAMAKRISHNAN, M.Phil Scholar, PSGR KRISHNAMMAL COLLEGE FOR WOMEN Translation is one of the most critical jobs in modern society. As the whole world is coming together based on information sharing and communicative advances, it is only natural that there has been a constant demand and an unprecedented need for translation of ideas from one language to another.Translation is no longer just the process of translating words, but has evolved into the transformation of meaning and intentions. Translation of various art forms like music, films and literature from a region is necessary for global understanding of a region and its life. The plight of Palestine refugees, the poverty in Brazilian streets, the colorful life in Spanish cities and the myths and legends of ancient India are spreading across the world, riding on the shoulder of good translation. Translated films and subtitled films generate more revenue for global film industry, while translated music and literature provides added royalties to the artists. Translation can play a number of different roles such as a unifying or constructing new words but also as a source of knowledge about foreign, lesser known cultures. Thus, translation is not merely a linguistic process, but can also make a political and social impact. The translation of this language will allow us to open the doors to an unknown cultural and linguistic world. The most common difficulty in translation studies has been the dilemma between the culture of the source language and culture of the target language. The translator should recognize the type of texts to be translated.The aim of translation is to enrich the target language both linguistically and culturally. In order to avoid misunderstandings, translators have to look out for the lexical content and syntax, as well as ideologies, value systems and ways of life in a given culture. Therefore, translators have to know their audience very well. Translation involves at least two languages and two cultures.In the early stages of translation theory, according to Tour, translation was defined as replacing a text in one
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar language by another in a different language, with the two texts having approximately the same meaning.Integration or rejection awaits every work of translation. Obviously, our interest lies in integration, which is surely the characteristic of a successful translation. The translator moves cautiously between the two extremes of foreignization and familiarization.The translator has to be careful not to make the characters in the translation too native, and behave exactly as the members of the target culture do. Culture should be considered a vital component of translation. Lack of adequate knowledge of culture causes difficulty in comprehending a text full of cultural references . Thus the main aim of translation is to enrich the target language, both linguistically and culturally. Every language is couched in its culture and it is doubtful if a language can be replaced by another without some of the source culture being carried over during the process of translation. However, a translator acts as a mediator between the source culture and the target culture.A translation which carries with it too many foreign elements may never become integrated into the new culture; and integration is the surest proof of a successful translation. Rejection means that a translation has failed. The role of the translator in mediating source ideas across cultural and national boundaries places him or her in a unique position in particular for understanding a range of development issues. Translating narratives from the global South is an invaluable source of knowledge about unfamiliar languages, indigenous cultures and experiences, and is immensely useful for gaining an understanding of non-European societies. Moreover, translation can also have a critical influence in politics and can act as an agent for reconciliation or social integration. Translations can therefore have a distinct effect on how global and human rights issues can be conveyed and communicated. A derivative describes a work that is related to a previously existing original. We currently have two common types of derivatives: adaptation and translation. Adaptation uses the original as a rough template for a new text. Translation is more or less a direct copy of the original in a different language. Somewhere between these two types is transposition. Transcreation basically means recreating a text for the target audience, in other words translating and recreating the text.Transcreation is used to make sure that the target text is the same as the source text in every aspect: the message it conveys, style, the images and emotions it evokes and its cultural background. You could say that transcreation is to translation what copywriting is to writing. So in this globalized era translation has a significant role in bridging different cultures and people belonging to different cultures. Translation is necessary to make us understand the variety of culture, customs and tradition followed by the people around us. It’s important to bring cultural integrity among students. Reading a literary work of another country help us to compare and validate our literature with that of the other. So Translation definitely possess a prominent role in today’s literary scenario. TRANSLATION THEORIES AND PRACTICES SOFIYA AZAD,M. PHIL SCHOLAR, PSGR KRISHNAMMAL COLLEGE FOR WOMEN. “Good theory is based on information gained from practice. Good practice is based on carefully worked-out theory. The two are interdependent (Larson 1)”. The ideal translation will be accurate to meaning of the source language text into the target language. The success of a translation is measured by how closely the reader has understood the translation. Three elements to be noted for ideal translation, the first one is
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar accurate: reproducing as exactly as possible the meaning of the source text, the second one is natural: using natural forms of language, which is appropriate to the kind of text being translated. And the last one is communicative: the matter should be expressed in a understandable manner for the readers. In translation theory plays the major role, it assists to abstract the meaning and form of the text and should reproduce in another language without changing its contents in the target language. Translation, then, consists of studying the lexicon, grammatical structure, communication situation, and cultural context of the source language text, analyzing it in order to determine its meaning, and then reconstructing this same meaning using the lexicon and grammatical structure which are appropriate in the receptor language and its cultural context. (Larson l998, p. 3) According to Newmark, “translation theory is concerned mainly with determining appropriate translation methods for the widest possible range of texts or text-categories” (Mendoza 19). It also provides a frame work of principles, restricted rules and hints for translating texts and criticizing translations, a background for problem solving. Any theory should also be concerned with translation strategies adopted to address difficulties and problems in certain complicated texts. Some of the translation theories are philological theories, linguistic theories and socio-linguistic theories. Philological theories rely upon ‘philology’ as the study of the development of language, and the classical literary studies. They are mainly concerned with the comparison of structures in the native and foreign languages, especially the functional correspondence and the literary genres in addition to stylistics and rhetoric. Linguistic theories of translation are based on the comparison of the source language and the target language rather than the comparison of the stylistic and rhetoric features of the Philological theories. Their development is due to two factors: first, the application of the rapidly expanding linguistics, the scientific study of language, to several fields such as cognitive anthropology, semiotics, pragmatics, and teaching translation/ interpreting skills; and second, the emergence of Machine Translation (MT) which has provided a significant motivation for translation procedures on linguistic analysis as well as for a rigorous description of Source Language and Target Language. Sociolinguistic theories endeavours to link translation to communicative theory and information theory, with special emphasis on the receptor’s role in the translation process. They do not completely overlook language structures; instead they deal with it at a higher level in accordance to their functions in the communicative process. These structures may involve rhetorical devices or figures of speech such as simile, metaphor, irony, hyperbole, etc.,in both literary and non-literary texts. These theories require the translator exhibit language competence as well as language performance. In practice, there is considerable variation in the types of translations produced by translators. Some translators work only in two languages and are competent in both. Others work from their first language to their second language, and still others from their second language to their first language. Depending on these matters of language proficiency, the procedures used will vary from person to person. If sometimes, a translation team carries a project, to translate a information from one language to another, when the team members works out separately then the outcome also vary from individual to individual. There is also some variation depending on the purpose of a given translation and the type of translation that will be accepted by the intended audiences. Translating practices makes the translator to improve his translating skill by achieving the three abilities. By search he attains flexibility, by using the most
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar appropriate word he attains accuracy and to convey the information in a comprehensible way, he attains clarity. All these things is important for a translation practice. The work of translation is no more a haphazard thing. It should be done methodically and systematically to bring out the essence of writing. Some of the hints, for the practitioner to practice translation in a effective manner. Translation is essential for communicative activity, to practice one should involve in oral and written interactions. The translation practice is not suitable for class room exercises because it consumes time in practical work. To translate a text, one should proceed step by step, the first step is to read the text completely and gather the idea of the text. The things which kept in mind are the level of language, the referential level, the cohesive level- the line of thought and level of naturalness. Finally to revise the work has done. By practicing and following all these steps one can be good translator. Newmark adds a warning “Finally all you have is words to translate and you have to account for each of them”(37). By knowing various theories and treatise on the art of translation one can feel the emotional elements in the other languages also. Thus the theories and practices in the art of translation indulge a person to flourish in the field of translation. Works cited
o “Translation Studies- Susan Bassnett.” Books. Google. Com. Language Arts and Disciplines. 2002. Web. 25 Jan. 2014 o Larson, Mildred L., editor. 1991.” Translation: theory and practice.” Seasite. niu.edu. American Translators Association scholarly monographs, 5. Binghampton. Web. 26 Jan 2014. o Mendoza Anne Titong. “ A textbook of translation by Newmark.” Slideshare.net . Linkedin Corporation. 17 Jun. 2013. Web. 25 Jan 2014.

ZINGER STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF THE BIBLE TRANSLATION IN THE WORLD OF LITERATURE MANJUSHA C B, II M A ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE BISHOP APPASAMY CAS According to the definitions in various dictionaries, translation is “The process of transferring written text from one language into another. Anything that is written in one language can be translated to another language. For example the translation of the Holy Bible from Hebrew language to other languages. The objective of the paper is to bring out the impact of the Bible translation in the field of literature. It also focuses on the need of translation, process of translation and the outcome of translation process. Translation is a beautiful process. This has helped many readers to read and understand things in their own language. It cannot be said that all of us are professionals in all the three thousand languages. One who knew to speak and read English may not be well versed in Tamil. Though English is considered the official language, does it mean that everyone is literates in English? There are people who do not know to read English but they speak. When such people listen to various interesting facts and stories read by their associates in English, they often feel they have missed something worth. For such people, the art of translation has helped to bridge the gap created because of language. The process of translation is an ornate one. It involves the dedication of the translator, strong command over vocabulary and language, grammar and the ability to understand the content as such without doing any inclusion or exclusion to the subject. It
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar is the duty of the translator to ensure that the real essence of the original text is retained even in the translated language. It is because often people go for transliteration when an equivalent word cannot be found. This mars the real sense of the context. The Bible is the account of God's action in the world and his purpose with all creation. The writing of the Bible took place over sixteen centuries and is the work of over forty human authors. It is a quite amazing collection and is found to be in different styles all containing the message of how a life of man ought to be, the price of sin, the miracles, how lord protects and guide his children etc.,.This compilation of booklets contains an astonishing variety of literary styles. It provides many stories about the lives of good and bad people, about battles and journeys, about the life of Jesus along with letters written to groups of Christians that met in homes. It comes to us in narratives and dialogues, in proverbs and parables, in songs and allegories, in history and prophecy. The accounts in the Bible were not generally written down as they occurred. Rather they were told over and over again and handed down through the years before someone finally wrote them down. Yet the same themes may be found throughout the book. So along with the diversity there is also a remarkable unity. On the whole, it is a guide for living life to the full. It gives us a road map for the perilous journey of life. In other words, it is an account on our voyage through life's ocean. Bible translation has helped people to learn and understand the God’s purpose on mankind. In the beginning, since it was in Hebrew language, everyone was not able to read the word of God. Slow development in the field of technology and the enhancement of language by various writers paved way for the process of Bible translation. This has helped even a layman to read and to abide to the word of God. It is considered ta living book. The introduction of the printing press ensured that this Holy Book reached the hands of the needy. Translating The Bible is not an easy task. There are so many issues encountered by the translators. A few are linguistic barriers, lack of equivalent words, need for transliteration etc. The principle of closest equivalence is designed to avoid awkward literalness on the one hand and justified interpretations on the other. These translations are in the regular idiomatic form of the language. This principle also implies the avoidance of interpretive renderings. In the Malayalam Bible, the rhetorical expression in Heb. 1:1-4 is translated with simple constructions. For the use of opening formulas and connecting particles by the Gospel writers in the Greek New Testament, there are no consistent renderings in any of the English as well as in most of the Indian versions. In addition to linguistic concerns, theological issues also drive Bible translations. Some translations of the Bible, produced by single churches or groups of churches, may be seen as subject to a point of view by the translation committee. When Timothy was undergoing suffering, Paul encouraged him to hold fast to the Scriptures, saying that “all Scripture is breathed out by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness, “that the man of God may be complete, equipped for every good work.” (2 Tim 3:16-17) From this we can learn that one key purpose of Scripture is to equip believers for good works. We need to be able to read the Bible so that we can pursue holiness and true worship of God. Hence, without a prior and proper knowledge of the Bible, it is not advisable to translate it. Even in the book of Revelation, there is a verse which means that one who tries to alter the word of God will be doomed. Apart from the mentioned above, The Bible translation has its own impact in the literature world. Many writers like Milton, Bunyan, Silvia Plath, Marlowe etc., have made use of the scripture to add colours to their creation.

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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar In the great epic Paradise Lost, the richness of the text would have been lost if Milton has not made use the Biblical allusions starting from Genesis chapter one. There are many references that could be found in the poem which are from the book of Numbers, Exodus and Psalms. Milton has reached the zenith of success as a poet by this usage of grand references. In John Bunyan’s Pilgrims Progress, the characters itself depict the scripture. It is called the Biblical allegory as Bunyan has brought out that one who searches God from the depth of the heart truly will be saved. The need for the confession of sins and other various canonical elements are revealed in the work. “What God says is best, is best, though all the men in the world are against it.” The mentioned quote is from Pilgrims Progress. And it is uttered by Christian. It has its reference in Psalms 48:14. Which states that the word and the promise of God will be there even the world ends. “There, said they, is the Mount Zion, the heavenly Jerusalem, the innumerable company of angels, and the spirits of just men made perfect. (Heb. 12:22-24)You are going now, said they, to the paradise of God, wherein you shall see the tree of life, and eat of the never-fading fruits thereof; and when you come there, you shall have white robes given you, and your walk and talk shall be every day with the King, even all the days of eternity. (Rev. 2:7, 3:4, 21:4) There you shall not see again such things as you saw when you were in the lower region upon the earth, to wit, sorrow, sickness, affliction, and death, for the former things are passed away. You are now going to Abraham, to Isaac, and Jacob, and to the prophets-men that God hath taken away from the evil to come, and that are now resting upon their beds, each one walking in his righteousness. (Isa. 57:1,2, 65:17)” These are a few Biblical references that are employed by Bunyan in his work. All these references brings out the greatness of the wonder working God. Similarly, in Dr. Faustus by Christopher Marlowe, the entire play revolves around the importance of confessing our sins and the need to plead God to pardon the sins committed by mankind. The playwright ensures that if man confesses and asks God for purgation, his sins will be pardoned. This theme could be related to a verse from The Bible as follows “ For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life inChrist Jesus our Lord.” (Romans 6:23) As John 19:30 states, “ When he had received the drink, Jesus said, “It is finished.” With that, he bowed his head and gave up his spirit.” This is what Marlowe has brought out through the character Dr. Faustus. He has penned down that the creator of the world has given up his life for mankind and to ensure that every soul reaches the heavenly abode and lives with the Holy one. Even the American poet Sylvia Plath has addressed herself as Lady Lazarus. Where Lazarus is a Biblical character. The presenter is of the view that, if The Bible had not been translated into English, all these great hands would have remained as a mystery. The common readers would have not understood the Biblical references that are found in the works of the literary writers. How would it had been if The Holy Bible is not available in English and if it had remained only in Hebrew language? Ninety percent of people would have remained illiterates in basic scripture understanding. The translation of The Bible has laida strong impression in the literature world. Not only in English but in other literature as well.

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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar Moreover, without the art of translation, the parables, wonders and miracles done by God the savior would have remained as a fact to the people who knew Hebrew and Greek and as a myth to people who does not know to read the language. It is said right that, every creation of hand is an art, and the art of translation is a beautiful and a best art. Thus, the impact of translation of The Bible has very exquisitely rendered its hand in the world of literature. REFERENCES 1. Eugene A. Nida, Bible Translation: An Analysis of Principles and Procedures, With Special Reference to Aboriginal Language (London: UBS, 1961), 62. 2. F.W. Schelander, "In the Marathi NT", The Bible Translator Vol. 14, No. 4 (Oct., 1963), 178ff. 3. Peter Cotterell and Max Turner, Linguistics and Biblical Interpretation (London: SPCK, 1987), 28. 4. Hellmut Haus, "The New Testament in Today’s German Version", The Bible Translator Vol. 19, No. I (Jan., 1968), 171f. THE IMPORTANCE OF TRANSLATION STUDIES FOR DEVELOPMENT EDUCATION D.AJITHKUMAR, I M A ENGLISH RVS CAS The article presents case studies where translation has played a crucial role in bringing new learning and wider understanding to rich, indigenous cultures in India and South Africa thereby enabling languages to become more widely ‘utilized and promoted through education, working towards formal protection by the respective state constitutions and curricula’. Translation is not merely an interlinguistic process. It is more complex than replacing source language text with target language text and includes cultural and educational nuances that can shape the options and attitudes of recipients. Translations are neer produced in a cultural or political acuum and cannot be isolated from the context in which the texts are embedded (Dingwaney and Maier, 1995:3). As David Katan in Translating Cultures puts it: …the translator is a nilingual mediating agent between monolingual communication participants in two different language communities’ (2004:16). Therefore translators not only have to be intermediaries between different language systems, but also have to be intercultural mediators- or as it has been stated by Aniela Korzeniowska and PiotrKuhiwczak in successful Polish-English Translation Tricks role in our understanding of the cultural ‘other’. The role of the translator in mediating source ideas across cultural and national boundaries places him or her in a unique position in particular for understanding a range of development issues. Translating narratives from the global south is an invaluable source of knowledge about unfamiliar languages, indigenous cultures and experiences, and is immensely useful for gaining an understanding of non-European societies. Moreover, translation can also have a critical influence in politics and can act as an agent for reconciliation or social integration. Translations can therefore have a distinct effect on how global and human rights issues can be conveyed and communicated. The aim of this article is to emphasise different aspects of the translation process that are often misunderstood during a mainly linguistic and uncreative operation where one set of textual material is replaced by another. Firstly focus on ‘unifying’ aspects of translation in view of the current situation in South Africa where there are eleven official languages recognized by the constitution, but where English has become a dominant
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar language. Secondly, I will discuss the newly discovered koro language and the difficulties that accompany its translation, a perception based on the Whorfian hypothesis that language is shaped by the world in which we live. This is where the translation of a language will allow us to open the doors to unknown cultural and linguistic environments. Translations are never a product of a cultural void and these is a general agreement between translation scholars that ‘in seeking to transport words (and sentences and texts) from one language to another, the translator cannot merely search for equivalent words in the target language to render the meaning of the source’ (Dingwaney and Maier, 1995:3). The role of the translator is to mediate source ideas across cultural and national boundaries placing him or her in a unique position to understand various development issues. Thus translating narratives from the global South is an invaluable source of knowledge about unfamiliar languages and cultural experiences and is immensely useful for gaining and understanding of different societies for development education purposes in particular. In South Africa, the social as well as political need for translation is immense. At present there are eleven official languages confirmed by the constitution in South Africa, not two as in previous years, although some critics would argue that official multilingualism is a façade given the dominance of English. In consequence, English has regularly become the only means of communication in everyday political, business and educational life. The urgent need for the translation of indigenous books and other forms of literature in South Africa was the central topic of scholarly debate in 2009 at the institute for Comparative Literature and Society at Columbia University (Ibid: 17). They all concurred that in such a multilingual country, the translation of a African literature and culture should be treated as a matter of primary national importance in that it would contribute to spreading the knowledge about lesser known social and linguistic groups such a Zulu or Xhosa. Translation can be seen in this context as an act of mediation and ‘a form of reconciliation’ between the periphery and centre, the dominant and aspiring cultures. The linguistic difficulties encountered was the translation of the term ‘black hole’ that literally ‘in a direct Afrikaans translation would be “swartgat” – the infamous derogatory term for ‘indigenous Africans’. The team of translators used their creative skills and constructed new words instead of ‘simply Zulu-ifying the English word’. It can also be observed in the reversed process where the English language lacks an equivalent term as in the case of the Afrikaans word ‘mede-menslikheid’ which literally menas ‘fellow-human-ness’. Some scholars in South Africa claim that ‘the officialization of the various African languages was more a gesture than anything else’. Another example where translation facilitates the understanding of global South cultures is in the case of the newly discovered Koro language, an indigenous language that linguists have stumbled upon while researching Aka and Miji-two minority languages spoken in India. Koro was discovered during an expedition in 2008 that was a part of National Geographic’s ‘Enduring voices’ project. Aka tribe has not influenced koro to a significant extent and that the differences in sounds between the two languages can be compared to the difference between English and Japanese. \ The challenge of translation in this case amounts to more than the lack of the written form. Gregory Anderson, stressed that koro depicts ‘reality in very different ways’. State that koro ‘uniquely codes knowledge of the natural world in ways that cannot be translated into a major language.Koro words reflect the unique perception of the surrounding world by this north eastern Indian tribe. The language could provide an invaluable insight into their world view, their values system and their perception of the
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar environment in which they live. The role of translation in development education becomes self-evident as K. David Harrison, who introduced koro to the rest of the world, suggests: ‘Language revitalization will prove to be become of the most consequential social trends of the coming decades. This pushback against globalization will profoundly influence human intellectual life… (2010: 12). Translation can play a number of different roles such as a ‘unifying’ or constructing new words but also, most crucially, as a source of knowledge about foreign, lesser known cultures. Thus, translation is not merely a linguistic process, but can also make a political and social impact. The translation process can be viewed as a way of introducing linguistic as well as cultural equality by enabling Xhosa, Zulu, or koro, to become languages utilized and promoted through education, working towards formal protection by the respective state constitutions and curricular. Moreover, translation can act as a ‘bridge’ between the global North and the global South. The translation of this language will allow us to open the doors to an unknown cultural and linguistic world. ROLE OF TRANSLATORS S.ATHISAYAMANI & R.S.HEMADHARRANI II BA ENGLISH, RVS CAS Imagine a world with hundreds of languages having no one in the entire population who can speak a second language. Communication? A sure dead air. Growth? Impossible to achieve. Culture? Stagnant and unshared. Professional translators will never let this happen. With diverse cultures and languages worldwide, professional translators serve as instruments for three essential human functions: communication, development and culture promotion. How? In Communication It is a basic instinct of man to communicate. And to communicate only means that the original message will be clearly sent in its equivalent context to the target audience. The main role of translators is to send the message across without any form of distortion or emphasis. That’s why it is an imperative that only professional translators handle the sending process. Also, maintaining and building good relationships is an essential to an individual’s healthy living. Communication is vital to maintaining and creating those relationships. But how can one build or sustain a sound relationship across the world if there’s lack of understanding to one another? With professional translators it is possible. The main job of translators is simple – provide an effective means of communication. Efficient communication is not only to translate an original text by wordper-word basis. It’s delivering the genuine context of the message to the language that the target person understands. This task of professional translators is not a piece of cake as it demands nothing less than accuracy. A single mistake in context translation can result to offensive message that can eventually lead to misunderstandings between people. With full content management, skilled translators take care of every single detail of the translation process, no matter how big or small. Professional language translation services make the client feel confident that every word reads and sounds locally correct. Accurate content and context are key to quality communication. In Growth and Development Growth and development can be achieved through fair trading or exchange of knowledge and resources. In business, not only that it is essential to understand the culture of the
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar target clients but to communicate efficiently using their local language. This is another key role of professional translators. Universal growth of any business requires employing not less than professional translation services to convert a single message to almost all languages in the world. The more languages a single message can be translated, the higher the possibility to reach diverse people. It is only when there’s freedom in exchanging goods and skills that global progress can be attained. And nothing can aid in this better than professional translators. Culture Sharing In able to appreciate, promote or share culture across continents, it is important that to have an in-depth understanding of it. Again, with the help of skilled translators, it is feasible. The best manifestation of this role of translators is seen on beauty pageants. Candidates can freely promote their culture to the international scene but the job of professional translators can’t be taken for granted. Without them, culture promotion will remain unshared and uncultivated. Events that encourage culture sharing are quite impossible, if not chaotic. Translating is a complex task that demands expertise. It offers three indispensable functions that man constantly needs. With such great and crucial responsibility only professional translators have the ability to carry out the tasks. Some of the translators are:  Rabindranath Tagore-The Geethanjali  A.K.Ramanujam –The Flowering Tree, The Tamil Sangam Poetry EMANCIPATION OF BLACK WOMEN IN ALICE WALKER’S THE COLOUR PURPLE INTO CHINESE TRANSLATION D.BABITHA I M A ENGLISH RVS CAS The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe the features translated texts and the emancipation of black women in the translation of Afro-American Vernacular English into Chinese. In this study, the parallel corpus consists of Celie’s use of black dialect in The Color Purple and its three Chinese translations produced in Taiwan by Huiquian Chang, Zu-wei Lan and Ji-quing Shi. It was found that these three translators provide service to conform the idiomatic expressions and structures of the target language. The readability of the three Chinese translations remains high, and such help inevitably results in fluent translation. Lawrence Venuti has warned translators that a fluent translation can produce harm effect on minimizing the foreignness in the source text. To remedy this problem, this study suggests that translators who choose not to represent the prominent preface, so the readers have a chance to appreciate the writer’s deliberate use of a particular language style. Alice Malsenior Walker, born on February 9, 1944, in Eatonton, Georgia, is an Afro-American author. The Pulitzer Award for the fiction, The Color Purple records Alice Walker the first Black women to win this honorable award. She was also the first black women to win the National Book Award. Alice Walker, whose Southern background has a profound influence on her writing and her permanent concern about the black woman’s struggle, is highly acclaimed Afro-American writer of novels, poems and essays.
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar The Color Purple is an epistolary and most well-known novel. It is about the life of a poor young woman named Celie and her struggle with her stepfather who is sexually abused her and then forced to marry a man who physically abuses her. It also tells the story of her more than thirty-year quest for independence and she is fighting her way through racist white culture but patriarchal black culture. It was a resounding commercial success. Heeding her step father’s warning about “telling nobody but God” because “it’d kill your mammy” (Walker, 1983, p. 1.) at the very start of the story, Celie writes letters to God to express her distress. She had a deeply distressing experience physically and psychologically, her difficult situation is conveyed by means of Afro-American Vernacular English (AAVE) in these letters. This deliberate use of AAVE is considered to be a rich representation of black folk’s speech, but it has posed unusual challenges to translators who attempt to represent and preserve its unique linguistic qualities. Not much attention has been paid to the problem of rendering the unique linguistic characteristics of Afro-American Vernacular English in Chinese. After the publication in the USA, The Color Purple was translated worldwide. In The Color Purple, feminism is interrelated. Throughout story Celie, Julia, and Shung Avery are extremely mistreated by men. Their experiences are considered small because they are always subordinate to them. Through the collection of letters that Celie wrote, the reader can see the development of a frightened young woman who has little regard for herself and one another. Shung Avery struggles to be successful in life. Celie has been constantly troubled throughout her life to keep up her right. When she was only a little girl, her step father abused her. He then sells her to a man named Mr. Albert who had no intention of loving her, Mr. Albert verbally and physically abuses her. He expects her to manage all the household chores and demands her to take care of his kids. “They look at me there struggling with Mr. Albert’s children” (CP 45). If Celie attempts to refuse to oblige, she is punished. Her husband and step children mistreat her. Her sister-in-law Kate and her sister Nettie advise her to fight back. Through all these events, Celie has lost her respect and is forgotten to be loved by others. Her husband refers her as “You skinny You shape funny “(186). Her life is in darkness without a single trace of light. In the past, women had dreams of feeling free or being successful, yet they never fulfilled their fantasies due to their inferiority to men. However, by helping one another and teaching them to feel alive, women can overcome all obstacles, no matter what the given situation is women have conquered their subordinate status. They no longer need to feel degraded or mirthless because of men in both physical and emotional labour. They can defeat their laborious dilemmas and they can overcome all obstacles. Through different stages of Celie’s life, Walker has underlined the fact that despite their horrible circumstances, the black women are able to raise their collective voice against the patriarchal order and attain an autonomous state. All these women gradually redefine themselves with their own efforts and with the help of the other women. They emerge as liberated, confident, empowered, strong and independent women. Walker as a black feminist writer has always been concerned with the plight of black women and through her works. In The Color Purple she shows the determination of black women to overcome all oppressions and come up as liberated being. Thus Albert points out Celie as “YOU known, he says. YOU look real good friend since you been in Memphis” (229). It is notable that three translations found in Taiwan accompanied the film adaptation of this novel directed by Steven Spielberg in 1984. The three Chinese translations in Taiwan rode on the coattails of, and were influenced by, the adapted film. Hui-qian Chang, Zu-wei Lan and Ji-quing Shi translated The Color Purple for different
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar publishing companies and their works were all published in 1986. Chang’s translation was published by Crown Publishing Company. In the preface, three book reviews from The New York Times Review, San Francisco Chronicle and New York Book Review are cited and discussed in detail, and the numerous Academy Award nominations for the film are also noted. Lan’s translation was published by the Christian Cosmic Light Holistic Care Organization. Because of his experience as a movie-critic, he chronicles Spielberg’s efforts in directing the film in the postscript of the translation. Shi’s translation was published by Da-di Publishing house. She confesses in the preface that is the easiest and yet the most difficult book she has ever translated. Rather than give the unique characteristics of AAVE an authentic representation, opts for the plainest Chinese expressions to maintain the simple and unadorned style of Celie’s writing. In addition to the Indo-European languages, Font Support b y ParaConc makes it possible to examine Chinese texts. ParaConc currently can handle four texts at most, which means that Walker’s source text can be compared with three Chinese translations at the same time. The advantage of running four texts simultaneously is that it not only aids the purpose of judging the source text against any one of the three translations, but it is also useful for evaluating the differences between the three translations. It is constructed to examine the translational features of AAVE manifested in three Chinese translations of The Color Purple. The statistical results of text length generated by WordSmith first show that both Chang’s translation (52’709) and Lan’s translation (59’869) are longer than the original (52,145). Shi’s translation is the shortest due to the omission of several passages about the sexual relationship between two of the female protagonists, Celie and Shug. If the passages Shi has omitted are also deleted from Walker’s original, there will be more words in Shi’s translation (50’910) than in the source text (47,944). It is found that the three translators are inclined to clarify the meaning of the original rather than offer a literal translation that could be misunderstood. The reason for clarification is that an AAVE sentence with double or multiple negation rendered in literal Chinese might be easily interpreted as positive. Double or multiple negation in AAVE actually confuses the three Chinese translators. Both Chang and Lan have eight sentences mistranslated, and Shi has three. The paper mentioned about the features rendered in the translation into Chinese shows that the translators tend to minimize the uniqueness of AAVE by using grammatical Chinese renderings. As they conform to the syntactic structures and expressions of Chinese language to render AAVE texts, the distinctive linguistic characteristics of AAVE inevitably disappear in the target texts. Due to this disappearance, readers of the three Chinese translations may not suspect what they read actually a translated text, especially if the original author’s name is also removed. Nevertheless, without distorting the original content of the novel, communicative goal of each Chinese translation is achieved because readers understand the gist of the story, mainly about an Afro-American woman’s struggle for independence. The readability of the three Chinese translations remains high, but such rendering inevitably results in fluent translation. Lawrence Venuti also argues that foreignization is a non-fluent method designed not only to make translators visible but also to inform readers that the translations originate from a foreign culture. Reference Walker, Alice. The Color Purple. London: Orient Books, 1983. Bannerjee, Swapan Kumar. Feminism in Modern English Drama. Delmer, Rosalind. How to Study a Novel. Malaysia: Macmillan, 1983. 192-201. Green, L. J. (2002). African-American English: A linguistic introduction. Cambridge.
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar Hatim, B. and Mason, I. (1997). The Translator as a Communicator. London. PORTRAYAL OF HAYAVADANA AS INDIAN MYTHOLOGY AND FOLK D.DHARANYA I M A ENGLISH RVS CAS This paper high lights on Girish Ragunath Karnads translated work Hayavadana. Karnad is the foremost playwright of the contemporary Indian stage. He is a versatile poet and so his style and theme varies in each of his plays. In his work HAYAVADANA he indicates Indian Mythological theme and it resembles Indian Folk literature. Most of his plays are based on the theme of Mythologies and about Indian Culture. Even though he make use of Indian Mythologies he take them only in part and the rest he deals with his own imagination. In his three plays he used it as introduction which shows his view about Myth. The Myth had enabled me to articulate to myself a set of values that I had been unable to arrive at rationally - Karnad Girish Karnad was born in 19th May, 1938 at Maharashtra. He has written eight plays in Kannada and he himself translated four of them into English. Those English plays are Hayavadana, Tughlag , Naga-Mandala and Tale-Danda. The source of Hayavadana is derived from a tale in Brihat Kathasaritsagara an eleventh century collection of Indian Folk tales by Somadeva. Its adaptation was found in Thomas Mann’s Transposed Heads. Both these works are based on the same theme as transposon of heads and in search of completeness. Hayavadana won the Natya Sangh Best Play Award in 1971. He also won India’s highest Civilian award Padma Bhushan in 1992. Hayavadana explores the dramatic potential of the ancient Indian Myths, Legends and Folk traditions. The story Hayavadana contains two major parts the first one is the story of Hayavadana. Meaning of Hayavadana is A man with a Horse’s head. It is a celestial being in form of horse in which he married the Princess of Karnataka and they had a child with the appearance of horse head and human body he was called as Hayavadana. The sub plot of Hayavadana, the Horse-man expose the main theme of incompleteness. The horseman’s search for completeness ends comically by becoming as a complete horse. The animal body triumphs over what is considered to be best in man The Uttamanga ,The human head. And the second one is the story of Padmini. This story deals with three major characters such as Padmini, Devadata and Kapila. Friendship between the Intellectual, Devadata and the Man of Body, Kapila. And the love between these three characters . Padmini who was the wife of Devadata adores Devadatta’s intellect but loved Kapilas physique. The drama moves curiously when the friends kill themselves by their love. But they restructured with their heads it was dramatically transposed. Padminis dilemma leads the story and it was ended with the death of all three characters O Elephant headed Herambha whose flag is victory And who shines like a thousand suns, ….. destroyed of incompleteness - Hayavadana Hayavadana begins with the description of Lord Ganesh (Myth), Ganesh who has elephant’s head on a human body, with a broken tusk and cracked belly, who himself being an Embodiment of Imperfection, of incompleteness, is worshipped as The Destroyer of Incompleteness. The play opens and closes with invocation of Ganesh according to Hindu philosophy Lord Ganesh is the god of joy and success. Therefore he is to be worshipped in the beginning of every work and also thanked at the successful completion of that work.
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar Karnad with his artistic skill he combines Myth and Reality, Past and Present and he portrays the complexities of the modern life. This play is centered by the philosophical questions like, Is the individual’s identity is derived from the head or the body? And raises the issue of perfection and imperfection. He used the Indianised expressions which highlights the effects of the myth. Words like Punya, Arati, Sati, Sadhus, Fakirs, Gandharva, Kalpavriksha, Vigneshwara etc., have used frequently. Devadata: One has to collect merit in seven lives to get a friend like him Padmini: You are my saffron, my marriage thread, my deity Bhagavata: While the scare crow on the bank has a face fading on its mudpot head and a body torn with memories These are the few Indian Idioms which portrates our Indian Culture. Caste occupations were also exposed by the characters in this novel such as Devadata a learned Brahmin who is interested in writing poetry, he was physically unfit. Kapila a Kshatriya, he is a wrestler and is physically strong. Karnad deals with traditional myths to expose modern man’s anguish. He interprets age-old human situation with reference to contemporary experience. In Hayavadana he deals with the theme of incompleteness through Padmini’s strong wish for unattainable perfection. Even though they were restructured with their heads only the Moral problems were solved but the Psychological problems remains the same. Padminis lust for complete human was explored in the end of this story by handing over his son to Bagavata by saying that give his son to hunter who lives in forest and tells him as the son of Kapila and to take him away from the forest at the age of five and give him to Brahmin Vidyasagara of Dharmapur and to tell him as the son of Devadata. By this we can examine the mind of Padmini and his lust for complete human. The four Purusharthas (Values/Goals of life) Dharma, Artha, Karma, and Moksha plays a significant role. Padmini finds herself in confused state she wants to find a complete being as her partner she goes again in search of Kapila. Her emotions related to Artha and Karma author raises questions about Dharma and Moksha. The play presents the conflict between the Adharma and Uttama values. Artha and Karma are considered as lower values it was termed as Adharma while Dharma and Moksha are considered as Uttama or higher values these are considered as the effects of myth. Commenting the use of techniques of Classical and Folk theatre in India Karnad says. The energy of folk theatre comes from the fact that although it seems to uphold traditional values, it also has the means of questioning these values of making them literally stand on their head. -Karnad The presence of Goddess Kali reveals the religious sentiment in Indian society, Culture and Psychology. The elements of Supernatural plays a vital role in his plays. He used Folk tales, Masks, Curtains, Mime, Songs, the Narrator, Dolls, Horse man, The story within a story, Mixture of Human and Non Human to create a magical world. Karnad’s use of supernaturals like Kali is used to display the reconciliation with ones own self and the environment. Thus the Myth requires new dimensions in the creative hands of Karnad. Karnad begins his play with Nandi and concludes it with the Bharatavakaya recalling the tradition of ancient Sanskrit drama. Karnad’s plays reflects the culture of our society. He takes inspiration from mythology and folklore. With Hayavadana Karnad has taken us back to the myths and legends of Hindu religion. In this way he presents various problems of contemporary society. Reference
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar 1. James R. Bernett , 1982 “An Interview with Girish Karnad” New Quest no.36. NovDec 1982, pg: 339-342 2. Karnad , Girish (1994) three plays : Hayavadana, New Dehli: OUP 3. Kurtkoti, Kirtinath (1994) : “Introduction to Hayavadana”, New Dehil: OUP 4. Barthes, Roland, Methologies 1957 Newyork, Hill and Wang 1972. ROLE OF TRANSLATORS V.DINESHRAJKUMAR & M.KOKILA II MA ENGLISH RVS CAS . Role of a translator and different ways of translation: The role of translator is basically to transform information from one language to another to make it more understandable. He is a trained professional who has the capability of addressing social and cultural differences when translating. A translator is someone or something that can interpret different languages. Many travelers use translators so that the translator can tell them what someone is saying in a different language. There are many tools used for translating one language to another. To translate we must learn the language and understand the differences. Translators are wonderful tools as they break the language barrier and allow us to communicate effectively. Learning to become a translator requires lots of work, unless you already have a strong background in a foreign language. A translator may have different roles and writer is one of those. It all depends how they perform in their role of a writer as by doing translation they have a great mind with creativity and ideas and that’s why they don’t find complexity or difficulty in doing different types of translation like a document translation, language to language or even medical or legal translation. In this paper, we want to say about how translators lost the essence or originality while translation. The original message will be clearly sent in its equivalent context to the target audience. The main role of translators is to send the message across without any form of distortion or emphasis. Translating is a complex task that demands expertise. It offers three indispensable functions that man constantly needs. With such great and crucial responsibility only professional translators have the ability to carry out the tasks. The main job of translators is simple – provide an effective means of communication. Efficient communication is not only to translate an original text by wordper-word basis. It’s delivering the genuine context of the message to the language that the target person understands. Anna Bernacka considers the role of the translator as a mediator between cultures. Rather than merely supplanting one form of words for another, the translator has the capacity to enhance our understanding of development issues and indigenous cultures by mediating ideas across cultural and national boundaries. The article presents case studies where translation has played a crucial role in bringing new learning and wider understanding to rich, indigenous cultures in India and South Africa thereby enabling languages to become more widely ‘utilized and promoted through education, working towards formal protection by the respective state constitutions and curricula’ An interpreter is a mediator for people who are dealing with language barriers. There are interpreters available for almost languages, including sign language. Usually to become an interpreter you have to demonstrate fluency in two languages. This demonstration is usually in the form of a passing test score in the languages in question. An interpretive essay is an essay that talks about how you feel about a subject. It involves your interpretation of something and how you decide to present that interpretation.
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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar Qualification of good interpreter:  Interpreters find it difficult to make a living from the art if they don't possess, at a minimum, the following skills:  Knowledge of the general subject of the speeches that are to be interpreted.  General knowledge and intimate familiarity with both cultures.  Extensive vocabulary in both languages.  Ability to express thoughts clearly and concisely in both languages.  Excellent note-taking technique for consecutive interpreting. The Communicative Role of the Translator: The Translator as Writer According to Belloc, translating is writing, and the work of the translator can be compared to work of the source writer. For this reason, the translator’s writing must be a quality work too. In other words, the quality of the translation cannot depend only on a formal adherence to the source text, as could be the product of a simple transcoding. Rather, the correspondence between the source text and the target text should be based on communication analysis, since communication is the core and purpose of writing. Therefore, the translator must also be a good communicator and writer. In this paper, we want to say about how translators lost the essence or originality while translation. The original message will be clearly sent in its equivalent context to the target audience. The main role of translators is to send the message across without any form of distortion or emphasis. Translating is a complex task that demands expertise. It offers three indispensable functions that man constantly needs. With such great and crucial responsibility only professional translators have the ability to carry out the tasks. The main job of translators is simple – provide an effective means of communication. Efficient communication is not only to translate an original text by wordper-word basis. It’s delivering the genuine context of the message to the language that the target person understands. For example Tamil poet Thiruvalluvar’s thirukural translated by Sri V.V.S.Aiyar and G.U.Pope. They translated from Tamil to English in approximately meaning but some essence of original text is missing. How? 1.அகர ? தல எ? ? ெத? லா? ; ஆதி பகவ? ? த? ேற உல? . Sri V.V.S.Aiyar ^= áë= íÜ É= ëí~êíáåÖ Jéçáåí= çÑ = íÜ É= ï çêäÇ= çÑ = ëçì åÇW b î Éå= ëç= áë= íÜ É= ~åÅ áÉåí= çåÉ= ëì éêÉã É= íÜ É= ëí~êíáåÖ Jéçáåí= çÑ = ~ää= íÜ ~í= ÉñáëíëK G.U.Pope ^ I= ~ë= áíë= Ñ áêëí= çÑ = äÉííÉêëI= Éî Éêó= ëéÉÉÅ Ü = ã ~áåí~áåëX qÜ É= ?éêáã ~ä= ÇÉáíó?= áë= Ñ áêëí= íÜ êçì Ö Ü = ~ää= íÜ É= ï çêäÇ?ë= Ççã ~áåëK 2.அட? க? அமர? ? உ? ? ? ? ; அட? காைம ஆ? ? ? உ? ? ? வ ? ? . Sri V.V.S.Aiyar pÉäÑ =Å çåíêçä=äÉ~ÇÉíÜ =ì åíç=Ü É~î ÉåI=ì åÅ çåíêçääÉÇ=é~ëëáçå=áë=íÜ É=êçó~ä=êç~Ç=íç=ÉåÇäÉëë= Ç~êâåÉëëK G.U.Pope ` çåíêçä= çÑ = ëÉäÑ = ÇçÉë= ã ~å= Å çåÇì Å í= íç= Ä äáëë= íÜ ?= áã ã çêí~äë= ëÜ ~êÉX = fåÇì äÖ ÉåÅ É= äÉ~Çë= íç= ÇÉÉéÉëí= åáÖ Ü íI= ~åÇ= äÉ~î Éë= Ü áã = íÜ ÉêÉK =
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = ^ ë=íÜ ÉëÉ=íï ç=Éñ~ã éäÉë=Ü ~î É=ëÜ çï åI=íê~åëä~íáçå=Å ~å=éä~ó=~=åì ã Ä Éê=çÑ = ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåí=êçäÉë=ëì Å Ü =~ë=~=?ì åáÑ óáåÖ ?=çê=Å çåëíêì Å íáåÖ =åÉï =ï çêÇëK =q Ü É=çêáÖ áå~ä=áë=~äï ~óë= çêáÖ áå~äK =k ç=çåÉ=Å ~å=íê~åëä~íÉ=íÜ É=Éñ~Å í=ÉëëÉåÅ É=ï Ü ~í=áë=áå=íÜ É=çêáÖ áå~ä=íÉñíK =q áää=åçï = íê~åëä~íçêë=Ü ~î É=íêáÉÇ=íç=Ö áî É=~å=Éñ~Å í=ã É~åáåÖ =Ä ì í=íÜ Éó=ã áëëÉÇK =_ ì í=çåÉ=~Çî ~åí~Ö É=áå= íê~åëä~íáçå= ï Ü áäÉ= íê~åëä~íáåÖ = ï É= êÉ~Ç= ~åçíÜ Éê= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK THE ART OF FAILURE: IN POEM TRANSLATION ^K d ^ v ^ q e o f= C= j K j l l o q e f= ff= j K ^= b k d i fpe = o s p= ` ^p = = = = = = = = = = q ê~åëä~íáçå= áë= ~å= ~åÖ äáÅ áòÉÇ= Ñ êçã = çÑ = ~= i ~íáå= ï çêÇK = få= áíI= íê~åë= ã É~å= ?~Å êçëë?= ä~íì ã = ã É~åë= ?íç= Å ~êêó?K = få= äáíÉê~ä= íÉêã I= áí= áë= ~å= ~êí= çÑ = Å ~êêóáåÖ = ~Å êçëëI= Ä çì åÇ~êáÉë= ~åÇ= Ä ~êêáÉêë= ï áíÜ çì í= äçëáåÖ = íÜ É= ã ~íÉêá~ä= íÜ ~í= áë= Å ~êêáÉÇ= çî ÉêK = q ê~åëä~íáçå= áë= ~= íçì Ö Ü = àçÄ X = áí= áë= ÇáÑ Ñ áÅ ì äí= íç= íê~åëä~íÉ=~=äáíÉê~êó=éáÉÅ É=áí=áë=ã çêÉ=ÇáÑ Ñ áÅ ì äí=íç=íê~åëä~íÉ=~=éçÉã I=áí=áë=ã çëí=ÇáÑ Ñ áÅ ì äí=íç= íê~åëä~íÉ=~=éçÉã =êÉí~áåáåÖ =íÜ É=êÜ óã É=~åÇ=íÜ É=ã ÉíêÉK =få=íê~åëä~íáåÖ =~=éçÉã I=çåÉ=çÑ =íÜ É= äáíÉê~êó= Ö ÉåêÉëI= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íçêë= ~êÉ= ~äëç= äáâÉäó= íç= Ñ ~Å É= ëáã áä~ê= éêçÄ äÉã ëK ?q ê~åëä~íçêë=~êÉ=íÜ É=ëÜ ~Ççï =Ü ÉêçÉë=çÑ =äáíÉê~íì êÉI=íÜ É=çÑ íÉå=Ñ çêÖ çííÉå=áåëíêì ã Éåíë=íÜ ~í= ã ~âÉ= áí= éçëëáÄ äÉ= Ñ çê= ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåí= Å ì äíì êÉ= íç= í~äâ= íç= çåÉ= ~åçíÜ Éê?Jm ~ì ä= ^ ì ëíÉê = = = = = = = = = = ^= ã ~å= å~ã ÉÇ= h çî ~á= h áòÜ ~ê= Ü ~ë= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= pÜ ÉääÉó?ë= äçî É?ë= éÜ áäçëçéÜ ó= áåíç= q ~ã áä= ~ë=?â~ÇÜ ~ä=q Ü ~íÜ ì î ~ã ?=Ü ÉêÉ=íÜ ÉêÉ=~êÉ=ã çêÉ=ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåÅ Éë=Ä Éíï ÉÉå=çêáÖ áå~ä=î Éêëáçå=~åÇ= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= î ÉêëáçåK = få= q ~ã áä= ï êáíÉêë= íÜ Éó= Ñ çääçï = ëçã É= äáíÉê~êó= Ñ çêã ë= äáâÉI= b Çì Ö ~áI= j çå~áI= ^ åáI= qÜ çÇ~áI= fó~áÄ ì I= ÉíÅ ? I= äáâÉ= íÜ ~í= áå= b åÖ äáëÜ = éçÉíë= ~êÉ= ì ëÉÇ= äáíÉê~êó= Ñ çêã ë= ~ääáíÉê~íáçåI= páã áäÉI= j Éí~éÜ çêK = j ÉíêÉI= oÜ óã ÉI= éçÉíáÅ = ÇáÅ íáçå= ~åÇ= Ñ áÖ ì êÉ= çÑ = ëéÉÉÅ Ü K Uniqueness of poem:  m çÉíêóI=Ä ó=áíë=î Éêó=å~íì êÉ=Å ~ååçí=Ä É=íê~åëä~íÉÇK =fÇÉ~ë=~åÇ=íÜ çì Ö Ü íë=Å ~å=Ä É= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= Ä ì í= íÜ Éó= ~êÉ= åçí= ã çëí= éçÉíáÅ = é~êí= çÑ = éçÉíêóK  c çêã = áë= íÜ É= î áí~ä= éêçéÉêíó= çÑ = éçÉíêóK  fí=ÇáëíáåÖ ì áëÜ Éë=éçÉíêó=Ñ êçã =éêçëÉ=éäÉ~ëì êÉ=~êáëÉë=Ä ÉÅ ~ì ëÉ=çÑ =Ä É~ì íó=çÑ =ï çêÇI= ã ì ëáÅ = çÑ = íÜ É= äáåÉ= ~åÇ= Ä ÉÅ ~ì ëÉ= çÑ = íÜ É= éçÉã ?ë= ~ééÉ~ä= íç Éã çíáçå= ~åÇ= áã ~Ö áå~íáçåK =  ^= éçÉã = áë= äáâÉ= é~áåíáåÖ = çê= ã ì ëáÅ K The problems of poem translation: = = = = = = = = = = qÜ É= éêÉÅ áëáçåI= íÜ É= Ä êÉî áíóI= íÜ É= Å çã é~Å íåÉëëI= íÜ É= Å çåÅ áëÉåÉëëI= íÜ É= Ä É~ì íóI= íÜ É= î áÖ çêI= íÜ É= Ü ~êã çåóI= íÜ É= ã ÉäçÇóI= íÜ É= Å Ü ~êã = ~åÇ= íÜ É= Ö ê~Å É= Ñ çì åÇ= áå= íÜ É= çêáÖ áå~ä= Å ~ååçí= Ä É= Ä êçì Ö Ü í= çì í= áå= íÜ É= êÉåÇáíáçåK = Alliteration, ~ëëçå~åÅ É= ~åÇ= çåçã ~íçéçÉá~= Å ~ååçí= Ä É= éêÉëÉêî ÉÇ= áå= íÜ É= êÉåÇáíáçå= Ñ êçã = çåÉ= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= áå= íç= ~åçíÜ ÉêK A double bondage íç=ã ÉíêÉ=~åÇ=êÜ óã É=ã ~âÉë=éçÉíêó=íê~åëä~íáçå=Ççì Ä äó=Ü ~êÇK =o çÄ Éêí= Ñ êçëí= áÇÉåíáÑ áÉë= ?éçÉíêó= ~ë= íÜ ~í= ï Ü áÅ Ü = áë= äçëí= áå= íê~åëä~íáçå?K = = = = Love’s philosophy: = = = = = = = = = = ^ =éçÉã =íÜ ~í=ëÜ çï ë=~=ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåí=ëáÇÉ=çÑ =pÜ ÉääÉó=ï Ü ç=ï ~ë=~=Ö êÉ~í=o çã ~åíáÅ I=~ë= áã ã ÉêëÉÇ= áå= íÜ É= éÉêëçå~ä= ~ë= Ü É= ï ~ë= áå= íÜ É= éçäáíáÅ ~äK = qÜ áë= áë= ~= äáÖ Ü íI= ëï ÉÉíI= ëÉÇì Å íáî É= éçÉã I= íÜ É= ã ~äÉ= å~êê~íçê= êÉèì ÉëíáåÖ = ~= âáëë= Ñ êçã = Ü áë= Ñ Éã ~äÉ= ã ì ëÉK = ` çã éçëÉÇ= çÑ = íï ç= ëÉÅ íáçåëI= É~Å Ü = ï áíÜ =ÉáÖ Ü í=äáåÉë=~äíÉêå~íÉäó=êÜ óã ÉÇ=~Ä ~Ä Å ÇÅ ÇI=Ñ çêã =ÉÅ Ü çÉë=Å çåíÉåí=~ë=äáåÉ=Ä êÉ~âë= ëçã Éíáã Éë=Ñ ~ää=çå=äáÖ Ü íI=Ñ Éã áåáåÉ=ÉåÇáåÖ ë=ëì Å Ü =~ë=?êáî Éê?=L =?ëáåÖ äÉ?I=~åÇ=ëçã Éíáã Éë=çå= ëíêÉëëÉÇI= ã ~ëÅ ì äáåÉ= ÉåÇáåÖ ë=? ?çÅ É~å?= L =?É~êíÜ ?= ? ã áåÖ äáåÖ = ~ë=íÜ É=éçÉí=áåíÉåÇë= ã ~å= ~åÇ= ï çã ~å=íç=?ã áåÖ äÉ?K = ^ =ã çëíäó=i ~íáå~íÉ=î çÅ ~Ä ì ä~êóI=Ñ ì ää=çÑ =Ñ çì åí~áåëI=ã ççåÄ É~ã ë=~åÇ= ëì åäáÖ Ü íI= ÇçÉë= Éñ~Å íäó= ï Ü ~í= áí= ë~óë= çå= íÜ É= íáå = = = = = = = = = = få= íÜ É= éçÉíêó= Å êÉ~íáçåI= éçÉíë= ì ëÉ= ã ~åó= ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåí= ï êáíáåÖ = íÉÅ Ü åáèì ÉëK = qÜ çëÉ= ~êÉ= Symbolism, íÜ É= ì ëÉ= çÑ = ëóã Ä çäë= êÉéêÉëÉåíë= êÉ~ä= íÜ áåÖ ëI= Ñ ÉÉäáåÖ ëI= ÉíÅ K = qÜ É= áã ~Ö Éë= Å êÉ~íÉÇ= Ä ó= ëóã Ä çäáëã = ~êÉ= î Éêó= Å çã éäáÅ ~íÉÇK
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar Figure of speechI=Ñ êçã =íÜ É=Ñ çêã =çÑ =ÉñéêÉëëáçå=áå=éçÉã ëI=íÜ É=Ñ áÖ ì êÉ=çÑ =ëéÉÉÅ Ü =Å ~å=Ä É= Çáî áÇÉÇ= áåíç= íï ç= Å ~íÉÖ çêáÉë= Jëáã áäÉ= ~åÇ= ã Éí~éÜ çê= páã áäÉK Simile, íÜ É= ì ëÉ= çÑ = Å çã é~êáëçå= çÑ = çåÉ= íÜ áåÖ = íç= ~åçíÜ ÉêK Metaphor áë= ï çêÇë= íç= áåÇáÅ ~íÉ= ëçã ÉíÜ áåÖ = ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåí= Ñ êçã = íÜ É= äáíÉê~ä= ã É~åáåÖ K = Personification áë= íÜ É= êÉéêÉëÉåí~íáçå= çÑ = ~= íÜ áåÖ = çê= ~Ä ëíê~Å íáçå= áå= íÜ É= Ñ çêã = çÑ = ~= éÉêëçå= ~ë= áå= ~êíK LOVE’S PHILOSOPHY qÜ É= Ñ çì åí~áåë= ã áåÖ äÉ= ï áíÜ = íÜ É= êáî Éê ^ åÇ= íÜ É= êáî Éêë= ï áíÜ = íÜ É= çÅ É~åI qÜ É= ï áåÇë= çÑ = Ü É~î Éå= ã áñ= Ñ çê= Éî Éê t áíÜ = ~= ëï ÉÉí= Éã çíáçåX k çíÜ áåÖ = áå= íÜ É= ï çêäÇ= áë= ëáåÖ äÉI ^ ää= íÜ áåÖ ë= Ä ó= ~= ä~ï = Çáî áåÉ få= çåÉ= ~åçíÜ Éê?ë= Ä ÉáåÖ = ã áåÖ äÉJ t Ü ó= åçí= f= ï áíÜ = íÜ áåÉ\ pÉÉ= íÜ É= ã çì åí~áåë= âáëë= Ü áÖ Ü = Ü É~î ÉåI ^ åÇ= íÜ É= ï ~î Éë= Å ä~ëé= çåÉ= ~åçíÜ ÉêX k ç= ëáëíÉêJÑ äçï Éê= ï çì äÇ= Ä É= Ñ çêÖ áî Éå= fÑ = áí= ÇáëÇ~áå?Ç= áíë= Ä êçíÜ ÉêX ^ åÇ= íÜ É= ëì åäáÖ Ü í= Å ä~ëéë= íÜ É= É~êíÜ I ^ åÇ= íÜ É= ã ççåÄ É~ã ë= âáëë= íÜ É= ëÉ~J t Ü ~í= ~êÉ= ~ää= íÜ ÉëÉ= âáëëáåÖ ë= ï çêíÜ I fÑ = íÜ çì = âáëë= åçí= ã É\ = = = = = = = = = = = Jm K _K ëÜ ÉääÉó மல?க? த? த? இன? ? டேன ம? வாதி? ? தா? மண? த? ேமா? அ? ண? கதிேரா அவன ெதா? ? அ? ? லிநைகேயா அைலய ? ? ? ? அ? ேப? ? த? அ? ளாேய? அைற? த ெபா? ெள? ேன?] Jேகாைவ கிழா? [இவ? றி?

காத? த? ? வ? அ? வ நீ? ? ஆ? றி? [வ ? ? ] ஆ? ? கடேலா டைண? ? வ ? ? ஆகாய? தி? அைச? கேளா அக? தி? க? கிவ? ? . உண?? சி?

இ? நில? தி? ெபா? ? எ? ? ? இ? பதி? ைல தன? தன ேய இைறவ? வ தியா ெவ? ெவ? ேம இைண? ? எம? கிைலேய. ம? வ ? ? ர ? ? அைலகெள? லா? மைலமா? வ ? ைண ? ? தமி? ?
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore ISBN: 978 93 80800 23 3

அ? தா?

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar ^Å Å çêÇáåÖ =íç=pêá=^ ì êçÄ áåÇç=íÜ ÉêÉ=~êÉ=íï ç=ï ~óë=çÑ =íê~åëä~íáåÖ =éçÉíêóK =l åÉ=íç=âÉÉé= ëíêáÅ íäó= íç= íÜ É= ã ~ååÉê= ~åÇ= íì êå= çÑ = íÜ É= çêáÖ áå~äI= íÜ É= çíÜ Éê= áë= íç= í~âÉ= áíë= ëéáêáíëI= ëÉåëÉI= áã ~Ö Éêó= ~åÇ=éêçÇì Å É=íÜ Éã =Ñ êÉÉäóI=ëç=~ë=íç=ëì áí=íÜ É=åÉï =ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK =e ÉêÉ=h çî ~á=h áòÜ ~ê=Ü ~ë=Å Ü çëÉå= pÜ ÉääÉó?ë=?i çî É?ë= m Ü áäçëçéÜ ó?=íê~åëä~íÉÇ=áåíç=q ~ã áäK =q Ü É=íê~åëä~íÉÇ=ï çêâ=ëÜ çì äÇ=Ä É= ~ééêÉÅ á~íÉÇ=Ä ì í=íÜ É=çêáÖ áå~ä=áë=äçëí=áå=íÜ É=íê~åëä~íáçå=î ÉêëáçåK =pçã ÉíÜ áåÖ =áë=äçëí=áå=íÜ É= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= ï çêâK = e É= Ü ~ë= ì ëÉÇ= ëçã É= íÉÅ Ü åáèì Éë= áå= q ~ã áä= ï Ü áäÉ= íê~åëä~íáåÖ = íÜ É= éçÉã K = _ ì í= áí= ÇáÇ= åçí=Ö áî É=çêáÖ áå~ä=Ñ ä~î çê=çÑ =íÜ É=éçÉã K =^ åóï ~ó=íê~åëä~íáçå=Ü Éäéë=ì ë=íç=ì åÇÉêëí~åÇ=çíÜ Éê= Å çì åíêáÉë= Å ì äíì êÉ= íê~Çáíáçå= ~åÇ= ëç= çåK = pç= íê~åëä~íáçå= áë= åÉÉÇÉÇ= áå= äáíÉê~êó= Ö ÉåêÉK r p^ d b = ^ka = l _ pq ^ ` i b = l c= q o ^ k pi ^ q fl k = fk q e ^ h ^ we f= pfs ^ p^ k h ^ o ^ = = m fi i ^ f?= CHEMMEEN iK gb b s fq e ^ f= j K ^= b k d i fpe o s p= ` ^p qÜ É=éêçÅ Éëë=çÑ =íê~åëä~íáçå=~ë=áí=áë=Ö ÉåÉê~ääó=ì åÇÉêëíççÇ=çÑ íÉå=áã éäáÉë=äçëë=çÑ =ëì Ä íäÉ= äáåÖ ì áëíáÅ =åì ~åÅ Éë=~åÇ=Å ì äíì ê~ä=Ñ ä~î çê=áå=íÜ É=í~êÖ Éí=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK =^ êÉ=íÜ ÉêÉ=Å çã éçåÉåíë=íÜ ~í= ëì êî áî É=íê~åëä~íáçå=~åÇ=~ééÉ~ä=íç=?çíÜ Éê?=Å ì äíì êÉë=~åÇ=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É\ =q Ü áë=é~éÉê=~ííÉã éíë=íç= ~åëï Éê= íÜ áë= èì Éëíáçå= Ä ó= Ñ çêÉÖ êçì åÇáåÖ = íÜ É= j ~ä~ó~ä~ã = ï êáíÉê= qÜ ~â~òÜ ápáî ~ë~åâ~ê~m áää~á?ë` Ü Éã ã ÉÉåI=ï Ü áÅ Ü =áë=çåÉ=çÑ =íÜ É=ã çëí=íê~åëä~íÉÇ=ï çêâë=áå= j ~ä~ó~ä~ã K =q Ü É=ëì Å Å Éëë=çÑ =` Ü Éã ã ÉÉå=áå=íê~åëä~íáçå=áë=~=ëì êéêáëÉI=Ö áî Éå=íÜ É=Ñ ~Å í=íÜ ~í=áí=áë= ~Ä çì í= ~= î Éêó= ëéÉÅ áÑ áÅ = Å ì äíì êÉI= ï Ü áÅ Ü = áë= çÑ = íÜ É= Ñ áëÜ Éê= Ñ çäâ= áå= íÜ É= Å ç~ëí~ä= êÉÖ áçå= çÑ = ^ ä~ééì òÜ ~= ~åÇ= íÜ ~í= áí= áë= ï êáííÉå= áå= ~å= ~äã çëí= ì åíê~åëä~í~Ä äÉ= Å çääçèì á~ä= j ~ä~ó~ä~ã K = l Ä î áçì ëäó= íÜ ÉêÉ= ~êÉ= Ñ ~Å íçêë=íÜ ~í=Ü ~î É=ëì 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ÉëíëÉääáåÖ =~ì íÜ çêK =e Éê=Ä ççâë= Ü ~î É=Ä ÉÉå=íê~åëä~íÉÇ=áåíç=çî Éê= íÜ áêíó= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉëK `Ü Éã ã ÉÉåáë= Ü Éê= Ñ áêëí= ï çêâ= çÑ = íê~åëä~íáçåK = qÜ É= Ö ç~ä= çÑ = íÜ áë= Éñéçëáíáçå= áë= íç= ~ííÉã éí= ~å= ~åëï Éê= íç= íÜ áë= èì Éëíáçå= Ä ó= Ñ çêÉÖ êçì åÇáåÖ = íÜ É= b åÖ äáëÜ = íê~åëä~íáçå= çÑ = ~= j ~ä~ó~ä~ã = åçî Éä= `Ü Éã ã ÉÉåI= ï êáííÉå= Ä ó= qÜ ~â~òÜ ápáî ~ë~åâ~ê~m áää~á= áå= N V RSK = = = = = q ê~åëä~íáçå= ëíì ÇáÉë= Ü ~î É= Éã ÉêÖ ÉÇ= çî Éê= íÜ É= é~ëí= íÜ áêíó= óÉ~êë= ~ë= ~= åÉï = áåíÉêå~íáçå~ä= ~åÇ=áåíÉêÇáëÅ áéäáå~êó= ~Å ~ÇÉã áÅ =Ñ áÉäÇK =få=íÜ É=íáã É= ëé~å=Ä Éíï ÉÉå=íÜ É= Ñ áÑ íáÉë=~åÇ=íÜ É= ëÉî ÉåíáÉë= íê~åëä~íáçå= ëíì ÇáÉë= Ñ çêã ÉÇ= ~å= áåíÉÖ ê~ä= é~êí= çÑ = ~ééäáÉÇ= ~åÇ= Ö ÉåÉê~ä= äáåÖ ì áëíáÅ ë= ï Ü áÅ Ü = ï ~ë= ëÉÉå= ~ë= íÜ É= ëçäÉ= ëçì êÅ É= çÑ = íê~åëä~íáçå= ëíì ÇáÉëI= g~ã Éë= e çäã Éë= E N V U U xN V TO zW STJU M F = ï ~ë= íÜ É= Ñ áêëí= íç= éêçî áÇÉ= ~= Ñ ê~ã Éï çêâ= Ñ çê= íÜ áë= ÇáëÅ áéäáåÉ= ~åÇ= áå= ÇçáåÖ = ëç= Ü É= Çáî áÇÉÇ= áí= áåíç= íï ç= éêáåÅ áéäÉ= ~êÉ~ëW 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Å íì êÉëK =l å=íÜ É=çåÉ=Ü ~åÇ=íÜ ÉêÉ=~êÉ=íÜ É=ëÉã ~åíáÅ =Å çåíÉåí=~åÇ=íÜ É= Ñ çêã ~ä= Å çåíçì ê= çÑ = íÜ É= çêáÖ áå~äI= çå= íÜ É= çíÜ Éê= Ü ~åÇ= íÜ É= ÉåíáêÉ= ëóëíÉã = çÑ = ~ÉëíÜ ÉíáÅ = Ñ É~íì êÉë= Ä çì åÇ=
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar ì é= ï áíÜ = íÜ É= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= çÑ = íÜ É= íê~åëä~íáçåK = q ê~åëä~íáçå= ï çêâë= äáâÉ= ~= ã ~Ö áÅ K = fí= çéÉåë= íÜ É= Ö ~íÉ= çÑ = çééçêíì åáíóK = fí= áë= àì ëí= äáâÉ= íÜ É= m ~åÇçê~?ë= _ çñ= çÑ = çééçêíì åáíóK = fí= áë= ~= Ö êÉ~í= ã É~åë= ~åÇ= ã ÉÇáì ã = çÑ = áã éçëíì êÉIÉñéçëì êÉ= ~åÇ= Éñéçì åÇáåÖ = Éñèì áëáíÉ= èì ~äáíáÉë= çÑ = ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= ~åÇ= äáíÉê~íì êÉK = qÜ ÉêÉ= áë= åçí=ÇÉ~êíÜ =çÑ =Ö ççÇ=íê~åëä~íçêë=åçï ~Ç~óë=Ä ì í=f=ï ~åí=íç=ëì Ö Ö Éëí=íÜ É=Ö êÉ~í=äáíÉê~êó=Ñ áÖ ì êÉ=çÑ = î Éêë~íáäÉ= Ö Éåáì ëI= íÜ É= Ñ áêëí= ã ~å= áå= ^ ëá~å= Å çåíáåÉåí= ï Ü ç= ï çå= íÜ É= k çÄ Éä= m êáòÉ= Ñ çê= äáíÉê~íì êÉK = e É= ï ~ë= o ~Ä áåÇê~k ~íÜ = q~Ö çêÉK `Ü Éã ã ÉÉåE íê~åëä~íÉÇ=~ë=?ëÜ êáã é?F =ï ~ë=éì Ä äáëÜ ÉÇ=áå=N V RSI=~åÇ=Ä ÉÅ çã É=íÜ É=Ñ áêëí= j ~ä~ó~ä~ã =åçî Éä=íç=ï áå=íÜ É=p~Ü áó~^ â~ÇÉã á=éêáòÉK =fí=ëçäÇ=ï Éää=áå=j ~ä~ó~ä~ã =~åÇ=ï ~ë= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= áåíç= åì ã Éêçì ë= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö Éë= áå= fåÇá~= ~åÇ= ~Ä êç~ÇK = qÜ É= Ñ áêëí= Ñ çêÉáÖ å= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= íê~åëä~íáçå= ï ~ë=áåíç=íÜ É=` òÉÅ Ü =ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É=Ä ó=h ~ã áäpÉä~Ä áäK =^ Å Å çêÇáåÖ =íç=a K `K =h áòÜ ~ââÉã ì êáI=íÜ É= íÜ éì Ä äáëÜ Éê=çÑ `Ü Éã ã ÉÉåáå=h Éê~ä~I=íÜ É=åçî Éä=ëçäÇ=Q Q IM M M =Å çéáÉë=ì é=íç=áíë=N V ÉÇáíáçå=áå= j ~ä~ó~ä~ã = ~åÇ= RTIM M MÅ çéáÉë= áå= íÜ É= ` òÉÅ Ü = ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK = a` = êÉã áåÇë= ìK = ?v çì = ã ì ëí= åçí= Ñ çêÖ Éí= íÜ ~í= íÜ É= åì ã Ä Éê= çÑ = ` òÉÅ Ü = ëéÉ~âÉêë= áë= åçí= Éî Éå= Ü ~äÑ = íÜ É= åì ã Ä Éê= çÑ = ã ~ä~ó~äáë?E m êÉÑ ~Å É= íç= íÜ É= Ñ áêëí=ÉÇáíáçå=çÑ `Ü Éã ã ÉÉåF K =q Ü É=áåíÉêëÉã áçíáÅ =íê~åëä~íáçå=áåíç=íÜ É=Å áåÉã ~íáÅ =ã ÉÇáì ã =ï ~ë= Éèì ~ääó=ëì Å Å ÉëëÑ ì äK =fí=ï çå=íÜ É=m êÉëáÇÉåí?ë=d çäÇ=j ÉÇ~ä=Ñ çê=_ Éëí=c áäã =áå=N V SQ I=~åÇ=áë= Å çåëáÇÉêÉÇ=~=Å ä~ëëáÅ I=åçíÉÇ=Ñ çê=áíë=~Å íáåÖ I=Å áåÉã ~íçÖ ê~éÜ ó~åÇ=ã ì ëáÅ K =pç` Ü Éã ã ÉÉåI=áå=áíë= çêáÖ áå~ä= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= ~åÇ= áíë= áåíÉêäáåÖ ì ~ä= ~åÇ= áåíÉêëÉã áçíáÅ = íê~åëä~íÉÇ= Ñ çêã ëI= Å ~å= Ä É= Å çåëáÇÉêÉÇ= ~å= ~êíáëíáÅ =~åÇ=Å çã ã ÉêÅ á~ä=ëì Å Å ÉëëK =` Ü Éã ã ÉÉå=ï ~ë=íê~åëä~íÉÇ=áåíç=b åÖ äáëÜ I=o ì ëëá~I=d Éêã ~åI= fí~äá~åI=^ êÄ áÅ I=c ê~åÅ É=~äçåÖ =ï áíÜ =ëÉî Éê~ä=fåÇá~å=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö Éë=~åÇ=ï ~ë=íê~åëä~íÉÇ=áåíç=b åÖ äáëÜ = ã ~åó= íáã ÉëK = k ~ê~ó~å= j Éåçå?ë= íê~åëä~íáçå= íáíäÉÇ= ^ k d bo = l c= qe b= pb ^ = d l a a b ppêÉã ~áåë î Éêó= éçéì ä~ê=Éî Éå=íç=íÜ áë= Ç~óK =l íÜ Éê=b åÖ äáëÜ = íê~åëä~íáçåë= ~êÉq K pK m áää~á= ~åÇ= ^ åáí~=k ~áê=Ä çíÜ = íáíäÉÇ= `Ü Éã ã ÉÉåK qÜ ~â~òÜ ápáî ÉëÜ ~å~â~ê~m áää~á= E N T= ^ éêáä= N V N O JN M = ^ éêáä= N V V V F = ï ~ë= ~= åçî Éäáëí= ~åÇ= ëÜ çêí= ëíçêó= ï êáíÉê= çÑ = j ~ä~ó~ä~ã = ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK = `Ü Éã ã ÉÉå= áë= åçí= íÜ É= Ñ áåÉëí çÑ = qÜ ~â~òÜ á?ë= ï çêâëK = e É= áë= çåÉ= çÑ = íÜ É= Ä Éëí= åçî Éäáëí= çÑ = h Éê~ä~I= éÉêÜ ~éë= Éî Éå= çÑ = fåÇá~= ~åÇ= ï çå= íÜ É= gå~åéáíÜ = ~ï ~êÇ= áå= N V U Q K = e É= Ü ~ë= ï êáííÉå= åì ã Éêçì ë= ëÜ çêí= ëíçêáÉë= Ä ÉëáÇÉë= åçî Éäë= äáâÉ= o ~åÇáÇ~åÖ ~òÜ áI= qÜ çííáóì ÇÉj ~â~åI= b åáéé~Çáâ~ä= ~åÇ= Ü áë= ã ~ëíÉêéáÉÅ É= h ~ó~åK = e É= ï êçíÉ= ëÉî Éê~ä= åçî Éäë= ~åÇ= ëÜ çêí= ëíçêáÉë= çî Éê= SM M K = qÜ ~â~òÜ á= Ü áã ëÉäÑ = Ü ~ë= Å çåÑ ÉëëÉÇ= íÜ ~í= `Ü Éã ã ÉÉå= áë= ~= Ä áí= çÑ = ~= ?m ~áåâáäá?I= ï Ü áÅ Ü = ã É~åë= ã ì ëÜ ó= çê=ëÉåíáã Éåí~ä=äçî É=ëíçêóK =j çêÉçî ÉêI=áí=áë=~=äáåÖ ì áëíáÅ =åáÖ Ü íã ~êÉ=~ë=Ñ ~ê=~ë=íÜ É=íê~åëä~íçê=áë= Å çåÅ ÉêåÉÇI= Ä ÉÅ ~ì ëÉ= íÜ É= Å Ü ~ê~Å íÉêë= ëéÉ~â= íÜ É= Å çääçèì á~ä= áÇáçã = çÑ = ~= é~êíáÅ ì ä~êäó= ëã ~ää= Ñ áëÜ áåÖ = Å çã ã ì åáíó= íÜ ~í= äáî Éë= çåäó= áå= ~= Ñ Éï = î áää~Ö Éë= çÑ = ^ ä~ééì òÜ ~K = = = = = píêì Å íì ê~ääóI= íÜ É= åçî Éä= áë= ÉñíêÉã Éäó= ëáã éäÉ= éêçÄ ~Ä äó= Ä ÉÅ ~ì ëÉ= q Ü ~â~òÜ á?ë= Å Ü ~ê~Å íÉêáëíáÅ = å~êê~íáî É= ëíóäÉ= áë= ëáã éäÉ= ~åÇ= äáåÉ~êK = qÜ É= íÜ Éã É= çÑ = íÜ É= åçî Éä= áë= ~= ã óíÜ = ~ã çåÖ = íÜ É= Ñ áëÜ Éêã ~å= Å çã ã ì åáíáÉë= ~äçåÖ = íÜ É= Å ç~ëí~ä= h Éê~ä~K = fí= áë= ~Ä çì í= Ñ çêÄ áÇÇÉå= äçî ÉK = fí= áë= ~äëç= ~= åçî Éä= íÜ ~í= Ä ~êÉë= íÜ É= ëÉ~ã ë= çÑ = íÜ É= ã áåÇ= çÑ = ~= Ñ áëÜ Éêã ~å= ï Ü ç= Ö çÉë= çì í= áåíç= íÜ É= ëÉ~K = t Ü ~í= Ä êáåÖ ë= Ü áã = Ä ~Å â= íç= íÜ É= ëÜ çêÉ\ = t Ü ~í= Å ~ì ëÉë= Ü áã = íç= äçëÉ= Ü áë= ï ~ó\ = `Ü Éã ã ÉÉå= áë= ~Ä çì í= Ü çéÉ= ~åÇ= Ü çéÉäÉëë= äçî ÉK = qÜ É= ëíçêó= Å ~å= Ä É= êÉÇì Å ÉÇ= íç= íÜ É= h ~êì íÜ ~ã ã ~= ?m ~êÉÉâì ííó= ?m ~ä~åá= äçî É= íêá~åÖ äÉ= ï Ü áÅ Ü = áë= ëÉí= ~Ö ~áåëí= íÜ É= ã óíÜ = çÑ = íÜ É= h ~Ç~ä~ã ã ~= E ?Ö çÇÇÉëë= çÑ = íÜ É= ëÉ~?F = ï Ü ç= áë= m êÉëÉêî Éê= ~åÇ= a ÉëíêçóÉêK = pÜ É=áë=Ä ÉåÉÑ áÅ Éåí=íç=íÜ É=Ñ áëÜ Éêã Éå=ï Ü ç=äÉ~Çë=~=äáÑ É=çÑ =ã çê~ä=éì êáíóX =Éî Éå=çå=íÜ É=ëíçêã áÉëí= ëÉ~ëI= ëÜ É= Ö ì ~êÇë= íÜ É= Ñ áëÜ Éêã Éå= ï Ü çëÉ= ï áÑ É= êÉã ~áå= Å Ü ~ëíÉ= ~åÇ= éê~óë= Ñ çê= Ü áë= ë~Ñ É= êÉíì êå= ï Ü áäÉ= Ü É= áë= ~í= ëÉ~K = fí= áë= åçí= çåäó= íÜ É= ã ~å?ë= äáÑ ÉI= Ä ì í= íÜ É= äáÑ É= çÑ = íÜ É= Å çã ã ì åáíó= ~ë= ï Éää= íÜ ~í= Ü ~åÖ ë= ì éçå= íÜ É= ã çê~ä= éì êáíó= çÑ = íÜ É= ï çã ÉåK = qÜ É= ä~åÇI= çê= áå= íÜ áë= Å çåíÉñíI= íÜ É= ëÉ~ëÜ çêÉI= áë= áÇÉåíáÑ áÉÇ= ï áíÜ = íÜ É= ï çã Éå?ë= Ä çÇó= Ä ÉÅ ~ì ëÉ= äçÅ ~ä= äçêÉ= ÇÉéáÅ íë= ~= Å Ü ~ëíÉ= ï çã Éå= ï Ü ç= ëì Å Å ÉÉÇë= áå= Ä êáåÖ áåÖ = Ü Éê= Ä ~Å â= Ñ êçã = íÜ É= à~ï ë= çÑ = áã éÉåÇáåÖ = ÇÉ~íÜ K = = = = = = ^ =Ö ççÇ=íê~åëä~íçê= ã ì ëí=Ä É=~= Ö êÉ~í=ëÅ Ü çä~ê=Ä ÉÅ ~ì ëÉ= b åÖ äáëÜ =íê~åëä~íáçå= áë=~= ã ~àçê= Å Ü ~ääÉåÖ É= Ñ çê= ~åó= íê~åëä~íçêK = ?q ê~åëä~íáçå= áë= íÜ É= ÉëëÉåÅ É= çÑ = å~íáçå~ä= ~ë= ï Éää= ~ë= áåíÉêå~íáçå~ä= áåíÉÖ ê~íáçåI=íÜ É=ÇáëÅ çî Éêó=çÑ =íÜ É=ï É~äíÜ =çÑ =Å êÉ~íáî É=ï êáíáåÖ =íÜ êçì Ö Ü =íê~åëä~íáçå=áë=~å= áåëéáê~íáçåK = få= íÜ É=Ü áëíçêó=çÑ = fåÇá~å= ï êáíáåÖ = áå= b åÖ äáëÜ I= íÜ ÉêÉ= Ü ~ë= Ä ÉÉå= íêÉã ÉåÇçì ë= ` çåíêáÄ ì íáçå= Ä ó= ï ~ó= çÑ = íê~åëä~íáçåK = j ~åó= êÉÖ áçå~ä= ï êáíÉêë= ï Ü ç= ~êÉ= ÇçóÉåë= áå= íÜ Éáê= ëéÜ ÉêÉ= çÑ = ï êáíáåÖ =Ü ~î É=Ä ÉÅ çã É=î áëáÄ äÉ=íÜ êçì Ö Ü =íê~åëä~íáçå?=xé~Ö ÉJPQ K =q Ü É=fåÇá~å=gçì êå~ä=çÑ =b åÖ äáëÜ =
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar ëíì ÇáÉë=O M M PJM Q zK =j ~åó=êÉäáÖ áçì ë=Ä ççâë=çÑ =íÜ É=ï çêäÇ=Ü ~î É=Ä ÉÉå=íê~åëä~íÉÇ=áåíç=ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåí= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉëK = fí= áë= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íáçå= çÑ = ?q Ü É= _ áÄ äÉ?= ï Ü áÅ Ü = ÉñéÉåÇÉÇ= íÜ É= `Ü êáëíá~åáíó= áå= íÜ É= ÉåíáêÉ= ï çêäÇX çíÜ Éêï áëÉ= áí= ã áÖ Ü í= åçí= Ü ~î É= êÉ~Å Ü ÉÇ= Ñ êçã = íÜ É= ï Éëí= íç= íÜ É= É~ëíK = ?q Ü É= n ì ~ê~å?= Ü ~ë= ~äëç= Ä ÉÉå= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= áåíç= ã ~åó= çíÜ Éê= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉëK = qÜ É= e áåÇì ë?= êÉäáÖ áçì ë= Ä ççâëI= ?o ~ã ~ó~å~= ~åÇ= íÜ É= d ÉÉí~?= Ü ~î É= ~äëç= Ä ÉÉå= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= áåíç= ã ~åó= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉëK k ç=çåÉ=Å ~å=áÖ åçêÉ=íÜ É=áã éçêí~åÅ É=çÑ =íê~åëä~íáçåK =fí=Ü ~ë=Ä ÉÉå=~Å Å ÉéíÉÇ=Ñ êçã =î Éêó= ~åÅ áÉåí=íáã ÉK áí=ëáÖ åáÑ áÉë=íÜ É=fåÇá~å=ã çííç=çÑ =?_ ^ pr a e ^ f_ =h r q q r j _ h r j ?=Ö äçÄ ~ä= Ä êçíÜ ÉêÜ ççÇK =fí=áë=íÜ É=ã É~åë=çÑ =áåíÉêå~íáçå~ä=áåíÉÖ ê~íáçå=~åÇ=å~íáçå~ä=Å çJçêÇáå~íáçåK áí=áë= éÉêÜ ~éë= íÜ É= éì êÉ= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= çÑ = ã óíÜ = ~åÇ= Ñ çäâí~äÉë= íÜ ~í= íê~åëÅ ÉåÇë= äáåÖ ì áëíáÅ = ~åÇ= Å ì äíì ê~ä= Çáî áÇÉë= íÜ ~í= ã ~âÉë= qÜ ~â~òÜ á?ë` Ü Éã ã ÉÉå= ~= íê~åëä~íçê= Ñ êáÉåÇäó= åçî ÉäK = fíë= ëíêì Å íì ê~ä= ëáã éäáÅ áíó= ã ~âÉë= áí= ~= éêçíçíóéáÅ ~ä= å~êê~íáî É= ï áíÜ = ëóã Ä çäë= íÜ ~í= Å ~å= É~ëáäó= Å çã ã ì åáÅ ~íÉ= íç= ~= êÉ~ÇÉê= áå= Å ì äíì ê~ääó= ~äáÉå= êÉ~äã ëK = páåÅ É= íáã É= áã ã Éã çêá~äI= íÜ É= î çáÅ Éë= çÑ = íÜ É= ëì Ä ~äíÉêå= ~åÇ= ï çã Éå= êÉã ~áåÉÇ= ëì Ä = Çì ÉëK = qÜ ÉëÉ= î çáÅ Éë= çÑ = íÜ É= ëì Ä àì Ö ~íÉÇ= ~åÇ= íÜ É= ã ~êÖ áå~äáòÉÇ= Å çì äÇ= Ä É= Ü É~êÇ= íÜ êçì Ö Ü = íê~åëä~íáçå= çÑ =êÉÖ áçå~ä=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö Éë=áåíç=b åÖ äáëÜ =~åÇ=çíÜ Éê=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉëK =fí=Ü ~ë=Ä ÉÅ çã É=î Éêó=áã éçêí~åí=áå= ã çÇÉêå= Éê~= Ä ÉÅ ~ì ëÉ= äáî áåÖ = áå= ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåí= é~êíë= çÑ = íÜ É= ï çêäÇI= ï É= ~êÉ= ëéÉ~âáåÖ = ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåí= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö Éë= Ä ì í= ï É= ~êÉ= êÉä~íÉÇ= íç= çåÉ= ~åçíÜ Éê= áå= ã ~åó= ï ~óëK = = = = = qÜ ÉêÉ= ~êÉ= ëçã É= ÇÉÑ ÉÅ íë= çÑ = íê~åëä~íáçå= ï Ü áÅ Ü = Å ~å?í= Ä É= áÖ åçêÉÇK = qÜ É= ã çã ÉåíI= ï Ü Éå= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íáçå= çÑ = ~åó= íÉñí= áåíç= ëÉÅ çåÇ= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= áë= ÇçåÉI= áí= äçëÉë= áíë= çêáÖ áå~ä= Ñ ä~î çê= ~åÇ= í~ëíÉ= ï Ü áÅ Ü =Éî Éêó= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É=Ü ~ë= áíë=çï åK =l êáÖ áå~ä= ëéáêáí=çÑ =íÜ É=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É=Å ~å?í= Ä É=íê~åëä~íÉÇI=çåäó= ã É~åáåÖ = áë= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= Ä ì í= åçí= íÜ É= íì ëíêÉ= çÑ = íÜ É= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= äáâÉW ^ ê~ó~å= ? ~= Å ~ëíÉ= ~ã çåÖ = Ñ áëÜ Éêã ÉåK `Ü ~â~ê~= ? íÜ É= Ä áÖ = Å ~íÅ Ü X = çÅ Å ì êêÉåÅ É= çÑ = ã ì ÇJ Ä ~åâë= ~åÇ= ~ééÉ~ê~åÅ É= çÑ = éäÉåíó= çÑ = Ñ áëÜ = Ñ çê= ~= ëÜ çêí= éÉêáçÇ= ~í= ëçã É= éä~Å Éë= ~äçåÖ = h Éê~ä~= Å ç~ëíK h ~ã Ä ~î ~ä~= ? ëíêçåÖ = åÉí h ì êì Å Ü á= ? ~= âáåÇ= çÑ = ëÉ~= Ñ áëÜ j ~ê~ââ~å= ? ~= Å ~ëíÉ= ~ã çåÖ = Ñ áëÜ Éêã Éå j ìÜ ì êíÜ ~ã = ? ~ì ëéáÅ áçì ë= íáã É j ì ââ~î ~å= ? ~= Å ~ëíÉ= ~ã çåÖ = Ñ áëÜ Éêã Éå m çÇ~î ~= ? ï ÉÇÇáåÖ = Å äçíÜ = çê= ë~êÉÉ m çííÉó= ? ~= _ ê~Ü ã áå= Å ~ëíÉ= å~ã É m çííì = ? ~= ÇÉÅ çê~íáî É= ã ~êâ= çå= íÜ É= Ñ çêÉÜ É~Ç r êì äá= ? ëÜ ~ääçï = î ÉëëÉä= ã ~ÇÉ= çÑ = Ä Éää= ã ÉÇ~ä= s ~ä~ââ~ê~å= ? ~= Å ~ëíÉ= ~ã çåÖ = Ñ áëÜ Éêã Éå s ~~é~= ?Ñ ~íÜ Éê ^Å Å Ü ~= ?Ñ ~íÜ Éê= ^ ã ã ~Å Ü á= ? ã çíÜ Éê pì Å Ü =Ñ ~Å íçêë=Ä êáåÖ =Ü áåÇê~åÅ É=áå=íÜ É=ï ~ó=çÑ =íê~åëä~íáçå=~åÇ=ëçã Éíáã Éë=áí=Ä ÉÅ çã É= áã éçëëáÄ äÉ=íç=íê~åëä~íÉ=íÜ Éã =áå=íÜ Éáê=êÉ~ä=ëéáêáíK =få=ëì Å Ü =~=Å ~ëÉ=íÜ É=íê~åëä~íáçå=Ü ~ë=íç= Å çã éêçã áëÉK få=íÜ É=íê~åëä~íáçå=çÑ =çåÉ=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É=áåíç=çíÜ Éê=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK =t É=Ñ ~Å É=Å ì äíì êÉ=ëÜ çÅ â=~åÇ= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= ëÜ çÅ â= ï Ü áÅ Ü = âÉÉé= ì ë= áå= ~= ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåíI= éÉÅ ì äá~êI= éáåÅ Ü áåÖ I= ~åÇ= ì åÅ çã Ñ çêí~Ä äÉ= ëáíì ~íáçå= Çì É= íç= íÜ É= ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåÅ Éë= çÑ = íÜ É= éÉçéäÉ= çÑ = çåÉ= Å ì äíì êÉ= Ñ êçã = çíÜ Éê= Å ì äíì êÉëK = ?Å ì äíì ê~ä= ëÜ çÅ â= ~åÇ= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É=ëÜ çÅ â=Ñ çääçï =~åÇ=íÜ Éó=Ñ áåÇ=íÜ Éã ëÉäî Éë=áå=~=ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåí=ëíê~åÖ É=~åÇ=ì åJÅ çã Ñ çêí~Ä äÉ= ëáíì ~íáçåK = qÜ áë= Ü ~ééÉåë= Çì É= íç íÜ É= ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåÅ É= áå= íÜ É= ï ~óë= éÉçéäÉ= Ñ êçã = çåÉ= Å ì äíì êÉ= Ä ÉÜ ~î É= ~åÇ= íÜ áåâ=áå=~=é~êíáÅ ì ä~ê=ëáíì ~íáçå=Ñ êçã =éÉçéäÉ=áå=~åçíÜ Éê=Å ì äíì êÉK ?=xpÉÅ çåÇ=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉI=fåÇá~I= gçì êå~ä= çÑ = b åÖ äáëÜ = ëíì ÇáÉëI= óÉ~ê= O M M O JM Pz= ` ì äíì ê~ä= áåÑ äì ÉåÅ É= áë= ëç= Ö êÉ~í= çå= íÜ É= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= íÜ ~í= áí= Ä ÉÅ çã Éë= î Éêó= ÇáÑ Ñ áÅ ì äí= íç= íê~åëä~íÉ= áåíç= ~åçíÜ Éê= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK = ^ ååçí~íáçå= çÑ = íÜ É= çêáÖ áå~ä= íÉñí= ~äëç= Å Ü ~åÖ Éë=áå=íÜ É=íê~åëä~íáçå=çÑ =çåÉ=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É=áåíç=~åçíÜ Éê=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK =` ì äíì ê~ä=Ñ ~Å íçê=~åÇ= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= Ñ ~Å íçêë= íç= ëçã É= ÉñíÉåí= Å ~å?í= Ä É= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= áåíç= çíÜ Éê= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉëK

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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar = = = = = få=~åó=Å ~ëÉ=çÑ =íê~åëä~íáçåI=ÉÑ Ñ áÅ áÉåÅ ó=çÑ =íÜ É=íê~åëä~íçê=áë=êÉèì áêÉÇK =fåÉÑ Ñ áÅ áÉåí= íê~åëä~íçêë=Å ~å=íê~åëä~íÉ=?e É~î Éå?=áåíç=?e Éää?=ëì Å Ü =Ä äì åÇÉêë=~êÉ=ÇçåÉ=Ä ó=áåÉÑ Ñ áÅ áÉåí=~åÇ= áêêÉëéçåëáÄ äÉ=íê~åëä~íçêëK =q Ü ÉêÉ=~êÉ=ëç=ã ~åó=ÇÉÑ ÉÅ íë=Çì É=íç=ï Ü áÅ Ü =íÜ É=íê~åëä~íáçå=ï ~ë= íê~Çáíáçå~ääó=Å çåëáÇÉêÉÇ=íç=Ä É=áåíÉêáçê=íç=çêáÖ áå~ä=íÉñíëK =?q ê~åëä~íáçå=~ë=~å=~Å íáî áíó=ï ~ë= íê~Çáíáçå~ääó= Å çåëáÇÉêÉÇ= íç= Ä É= áåÑ Éêáçê= íÜ ~í= áëI= Ä ÉÅ ~ì ëÉ= çêáÖ áå~ä= ï êáíáåÖ = ï ~ë= Å çåëáÇÉêÉÇ= íç= Ä É= ëì éÉêáçêK = fí= ï ~ë= åÉî Éê= ëíì ÇáÉÇ= ëÉêáçì ëäó= ~åÇ= í~âÉå= ~ë= ~= ÇáëÅ áéäáåÉ= ì åíáä= ? ëáñíáÉëK ? = = = = = qÜ ÉêÉ=~êÉ=ëç=ã ~åó=ÇÉÑ çêã áíáÉë=áå=íê~åëä~íáçåK =_ ì í=ÇÉëéáíÉ=~ää=çíÜ Éê=ÇÉÖ ê~ÇáåÖ = Ñ ~Å íçêëI= áí= áë= î Éêó= áã éçêí~åí= Ñ çê= ~ää= Ü ì ã ~å= Ä ÉáåÖ K = fíë= ëáÖ åáÑ áÅ ~åÅ É= Å ~ååçí= Ä É= ì åÇÉêã áåÉÇK = fí= áë= áåëíêì ã Éåí~ä=áå=íÜ É=ÇÉî Éäçéã Éåí=çÑ =ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉI=i áíÉê~íì êÉ=~åÇ=ï çêäÇ=Å ì äíì êÉK =k çï =áí=Ü ~ë= Ä ÉÅ çã É=î Éêó=éçï ÉêÑ ì ä=ï É~éçå=çÑ =ã ~ëë=~ï ~êÉåÉëë=~åÇ=ã ~ëë=Å çåëÅ áçì ëåÉëëK =fí=Å ~ååçí=Ä É= ã ~êÖ áå~äáòÉÇK =q Ü áë=êÉÇì Å íáî ÉäóI=ï Ü áÅ Ü =Ä ÉÅ çã Éë=~å=~Çî ~åí~Ö É=áå=íÜ É=éêçÅ Éëë=çÑ =íê~åëä~íáçåI= ~äëç=Ü ~ë=íÜ É=éçíÉåíá~ä=Çáë~Çî ~åí~Ö É=çÑ =ã ~âáåÖ =~=åçî Éä=~å=~êíáëíáÅ =Ñ ~áäì êÉK =pçã ÉÜ çï I= `Ü Éã ã ÉÉå=ã ~å~Ö Éë=íç=ï ~äâ=íÜ áë=~êíáëíáÅ =íáÖ Ü íêçéÉ=Ñ ~áêäó= ï ÉääI=~åÇ=Ü ìÖ Éäó=ëì Å Å ÉëëÑ ì ääóK =fíë= ~ééÉ~äI=åçí=àì ëí=íç=ã ~ä~ó~äá=êÉ~ÇÉêëI=Ä ì í=íç=êÉ~ÇÉêë=áå=çíÜ Éê=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö Éë=~ë=ï Éää=~ë=áå=çíÜ Éê= ã ÉÇá~I=áë=~ã éäÉ=íÉëíáã çåó=íç=íÜ áëK =?q ê~åëä~íáçå=Å ~å=åÉî Éê=Ä É=ã ~êÖ áå~äáòÉÇK =t áíÜ çì í=áíI= Å çã é~ê~íáî É=äáíÉê~íì êÉ=áë=ì åíÜ áåâ~Ä äÉK =fí=ÇÉ~äë=ï áíÜ =íÜ É=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö Éë=ï Ü áÅ Ü =~êÉ=íÜ É=Ä ~ëáÅ = áåÖ êÉÇáÉåíë=çÑ =Å çã é~ê~íáî É=äáíÉê~íì êÉK =q ê~åëä~íáçå=Ü ~ë=Ä ÉÉå=~=ã ~àçê=ëÜ ~éáåÖ =Ñ çêÅ É=áå=íÜ É= ÇÉî Éäçéã Éåí= çÑ = ï çêâ= Å ì äíì êÉ?K o bcbo bk ` bp N K d ì éí~= m ê~íáÄ Ü ~K = ^Ñ Ñ ÉÅ íáî É= Ñ ~Å íçêë= ~åÇ= ëÉÅ çåÇ= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= äÉ~êåáåÖ = áå= Çáë~Çî ~åí~Ö ÉÇ= d êçì é= çÑ = i É~êåÉêëI= é~Ö ÉJN U K = qÜ É= fåÇá~å= gçì êå~ä= çÑ = b åÖ äáëÜ = ëíì ÇáÉë= î áäK = ui = O M M O JM PK O K fÄ áÇK PK a ~ëJ _ áà~ó=h ì ã ~ê=Ñ êçã =íê~åëä~íáçå=çÑ =_ Ü ~ëÜ ~=i áíÉê~íì êÉ=íç=` çêéçê~íáî É= i áíÉê~íì êÉ= ~åÇ= k ~íáçå= _ ì áäÇáåÖ I= é~Ö ÉJ PV K = qÜ É= fåÇá~å= gçì êå~ä= çÑ = b åÖ äáëÜ = ëíì ÇáÉëI= î çäK = ui = O M M O JM PK Q K _ ~ëëåÉííI= pì ë~åK = E N V U M F = íê~åëä~íáçå= ëíì ÇáÉëI= i çåÇçåW = j ÉíÜ ì ÉåK RK h áòÜ ~ââÉã ì êáI= aK `K = E O M M RF = ?m êÉÑ ~Å É?I= `Ü Éã ã ÉÉåIâçíí~ó~ã W = a`= Ä ççâëK qe SK q Ü â~òÜ ápáî ~ëÜ ~åâ~ê~m áää~á=E N V SO F =` Ü Éã ã ÉÉåIâçíí~ó~ã W =a ` =_ l l h pK =E U ÉÇáíáçå= O M M RF K TK g~âçÄ ëçåI= o çã ~å= E O M M M F = ?l k = äáåÖ ì áëíáÅ = ^ ëéÉÅ íë= çÑ = q ê~åëä~íáçå?= áå= i ~ï êÉåÅ É= s Éåì íá= E ÉÇK F = q ê~åëä~íáçå= píì ÇáÉë= o É~ÇÉêI= i çåÇçåW = o çì íäÉÇÖ É= W = N N PJN N U K = q o ^ k pi ^ q fl k = qe bl o v = ^ka = m o ^ ` q f` b qK gl e k pl k = C= pK s b k h ^ q b p^ k I ff= j ^= b k d i fpe = o s p= ` ^p pl j b = m o l _ i b j p= fk = fk a f^ k = m l bqo v = fk = b k d i fpe qÜ É=áã éçêí~åÅ É=çÑ =íê~åëä~íáçå=ÉëéÉÅ á~ääó=áå=~=ã ì äíáéäÉ=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É=ëáíì ~íáçå=äáâÉ=çì êë= åÉÉÇë=åçí=íç=Ä É=Éñ~Ö Ö Éê~íÉÇK =q Ü ~í=áí=éêçã çíÉë=å~íáçå~ä=áåíÉÖ ê~íáçåI=Å ì äíì ê~ä=ì åáíó=~åÇ=íÜ É= Å çåÅ Ééí=çÑ =å~íáçåÜ ççÇ=ã ~ó=Ä É=ëÉÅ çåÇ~êó=Ä ì í=êÉ~ääó=ëéÉ~âáåÖ I=ÉåÜ ~åÅ Éë=íÜ É=î ~äáÇáíó=çÑ = íê~åëä~íáçå= ~Å íáî áíó= áå= çì ê= Å çì åíêóK = fí= áë= ~ã ì ëáåÖ = Ü çï = ëÅ Ü çä~êë= Ü ~î É= äççâÉÇ= ~í= íê~åëä~íáçå= Ñ êçã = íÜ Éáê=çï å=~åÖ äÉëK =fÑ =íç=` êçÅ É=íê~åëä~íçê=áë=íÜ É=Ñ ~äëáÑ áÉê=çÑ =íÜ É=çêáÖ áå~äI=` ~íÑ çêÇ=íÜ áåÖ ë=íÜ ~í= Ñ áåÇáåÖ =Éèì áî ~äÉåíë=áë=íÜ É=ã ~àçê=í~ëâ=çÑ =~=íê~åëä~íçêI=Ñ çê=q Ü ÉçÇçêÉ=ë~î çêó=áí=áë=~å=~êíI=Ñ çê= g~Å çÄ ëçå= áí= áë= ~= Å ê~Ñ í= ~åÇ= Ñ çê= k áÇ~= áí= áë= ~= ëÅ áÉåÅ ÉK = e çêëí= Ñ êÉåò= Ñ ÉÉäë= íÜ ~í= áí= áë= ~= åÉáíÜ Éê= Å êÉ~íáî É= åçê=áã áí~íáî É= ~êí=Ä ì í=ëí~åÇë=Ä Éíï ÉÉå= íÜ É=íï çK =o çÄ Éêí=c êçëíI= ^ ã ÉêáÅ ~å= éçÉíI= Ñ ÉÉäë=?éçÉíêó= áë= ï Ü ~í=áë=äçëí=áå=íê~åëä~íáçå?K =?q Ü É=Ä ~ëáÅ =äçëë=çÑ =ã É~åáåÖ ë=áå=~=Å çåíáåì ã =Ä Éíï ÉÉå=çî Éê= íê~åëä~íáçå= ~åÇ= ì åÇÉê= íê~åëä~íáçå?K

171
Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar páåÅ É=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É=áë=~=ëéÉ~âáåÖ =íêÉÉ=íÜ ~í=áë=åçì êáëÜ ÉÇ=Ä ó=Ä çíÜ =Ö ÉçÖ ê~éÜ ó=~åÇ=Ü áëíçêóI= ï Ü áÅ Ü = áë= Ö êçï å= áå= ~= ëçáäI= ï Ü É~íÜ ÉêI= ï áåÇI= ê~áåI= ï ~íÉêI= Ä êÉÉòÉ= ~åÇ= íÜ É= ã ì ëáÅ = çÑ = íÜ É= ä~åÇ= ~åÇ= éÉçéäÉ= ~= íÉñí= áå= íÜ ~í= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= áë= ~Ñ íÉê= ~ää= ~= ã ~åáÑ Éëí~íáçå= çÑ = Å êáëáë= ~åÇ= Å äáã ~ñK = q ç= íê~åëä~íÉ= íÜ ~í= íç=~=ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåí=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É=çÑ =~=Å êÉ~íáî É=Å äáã ~ñ=áë=ã çêÉ=ÇáÑ Ñ áÅ ì äí=íÜ ~å=çêáÖ áå~ä=Å êÉ~íáçå=áå=~åó= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK = e ÉåÅ É= íÜ É= éêçÄ äÉã ë= ~êÉ= íçç= ã ~åó= Ä ì í= åÉî Éê= Ö ÉåÉê~äK = ^ ää= íÜ É= éêçÄ äÉã ë= çÑ = íê~åëä~íáçå= ~êÉ= ëéÉÅ áÑ áÅ I= íÉñíJçêáÉåíÉÇK = j ÉêÉ= ~ï ~êÉåÉëë= çÑ = íÜ É= íÜ Éçêó= ~åÇ= ëÅ Ü çä~êëÜ áé= çÑ = íê~åëä~íáçå= ëíì ÇáÉë= ï áää= åçí= Ü ÉäéI= íç= íê~åëä~íÉ= çåÉ= ï çêÇ= çê= éÜ ê~ëÉK q ê~åëä~íáçå= ~ë= Å êáíáÅ áëã = áë= íÜ É= Ä Éëí= ï ~ó= íç= ì åÇÉêëí~åÇ= ~= íÉñí= ~ë= áí= áë= íÜ É= Å êáíáÅ ~ä= Å êÉ~íáî É= éÉêÅ Ééíáçå= çÑ = íÜ É= íÉñíJ~= éçÉã = ëÜ çì äÇ= Ä ÉÖ Éí= ~= éçÉã K = pì Å Ü = áë= íÜ É= éçï Éê= çÑ = íê~åëä~íáçå= íÜ ~í= Éî Éå= m ä~íç= áå= Ü áë= o Ééì Ä äáÅ = Ü ~Ç= íç= Ä ~åáëÜ = éçÉíë= Ä ÉÅ ~ì ëÉ= íÜ Éó= ï ÉêÉ= áå= ~= ï ~ó= Ä ~Ç= íê~åëä~íçêëI= Ñ êçã = íÜ É= áÇÉ~ä=íç= íÜ É= ~Å íì ~äK =få= íÜ É=ï Éëí=íÜ É=Ö êÉ~íÉëí=íê~åëä~íáçå=~Å íáî áíó= ï ~ë=Ö ÉåÉê~íÉÇ=Ä ó= íÜ É=_ áÄ äÉK = qÜ É= î ~êáçì ë= î Éêëáçåë= ~åÇ= íê~åëä~íáçåë= çÑ = íÜ É= _ áÄ äÉ= Å ~êêáÉÇ= çì í= Ñ çê= ëÉî Éê~ä= Å Éåíì êáÉë= ~Å èì áêÉÇ= ~= êÉäáÖ áçì ë= ~åÇ= éçäáíáÅ ~ä= éçï ÉêK = q ê~åëä~íáçå= ~ë= ~å= áåëíêì ã Éåí= çÑ = éçäáíáÅ ~ä= ~åÇ= ÉÅ çåçã áÅ = éçï Éê= áë= Éî áÇÉåí= íçÇ~óI= áå= íÜ É= Å çåíÉñí= çÑ = Ö äçÄ ~äáò~íáçåK = = = = få= çì ê= çï å= íê~Çáíáçå= íê~åëä~íáçå= Ñ êçã = p~åëâêáí= Å ä~ëëáÅ ë= áåíç= î ~êáçì ë= fåÇá~å= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö Éë= ï ~ë= ~å= ~Å í= çÑ = Å çì åíÉê~Å íáåÖ = Ü ÉÖ Éã çåó= çÑ = íÜ É= ã çåçäáíÜ áÅ = Å ì äíì êÉëK = b î Éå= _ ì ÇÇÜ áëí= éÜ áäçëçéÜ ó= íÜ çì Ö Ü = ä~êÖ Éäó= ÇÉêáî ÉÇ= Ñ êçã = íÜ É= r é~åáëÜ ~Çë= ~Å èì áêÉÇ= ~= åÉï = íï áëí= Ä ÉÅ ~ì ëÉ= çÑ = íÜ É= Çá~äÉÅ íI= m ~äá= ï Ü áÅ Ü = ï ~ë= Å äçëÉ= íç= íÜ É= Å çã ã çå= ã ~åK = q ê~åëä~íáçå= áã éäáÉë= íÜ É= ã ÉÉíáåÖ = çÑ = ~íäÉ~ëí= íç= Å ì äíì êÉëK = fí= áë= åçí= Ñ çê= åçíÜ áåÖ = e ÉäÉå= o ~ééI= ï Ü ç= ï ~ë= áåî çäî ÉÇ= áå= íÜ É= __` = éêçÇì Å íáçå= çÑ = q çäëíçó?ë= ^ åå~= h ~êÉåáå~=çÄ ëÉêî Éë=êáÖ Ü íäóK =?t Ü Éå=óçì =íê~åëä~íÉ=Ñ êçã =çåÉ=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É=áåíç=~åçíÜ ÉêI=óçì =~êÉ= íê~åëä~íáåÖ = áå= Ü çï Éî Éê= ~= ëì Ä íäÉ= ï ~ó= íÜ É= Ü áëíçêáÅ ~äI= Ö ÉçÖ ê~éÜ áÅ I= Å äáã ~íáÅ I= êÉäáÖ áçì ëI= Éã çíáçå~ä= ÉñéÉêáÉåÅ É=çÑ =çåÉ=Ö êçì é=çÑ =éÉçéäÉI=Ñ çê=íÜ É=Ä ÉåÉÑ áí=çÑ =~åçíÜ Éê=Ö êçì é?K =q Ü É=éêçÄ äÉã ë=çÑ = íê~åëä~íáçå=Ñ êçã =fåÇá~å=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö Éë=áåíç=~êÉ=åçí=î Éêó=ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåí=Ñ êçã =íÜ É=éçÉíêó=ï êáííÉå=áå= b åÖ äáëÜ =áå=çêáÖ áå~ä=Ä ó=fåÇá~å=éçÉíëK =q ç=Ä ÉÖ áå=ï áíÜ =~=ëéÉÅ áÑ áÅ =Éñ~ã éäÉI=Éî Éå=~=éçÉí=äáâÉ= ^K hK o ~ã ~åì à~å= ì ëÉë= íÜ É= ï ÉëíÉêå= ï çêÇ= ?ë~ì Å É?= Ñ çê= ?Å ì êêó?K q ~âÉ= `K m K _ êçï åë= î ÉêëáçåW = ?e É= ã çî Éë= åçí= Ü áë= äáéë e É= êÉÑ ê~áåë= Ñ êçã = ï çêÇë= Ñ äçï áåÖ = ï áíÜ = Ü çåÉó= ~åÇ= åÉÅ í~êK e É= áë= ~= ëçäáí~êó= ^= ÇÉ~Ñ = ~åÇ= Ä äáåÇ= Å çêéëÉ pï çääÉå= ì é= ï áíÜ = íÜ É= ÇáëÉ~ëÉ= çÑ = ~ì íÜ çêáíó fë= áåÇÉÉÇ= ~= ëÜ çÅ âáåÖ = çÄ àÉÅ í? o É~Ç= çì ê åÉï = íê~åëä~íáçåW ?c ÉáÖ åáåÖ = ëéÉÉÅ Ü = Ä ì í= íáÖ Ü í= ?äáééÉÇ t áíÜ = Ü çäÇáåÖ = ëï ÉÉí= ï çêÇ= áå= ëíçåó= ëáäÉåÅ É e É= áë= ~= éçï Éê= ëï çääÉå= Å çêéëÉI a É~Ñ = ~åÇ= Ä äáåÇI= íç= ëáÖ Ü í= Ü áã = áë= ëáåI= l = pì ã ~íÜ áK ? qÜ É=éçáåí=íç=Ä É=Å çåëáÇÉêÉÇ=Ü ÉêÉ=áë=åçí=íÜ ~í=íÜ É=ä~ííÉê=áë=ã çêÉ=éçÉíáÅ =Ä ì í=áí=áë=~äëç=ã çêÉ= ~Å Å ì ê~íÉI=ã ì Å Ü =Å äçëÉê=íç=íÜ É=çêáÖ áå~äK =ëÉÉ=Ü çï =áå=_ êçï å?ë=î Éêëáçå=íÜ É=Ñ çääçï áåÖ =î ÉêëÉ= Ä ÉÅ çã Éë= äççëÉ= ?Ñ ççíÉÇI= ä~Å âë= íÜ É= ëÜ ~êéåÉëë= ~åÇ= Å ä~êáíó= çÑ = íÜ É= çêáÖ áå~äK = ?^ = ã ~å?ë= ï ê~íÜ = áë= íÜ É= Å ~ì ëÉ= çÑ = Ü áë= ÇÉ~íÜ X = _ ì í= Ü áë= é~íáÉåÅ É= ëÜ ~ää= Ö ~áå= Ü áã = éêçíÉÅ íáçå= áåI= Ñ ~î çêë= ~åÇ= âáåÇêÉÇ l åÉ?ë= çï å= Éåàçóã Éåí= áë= ÉëíÉÉã ÉÇ= ~ë= Ü É~î ÉåX ^ åó= çåÉ?ë= Ö êáÉÑ = íÜ Éó= E î ÉêáÑ óF = Å çåëáÇÉê= ~ë= Ü ÉääK ? qÜ áë= Ü çï = íÜ É= ë~ã É= î ÉêëÉ= áå= êÉåÇÉêÉÇ= áå= çì ê= åÉï = íê~åëä~íáçåW ?j ó= ~åÖ Éê= áë= ã ó= Ñ çÉ j ó= éçáëÉ= áë= ã ó= Ä äÉëëáåÖ ` çã é~ëëáçå= ã ó= âáå j ó= àçó= áë= ã ó= Ü É~î Éå j ó= ëçêêçï = ã ó= Ü ÉääI= íêì äó= l = pì ã ~íÜ áK ?
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar fí=áë=~Ö êÉÉÇ=íÜ ~í=áí=áë=ÇáÑ Ñ áÅ ì äí=íç=Å çã ã ì åáÅ ~íÉ=áå=b åÖ äáëÜ =íÜ É=êÉã ~êâ~Ä äó=ëáã éäÉX = ÉéáÖ ê~ã ã ~íáÅ ~ääó= íáÖ Ü íåÉëë= çÑ = ÉñéêÉëëáçå= ï Ü áÅ Ü = Å çã Éë= çì í= ÉÑ Ñ çêíäÉëëäó= áå= íÜ É= å~íáî É= áÇáçã = Ä ì í= çåÉ= Å ~å= ëÉÉ= íÜ ~í= _ êçï å= Ü ~ë= ã áëëÉÇ= íÜ É= çêáÖ áå~ä= éì äëÉK få= ~ÇÇáíáçå= íç= ëì Å Ü = ÇÉé~êíì êÉë= ~í= ÇÉÉéÉê= äÉî Éä= ï É= Ñ áåÇ= Ö ä~êáåÖ = Çáëíçêíáçåë= ~åÇ= ï ÉëíÉêå= Éèì áî ~äÉåíë= ï Ü áÅ Ü = ~êÉ= Å ì äíì ê~ääó= ~äáÉå= íç= íÜ É= ëéáêáí= çÑ = íÜ É= çêáÖ áå~äK = q~âÉ= Ñ çê= Éñ~ã éäÉI= _ êçï å?ë= Éèì áî ~äÉåí= çÑ = ?s Éåì ë= áå= Ä ÉÇ?= íç= ?o ~ã Ä Ü ~= áå= ëÉñ?= ï áíÜ = êÉÑ ÉêÉåÅ É= íç= íÜ É= Ü ì ëÄ ~åÇ?ë= êÉÅ çÖ åáíáçå= çÑ =~=ï áÑ É?ë=ã ì äíáÑ ~êáçì ë=êÉä~íáçåëÜ áéë=ï áíÜ =Ü áã K =?s Éåì ë?=áë=~äáÉå=Å ì äíì ê~ääó=ëéÉ~âáåÖ =~åÇ= Ü ÉåÅ É= à~êë= çå= íÜ É= fåÇá~å= É~êK = páã áä~êäó= áå= Ü áë= î ÉêëÉ= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= î Éêëáçåë= êÉ~ÇëX = ?óçì ê= çï å= ï É~äíÜ = áë= íç= óçì = íÜ É= íêÉ~ëì êÉë= çÑ = = éäì íì ëK = ^ åÇ= çåÉ?ë= çï å= éçî Éêíó= íêì äó= áë= Å çåëáÇÉêÉÇ= ~ë= íÜ É= éçî Éêíó= çÑ = ï Ü çäÉ= ï çêäÇK = pÜ É= áåÇÉÉÇ= ï Ü çã = óçì = äçî É= áë= s Éåì ëI= ëì Å Ü = áë= íÜ É= Å ~ëÉK ?= = d ÉåÉê~ä=Å çåÅ Ééíë=~åÇ=ÉñéêÉëëáçå=ï Ü áÅ Ü =Ü ~î É=Ä ÉÅ çã É=áåëÉé~ê~Ä äÉ=é~êí=çÑ =çì ê=~åÅ áÉåí= íê~ÇáíáçåI=íÜ É=éÜ áäçëçéÜ áÅ ~ä=~åÇ=íÜ É=~ÉëíÜ ÉíáÅ =Å çåÅ Ééí=ëì Å Ü =~ë=a Ü ~êã ~I=o ~ë~I=j ~å~ëI=` Ü áíI= s ~âêçâíáI=pêáåÖ ~ê~I=_ Ü ~âíÜ áI=~åÇ=ëç=çå=Å ~ååçí=Ñ áåÇ=~ÇÉèì ~íÉ=Éèì áî ~äÉåíëK =pç=~äëç=Å ì äíì ê~ä= ÉñéêÉëëáçåë=äáâÉ=^ ~ê~íáI=o çåÖ çäáI=q Ü çê~å~ã I=pÉÉã ~åíÜ ~ã =çê=_ ~å~åíÜ á=ï Ü áÅ Ü =Ü ~ë=êáÅ Ü = Ççã ÉëíáÅ = ~åÇ= Å ì äíì ê~ä= ~ëëçÅ á~íáçåë= Å ~ååçí= Ñ áåÇ= b åÖ äáëÜ = Éèì áî ~äÉåíë= çÄ î áçì ëäóK c çê=Éñ~ã éäÉW =páäî Éê=Ñ áëÜ =áë=Å ~ääÉÇ=?o ~à~í=j ~íëó~?=I=åÉÅ âíáÉ=áë=?h ~åíÜ ~ä~åÖ çíá?=çê= ëéÉÅ í~Å äÉë= ?åÉíê~â?I= äççâ= ëç= çÇÇ= ~åÇ= Å çåíêáî ÉÇK qÜ É= éêçÄ äÉã = çÑ = äáíÉê~ä= íê~åëä~íáçå= áå= ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåí= ëéÜ ÉêÉë= éçëÉë= ~= Ä áÖ = éêçÄ äÉã = áå= çÑ Ñ áÅ á~ä= à~êÖ çåK = qÜ É= â~åå~Ç~=ï çêÇë= Ñ çê= éçäáÅ ÉI=ëì Ä JêÉÖ áëíê~êI=ëÉÅ êÉí~êá~íI=m t a I=m çäáÅ É=ëí~íáçåI= ÉíÅ K K ==^ êÉ=ëç= ~êíáÑ áÅ á~ä= ~åÇ= à~ï = Ä êÉ~âáåÖ = íÜ ~í= Ü ~ã éÉê= íÜ É= Ö êçï íÜ = çÑ = ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK = ` çã áåÖ = Ä ~Å â= íç= éçÉíêóI= ã Éí~éÜ çê= ~ë= ï É= ~ää= ï É= âåçï = áë= íÜ É= î Éêó= ëçì ä= çÑ = éçÉíêóI= Ü çï = íç= íê~åëä~íÉ= ëì Å Ü = ~= Å çåÅ Ééí\ = = = t Ü ~í= éçëÉ= éêçÄ äÉã ë= ~äï ~óë= áë= åçí= íÜ É= ÉñéäáÅ áí= ~åÇ= íÜ É= Å çåÅ êÉíÉ= ï çêÇ= Ä ì í= íÜ É= ~Ä ëíê~Å í= íÜ É= ëì Ä íäÉ= ~åÇ= î ~êáçì ë= ëÜ ~ÇÉë= ~åÇ= äÉåÖ íÜ ÉåáåÖ = ëÜ ~Ççï ë= çÑ = Å çåÅ ÉéíK = m ì åë= ~åÇ=êÜ óã ÉëI=éêÉÑ áñÉë=~åÇ=ëì Ñ Ñ áñÉëI=íÉåëÉI=Ö ÉåÇÉêI=Å ~ëÉI=íÜ É=ï Ü çäÉ=Ö ê~ã ã ~íáÅ ~ä=çêÇÉê=Å ~å= Å êÉ~íÉ= ÉåÇäÉëë= éêçÄ äÉã ë= íç= ~= íê~åëä~íçêK qÜ É=e çéâáåëá~å=fåëÅ ~éÉI=^ å~åÇ~î ~êÇÜ ~å~?ë=a Ü ~î ~åá=~åÇ=^ å~åÇ=` ççã ~ê~ë~ã ó?ë= Å çåÅ Ééí= çÑ = ëçì åÇáåÖ = ~åÇ= ^ ì êçÄ áåÇç?ë= Å ä~áê= ? ~ì ÇáÉåí= ï çêÇI= ~êÉ= ~ää= ~ë= ã ìÅ Ü = íÜ É= áåÖ êÉÇáÉåíë= çÑ = íê~åëä~íáçå= ~ë= çÑ = éçÉíK = qÜ É= Ñ ~Å í= ~ë= qÜ çêÉ~ì = ë~áÇ= ëÜ çì äÇ= Ñ äçï Éê= áåíç= íêì íÜ = ~åÇ= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= ï çêÇ= áë= äáâÉ= ~= Ä áêÇI= ï Ü áÅ Ü = ëç~êë= ï áíÜ = ï áåÇë= áå= ~= ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåí= ëâóK = m r o ^k^k r o r hK a r o ^ fm ^ k a f^ k = f= j ^= b k d i fpe o s p= ` ^p = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = m ì ê~å~åì êì =áë=çåÉ=çÑ =íÜ É=ÉáÖ Ü í=Ä ççâë=áå=íÜ É=ëÉÅ ì ä~ê=~åíÜ çäçÖ ó=áë=ÉåíáêÉäó=ì åáèì É=áå= fåÇá~å=äáíÉê~íì êÉ=ï Ü áÅ Ü =åÉ~êäó=~ää=êÉäáÖ áçì ë=íÉñíë=Çì êáåÖ =íÜ áë=Éê~K =m ì ê~å~åì êì =Å çåí~áåë=Q M M = éçÉã ë= çÑ = î ~êóáåÖ = äÉåÖ íÜ ë= áå= íÜ É= ^ â~î ~ä= ã ÉíÉêK = j çêÉ= íÜ ~å= N RM = éçÉíë= ï êçíÉ= íÜ É= éçÉã ëK = fí= áë= åçí= âåçï å= ï Ü Éå= çê ï Ü ç= Å çääÉÅ íÉÇ= íÜ ÉëÉ= ~åíÜ çäçÖ áÉë= K m ì ê~å~åì êì = áë= ëçì êÅ É= çÑ = áåÑ çêã ~íáçå= çå= íÜ É= éçäáíáÅ ~ä= ~åÇ= çÑ = éêÉJÜ áëíçêáÅ = q ~ã áäk ~Çì K = qÜ ÉêÉ= áë= áåÑ çêã ~íáçå= çå= íÜ É= î ~êáçì ë= êì äÉë= ï Ü ç= êì äÉÇ= íÜ É= q ~ã áä= Å çì åíêó= Ä ÉÑ çêÉ= ~åÇ= Çì êáåÖ = íÜ É= p~åÖ ~ã = Éê~E N M M M = _ ` b J PM M = `b ^ ã çåÖ =íÜ É=ÉáÖ Ü í=p~åÖ ~ã =~åíÜ çäçÖ áÉëI=m ì ê~å~åì êì =~åÇ=m ~íÜ áíêì é~íÜ ì =~êÉ=Å çåÅ ÉêåÉÇ= ï áíÜ =äáÑ É=çì íëáÇÉ=Ñ ~ã áäóJâáåÖ ëI=ï ~êëI=Ö êÉ~íåÉëëI=Ö ÉåÉêçëáíóI=ÉíÜ áÅ ë=~åÇ=éÜ áäçëçéÜ óK =t Ü áäÉ= m ~íÜ áíêì é~íÜ ì =áë=äáã áíÉÇ=íç=íÜ É=Ö äçêó= çÑ =` Ü Éê~=âáåÖ ë=áå=N M U =î ÉêëÉëI=m ì ê~å~åì êì =Å çåí~áåë=~å= ~ëëçêíã Éåí=çÑ = íÜ Éã Éë= áå=íÜ êÉÉ= Ü ì åÇêÉÇ=åáåÉíó= ëÉî Éå=éçã ëK =l Ñ = íÜ É=çêáÖ áå~ä=Q M M =éçÉã ëI= íï ç= Ü ~î É= Ä ÉÉå= äçëíI= ~åÇ= ëçã É= éçÉã ë= ã áëë= ëÉî Éê~ä= äáåÉëK N K qÜ ÉêÉ= ~êÉ= Q M M = éçÉã ë= áå= m ì ê~å~åì êì = áåÅ äì ÇáåÖ = íÜ É= áåî çÅ ~íáçå= éçÉã K = m çÉã ë= O ST= ~åÇ= O SU =~êÉ=äçëí=~åÇ=ëçã É=çÑ =íÜ É=éçÉã ë= Éñáëí=çåäó=áå=Ñ ê~Ö ã ÉåíK =l Ñ =íÜ É=éçÉíë=ï Ü ç=ï êçíÉ=íÜ ÉëÉ= éçÉã ëI= íÜ ÉêÉ= ~êÉ= ã Éå= ~åÇ= ï çã ÉåI= âáåÖ ë= ~åÇ= é~ì éÉêëK = qÜ É= çäÇÉëí= Ä ççâ= çÑ = ~ååçí~íáçåë= Ñ çì åÇ= ëç= Ñ ~ê= Ü ~ë= ~ååçí~íáçåë= ~åÇ= Å çã ã Éåí~êó= çå= íÜ É= Ñ áêëí= O SS= éçÉã ëK =qÜ É= Å çã ã Éåí~íçê=
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar k ~Å Ü áå~êâáåáó~~êI=çÑ =íÜ É=ÉäÉî ÉåíÜ Jíï ÉäÑ íÜ =Å Éåíì êó=q ~ã áä=k ~Çì I=Ü ~ë=ï êáííÉå=~=Å çã éäÉíÉ= Å çã ã Éåí~íêó= çå= ~ää= éçÉã ëK ^= ã ~àçêáíó= çÑ = éçÉã ë= ~êÉ= G = m ê~áëÉ= çÑ = íÜ É= âáåÖ = E O JU RF = = = qÜ Éáê= = = Ö ÉåÉêçëáíó= E PN RJPRF G = _ ó= éçÉíë= Ñ çê= íÜ Éáê= é~íêçåë= E U SJN TPF G = t ~ê= éçÉã ë= E O U PJPN Q F G = b íÜ áÅ ~ä= ~åÇ= ã çê~ä= éçÉã ë= E N U O JV RF G = o ÉÑ ÉêÉåÅ Éë= íç= Å ~ííäÉ= ê~áÇë= E O RTJV IO SO JPF G = `Ü áÉÑ = ÇêáåâáåÖ = íçÇÇó= Ä ÉÑ çêÉ= ê~áÇë= E O SV F G =

fí= áë= åçí= âåçï å= Éñ~Å íäó= Ü çï = ã ~åó= ~ì íÜ çêë= ï êçíÉ= íÜ É= éçÉã ë= áå= m ì ê~å~åì êì K = qÜ ÉêÉ= ~êÉ= N Q T=ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåí=å~ã Éë=Ñ çì åÇ=Ñ êçã =íÜ É=Å çäçéÜ çåÉë=K e çï Éî Éê=ëçã É=çÑ =íÜ ÉëÉ=Å çì äÇ=ÇÉåçíÉ=íÜ É= ë~ã É= ÇÉä~ì íÜ çêK = cçê= Éñ~ã éäÉI= j ~åÖ ì Çá= h áòÜ ~~ê= ~åÇ= j ~åÖ ì Çá= j ~êì íÜ ~å~~ê= Å çì äÇ= ÇÉåçíÉ= íÜ É= ë~ã É= éÉêëçåK = t É= Ççå?í= âåçï = íÜ É= ~ì íÜ çêë= çÑ = ~êçì åÇ= N Q = éçÉã ëK ^ ë= = áíë=å~ã É=ëì Ö Ö ÉëíëK =m ì ê~å~åì êì =éçÉã ë=ÇÉ~ä=ï áíÜ =íÜ É=m ì ê~ã =Å çåÅ Ééíë=çÑ =äáÑ É=ëì Å Ü =ë=ï ~êI= éçäáíáÅ ëI=ï É~äíÜ I=~ë=ï Éää=~ëéÉÅ íë=çÑ =Éî ÉêóJÇ~ó=äáî áåÖ K =pçã É=çÑ =íÜ É=éçÉã ë=~êÉ=áå=íÜ =Ñ çêã =çÑ = ÉäÉÖ áÉë= áå= íêáÄ ì íÉ= íç= ~= Ñ ~ääÉå= Ü ÉêçK = qÜ ÉëÉ= éçÉã ë= ÉñÜ áÄ áí= çì íéçì êáåÖ ë= çÑ = ~Ñ Ñ ÉÅ íáçå= ~åÇ= Éã çíáçåëI= m ì ê~å~åì êì = éêáåÅ áé~ääó= êÉî çäî Éë= ~êçì åÇ= íÜ êÉÉ= íáã Éë= íÜ Éã ÉëJ íÜ É= âáåÖ = ~åÇ= Ü áë= éçï Éêë= çî Éê= íÜ É= Éåî áêçåã ÉåíIéçï Éê= çÑ = ï çã Éå?ë= éì êáíóIå~ã Éë= â~êéì I= ~åÇ= íÜ É= ëóëíÉã = çÑ = Å ~ëíÉI= ï Ü áÅ Ü = áë= åçí= íçç= = áÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåí= Ñ êçã = íÜ É= Å ì êêÉåí= ëóëíÉã = éêÉî ~äÉåí= ~ã çåÖ = q ~ã áä= ëçÅ áÉíóK = qÜ ÉêÉ= ëÉÉã ë= íç= Ä É= ëçã É= Çêì ÉÑ áåáíÉ= ëíêì Å íì êÉ= íç= íÜ É= = = = áå= m ì ê~å~åì êì K = qÜ É= éçÉã ë= ~í= íÜ É= Ä ÉÖ áååáåÖ = çÑ = íÜ É= Ä ççâ= ÇÉ~ä= ï áíÜ = íÜ É= íÜ êÉÉ= ã ~àçê= âáåÖ ë= `Ü çä~I= `Ü Éê~= ~åÇ= m ~åÇó~= çÑ = ~åÅ áÉåí= q~ã áä= k ~Çì K = qÜ É= ã áÇÇäÉ= éçêíáçå= áë= çå=íÜ É=äÉëëÉê=âáåÖ ë=~åÇ=íÜ É=s Éäáê=Å Ü áÉÑ í~áåëI=ï Ü ç=ï ÉêÉ==Ñ Éì Ç~íçêáÉë=çÑ =íÜ ÉëÉ=íÜ êÉÉ=ã ~àçê= âáåÖ Ççã ëI=ï áíÜ =~=ëÜ çêí=áåî Éêî ÉåáåÖ =ëÉÅ íáçå=E éçÉã ë=N U O JN V RF =çÑ =ÇáÇ~Å íáÅ =éçÉã ëK =q Ü É=Ñ áå~ä= éçêíáçå= ÇÉ~äë= ï áíÜ = íÜ É= Ö ÉåÉê~ä= ëÅ ÉåÉêó= çÑ = ï ~ê= ~åÇ= íÜ É= ÉÑ Ñ ÉÅ í= çÑ = ï ~êÑ ~êÉK G s ÉÅ Ü á= ? íÜ É= éêçî çÅ ~íáçå= çÑ = ï ~ê= íÜ êçì Ö Ü = ~íí~Å â= ~åÇ= Å ~ííäÉ= = = ê~áÇëK G h ~ê~íÜ ~á= ? ÇÉÑ ÉåÇáåÖ = ~Ö ~áåëí= Å ~ííäÉ= ê~áÇë G = s ~Å Ü á= ? áåî ~ëáçå= çÑ = íÜ É= ÉåÉã ó?ë= íÉêêáíç~ó = = = = = = = = = G = h ~åÅ Ü á= ? íê~åëÅ áÉåÅ É= ~åÇ= Å Ü ~åÖ É= íÜ É= Ñ ê~Ö áäáíó= çÑ = Ü ì ã ~å= äáÑ É= ~Ö ~áåëí= íÜ É= Ä ~Å âÇêçé= çÑ = ï ~êK = G r òÜ áåÖ ~á= ? ~íí~Å âáåÖ = íÜ É= Ñ çêíK G = k çÅ Ü Å Ü á= ? ÇÉÑ ÉåÅ É= çÑ = íÜ É= Ñ çêí= çê íÉêêáíçêóK G = qÜ ì ã é~á= ? íÜ É= Ñ êÉåòó= çÑ = Ä ~ííäÉK G = s ~~â~á= ? î áÅ íçêóK G = m ~~Ç~~ã = ? éê~áëÉ= çÑ = ~= âáåÖ ?ë= Ü Éêçáëã = çê= Ö ÉåÉêçëáíóI= ~ëâáåÖ = Ñ çê= Ö áÑ íëK G m çíÜ ì î áó~ä= ?Ö ÉåÉê~ä= Ü Éêçáëã = E ã çëíäó= éÜ áäçëçéÜ áÅ ~ä= ã ì ëáåÖ ë= ~åÇ= ÉäÉÖ áÉë= Ñ çê= Ü ÉêçÉëF = = G h ~áââáä~á= ?ì åêÉèì áíÉÇ= äçî É = = G m Éêì åíÜ áå~á?ì åëì áí~Ä äÉäçî É= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = qÜ É=ä~ëí=íï ç=íÜ Éã Éë=~êÉ=íê~Çáíáçå~ääó=~ëëçÅ á~íÉÇ=ï áíÜ =~â~ã =éçÉíêóK =få=m ì ê~å~åì êì I= íÜ Éó= çÅ Å ì ê= áå= íÜ É= Å çåíÉñí= çÑ = íÜ É= Ñ ~ã áäá~ê= m ì ê~ã = ä~åÇëÅ ~éÉ= çÑ = ï ~êÑ ~êÉK = qÜ ì ë= ëçåÖ ë= U PI= U Q = ~åÇ= U R= ~êÉ= Å ä~ëëáÑ áÉÇ= íç= Ä ÉäçåÖ = íç= íÜ É= â~áââáä~á= íÜ áå~áI= ï Ü áÅ Ü = ÇÉåçíÉë= ì åêÉèì áíÉÇ= äçî ÉI= ~åÇ= ÇÉëÅ êáÄ É= ~= åçÄ äÉï çã ~å?ë= äçî É= Ñ çê= h áåÖ = `Ü çä~ã = m çê~î ~á= h çééÉêì å~êâáääáK = páã áä~êäóI= ëçåÖ = N Q P= íçN Q T= ~êÉ= Å ä~ëëáÑ áÉÇ= ~ë= m Éêì åíÜ áå~á= çê= m Éêì åâáä~á= qÜ áåáI= ï Ü áÅ Ü = ÇÉåçíÉë= ì åëì áí~Ä äÉ= äçî ÉI= ~åÇ= ÇÉ~ä= ï áíÜ = h áåÖ = m Éâ~å?ë= ~Ä ~åÇçåã Éåí= çÑ = Ü áë= ï áÑ ÉK = qÜ É= éçÉã ë= ~êÉ= Ñ ì êíÉê= Å ä~ëëáÑ áÉÇ= áåíç= qÜ ì ê~áëK = ^= qÜ ì êá= ÇÉåçíÉë= íÜ É= äçÅ ~äÉ= çÑ = íÜ É= éçÉã = Ö áî áåÖ = íÜ É= ëáíì ~íáçå= ì åÇÉê= ï Ü áÅ Ü = áí= ï ~ë= ï êáííÉåK = pçã É= çÑ = íÜ ÉëÉ= ~êÉ= m ~êëáäá= qÜ ì ê~á= ï Ü Éå= íÜ É= éçÉí= êÉã áåÇë= íÜ É= âáåÖ = çê= é~êíçå= çÑ = íÜ É= êÉï ~êÇ= íÜ ~í= Ü É= éêçã áëÉÇ= íç= Ü áã I=h ~äáíêì í~åáä~á=áå=ï Ü áÅ Ü =íÜ É=Ü Éêç=ÇáÉë=ï áíÜ =íÜ É=ÉäÉéÜ ~åí=Ü É=âáääÉÇ=áå=Ä ~ííäÉI=~åÇ=ëç=çåK =
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar pçã É= çÑ = íÜ É= éçÉã ë= ~êÉ= íçç= Ç~ã ~Ö ÉÇ= áå= íÜ É= ã ~åì ëÅ êáéíë= íç= ÇÉíÉêã áåÉ íÜ Éáê=q Ü ì ê~áëK fí=áë= åçí= âåçï å= ï Ü ÉíÜ Éê= íÜ É= ~ì íÜ çêë= çÑ = íÜ É= éçÉã ë= ã ~ÇÉ= íÜ ÉëÉ= Å ä~ëëáÑ áÅ ~íáçåëK m ì ê~å~åì êì =ëçåÖ ë=ÉñÜ áÄ áí=~==ì åáèì É=êÉ~äáëã =åÇ= áã ã ÉÇá~Å ó=åçí=Ñ êÉèì Éåäó=Ñ çì åÇ=áå=Å ä~ëëáÅ ~ä=äáíÉê~íì êÉK =q Ü É=å~íì êÉ=~åÇ=íÜ É=ëì Ä àÉÅ í=çÑ =íÜ É= éçÉã ë= äÉåÇ= ì ë= íç= Ä ÉäáÉî É= íÜ ~í= éçÉíë= ÇáÇ= åçí= ï êáíÉ= íÜ ÉëÉ= éçÉã ë= çå= Éî Éåíë= íÜ ~í= Ü ~ééÉåÉÇ= óÉ~êë= éêáçêI=ê~íÜ Éê=íÜ Éó=ï êçíÉ=íÜ Éã =çå=áã éì äëÉ=áåëáíì K =pçã É=çÑ =íÜ É=éçÉã ë=~êÉ=Å çåî Éêë~íáçå~ä=áå= ï Ü áÅ Ü = íÜ É= éçÉí= éäÉ~ÇëI= Ä ÉÖ ëI= Å Ü áÇÉë= çê= éê~áëÉë= íÜ É= âáåÖ K = ^ äçåÖ = ï áíÜ = ëì Å Ü = êÉ~äáëã I= m ì ê~å~åì êì = ëÜ çï ë= Ö äáã éëÉë= çÑ = Ñ ~åí~ëó= ~ë= ï ÉääK = qÜ É= ëÉÅ çåÇ= éçÉã = Ä ó= j ì Çáå~Ö ~ê~ó~ê= ~ÇÇêÉëëÉë= íÜ É= `Ü Éê~= âáåÖ =r íÜ ~ó~å=` Ü Éê~ä~~íÜ ~å=~åÇ=éê~áëÉë=Ü áã =Ñ çê=Ü áë=Ñ ÉÉÇáåÖ =íÜ É=~êã áëÉë=~í=íÜ É=h ì êì âëÜ Éíê~= ï ~êK qÜ áë=áë=~å=çÄ î áçì ë=~å~Å Ü êçåáëã =ëì Ö Ö ÉëíáåÖ =~=âáåÖ =çÑ =íÜ É==É~êäó=Å çã ã çå Éê~=q~ã áä= Å çì åíêó= Ü ~Ç= ~= êçäÉ= íç= éä~ó= áå= ~= ã óíÜ çäçÖ áÅ ~ä= Ä ~ííäÉ= çÑ = íÜ É= j ~Ü ~Ä Ü ~ê~í~= ÉéáÅ K b ~Å Ü =m ì ê~å~åì êì =éçÉã =Ü ~ë=~=Å çäçéÜ çå=~íí~Å Ü ÉÇ=íç=áí=Ö áî áåÖ =íÜ É= ~ì íÜ çêëÜ áé= ~åÇ=ëì Ä àÉÅ í= ã ~ííÉê=çÑ = íÜ É=éçÉã I=íÜ É= å~ã É=çÑ =íÜ É=âáåÖ = çê=Å Ü áÉÑ í~áå=íç=ï Ü çã =íÜ É= éçÉã =êÉä~íÉë=~åÇ=íÜ É=çÅ Å ~ëáçå=ï Ü áÅ Ü =Å ~ääÉÇ=Ñ çêíÜ =íÜ É=Éì äçÖ ó=~êÉ=~äëç=Ñ çì åÇK ^ äíçì Ö Ü =íÜ ÉêÉ= Ü ~î É=Ä ÉÉå=~ííÉã éíë=~í=Ç~íáåÖ =íÜ É=éçÉã ë=çÑ =m ì êå~å~åì êì =Ä ~ëÉÇ=çå=íÜ É=ã Éåíáçå=çÑ =íÜ É= j ~Ü ~Ä Ü ~ê~í~=ï ~êI=~=ã çêÉ=êÉäá~Ä äÉ=ëçì êÅ É=Ñ çê=íÜ É=éÉêáçÇ=çÑ =íÜ ÉëÉ=éçÉã ë=áë=Ä ~ëÉÇ=çå=íÜ É= ã Éåíáçåë= çåÉ Ñ áåÇ= çå= íÜ É= Ñ çêÉáÖ å= íê~ÇÉ= ~åÇ= éêÉëÉåÅ É= çÑ = d êÉÉâ= ~åÇ= o çã ~å= ã ÉêÅ Ü ~åíë= áå= íÜ É= éçêí= çÑ = j ì ëáêá= Ö áî É= ì ë= ~= Ç~íÉ= çÑ = Ä Éíï ÉÉå= O M M = _ ` b= íçN RM ` b= Ñ çê= íÜ É= éÉêáçÇ= çÑ = íÜ ÉëÉ= éçÉã ëK = o ~ã ~ëï ~ã á= j ì Ç~äá~êI= ~= q ~ã áä= ëÅ Ü çä~ê= Ñ áêëí= Ö áî É= Ü áã = íÜ É= é~äã = äÉî Éë= çÑ = ` áî ~â~= ` áåí~ã ~åá= íç=ëíì ÇóK =_ ÉáåÖ =íÜ É=Ñ áêëí=íáã ÉIpï ~ã áå~íÜ ~=fóÉê=Ü ~Ç= =íç= Ñ ~Å É= äçí=çÑ =ÇáÑ Ñ áÅ ì äíáÉë=áå= íÉêã ë= çÑ = áåíÉêéêÉíáåÖ I= Ñ áåÇáåÖ = íÜ É= ã áëëáåÖ = äÉ~î ÉëI= íÉñíì ~ä= Éêêçêë= ~åÇ= ì åÑ ~ã áäá~ê= íÉêã ëK = ^ äçåÖ = ï áíÜ = íÜ É= íÉñíI= Ü É= ~ÇÇÉÇ= äçí= çÑ = Å çã ã Éåí~êó= ~åÇ= Éñéä~å~íçêó= åçíÉë= çÑ = íÉêã ëI= íÉñíì ~ä= î ~êá~íáçåë= ~åÇ= ~ééêç~Å Ü Éë= Éñéä~áåáåÖ = íÜ É= Å çåíÉñíK o bc bo bk ` bp e ~êíI= d ÉçêÖ É= iK X = e ~åâ= e= ÉáÑ Éíò= E O M M N F K qÜ É= cçì ê= e ì åÇêÉÇ= pçåÖ ë= çÑ = t ~ê= ~åÇ= t áëÇçã W = ^ å= ^ åíÜ çäçÖ ó= çÑ = m çÉã ë= Ñ êçã K = k Éï = v çêâW = ` çäì ã Ä á~= r åáî Éêëáíó= m êÉëë= i ~äIj çÜ ~åX = p~Ü áíó~= ^ â~ÇÉã áE O M M N F K = qÜ É= b åÅ óÅ äçé~ÉÇá~l Ñ = fåÇ~áå= i áíÉê~íì êÉ= E s çäì ã É= c áî ÉF = E p~ë~ó= q çwçêÖ çíF K s çäì ã É= K R= = k Éï = a ÉäÜ áW = p~Ü áíó~= ^ â~ÇÉã áK q r o h fpe = t l j bk = t o fq b o p= fk = b k d i fpe = q o ^ k pi ^ q fl k qK h l h fi ^ s ^ k f= f= j ^= b k d i fpe = o s p= ` ^p qÜ É=éêÉëÉåí=é~éÉê=~áã ë=íç=éêÉëÉåí=~=Ä êáÉÑ ëì êî Éó=çÑ =q ì êâáëÜ =ï çã Éå=ï êáíÉêë=áå= b åÖ äáëÜ íê~åëä~íáçåK =a ì É=íç=íÜ É=Ççã áå~åí=éçëáíáçå=çÑ =b åÖ äáëÜ I=q ì êâÉó=Ü ~ë=Ä ÉÉå=ê~íÜ Éê= ÇÉéÉåÇÉåíçå= íê~åëä~íáçåë= Ñ êçã = íÜ áë= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= ~åÇ= íÜ É= Ñ äçï = çÑ = íê~åëä~íáçåë= áåíç= íÜ É= çééçëáíÉÇáêÉÅ íáçå= Ü ~ë= Ä ÉÉå= èì áíÉ= ëäçï K qÜ ÉêÉ= áë= åç= Ççì Ä í= íÜ ~í= íÜ É= Ççã áå~åí= éçëáíáçå= çÑ = b åÖ äáëÜ = áå=íÜ É=íê~åëä~íáçåã ~êâÉíI=áK ÉK =áíë=ä~êÖ É=ëÜ ~êÉ=áå=íê~åëä~íáçå=Ñ äçï ëI=Ü ~ë=Ä ÉÅ çã É=~=Ö äçÄ ~ä= éÜ Éåçã ÉåçåK qÜ É=Ñ áÖ ì êÉë=gçÜ ~å=e ÉáäÄ êçå=E N V V V W =Q PQ F =êÉÑ Éêë=íç=áåÇáÅ ~íÉ=íÜ ~í=?ã çêÉíÜ ~å=Q M = éÉêÅ Éåí= çÑ = ~ää= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= Ä ççâë= ï çêäÇï áÇÉ= ~êçì åÇ= N V U M = ï ÉêÉ= íê~åëä~íÉÇÑ êçã = b åÖ äáëÜ ?= E ëÉÉ= ~äëç= s Éåì íá= N V V RW = N O X = ` êçåáå= O M M PW = N PV F K = fí= ëÉÉã ëíÜ ~íÖ äçÄ ~äáë~íáçå= Ü ~ë= Å çåíáåì ÉÇ= íç= êÉáåÑ çêÅ É= íÜ áë= áåÉèì ~äáíó= áå= íê~åëä~íáçåÑ äçï ëK = qÜ É=éêáã ~êó=~áã =çÑ =íÜ áë=éêçàÉÅ í=áë=íÜ ÉÇáëëÉã áå~íáçå=çÑ =q ì êâáëÜ =Å ì äíì êÉ=íÜ êçì Ö Ü =íÜ É= íê~åëä~íáçå= ~åÇ= éì Ä äáÅ ~íáçå= çÑ q ì êâáëÜ =Å ì äíì ê~äI= ~êíáëíáÅ = ~åÇ=äáíÉê~êó=ï çêâëK =l Ä î áçì ëäóI= l êÜ ~åm ~ã ì â?ëk çÄ Éäm êáòÉ=Ñ çê=äáíÉê~íì êÉ=áå=O M M S=Å ~å=Ä É=Å çåëáÇÉêÉÇ=~=ã áäÉëíçåÉ=áå=q ì êâáëÜ = äáíÉê~êóÜ áëíçêóI= ï Ü áÅ Ü = Ü ~ë= Ü ~Ç= ~= ÇáêÉÅ í= áã é~Å í= çå= íÜ É= éêçã çíáçå= çÑ = ï çêâë= çÑ = q ì êâáëÜ äáíÉê~íì êÉ= ~Ä êç~ÇK

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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar cáå~ääóI= áå= O M N M = fëí~åÄ ì ä= áë= Ü çåçì êÉÇ= ~ë= íÜ É= b ì êçéÉ~å= ` ~éáí~ä= çÑ ` ì äíì êÉI= ï Ü áÅ Ü = Ü ~ë= É~êåÉÇ=fëí~åÄ ì äI=?íÜ É=ëóã Ä çä=çÑ =íÜ É=Å çì åíêó?=~åÇ=íÜ ì ëq ì êâáëÜ =Å ì äíì êÉ=áå=Ö ÉåÉê~äI=ã çêÉ= áåíÉêå~íáçå~ä= î áëáÄ áäáíó= íÜ êçì Ö Ü =î ~êáçì ë= Å ì äíì ê~ä~åÇ= ~êíáëíáÅ = éêçàÉÅ íëK l å= íÜ É= çíÜ Éê= Ü ~åÇI= íÜ ÉêÉ= Ü ~î É=Ä ÉÉå=çíÜ Éê=áåáíá~íáî Éë=ï áíÜ =êÉëéÉÅ í=íç=íÜ Éíê~åëä~íáçå=çÑ =q ì êâáëÜ =äáíÉê~êó=ï çêâë=áåíç= b åÖ äáëÜ K ^ ë= êÉéçêíÉÇçå= íÜ É= ï ÉÄ = é~Ö É= çÑ = q b a ^ I= íÜ É= ëóã éçëáì ã = ?ï ~ë= ëç= ÉÑ Ñ ÉÅ íáî É= íÜ ~í= àì ëíáå= íï ç= óÉ~êë= RM M = q ì êâáëÜ = äáíÉê~êó= ï çêâë ~ééäáÉÇ= íç= êÉÅ Éáî É= ëì ééçêí= Ñ êçã = íÜ Éq b a ^ = m êçàÉÅ íK c áêëíI=íÜ É=ï çêâë=~êÉ=íê~åëä~íÉÇ=Ñ êçã =q ì êâáëÜ I=~=?ã áåçê?=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉE ~åÇ=äáíÉê~íì êÉ= Å çã é~êÉÇ=íç=b åÖ äáëÜ F K =pÉÅ çåÇI=íÜ É=ï çêâë=~êÉ=?íê~åëä~íáçåë?=E ~ëçééçëÉÇ=íç=Ä ÉáåÖ =Å çã éçëÉÇ= çêáÖ áå~ääó=áå=b åÖ äáëÜ F K =q Ü áêÇI=íÜ Éó=~êÉ=íê~åëä~íáçåëçÑ =q ì êâáëÜ =?ï çã Éå?ë?=ï êáíáåÖ =E ï çã Éå= ï êáíÉêë=Ä ÉáåÖ =ì åÇÉêêÉéêÉëÉåíÉÇÅ çã é~êÉÇ=íç=íÜ Éáê=ã ~äÉ=Å çì åíÉêé~êíë=áå=íê~åëä~íáçåF K =q ç=ëí~êí= Å çåíÉñíì ~äáòáåÖ q ì êâáëÜ =ï çã Éå?ë=ï êáíáåÖ =áå=b åÖ äáëÜ I=~=Ä êáÉÑ =ÇÉÅ êáéíáî É=~å~äóëáë=çÑ =íÜ É= Ä áÄ äáçÖ ê~éÜ óçÑ = íê~åëä~íÉÇ= ï çêâë= çÑ = q ì êâáëÜ = äáíÉê~íì êÉ= áå= b åÖ äáëÜ = ëÉÉã ë= êÉäÉî ~åíK = i Éí ì ë= åçï = äççâ= ~í= íÜ áë= Ä êç~ÇÉê= Å çêéì ëK qÜ É=Ñ ê~ã Éï çêâ=Ñ çê=íÜ áë=ÇÉÅ êáéíáî É=~å~äóëáë=áë=ëÉí=~Ö ~áåëí=íÜ É=Å çåëáÇÉê~íáçåçÑ =ëçã É= éêÉäáã áå~êó= èì Éëíáçåë= éêçã éíÉÇ= Ä ó= íÜ É= Ä áÄ äáçÖ ê~éÜ ó= çÑ = q ì êâáëÜ = äáíÉê~íì êÉáå= b åÖ äáëÜ = íê~åëä~íáçåK = i ççâáåÖ = Ñ çê= ~åëï Éêë= íç= èì Éëíáçåë= ëì Å Ü = ~ë= íÜ É~ì íÜ çêë= ~åÇ= Ö ÉåêÉë= ï Ü áÅ Ü = Ü ~î É= E åçíF = Ä ÉÉå=íê~åëä~íÉÇ=~åÇ=ï Ü Éå=íÜ ÉëÉ=íê~åëä~íáçåëÜ ~î É=Ä ÉÉå=ã ~ÇÉI=ï áää=Ö áî É=~å=áÇÉ~=~Ä çì í=íÜ É= ?ã áåçêáíó?= ëí~íì ë= çÑ = q ì êâáëÜ äáíÉê~íì êÉ= ~åÇ= é~êíáÅ ì ä~êäó= çÑ = q ì êâáëÜ = ï çã Éå= ï êáíÉêë= áå= b åÖ äáëÜ = íê~åëä~íáçåK j ó= áåíÉåíáçå= áë= åçí= íç= çÑ Ñ Éê= ~å= ÉñÜ ~ì ëíáî É= ëì êî Éó= çÑ = íÜ É= ï Ü çäÉ= Å çêéì ë= çÑ = q ì êâáëÜ i áíÉê~íì êÉ= áå= b åÖ äáëÜ = íê~åëä~íáçåK q ç= Ä ÉÖ áå= ï áíÜ I= åçíÜ áåÖ = ëÉÉã ë= íç= Ü ~î É= Ä ÉÉå= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= Ñ êçã =q ì êâáëÜ P=áåíçb åÖ äáëÜ =Ä ÉÑ çêÉ=N U U O K =^ åÇI=~ë=íÜ É=Ñ áÖ ì êÉë=Ä Éäçï =ëÜ çï I=éêáçê=íç=N V Q M I= Ü ~êÇäó~åó=íê~åëä~íáçåë=ï ÉêÉ=ã ~ÇÉK =_ Éíï ÉÉå=íÜ É=óÉ~êë=N V O M =~åÇ=N V Q M I=~=íçí~ä=çÑ =çåäóíÜ êÉÉ= íê~åëä~íáçåë= ~ééÉ~êÉÇI=áåÅ äì ÇáåÖ =íÜ É= Ñ áêëí=q ì êâáëÜ =åçî Éä=áå=b åÖ äáëÜ X =íÜ ~íáëI= íÜ É=íê~åëä~íáçå= çÑ = e ~äáÇÉ= b ÇáÄ ?ëAteştenGömlekE N V O O F I= ï Ü áÅ Ü = ï ~ë Ñ áêëííê~åëä~íÉÇ= Ä ó= íÜ É= ~ì íÜ çê= Ü ÉêëÉäÑ = E The Shirt of FlameI=N V O Q F I=íç=Ä É=êÉJíê~åëä~íÉÇÄ ój ì Ü ~ã ã ÉÇv ~âì Ä =h Ü ~å=áå=N V Q N =E The Daughter of SmyrnaF K = qÜ É= åì ã Ä ÉêçÑ = íê~åëä~íáçåë= Ä ÉÖ áåë= íç= áåÅ êÉ~ëÉ= áå= íÜ É= N V SM ëK ^Å íì ~ääóI= áí= áë= éçëëáÄ äÉ= íç= í~äâ= ~Ä çì í= íï ç= ã ~àçêíê~åëä~íáçå= íêÉåÇë= Ñ êçã = N V U M = íç= éêÉëÉåíW = c áêëíI=Å çåíê~êó=íç=íÜ É=éçéì ä~ê=Ä ÉäáÉÑ íÜ ~í=éçÉíêó=áë=åçí=êÉ~ÇI=éçÉíêó=íê~åëä~íáçåë=Ü ~î É=åçí= ÇÉÅ äáåÉÇ=~í=~ääK =j çêÉçî ÉêI~ëp~äáÜ ~m ~âÉê=~äëç=ëí~íÉë=E ~åÇ=~ë=áí=áë=Å äÉ~êäó=ëÉÉå=áå=q ~Ä äÉ=N F I= ?q ì êâáëÜ = éçÉíêóÜ ~ë= ÉåàçóÉÇ= ã çêÉ= éçéì ä~êáíó= áå= íê~åëä~íáçå= íÜ ~å= Ñ áÅ íáçå?= E m ~âÉê= O M M U F K ` çã éêáëáåÖ = PPB = çÑ = íÜ É= íçí~ä= çì íéì í= çÑ = íê~åëä~íáçåëI= éçÉíêó= Ü ~ë= Ä ÉÉåI= éÉêÜ ~éëëì êéêáëáåÖ äóI=íÜ É= ã çëí=íê~åëä~íÉÇ=Ö ÉåêÉ= ~åÇ=å~íì ê~ääó=ÇÉëÉêî Éë=~ííÉåíáçå=~ë= ~ï ÉáÖ Ü íó= Å çã éçåÉåí= çÑ = íÜ É= Å çåíÉñíK = qÜ ÉêÉ= ã ~ó= Ä É= ëÉî Éê~ä= êÉ~ëçåë= Ä ÉÜ áåÇ= íÜ áëä~êÖ É= ëÜ ~êÉ= íÜ ~í= q ì êâáëÜ = éçÉíêó= Ü ~ë= Å çã É= íç= éçëëÉëë= áå= b åÖ äáëÜ = íê~åëä~íáçåK få= äáâÉ= ã ~ååÉêI= q ~ä~íp~áíe ~äã ~åI= çåÉ= çÑ = íÜ É= ã çëí= ~Å íáî É= ~Ö Éåíë= áå= íê~åëä~íáåÖ ~åÇ= éêçã çíáåÖ = q ì êâáëÜ = éçÉíêóI= Ä ÉÖ áåë= Ü áë= éêÉÑ ~Å É= íç= A Brave New Quest 100 Modern Turkish Poems ï áíÜ =~==êÉÑ ÉêÉåÅ É=íç=q ì êâÉó?ë=Ä Éëí=âåçï å= ë~íáêáëí^ òáòk Éëáå?ë= ?Ñ ~åÅ áÑ ì ä= çÄ ëÉêî ~íáçå?= íÜ ~í= ?Ñ çì ê= çì í= çÑ = íÜ êÉÉ= q ì êâë= ~êÉ= éçÉíë?E O M M SW = ñáF = ëç=~ë=íç=ì åÇÉêäáåÉ=íÜ É=ëì éêÉã ~Å ó=çÑ =éçÉíêó=áå=l ííçã ~å=~åÇ=q ì êâáëÜ äáíÉê~íì êÉ=~åÇ=áíë=ëíáää= ~Å Å ä~áã ÉÇ= éçï Éê= ÇÉëéáíÉíÜ É= ~ëÅ ÉåÇ~åÅ ó= çÑ = íÜ É= åçî ÉäK qÜ É=ëÉÅ çåÇ=ã ~àçê=íêÉåÇ=áå=íê~åëä~íáçåë=Ñ êçã =q ì êâáëÜ =äáíÉê~íì êÉ=áåíç=b åÖ äáëÜ Å ~å=Ä É= çÄ ëÉêî ÉÇ=áå=íÜ É=ëóëíÉã ~íáÅ =áåÅ êÉ~ëÉ=áå=íÜ É=íê~åëä~íáçå=çÑ =Ñ áÅ íáçåK qÜ É=åì ã Ä Éê=çÑ =åçî Éäë= íê~åëä~íÉÇ=áåíç=b åÖ äáëÜ =Ä Éíï ÉÉå=N V U M =~åÇ=O M M M =áåÅ êÉ~ëÉÇÑ êçã =Ñ çì êíÉÉå=íç=Ñ çêíó=ï áíÜ áå=íÜ É= Ñ çääçï áåÖ = íÉå= óÉ~êë= E O M M M JO M N M F K = ^ ê~ÇáÅ ~ä= áåÅ êÉ~ëÉ= áë= ~äëç= çÄ ëÉêî ÉÇ= áå= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íáçå= çÑ = ëÜ çêí= ëíçêóK ^ =åçíÉï çêíÜ ó=éçáåí=êÉÖ ~êÇáåÖ =íÜ É=áåÅ êÉ~ëÉ=áå=íÜ É=åì ã Ä Éê=çÑ =åçî Éäë=íê~åëä~íÉÇáåíç= b åÖ äáëÜ = ëáåÅ É= íÜ É= N V U M ë= ~åÇ= N V V M ë= áë= íÜ É Éåíêó= çÑ = ëÉî Éê~ä= q ì êâáëÜ åçî Éäáëíë= íç= íÜ É= áåíÉêå~íáçå~ä= äáíÉê~êó=ëÅ ÉåÉI=áåÅ äì ÇáåÖ =~ã çåÖ =çíÜ ÉêëI=i ~íáÑ Éq ÉâáåI=l êÜ ~åm ~ã ì âI=_ áäÖ É=h ~ê~ëì I=l êÜ ~å= h Éã ~äI= ~åÇ= b äáÑ Ş~Ñ ~âK = ^ äíÜ çì Ö Ü m ~ã ì â= Ü ~ë= Ä ÉÉå= íÜ É= ã çëí= êÉåçï åÉÇ= q ì êâáëÜ = åçî Éäáëí= ~Ä êç~Ç= E ï áíÜ = íÜ É= ÉñÅ ÉéíáçåçÑ v ~ş~ê= h Éã ~äF = Éî Éå= Ä ÉÑ çêÉ= Ü É= ï çå= íÜ É= k çÄ Éä= m êáòÉ= áå= O M M SI=
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar b åÖ äáëÜ íê~åëä~íáçåë= Ñ êçã = çíÜ Éê= q ì êâáëÜ = åçî Éäáëíë= ÇáÇ= åçí= Ñ ~áä= íç= Çê~ï = ~ííÉåíáçå~åçíÜ Éê= ì åáèì É= î çáÅ É=áå=ã çÇÉêå=q ì êâáëÜ =Ñ áÅ íáçåI=ï ~ë=íê~åëä~íÉÇÄ ó^ êçå^ àá=~åÇ=áí=êÉÅ Éáî ÉÇ=íÜ É=k ~íáçå~ä= q ê~åëä~íáçå= ^ ï ~êÇ= Ö áî Éå= Ä ó= íÜ É^ ã ÉêáÅ ~å= i áíÉê~êó= q ê~åëä~íçêë= ^ ëëçÅ á~íáçå= áå= O M M Q K l åÉ= óÉ~ê= ä~íÉêI= b äáÑ Ş~Ñ ~â?The Flea Palace íê~åëä~íÉÇ= Ä ó= Ü ìÖ É= d çÅ ÉâI= ï ~ëëÜ çêíäáëíÉÇ= Ñ çê= íÜ É= fåÇÉéÉåÇÉåí= c çêÉáÖ å= c áÅ íáçå= m êáòÉ= íçÖ ÉíÜ Éê= ï áíÜ = m ~ã ì â?ëSnowF = íê~åëä~íÉÇ= Ä ó= j ~ì êÉÉå= c êÉÉäóK q ì êâáëÜ =ï çã Éå=ï êáíÉêë=çÅ Å ì éó=~?ã áåçêáíó?éçëáíáçåI=é~êíáÅ ì ä~êäó=Ä ÉÅ ~ì ëÉ=íÜ Éó=~êÉ= ì åÇÉêêÉéêÉëÉåíÉÇ= áå= íê~åëä~íáçå= Å çã é~êÉÇíç= íÜ Éáê= ã ~äÉ= Å çì åíÉêé~êíëK = fí= áë= çåäó= êÉÅ Éåíäó= íÜ ~í= íÜ É= åì ã Ä Éê= çÑ = íê~åëä~íáçåëçÑ = ï çã Éå= ï êáíÉêë?= ï çêâ= Ü ~ë= êÉ~Å Ü ÉÇ= åÉ~êäó= Ü ~äÑ = íÜ É= åì ã Ä Éê= çÑ = íÜ çëÉÄ ó= ã ~äÉ= ï êáíÉêëK = ^ åÇ= áí= Å ~å= Ä É= çÄ î áçì ëäó= ~ëëÉêíÉÇ= íÜ ~í= éêáçê= íç= N V U M I= q ì êâáëÜ ï çã Éå= ï êáíÉêë= ï ÉêÉ= ~äã çëí= åçå JÉñáëíÉåí= áå= íÜ É= ^ åÖ äç J^ ã ÉêáÅ ~å= ëóëíÉã K K qÜ É= Ñ áÖ ì êÉëÇÉã çåëíê~íÉ= íÜ ~í= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íáçå= çÑ = åçî Éä= Å çåëíáíì íÉë= SRB I= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íáçå= çÑ ëÜ çêí=ëíçêó= O M B I=íÜ É=íê~åëä~íáçå=çÑ =éçÉíêó= V B I=~åÇ= íÜ É=íê~åëä~íáçå=çÑ =ã áëÅ Éää~åÉçì ëï çêâë= SB =çÑ =íÜ É=íçí~ä=åì ã Ä Éê=çÑ =íê~åëä~íáçåë=çÑ =ï çêâë=Ä ó=q ì êâáëÜ ï çã Éåï êáíÉêëK qÜ É=Ñ ~Å í=íÜ ~í= ï çã Éå= ï êáíÉêë= ëí~êíÉÇ= íç= Ö Éí= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= áåíç= b åÖ äáëÜ = áå= íÜ ÉN V U M ë= ~åÇ= N V V M ë= áë= íç= ~= Ö êÉ~í= ÉñíÉåí= êÉä~íÉÇ= íç= íÜ É= Ä çåÇ= Ä Éíï ÉÉå= ï êáíáåÖ ~åÇ= ï çã Éå?ë= áåÅ êÉ~ëÉÇ= Å çåëÅ áçì ëåÉëëK b ëéÉÅ á~ääó= íÜ É= åçî Éä= çÑ = íÜ É= N V U M ëI= ï Ü áÅ Ü = Ä êÉ~âë= ~ï ~ó= ï áíÜ = íÜ ÉëçÅ á~äáëí= êÉ~äáëã = çÑ = íÜ É= éêÉî áçì ë=~Ö É=~åÇ=ï Ü áÅ Ü =áë=áÇÉåíáÑ áÉÇ=ï áíÜ =~=Å çåÅ Éêå=Ñ çêÑ çêã =~åÇ=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉI=Ü ~ë=Ä ÉÉå= Éåçêã çì ëäó= ÉÑ Ñ ÉÅ íáî É= áå= Ö áî áåÖ = ~= î çáÅ É= íç= ï çã Éåï êáíÉêëK ^ äíÜ çì Ö Ü = íÜ ÉêÉ= ~êÉ= Å çåëéáÅ ì çì ë= Ö ~éë= áå=íÜ ÉÅ çêéì ë=çÑ =íê~åëä~íÉÇ=q ì êâáëÜ =ï çã Éå?ë=Ñ áÅ íáçå=E ÉëéÉÅ á~ääó=Ä Éíï ÉÉå=íÜ É=N V Q M ë~åÇ=U M ëF = ~åÇ= íê~åëä~íáçåë= ã ~ó= ~ééÉ~ê= íç= Ä É= èì áíÉ= ëÅ ~ííÉêÉÇ= ~åÇ= ëéçííóI= ëçã É= çÑ íÜ É= ëÉäÉÅ íáçåë= ~êÉ= ëíáää= ï çêíÜ = åçíáåÖ = ~ë= íÜ Éó= ëáÖ åáÑ ó= ~= ÇáëíáåÅ í= ï çã Éå?ë= ï êáíáåÖ ~åÇL çê= äáíÉê~êó= íê~Çáíáçå= áå= q ì êâÉóK qÜ Éáê= ï çêäÇ= áå= q Éâáå?ë= Ñ áÅ íáçåN TM = ^ êòì ^ âÄ ~íì êã ~áåí~áåë= ~= ÇáëíáåÅ íáî É= áåíÉê~Å íáçå= ï áíÜ = áíë= ã ~äÉ= Å çì åíÉêé~êí= ~åÇ= ï çã ~åÜ ççÇáë= Å çåÅ Éáî ÉÇ= ~ë= ~= ëÉÅ êÉí= ëçÅ áÉíó= êÉëáëíáåÖ = ~åÇI= ~í= íáã ÉëI= ëì Ä î ÉêíáåÖ =~ééêÉëëáî É==Ñ çêÅ Éë?=E N V V PW =N PF K pÜ çêí=Ñ áÅ íáçå=Ä ó=q ì êâáëÜ =ï çã Éå=ï êáíÉêë=Ü ~ë= ~ééÉ~êÉÇ=áå=ëÉî Éê~ä=~åíÜ çäçÖ áÉëI~äíÜ çì Ö Ü =åç=ï çã ~å=ï êáíÉê=Ü ~ë=Ä ÉÉå=êÉéêÉëÉåíÉÇ=Ä ó=~å= áåÇáî áì ~äÅ çääÉÅ íáçåK Twenty Stories by Turkish Women Writers, ÉÇáíÉÇ= ~åÇ= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= Ä ók áäì Ñ Éêj áò~åç ğäì =o ÉÇÇóI=áë=íÜ É=çåäó=Å çääÉÅ íáçå=íç=Ü ~î É=Ä êçì Ö Ü í=íçÖ ÉíÜ Éêï çã Éå=ï êáíÉêë= ÉñÅ äì ëáî ÉäóK = l Ñ = éêáã É= áã éçêí~åÅ É= áë= íÜ É= êÉÅ Éåí= íï ç Jî çäì ã É~åíÜ çäçÖ ó= Contemporary Turkish Short FictionI= ÉÇáíÉÇ= Ä ó= pì ~íh ~ê~åí~óK qÜ áë=áë?íÜ É=ä~êÖ Éëí=Å çã éáä~íáçå=íç=Ç~íÉ=çÑ =q ì êâáëÜ =ëíçêáÉë=áå=b åÖ äáëÜ =íê~åëä~íáçå?= E íï çî çäì ã Éë=áåÅ äì ÇÉ=~=íçí~ä=çÑ =U T=ëíçêáÉë=Ä ó=SO =ï êáíÉêëF =ï áíÜ =~å=~áã =íç=êÉéêÉëÉåí?Ä çíÜ = Éëí~Ä äáëÜ ÉÇ= ~åÇ= ì é J~åÇJÅ çã áåÖ = q ì êâáëÜ = ï êáíÉêëI= êçì Ö Ü äó= Ü ~äÑ = çÑ = ï Ü çã = ~êÉ= ï çã ÉåK qÜ ÉçÄ ëÉpêî ~íáçå= ~ë= íç= íÜ É= éêçäáÑ Éê~íáçå= áå= ï çã Éå?ë= Ñ áÅ íáçå= áå= íÜ É= N V U M ë~åÇ= íÜ É= êÉÅ Éåí= áåÅ êÉ~ëÉ= áå= íÜ É= åì ã Ä Éê= çÑ = íê~åëä~íáçåë= ëÜ çì äÇ= åçíI= Ü çï Éî ÉêIã ~âÉ= ì ë= çÄ äáî áçì ë= íç= íÜ É= Ñ ~Å í= íÜ ~í= íÜ ÉêÉ=ï ÉêÉ=éêçäáÑ áÅ =ï çã Éå=ï êáíÉêë=áå=íÜ Éä~ëíK qÜ ì ëI=áí=ã áÖ Ü í=Ä É~êÖ ì ÉÇ=íÜ ~í=íÜ áë=?ï çã ~å J Ñ çÅ ì ëÉÇ= äáíÉê~êó= íê~Çáíáçå?= åÉÉÇë= íç= Ä É= êÉJêÉ~Ç= ~åÇL çêêÉJÇáëÅ çî ÉêÉÇ= áå= çêÇÉê= íç= Ä É= ã ~ÇÉ= âåçï å= íç=íÜ É=b åÖ äáëÜ ëéÉ~âáåÖ =ï çêäÇK =^ åÇIáí=áë=~í=íÜ áë=éçáåí=íÜ ~í=íÜ É=ëáÖ åáÑ áÅ ~åÅ É=çÑ =ëÅ Ü çä~êäó= Å êáíáÅ áëã = Ö ÉåÉê~íÉÇ= Ä çíÜ = áåíÜ É= ëçì êÅ É= ~åÇ= í~êÖ Éí= Å ì äíì êÉë= Ä ÉÅ çã Éë= ~ää= íÜ É= ã çêÉ= î áëáÄ äÉK qÜ É=íê~åëä~íçêI=íê~åëä~íáåÖ I=áå=é~êíáÅ ì ä~êIÑ êçã =~=?ã áåçê?=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É=E ëì Å Ü =~ë=q ì êâáëÜ F = ÇçÉë=Ñ ì åÅ íáçå=~ë=~=Å êÉ~íçêçÑ =äáíÉê~êó=î ~äì É=áå=ã ~âáåÖ =áí=éçëëáÄ äÉ=Ñ çê=íÉñíë=íç=?çÄ í~áå=~= Å ÉêíáÑ áÅ ~íÉ= çÑ = äáíÉê~êóëí~åÇáåÖ ?= Turkish Women’s Poetry in English Translationq Ü É= Å ~íÉÖ çêó= çÑ = ?Å çääÉÅ íáî É?= E áåÅ äì ÇáåÖ = ã ~äÉ= ~åÇ= Ñ Éã ~äÉ= ~ì íÜ çêëF = áå= íÜ É= Ä áÄ äáçÖ ê~éÜ óçÑ = ï çêâë= çÑ = q ì êâáëÜ = äáíÉê~íì êÉ= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= áåíç= b åÖ äáëÜ = Å ~å= Ä É= ã áëäÉ~ÇáåÖ K qÜ É= íê~åëä~íáçåë= çÑ = ï çã Éå= éçÉíë= Ü ~î É= åçí= Ä ÉÉå= Ö áî Éå= ã ìÅ Ü ëé~Å É= ï áíÜ áå= íÜ ÉëÉ= ~åíÜ çäçÖ áëíK qÜ É= áëëì É= çÑ = íÜ É= êÉéêÉëÉåí~íáçåçÑ = ï çã Éå= éçÉíë= áå= íÜ ÉëÉ= ~åíÜ çäçÖ áÉëI= ï Ü áÅ Ü = Å çåëíáíì íÉ= ~= ëáÖ åáÑ áÅ ~åíé~êí= çÑ = Ü áëíçêáÉë= çÑ = q ì êâáëÜ = äáíÉê~íì êÉI= Å ~ääë= áåíç= èì Éëíáçå= ï Ü ó= áí= áë= åçí= éçëëáÄ äÉíç= Ü É~ê= íÜ É= éäì ê~ä= î çáÅ Éë= çÑ = ï çã Éå= áå= íÜ áë= é~êíáÅ ì ä~ê= Ö ÉåêÉK ` çåíÉã éçê~êó= q ì êâáëÜ = éçÉíêó= ã ~ó= åçí=Ä É=~ë=?ã ~äÉJÇçã áå~íÉÇ?=~ë=Ä ÉÑ çêÉK =q Ü Éì åÇÉêêÉéêÉëÉåí~íáçå=çÑ =ï çã Éå=éçÉíëI=Ü çï Éî ÉêI= ëÉÉã ë= íç= Ä É= ~å= çåÖ çáåÖ = áëëì Éï Ü áÅ Ü = Ü ~ë= Ü ~Ç= áíë= Å çåëÉèì ÉåÅ Éë= áå= íê~åëä~íáçå= ~ë= ï ÉääK

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Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar q ì êâÉó=ê~íÜ Éê=ÇÉéÉåÇë=çå=íê~åëä~íáçåëÑ êçã =b åÖ äáëÜ =ï Ü ÉêÉ~ë=áí=Éñéçêíë=Ñ ~ê=äÉëë= íê~åëä~íáçåë= áåíç= íÜ áë= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK = qÜ ÉéêÉëÉåí= ëì êî Éó= Ü ~ë= ëÜ çï å= íÜ ~í= q ì êâáëÜ = ï çã Éå= ï êáíÉêë= áå= b åÖ äáëÜ = íê~åëä~íáçåÜ ~î É= çÅ Å ì éáÉÇ= ~= ?ã áåçêáíó?= éçëáíáçå= ã ~áåäó= Çì É= íç= íÜ É= ä~Å â= çÑ = íê~åëä~íáçåëK l å= íÜ É= çíÜ Éê= Ü ~åÇI= íÜ É= áåÅ êÉ~ëÉ= áå= íÜ É= åì ã Ä Éê= çÑ = íê~åëä~íáçåë= çÑ = q ì êâáëÜ ï çã Éå?ë= Ñ áÅ íáçå=ÉëéÉÅ á~ääó=áå=íÜ É=ä~ëí=ÇÉÅ ~ÇÉ=áë=î Éêó=éêçã áëáåÖ K =v ÉíI=íÜ É=Ü ~êëÜ Ñ ~Å íë=çÑ =íÜ É=^ åÖ äç J ^ ã ÉêáÅ ~å= éì Ä äáëÜ áåÖ = áåÇì ëíêóI= áÑ = åçí= íÜ É= ëç JÅ ~ääÉÇ= ?Å ì äíì ê~äÄ ~êêáÉêë?I= Å çåíáåì É= íç= çÄ ëíêì Å í= íÜ É= êÉÅ çÖ åáíáçå= ~åÇ= áëëÉã áå~íáçå= çÑ = q ì êâáëÜ ï çã Éå= E ~ë= ï Éää= ~ë= ã ~äÉF = ï êáíÉêë= áå= b åÖ äáëÜ K = få= Ñ ~Å íI= íÜ É=åì ã Ä Éêë=Çç=åçí=åÉÅ Éëë~êáäó~Å Å çì åí=Ñ çê=íÜ É=êÉÅ Ééíáçå=çÑ =íê~åëä~íáçåë=Ñ êçã =q ì êâáëÜ = äáíÉê~íì êÉ=~åÇIN TS^ êòì ^ âÄ ~íì êÑ çê=íÜ ~í=ã ~ííÉêI=q ì êâáëÜ =ï çã Éå=ï êáíÉêëK =t áíÜ çì í=Ççì Ä íI= íê~åëä~íáçåë= Çç= åçííêì äó= Ä ÉÅ çã É= ?î áëáÄ äÉ?= ì åäÉëë= íÜ Éó= ~êÉ= êÉ~Ç= ~åÇ= êÉî áÉï ÉÇK = k Éî ÉêíÜ ÉäÉëëI=Éî Éå=áÑ =q ì êâáëÜ =ï çã Éå?ë=ï êáíáåÖ I=é~êíáÅ ì ä~êäóáíë=Çáî Éêëáíó=áå=íÜ É= éäì ê~äáíó=çÑ =ÉñéêÉëëáçåëI=Ü ~ë=åçí=Ä ÉÉå=íêì äó=êÉÅ çÖ åáòÉÇ=~åÇ~ééêÉÅ á~íÉÇ=áå=íÜ É=^ åÖ äçéÜ çåÉ= ï çêäÇI=íÜ É=êÉÅ Éåí=óÉ~êë=Ü ~î É=ëÜ çï å=íÜ ~í=ï áíÜ íÜ É=Ö êçï áåÖ =áåíÉêÉëí=áå=q ì êâáëÜ =äáíÉê~íì êÉ=~åÇ= Å ì äíì êÉI=~åÇ=ï áíÜ =íÜ É=ëì Å Å Éëë=çÑ íÜ É=q b a ^ =éêçÖ ê~ã =~ë=ï Éää=~ë=ÇÉî çíÉÇ=íê~åëä~íçêë=~åÇ= ëÅ Ü çä~êëI= íÜ É= ëáíì ~íáçåáëÅ Ü ~åÖ áåÖ = ëäçï äó= Ä ì í= éêçã áëáåÖ äóK o bc bo bk ` b ^ ÇÅ çÅ âI= e ~åå~Ü K = E O M M V F = ?i ~íáÑ Éq Éâáåq êáäçÖ ó?K The Edinburgh Review N O RK = ééK N N O JN N Q K ^ åÇêÉï ëI=t ~äíÉê=d K =E O M M U F =?q ì êâáëÜ =i áíÉê~íì êÉ=çå=íÜ É=t çêäÇ=pí~Ö ÉW =d ççÇ=k Éï ë? _ ~Ç= Turkish Book Review gì äóJa ÉÅ Éã Ä ÉêK = ééK = RQ JRU K k Éï ë?K = ^ óÜ ~åI= ^ óşÉK = E O M M RF = Translation and the Authorial Image: Reception of LatifeTekin’sLiterary Works within the Source and Target Culture(s)K =r åéì Ä äáëÜ ÉÇ=j K ^K = qÜ Éëáë v ıäã ~ò_ ~şíì ğI= j ÉäáâÉK = E O M M V F = A EnglishK p~~êÄ êì Å âÉåW = saj K Translational Journey: OrhanPamuk in

a o ^d l k= _ l ^ q= c b pqfs ^ i = ? ^= q o ^ k pi ^ q b a = pq l o v = co l j = ` e fk b pb i f= ` e bk u r b Ⅱ j ^ = b k d i fpe = o s p= ` ^p nì= óì ~å= I= ~= áåíÉääáÖ Éåí= éÉêëçå= ~åÇ= ~äëç= ~= î Éêó= Ö êÉ~í= éÉêëçå= áå= íÜ É= ~åÅ áÉåí= íáã É= çÑ = Å Ü áå~= K ~Ä çì í=Ä ÉÑ çêÉ=PM Q JO TU =óÉ~êë=~Ö çK =e É=áë=~=çì íëí~åÇáåÖ =éçäáíáÅ á~å=~åÇ=íÜ É=Ö êÉ~í=éçÉí=I=~åÇ= Ä ÉäçåÖ = íç= íÜ É= Ü ìÄ Éá= éêçî áåÅ ÉI= Ü É= ï ~ë= çåÉ= çÑ = Å Ü áå~?ë= Ñ áêëí= Ö êÉ~í= éçÉí= çÑ = é~íêáçíáëã I= Ü É= Å êÉ~íÉÇ= ~= éçÉíêó= Ñ êçã = íÜ É= Å çääÉÅ íáî É= ëáåÖ áåÖ = áåíç= ~= åÉï = Éê~= çÑ = Å êÉ~íáî É= éÉêëçå~ä= áåÇÉéÉåÇÉåÅ ÉK = e É= ~ëëáëí= íÜ êÉÉ= âáåÖ = ~Ä çì í= íÜ É= éçäáíáÅ ~ä= K = ~åÇ= Ü É= áë= ~= ëã ~êí= éçäáíáÅ á~å= K = Ä ì í= Çì êáåÖ = íÜ ~í= íáã É= K = Ä ÉÅ ~ì ëÉ= Ü áë= í~äÉåí= K = ëçã É= Ü óéçÅ êáíÉ= Éåî ó= Ü áã K = pç= íÜ Éó= çÑ íÉå= ëçã ÉíÜ áåÖ = Ä ~Ç= áå= Ñ êçåí= çÑ = íÜ É= âáåÖ = K = ëç= íÜ É= âáåÖ = Ä ÉÅ ~ã É= ì åÄ ÉäáÉî ~Ä äÉ= Ü áã = Ç~ó= Ä ó= Ç~ó= K = ëç= áå= íÜ É= ä~ëí= IíÜ É= âáåÖ = Ä ~åáëÜ = Ü áã = I= ~Ñ íÉê= Ä ~åáëÜ = K = èì óì ~å=çÑ íÉå=Ü É~ê=ëçã É=çíÜ Éê ë~ó=ëçã ÉíÜ áåÖ =~Ä çì í=Ü áë=Å çì åíêó=íÜ ~í=áë=~Ñ íÉê=Ü É=äÉ~î É=K Ü áë= Å çì åíêó= Ä ÉÅ ~ã É= ÇÉÅ äáåÉ= ~åÇ= ~äëç= íÜ É= âáåÖ = ÇÉ~íÜ = K = Ü É= Ñ ÉÉä= ë~Ç= ~åÇ= íÜ Éå= Ü É= àì ã é= áåíç= íÜ É= êáî Éê= I= ~åÇ= ï Ü Éå= íÜ É= éÉçéäÉ= äáëíÉå= íÜ ~í= èì óì ~å= àì ã é= áåíç= íÜ É= êáî Éê= I= íÜ Éó= ~êÉ= ~ää= Å çã É= ~åÇ= ï ~åí= Ü Éäé= Ü áã K = _ ÉÅ ~ì ëÉ= Éî ÉêóçåÉ= âåçï = íÜ ~í= èì óì ~å= áë= ~= Ö ççÇ= éÉêëçå= I= Ü É= Ü Éäé= íÜ É= Å áíáòÉå= Çç= ~= äçí= çÑ = Ö ççÇ= íÜ áåÖ = IÄ ì í= áå= íÜ É= ÉåÇ= íÜ Éó= ~êÉ= Ñ ~áäK = qÜ Éó= Å ~å?í= Ñ áåÇ= èì óì ~å= áå= íÜ É= êáî ÉêK = pç= íÜ Éó= ~êÉ= ~Ñ ê~áÇ= çÑ = íÜ É= Ñ áëÜ = çê= íÜ É= çíÜ Éê= ~åáã ~ä= É~í= èì óì ~å?ë= Ä çÇó= I= ~ç= íÜ Éó= ~êÉ= ~ää= Å çã É= Ä ~Å â= Ü çã É= ~åÇ= í~âÉ= íÜ íÜ É= êáÅ É= çê= íÜ É= çíÜ Éê= íÜ áåÖ ë= íÜ êçï = áåíç= íÜ É= êáî Éê= K = ëç= Éî Éêó= óÉ~ê= íÜ áë= íáã É= I= ã ~ó= R K = íÜ É= éÉêëçå= ï áää= Å çã É= íÜ áë= êáî Éê= I= íÜ êçï = íÜ É= êáÅ É= áåíá= íÜ É= êáî Éê= I~åÇ= íÜ ~í= áë= ~= ëéÉÅ á~ä= êáÅ É= å~ã ÉÇ= ëíáÅ âó= êáÅ É= K =

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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar ~åÇ=Ü çäÇáåÖ =íÜ É=Çê~Ö çåJÄ ç~í=ê~Å áåÖ =áå=íÜ É=êáî ÉêK =^ åÇ=~äëç=ã ~âáåÖ =~==ëéÉÅ á~ä=íê~Çáíáçå= Ñ ççÇ= ï áíÜ = ëíáÅ âó= êáÅ É= å~ã ÉÇ= òçåÖ òáK = ^ åÇ= íÜ áë= Ñ Éëíá~ä= å~ã ÉÇ= Çê~Ö çå= Ä ç~í= Ñ Éëíáî ~äK qÜ É= ÇáÑ Ñ áÅ ì äí= ï Ü Éå= f= íê~åëä~íÉ= íÜ áë= ëíçêó= áë= N =ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É=ÇáÑ Ñ áÅ ì äí=IÄ ÉÅ ~ì ëÉ=íÜ É=ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåí=Å çì åíêó=Ü ~î É=íÜ É=ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåí=Å ì äíì êÉI=ëç=ï Ü Éå=f= íê~åëä~íÉ= íÜ áë= ëíçêó= f= Å ~å?í= Ñ áåÇ= íÜ É= Ñ ÉÉäáåÖ = ~Ä çì í= ï Ü Éå= f= ë~ï = íÜ áë= ëíçêó= áå= `Ü áåÉëÉ= K O = ëç= ã ~åó= å~ã É= ~êÉ= î Éêó= ÇáÑ Ñ áÅ ì äí= íç= íê~åëä~íÉK P= f= Ççå?í= âåçï = íê~åëä~íÉ= åÉÉÇ= íÜ É= Éã çíáçå= çê= åçíK q o ^ k pi ^ q fl k = qe bl o v = ^ka = m o ^ ` q f` b oK j r k b b pe t ^ o f f= j ^= b k d i fpe o s p= ` ^ pK få= ã ~åó= ì åáî ÉêëáíáÉë= íê~åëä~íáçå= ëíáää= éä~óë= ~= ëáÖ åáÑ áÅ ~åí= êçäÉ= áå= ì åÇÉêÖ ê~Çì ~íÉíÉ~Å Ü áåÖ = ~åÇ=áë=ëíáää=Å çã ã çåäó=ì ëÉÇ=~ë=~=íÉëíáåÖ =íÉÅ Ü åáèì ÉK =fí=áë=î Éêó=ÇáÑ Ñ áÅ ì äí=íç=éêçî Éï Ü ÉíÜ Éê= íê~åëä~íáçå= ÇçÉë= çê= ÇçÉë= åçí= Ü Éäé= ëíì ÇÉåíë= íç= äÉ~êå= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK = pçã É= ëíì ÇÉåíëI= Ñ çêÉñ~ã éäÉI= áå= ã ó= Å ä~ëëÉë= ëíáää= Ñ çì åÇ= Ü ~êÇåÉëë= áå= äÉ~êåáåÖ = b åÖ äáëÜ = ï áíÜ çì í= âåçï áåÖ = íÜ Éã É~åáåÖ K få= íÜ ~í= íê~åëä~íáåÖ I= É~Å Ü = b åÖ äáëÜ = ï çêÇ= áë= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= áå= fåÇçåÉëá~å= äáíÉê~ääó= áå= íÜ Éë~ã É= çêÇÉê= ï áíÜ = áíë= b åÖ äáëÜ K = _ ì íI= áå= íê~åëä~íáåÖ = íÜ É= éêáã ~êó= ~åÇ= ëÉÅ çåÇ~êó= ã É~åáåÖ Iëçã É= ëíì ÇÉåíë= Ö çí= ã áñJì éK = c çê= Éñ~ã éäÉI= íê~åëä~íáåÖ = ?êì å?= ~ë= î ÉêÄ I= áí= áë= çåäó= ?berlari?K qÜ Éó= Ñ çÅ ì ëÉÇ= çå= íÜ É= éêáã ~êó= ã É~åáåÖ = ã É~åï Ü áäÉ= íÜ É= î ÉêÄ = ?êì å?= Å çì äÇ= Ä É= ÇÉÑ áåÉÇ= ëçã Éã É~åáåÖ ë= áå= íÜ É= ëÉÅ çåÇ~êó= ëÉåëÉK =q ê~åëä~íáåÖ =?Ü áë=åçëÉ=êì åë=áåíç=fåÇçåÉëá~å=ï áää=åçíÑ çÅ ì ë=çå=~=éÜ óëáÅ ~ä=~Å íáî áíóK =fí=áë= ?diapilek?K =j É~åï Ü áäÉI=?íÜ É=êáî Éê=êì åë?=ï áää=Ä Éíê~åëä~íÉÇ= ~ë=?sungaiitumengalir?K qÜ É=ëéÉÅ á~ä= íÉêã ë=L =à~êÖ çå=ì ëÉÇ=~ë=b åÖ äáëÜ =Ñ çê=péÉÅ áÑ áÅ =m ì êéçëÉë=E b pm F =Å ~å=åçí~äëç=Ä É=íê~åëä~íÉÇ=áåíç= ï çêÇ= Ñ çê= ï çêÇ= íê~åëä~íáçåK = b ñ~ã éäÉë= ~êÉ= éçäáíáÅ ~äáåíÉêÉëí= E kepentinganspolitikF I= Ü áÖ Ü = éçäáíáÅ ë= E politikstrategisF I= ~åÇ= áåíÉêÉëí= ê~íÉ= E sukubunga). l íÜ Éê= ÇáÑ Ñ áÅ ì äíáÉë= áå= ì åÇÉêëí~åÇáåÖ = ëçã É= Å ~ëÉë= áå= íê~åëä~íáåÖ = b åÖ äáëÜ = ~êÉ= Çì É= íçëçã É= Å ~ëÉë= çÑ = çåçã ~íçéçÉá~I= áK ÉK = íÜ É= ì ëÉ= çÑ = ï çêÇëI= ï Ü áÅ Ü = Ü ~î É= Ä ÉÉå= Ñ çêã ÉÇ= äáâÉ= íÜ É= åçáëÉçÑ = íÜ É= íÜ áåÖ =íÜ ~í=íÜ Éó=~êÉ=ÇÉëÅ êáÄ áåÖ =çê=êÉéêÉëÉåíáåÖ I=Å ~å=Ä É=áåíÉêÉëíáåÖ =íç=ëí~êí=íÜ ÉÇáëÅ ì ëëáçå=çÑ = íê~åëä~íáçåK qÜ É=ëçì åÇ=çÑ =íÜ É=Å çÅ âë=áå=íÜ É=ã çêåáåÖ =ï êáíÉ=Ççï å=~ë=cock-a-doodle-dooI=íÜ É= ëçì åÇáëku-ku-ru-yuk áå==fåÇçåÉëá~åK =q ç áã áí~íÉ=íÜ É=âåçÅ â=çå=íÜ É=Çççê=áå=b åÖ äáëÜ I=éÉçéäÉ= ì ëÉ?âåçÅ âJâåçÅ â?= ~åÇ= áå= fåÇçåÉëá~åI= áíIáë= ?íçâJ íçâ?K qÜ É= áÇÉ~ä= íê~åëä~íáçå= ëÜ çì äÇ= Ä ÉW = E N F K = ^Å Å ì ê~íÉ W = êÉéêçÇì Å áåÖ = ~ë= Éñ~Å íäó= ~ë= éçëëáÄ äÉíÜ É= ã É~åáåÖ =çÑ =íÜ É=ëçì êÅ É=íÉñíX =E O F K =k ~íì ê~äW =ì ëáåÖ =å~íì ê~ä=Ñ çêã ë=çÑ =íÜ É=êÉÅ Ééíçêä~åÖ ì ~Ö É=áå=~= ï ~ó= íÜ ~í= áë= ~ééêçéêá~íÉ= íç= íÜ É= âáåÇ= çÑ = íÉñí= Ä ÉáåÖ = íê~åëä~íÉÇX = E PF K ` çã ã ì åá Å ~íá îÉ W = ÉñéêÉëëáåÖ = ~ää= ~ëéÉÅ íë= çÑ = íÜ É= ã É~åáåÖ = áå= ~= ï ~ó= íÜ ~í= áë= êÉ~Çáäóì åÇÉêëí~åÇ~Ä äÉ= íç= íÜ É= áåíÉåÇÉÇ= ~ì ÇáÉåÅ ÉK = q ê~åëä~íáçå= áë= ~= éêçÅ Éëë= Ä ~ëÉÇ= çå= íÜ É= íÜ Éçêó= íÜ ~íáë= éçëëáÄ äÉ= íç= ~Ä ëíê~Å í= íÜ É= ã É~åáåÖ = çÑ = ~= íÉñí= Ñ êçã = áíë= Ñ çêã ë= ~åÇ= êÉéêçÇì Å É= íÜ ~í= ã É~åáåÖ ï áíÜ = íÜ É= î Éêó= ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåí= Ñ çêã ë= çÑ = ~= ëÉÅ çåÇ= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK qÜ ÉêÉÑ çêÉI= ëçã Éíáã ÉëI= ~= ï ~êåáåÖ = äáâÉ= ?_ É= Å ~êÉÑ ì ä= ï áíÜ = íÜ É= ÇáÅ íáçå~êó= ï Ü Éå= óçì íê~åëä~íÉK _ ó=Ä çêêçï áåÖ = íÜ É= íÜ çì Ö Ü í= çÑ = i ~êëçå= E N V V N I= N F I= ?Good theory is based oninformation gained from practice. Good practice is based on carefully worked-outtheory. The two are interdependent?K = k çï ~Ç~óëI= ëçã É= íÉ~Å Ü Éêë= ~ëëì ã É= íê~åëä~íáçå= ~ë= ~ëÉé~ê~íÉ= ëâáääK = fí=áã éäáÉë=íÜ ~í=íê~åëä~íáçå=êÉèì áêÉë=éê~Å íáÅ É=ê~íÜ Éê=íÜ ~å=íÜ ÉçêáÉëK =q ê~åëä~íáçåI=íÜ ÉåI=Å çåëáëíë= çÑ ëíì ÇóáåÖ = íÜ É= äÉñáÅ çåI= Ö ê~ã ã ~íáÅ ~ä= ëíêì Å íì êÉI= Å çã ã ì åáÅ ~íáçå= ëáíì ~íáçåI= ~åÇ= Å ì äíì ê~äÅ çåíÉñí= çÑ = íÜ É= ëçì êÅ É= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= íÉñíK j ~åó=éÉçéäÉ= ~êÖ ì É=íÜ ~í=ëâáää=áå=íê~åëä~íáçå=Å ~ååçí=Ä É=äÉ~êåÉÇI=~åÇ=Å ~ååçí Ä Éí~ì Ö Ü íK = qÜ ÉêÉ=áë=~å=~ëëì ã éíáçå=íÜ ~í=ëçã É=éÉçéäÉ=~êÉ=Ä çêå=ï áíÜ =~=Ö áÑ í=çÑ =Ä ÉáåÖ =Ö ççÇíê~åëä~íçêëK =få= çíÜ Éê= ï çêÇëI= ëâáää= áå= íê~åëä~íáçå= áë= ~= í~äÉåíX = q ê~åëä~íáçå= áë= ëáã áä~ê= íç= ëì Ä àÉÅ íë= äáâÉ= ã ~íÜ Éã ~íáÅ ë= çê= éÜ óëáÅ ëK = pçã É= éÉçéäÉ= ~êÉÖ ççÇ= ~í= áíI= çíÜ Éêë= Ñ áåÇ= áí= ÇáÑ Ñ áÅ ì äíK = qÜ ÉêÉ= ~êÉ= ëçã É= ÇÉÑ áåáíáçåë= çÑ = íê~åëä~íáçå=~ë=k Éï ã ~êâ=E N V U N W PU F =èì çíÉë=p~î çêó?ëï çêÇë=Ñ êçã =q Ü É=^ êí=çÑ =q ê~åëä~íáçå=~ë=
179
Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar Ñ çääçï ëW = ~= íê~åëä~íáçå= ã ì ëí= Ö áî É= íÜ É= ï çêÇë= çÑ = íÜ ÉçêáÖ áå~äX = ~= íê~åëä~íáçå= ã ì ëí= Ö áî É= íÜ É= áÇÉ~ë= çÑ = íÜ É=çêáÖ áå~äX =~=íê~åëä~íáçå=ëÜ çì äÇ=êÉ~Ç=äáâÉ=~åçêáÖ áå~ä=ï çêâX =~=íê~åëä~íáçå=ëÜ çì äÇ=êÉÑ äÉÅ í=íÜ É= ëíóäÉ= çÑ = íÜ É= çêáÖ áå~äK j çêÉçî ÉêI= íÜ ÉêÉ= áë= ~= Ö ÉåÉê~ä= î áÉï = íÜ ~í= ëíì ÇÉåíëçÑ = íê~åëä~íáçå= Ü ~î É= ?ï É~â= éÉêëçå~äáíáÉë?= íÜ ÉêÉÑ çêÉ= íê~åëä~íáçå= íÜ Éçêó= Ü ~ë= ~äëç= éä~Å ÉÇ= Ö êÉ~íáã éçêí~åÅ É= ì éçå= íÜ É= Å çÖ åáíáî É= ~åÇ= Éã çíáçå~ä= ~ëéÉÅ íë= çÑ = íÜ É= íê~åëä~íáçå= éêçÅ ÉëëK qÜ É= íÉ~Å Ü Éê= áë= íç= áÇÉåíáÑ óã áëí~âÉëI= ëÉ~êÅ Ü = Ñ çê= íÜ É= Å ~ì ëÉëI= ~åÇ= éêçéçëÉ= ëçäì íáçåë= Ñ çê= Ñ ì íì êÉ= = íê~åëä~íáåÖ = éê~Å íáÅ ÉK = ^ ëe Éêã ~åë= áë= Å äÉ~ê= ~Ä çì í= áí= íÜ ~í= ?q ê~åëä~íáåÖ = áë= åçí= ~å= áåå~íÉ= ëâáääI= áí= Ü ~ë= íç= Ä É= äÉ~êåÉÇ= ~åÇåÉÖ çíá~íÉÇI= Ä çíÜ = Å çÖ åáíáî Éäó= ~åÇ= åçêã ~íáî ÉäóK ^Å Å çêÇáåÖ =íç=o çëÉääfÄ Éêå=E N V V SF I=íê~åëä~íáçå=áåî çäî Éë=~=ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåÅ ÉI=~åáåÇáëéì í~Ä äÉ= äçëëK = få= çêÇÉê= íç= Çç= íÜ áëI= ëíì ÇÉåíë= Ü ~î É= íç= äÉ~êå= ~Ä çì í= íóéçÖ ê~éÜ áÅ ~ä= Ñ É~íì êÉë= áå= íÜ Éëçì êÅ É= ~åÇ= í~êÖ Éí= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉI= Ñ ~äëÉ= Ñ êáÉåÇëI= êÉÑ ÉêÉåÅ É= ã ~êâÉêëI= ëÉã ~åíáÅ = áåÅ çÜ ÉêÉåÅ ÉI= ~åÇäÉñáÅ ~ä= Çáî ÉêÖ ÉåÅ ÉëK qÜ ÉêÉÑ çêÉI=Ü ÉêÉI=íÜ É=ï êáíÉê=ï áää=Ü áÖ Ü äáÖ Ü í=çå=ëçã É=íÜ ÉçêáÉë=áå=íê~åëä~íáçå= éêçÅ Éëëï áíÜ =ëçã É=~ì íÜ çêë=~ë=ã ÉåíáçåÉÇ=~Ä çî ÉK =_ ÉÑ çêÉ=íÜ ~íI=íÜ É=ÇÉÑ áåáíáçå=çÑ =íê~åëä~íáçå= éêçÅ Éëëáë=Ö áî Éå=Ñ áêëíK páã éäóI=íÜ É=íê~åëä~íáçå=éêçÅ Éëë=Å ~å=Ä É=ÇÉëÅ êáÄ ÉÇ=~ëW =N F K a ÉÅ çÇáåÖ =íÜ É= ã É~åáåÖ = çÑ = íÜ É= ëçì êÅ É= I= ~åÇ= O F K = o ÉJÉåÅ çÇáåÖ = íÜ áë= ã É~åáåÖ = áå= íÜ É= í~êÖ Éíä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK j ~åó=~ì íÜ çêë=íêó=íç=ÇÉëÅ êáÄ É=íÜ É=éêçÅ Éëë=çÑ =íê~åëä~íáçå=áå=~=ï ~ó=íÜ ~í=Å ~å=ëÜ çï = íÜ Éå~íì êÉ=~åÇ=íÜ É=ëíÉéë=çÑ =íê~åëä~íáçåK =k áÇ~=~åÇ=q áÄ Éê=E N V TQ W PPF =ÇÉëÅ êáÄ É=íê~åëä~íáçå= ~ëÅ çã éêáëáåÖ =íÜ êÉÉ=ëí~Ö ÉëW =N F K =^ å~äóëáëI=áå=ï Ü áÅ Ü =íÜ É=ëì êÑ ~Å É=ëíêì Å íì êÉ=E áK ÉK =íÜ É=ã Éëë~Ö É= ~ëÖ áî Éå= áå= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= ^ I= íÜ É= ëçì êÅ É= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉF = áë= ~å~äóòÉÇ= áå= íÉêã ë= çÑ = íÜ É= Ö ê~ã ã ~íáÅ ~äêÉä~íáçåëÜ áé=~åÇ=íÜ É=ã É~åáåÖ ë=çÑ =íÜ É=ï çêÇë=~åÇ=Å çã Ä áå~íáçåë=çÑ =ï çêÇëX =O F = q ê~åëÑ ÉêI=áåï Ü áÅ Ü =íÜ É=~å~äóòÉÇ=ã ~íÉêá~ä=áë=íê~åëÑ ÉêêÉÇ=áå=íÜ É=ã áåÇ=çÑ =íÜ É=íê~åëä~íçê=Ñ êçã = ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É=^ E íÜ É=ëçì êÅ É=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉF =íç=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É=_ =E íÜ É=í~êÖ ÉíL êÉÅ Ééíçê=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉF I=~åÇ=PF = o Éëíêì Å íì êáåÖ Iáå=ï Ü áÅ Ü =íÜ É=íê~åëÑ ÉêêÉÇ=ã ~íÉêá~ä=áå=çêÇÉê=íç=ã ~âÉ=íÜ É=Ñ áå~ä=ã Éëë~Ö É=Ñ ì ääó= ~Å Å Ééí~Ä äÉ= áåíÜ É= êÉÅ Ééíçê= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK q ì êåá åÖ =ã É~åë=íêóáåÖ = íç= Ö Éí=íÜ É= Ñ ÉÉä=çÑ =íÜ É=íÉñííç= Ä É= íê~åëä~íÉÇK = b ~Å Ü =êÉÖ áëíÉê=~ë=áí= ì ëì ~ääó= Å ~ääÉÇI=ÇÉã ~åÇë=~=ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåí=ã Éåí~ä=~ééêç~Å Ü I= ~ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåí=Å Ü çáÅ É=çÑ =ï çêÇë=çê=íì êå=çÑ = éÜ ê~ëÉK få= íÜ É= ~å~ä óëá ëI= ~Ñ íÉê= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íçê= ~ííì åÉë= Ü áë= ã áåÇ= íç= íÜ É= Ñ ê~ã Éï çêâ= çÑ = íÜ É= íÉñííç= Ä É= íê~åëä~íÉÇI= Ü É= ï áää= í~âÉ= É~Å Ü = ëÉåíÉåÅ É= áå= íì êå= ~åÇ= ëéäáí= áí= ì é= áåíç= íê~åëä~í~Ä äÉ= ì åáíëIq Ü É= åÉñí= ëíÉé= áë= ì åÇÉ êëí~åÇá åÖ I= ~Ñ íÉê= Ü ~î áåÖ = ëéäáí= ì é= íÜ É= ëÉåíÉåÅ Éáåíç áíë= ÉäÉã ÉåíëI= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íçê= ï áää= Ö ÉåÉê~ääó= éì í= áí= íçÖ ÉíÜ Éê= ~Ö ~áå= áå= ~= Ñ çêã = ï Ü áÅ Ü = Ü É= Å ~åì åÇÉêëí~åÇK = a ì É= = ~ííÉåíáçå= íç= Ä çíÜ = Ñ çêã = ~åÇ= Å çåíÉåí= áë= ÉëëÉåíá~äK qÉ êã á åçä çÖ ó= áë= ì ëÉÇ= Ä ó= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íçêë= íç= Å çåëáÇÉê= íÜ É= âÉó= ï çêÇë= ~åÇéÜ ê~ëÉë= áå= íÜ É= ëÉåíÉåÅ É=íç=ã ~âÉ=ëì êÉ=íÜ Éó=~êÉ=áå=äáåÉ=ï áíÜ =ëí~åÇ~êÇáòÉÇ=ì ë~Ö É=~åÇ=áëåÉáíÜ Éê=ã áëäÉ~ÇáåÖ I= êáÇáÅ ì äçì ëI= åçê= çÑ Ñ Éåëáî É= Ñ çê= íÜ É= í~êÖ ÉíJä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= êÉ~ÇÉêK = få êÉ ëíêì Å íì êá åÖ I= ï Ü Éå= ~ää= íÜ É= Ä êáÅ âë= åÉÉÇÉÇ= Ñ çê= íÜ É= ÉÇáÑ áÅ É= çÑ = íÜ É= í~êÖ Éí= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= íÉñí= Ü ~î ÉÄ ÉÉå= Ö ~íÜ ÉêÉÇ= çê= ã ~ÇÉI= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íçê= ï áää=Ñ áí=íÜ Éã =íçÖ ÉíÜ Éê=áå=~=Ñ çêã =ï Ü áÅ Ü =áë=áå~Å Å çêÇ~åÅ É=ï áíÜ =Ö ççÇ=ì ë~Ö É=áå=íÜ É=q ~êÖ Éí= i ~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK qÜ ÉåI=Å ÜÉ Å âá åÖ I=íÜ É=íê~åëä~íçê=ï áää=Å Ü ÉÅ â=Ü áë=Çê~Ñ í=íê~åëä~íáçå=Ñ çê=íóéáåÖ =Éêêçêë= ~åÇé~ëë~Ö Éë= ï Ü ÉêÉ= ~= ëÉÅ çåÇ= éÉêì ë~ä= ëì Ö Ö Éëí= ~= ã çêÉ= ÉäÉÖ ~åíI= çê= ã çêÉ= Å çêêÉÅ íI= = íê~åëä~íáçåK qÜ É= ä~ëí= ëíÉé= áë= Çá ëÅ ì ëëá çåK = ^= Ö ççÇ= ï ~ó= íç= ÉåÇ= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íáçå= éêçÅ Éëë= áë= ~ÇáëÅ ì ëëáçå= Ä Éíï ÉÉå=íÜ É=íê~åëä~íçê=~åÇ=íÜ É=ÉñéÉêí=çå=íÜ É=ëì Ä àÉÅ í=ã ~ííÉêK ==q Ü É=éêçÅ Éëë=çÑ =íê~åëä~íáåÖ =~ë= Ñ çääçï ëW =N F K =áë=~=ëéÉÅ á~ä=Å ~ëÉ=çÑ =íÜ É=ã çêÉ=Ö ÉåÉê~äéÜ Éåçã Éåçå=çÑ =Ü ì ã ~å=áåÑ çêã ~íáçå= éêçÅ ÉëëáåÖ X =O F K = ëÜ çì äÇ= Ä É= ã çÇÉäÉÇ= áå= ~= ï ~ó= ï Ü áÅ Ü êÉÑ äÉÅ íë= áíë= éçëáíáçå= ï áíÜ áå= íÜ É= éëóÅ Ü çäçÖ áÅ ~ä= Ççã ~áå= çÑ = áåÑ çêã ~íáçå= éêçÅ ÉëëáåÖ X = PF K = q ~âÉëéä~Å É= áå= Ä çíÜ = ëÜ çêíJíÉêã = ~åÇ= äçåÖ J íÉêã =ã Éã çêó=íÜ êçì Ö Ü =ÇÉî áÅ Éë=Ñ çê=ÇÉÅ çÇáåÖ =íÉñí=áå=íÜ Épçì êÅ É=i ~åÖ ì ~Ö É ~åÇ=ÉåÅ çÇáåÖ =íÉñí= áåíç= íÜ É= q ~êÖ Éí= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉI= î á~= ~= åçåJä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= ëéÉÅ áÑ áÅ ëÉã ~åíáÅ = êÉéêÉëÉåí~íáçåW = Q F K = éêçÅ ÉÉÇë= áå= Ä çíÜ = ~= Ä çííçã Jì é= ~åÇ= ~= íçéJÇçï å= ã ~ååÉê= áåéêçÅ ÉëëáåÖ = íÉñí= ~åÇ= áåíÉÖ ê~íÉë= Ä çíÜ = ~ééêç~Å Ü Éë= Ä ó= ã É~åë= çÑ = ~= ëíóäÉ= çÑ = çéÉê~íáçå= ï Ü áÅ Ü = áëÄ çíÜ = Å ~ëÅ ~ÇÉÇ= ~åÇ= áåíÉê~Å íáî ÉK t Ü Éå=~=ëíì ÇÉåí=ëí~êíë=íê~åëä~íáåÖ =~=íÉñí=Ñ çê=íÜ É=Ñ áêëí=íáã ÉI=íÜ ÉêÉ=~êÉ=ì ëì ~ääó=~=äçí= çÑ Ççì Ä íë=~åÇ=~ííÉã éíë=íç=äççâ=ì é=ï çêÇë=áå=íÜ É=ÇáÅ íáçå~êáÉëK =pçã Éíáã ÉëI=Å Éêí~áå=ï çêÇë=
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar ~êÉÉ~ëáäó= Ñ çì åÇ= ~åÇ= ï Ü ~í= ~êÉ= ÇÉÑ áåÉÇ= áå= íÜ É= ÇáÅ íáçå~êáÉë= ~êÉ= Ü ÉäéÑ ì äKq ê~åëä~íáåÖ = íÜ áë= ëÉåíÉåÅ É= ?m äÉ~ëÉI= Çç= áí= Ä ó= óçì êëÉäÑ I= Ççå?í= ëíÉ~ä= ~= éÉêëçå?ëíÜ ì åÇÉêë?K = píì ÇÉåí= ã ~ó= Ñ áåÇ= ì åÑ ~ã áäá~ê= ï çêÇë= É~ëáäó= Ä ó= äççâáåÖ = ì é= ~= ÇáÅ íáçå~êóK = få= íê~åëä~íáåÖ I= ëíì ÇÉåíë= ã ì ëí= Ö Éí= íÜ É= Å äçëÉëí= ã É~åáåÖ K = q Éñí= áë= åçí= çåäó= ~ëëì ã ÉÇ= ~ëíÉñí= ~äçåÉ= Ä ì í= áí ~äëç= Å çåí~áåë= Å çåíÉñíK = qÉñí= Å ~å= Ä É= ÇÉÑ áåáíÉ= ã É~åáåÖ I= áÑ = íÜ É= íÉñí= áë= áåÅ çåíÉñíK = _ ÉÑ çêÉ= íÉñí= Ü ~ë= ~= Å çåíÉñíI= íÜ É= ã É~åáåÖ = áë= ëíáää= ~ã Ä áÖ ì çì ëK qÜ ÉêÉ= ~êÉ= ã ~åó= ~äíÉêå~íáî É= ã É~åáåÖ ëK = fí= ï áää= Ö Éí= ÇÉÑ áåáíÉ= ã É~åáåÖ = áÑ = áí= áëéçëáíáçåÉÇ= ~ë= íÜ É= Ñ çääçï áåÖ = ëÉåíÉåÅ ÉëW = N F K = qÜ Éáê= éêçéçë~ä= áåíÉêÉëíë= íÜ É= êÉÅ íçêX = O F K = e áë= íï çáåíÉêÉëíë= áå= äáÑ É= ~êÉ= é~áåíáåÖ = ~åÇ= Ñ áëÜ áåÖ X = PF K = f= Ü ~î É= íç= é~ó= S= éÉê= Å Éåí= áåíÉêÉëí= çå= íÜ É= äç~åK få= íÜ É= ëÉåíÉåÅ É= N I= áí= áë= ?menarik (minat, perhatian)”I= ëÉåíÉåÅ É= O = ã É~åë= ?hal yang palingdisukai?= ~åÇ= fí= áë= ?bunga? Ñ çê= ëÉåíÉåÅ É= PK = qÜ É= ÇÉÑ áåáíÉ= ã É~åáåÖ = áë= Å äÉ~ê= Ä ÉÅ ~ì ëÉ= çÑ = áíëéçëáíáçå= áå= ëÉåíÉåÅ ÉK _ ì í= áí= ÇçÉë= åçí= Ö ì ~ê~åíÉÉ= ~Ä ëçäì íÉäó= ï Ü Éå= íÜ É= íÉñí= áë= éä~Å ÉÇ= áå= ~= ëÉåíÉåÅ É= íÜ ~í= áí= Ü ~ë= ÇÉÑ áåáíÉ=ã É~åáåÖ K =q ê~åëä~íáåÖ =?c áå~ääóI=ï É=êÉ~Å Ü ÉÇ=íÜ É=Ä ~åâ?K =q Ü É=ï çêÇ=?Ä ~åâ?=ëíáääÜ ~ë Ççì Ä äÉ= ã É~åáåÖ ë= E pinggirsungai and bankF = Éî Éå= íÜ çì Ö Ü = áí= Ü ~ë= Ä ÉÉå= éçëáíáçåÉÇ= áå= ~ëÉåíÉåÅ ÉK = få= çêÇÉê= íç= Ö Éí= Å äÉ~ê= ã É~åáåÖ I= íÜ ÉêÉ= áë= ~= Ñ çääçï áåÖ = ëÉåíÉåÅ É= áåíç= ?c áå~ääóI= ï ÉU N êÉ~Å Ü ÉÇ= íÜ É= Ä ~åâK =t É=ëéÉåí=o éK =RM K M M M =Ñ çê=í~ñáK pÉííáåÖ =~åÇ=Å ì äíì êÉ=~êÉ=~äëç=î Éêó=áã éçêí~åí=áå=Ö áî áåÖ = ã É~åáåÖ K =i áíÉê~ä=íê~åëä~íáçå=ÇçÉë=åçí=çåäó=ëçì åÇ=ëíáäíÉÇ=Ä ì í=~äëç=Ñ ì ååóK =fí=Å ~å=~äëç= Å ~ääã áëì åÇÉêëí~åÇáåÖ =~ë=íÜ É=ÉñéÉêáÉåÅ É=çÑ =m ~áàç=áå=v çÖ ó~â~êí~I=?q Ü ÉêÉ=ï ~ë=~=Ñ çêÉáÖ åÉê= ï Ü çäçëí= Ü áë= ã çíçêÅ óÅ äÉ= áå= ~= j ~ääI= v çÖ ó~â~êí~K = e ~î áåÖ = ~= íÉñí= íç= íê~åëä~íÉI= ëì Å Ü = ~ë= ~å= ~êíáÅ äÉI= ~= é~éÉêI= çê= Éî Éå= ~= Ä ççâI= ~= íê~åëä~íçêáë= êÉÅ çã ã ÉåÇÉÇ= íç= êÉ~Ç= íÜ É= íÉñí= Ñ áêëí= íç= Ö Éí= íÜ É= ï Ü çäÉ= ã ~áå= áÇÉ~K = t Ü áäÉ= êÉ~ÇáåÖ = áí= Ñ çê= íÜ ÉëÉÅ çåÇ= çê= íÜ áêÇ= íáã ÉI= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íçê= Å ~å= ëí~êí= ì åÇÉêäáåáåÖ = ï çêÇë= íÜ ~í= êÉèì áêÉ= ~= äççâJì é= áåíÜ É= ÇáÅ íáçå~ê K få=Å ä~ëëI=íÉ~Å Ü áåÖ =ÇÉéÉåÇë=çå=íÜ É=ã ~áå=Ñ çÅ ì ë=çÑ =íÜ É=íÉ~Å Ü Éêë?=íÜ ÉçêÉíáÅ ~ä=Ä á~ëK =q Ü Éï êáíÉê= Ä ÉäáÉî Éë= íÜ ~í= íÉ~Å Ü Éêë= ëÜ çì äÇ= Éî Éå= ã ~âÉ= íÜ áë= Ä á~ë= Å äÉ~ê= íç= íÜ Éáê= ëíì ÇÉåíë= ëç= íÜ ~í= íÜ Éëíì ÇÉåíë= ~êÉ= Ñ ì ääó=~ï ~êÉ=çÑ =íÜ É=íÉ~Å Ü Éê?ë=~áã ë=~åÇ=Ö ç~äë=áå=Å ä~ëëêççã =éê~Å íáÅ ÉKq ê~åëä~íáçåáåî çäî Éë=~= ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåÅ ÉI= ~å= áåÇáëéì í~Ä äÉ= äçëëK ` çåëì äí~íáçå=ï áíÜ =íÜ É=~ì íÜ çêI=áÑ =éçëëáÄ äÉI=áë=~äëç=ì ëÉÑ ì äK =q ç=íê~åëä~íÉ=?tujuanhidup?I= íÜ ÉêÉ= ~êÉ= ã ~åó= ï çêÇë= Ñ çê= ?íujuan” áå= b åÖ äáëÜ K = qÜ ÉÅ çåÑ ì ëáçå= çî Éê= íÜ É= ì ëÉ= çÑ = éì êéçëÉëI= Ö ç~äëI= çÄ àÉÅ íáî ÉëI=~áã ëI=~åÇ=çíÜ Éê=ï çêÇëI=Å ~å=Ä Éëéçí~å~åÉçì ëäó=~åëï ÉêÉÇ=Ä ó=~å=b åÖ äáëÜ =å~íáî É= ëéÉ~âÉêI=?l Ü I=ì ëì ~ääó=ï É=ì ëÉ=äáÑ É=Ö ç~ä ë?K t Ü Éå=íê~åëä~íáåÖ =~=íÉñí=áåíç=ÉáíÜ Éê=fåÇçåÉëá~å=çê= b åÖ äáëÜ I=~åçíÜ Éê=î Éêó=áã éçêí~åí~åÇ=ì ëÉÑ ì ä=ëçì êÅ É=íç=íê~åëä~íáçå=áë=êÉ~ÇáåÖ K d ÉííáåÖ =ã çêÉ= Ñ ~ã áäá~ê= ï áíÜ = î ~êáçì ë= íóéÉë= çÑ = Ö ÉåêÉë= çÑ = ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= Å ~å= Ä É= áåíÉêÉëíáåÖ K qÜ É= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= çÑ = ~= ï çêâ= Å çåíê~Å íI= Ñ çê= Éñ~ã éäÉI= áë= ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåí= Ñ êçã = Ç~áäó= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK = fí= áë= ì åÇÉåá~Ä äÉ= íêì É= íÜ ~í= íÜ ÉêÉ= ~êÉ= ~= Ñ Éï = ëíì ÇÉåíë= ï Ü ç= âÉÉå= çå= íÜ áë= ëì Ä àÉÅ íK = v ÉííçÇ~ó= íê~åëä~íáçå=áë=ä~êÖ Éäó=áÖ åçêÉÇ ~ë=~=î ~äáÇ=~Å íáî áíó=Ñ çê=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É=éê~Å íáÅ É=~åÇáã éêçî Éã ÉåíK = qÜ ÉêÉÑ çêÉI= íÜ É= ï êáíÉê= Ü áÖ Ü äáÖ Ü íë= çå= äÉ~êåáåÖ = íê~åëä~íáçå= íç= ÉåÅ çì ê~Ö Éëíì ÇÉåíë= ~ë= ï Éää= íÉ~Å Ü Éêë= áå= ì åÇÉêëí~åÇáåÖ K pçã É= ~ì íÜ çêë= íêó= íç= ÇÉëÅ êáÄ É= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íáçå= éêçÅ Éëë= Ñ êçã = ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåí= éçáåíë= çÑ = î áÉï K i ~êëçå=E N V V Q F =ëÉÉë=íÜ É=íê~åëä~íáçå=éêçÅ Éëë=~ë=ÇáëÅ çî ÉêáåÖ =íÜ É=ã É~åáåÖ =~åÇ=êÉJÉñéêÉëë= íÜ Éã É~åáåÖ K = k áÇ~= ~åÇ= q ~Ä Éê= E N V TQ F ÇÉëÅ êáÄ Éë= íê~åëä~íáçå= áåíç= íÜ êÉÉ= ëí~Ö ÉëK få= íÜ É= éêçÅ Éëë= çÑ = íê~åëä~íáåÖ = b åÖ äáëÜ = áåíç= fåÇçåÉëá~å= çê= fåÇçåÉëá~å= áåíç= b åÖ äáëÜ I= êÉJ Å Ü ÉÅ âáåÖ = íÜ É= ì ë~Ö É= çÑ = íÜ É= ï çêÇë= áå= b åÖ äáëÜ = íç= båÖ äáëÜ = ÇáÅ íáçå~êáÉë= ëÜ çì äÇ= Ä É= ÇçåÉï Ü ÉåÉî Éê= áå= Ççì Ä íK K få= íê~åëä~íáçå= Å ä~ëëÉëI= áÑ = ëçã Éíáã Éë= ëçã É= íÉ~Å Ü Éêë= Ñ ÉÉä= íÜ ~í= íÜ Éó= Çç= åçí= âåçï = Ñ çêëì êÉ= Ü çï =íç=íÉ~Å Ü =íê~åëä~íáçåIêçÄ ~Ä äó=íÉ~Å Ü Éêë=Å ~å=íÜ áåâ=çÑ =íÜ É=ï ~óë=íç=áåÅ êÉ~ëÉ=íÜ Éëíì ÇÉåíë?= ~ï ~êÉåÉëë= çÑ = íÜ Ééçêí~åÅ É= çÑ = íÜ Éáê= é~êíáÅ áé~íáçå= áå= íÜ É= éêçÅ ÉëëK = b åíÉêáåÖ = íÜ ÉÅ ä~ëë= ï áíÜ çì í= ~åó= éêÉé~ê~íáçå= ~åÇ= àì ëí= Çç= íÜ É= ëéçåí~åÉçì ë= íê~åëä~íáçå= Ñ çê= ~= Ñ Éï = äáåÉë= ï áääåçí= Å çåíêáÄ ì íÉ= ~åóíÜ áåÖ = íç= áã éêçî Éã Éåí= áå= Ñ äì ÉåÅ ó= ~åÇ= éêçÑ áÅ áÉåÅ óK o bc bo bk ` bp _ ÉääI= o çÖ Éê= qK = N V V TK = Tranlation and Translating: Theory and PracticeK = i çåÇçåW i çåÖ ã ~å= d êçì é= r h= i áã áíÉÇK

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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar bÅ Ü çäëI= gçÜ å= j I= ~åÇ= pÜ ~ÇáäóI= e ~ëë~åK = N V U V K = Kamus Indonesia – InggrisK = PÉÇK = g~â~êí~W e çì ëÉI= gì äá~åÉ= E N V U N F = ^= j çÇÉä= Ñ çê= q ê~åëä~íáçå= n ì ~äáíó= ^ ëëÉëëã ÉåíI= q Ä áåÖ ÉåW = k ~êêK i ~êëçåI= j áäÇêÉÇ= iK = N V U Q K = Meaning-Based Translation: A Guide to Cross-Language EquivalenceK = k Éï = v çêâW = r åáî Éêëáíó= m êÉëë= çÑ = ^ ã ÉêáÅ ~K m o b pb k q ^ q fl k = l c= q o ^ k pi ^ q fl k = q e fo r h h r o ^ i ^K j r o r d ^ k ^ qe ^ j = fj K ^= b k d i fpe o s p= ` ^p qÜ áêì î ~ääì î ~ê= áë= íÜ É= Ä Éëí= âåçï å= éêçÄ ~Ä äó= çÑ = íÜ É= éçÉíë= çÑ = q ~ã áä= Ü É= áë= ëì ééçëÉÇ= íç= Ü ~î É= Çì êáåÖ = íÜ É= éÉêáçÇ= çÑ = íÜ É= ä~ëí= q ~ã áä= ~Å ~ÇÉã ó= ï çêâáåÖ = Ñ êçã = E h ~Ç~á= ?`Ü ~åÖ ~ã F = Ä Éíï ÉÉå= íÜ É= ëÉÅ çåÇ= Å Éåíì êó= _K `= ~åÇ= íÜ É= ëÉÅ çåÇ= Å Éåíì êó= ^K aK = íÜ É= ~ã Ä áÖ ì áíáÉë= ~åÇ= äÉÖ ÉåÇë= ~Ä çì í= Ü áã = ~Å É= ~= äáâÉ= íÜ É= éêçÇì Å í= çÑ = íÜ É= éêçî çâáåÖ = ~= Ü áëíçêáÅ = ~ííáíì ÇÉ= çÑ = íÜ É= Å çì åíêó= äáíÉê~êó= ëÅ Ü çä~êK ?s ~ääì î ~ê?=áë=~=Å ~ëíÉ=å~ã É=íÜ É=Å ~ëíÉ=çÑ =~ëíêçäçÖ Éêë=~åÇ=ëççíÜ ë~óÉêë=~åÇ=?q Ü áêì ?=áë= ï çêÇ= ÇÉåçíáåÖ = Ü çåçì êK = t É= âåçï å= åçíÜ áåÖ = êÉ~ääó= ~Ä çì í= Ü áë= éÉêëçå~ä= äáÑ ÉK = ?h ì ê~ä?= áë= ~= âáåÇ= çÑ = éçÉíêó= ï Ü ÉêÉ= íÜ É= î ÉêëÉ= áë= àì ëí= çåÉ= ~åÇ= ~= Ü ~äÑ = äáåÉë= íÜ É= ëÜ çêíÉëí= Ñ çêã = î ÉêëÉI= éçëëáÄ äó= áå= q ~ã áäK = q áêì JâJâì ê~ä= Å çåëáëíë= çÑ = N IPPM = î ÉêëÉë= áå= íÜ áë= ã ÉíêÉ= éì í= áåíç= N PP= Å Ü ~éíÉêëK = qÜ ÉëÉ= N PP= Å Ü ~éíÉêë= ~êÉ=éì í=ì åÇÉê=íÜ êÉÉ=íê~Çáíáçå~ä=Çáî áëáçåK ~ê~ã =?a Ü ~êã ~?áå=p~åëâêáí=ã É~åáåÖ =êáÖ Ü íÉçì ëåÉëë?K = m çêì ä= E ?t É~äíÜ ?I= ^ êíÜ íÜ ~?= áå= p~åëâêáíõ= ~åÇ= fåÄ ~ã = E ?m äÉ~ëì êÉ?I= êÉÑ ÉêêáåÖ = íç= íÜ É= äçî É= ~åÇ= ëÉñ= ~ëéÉÅ í= çÑ = äáÑ ÉI= ?h ~~ã ~?= áå= p~åëâêáíK qÜ É= âì ê~ä= áë= íÜ É= ã çëí= êÉåçï åÉÇ= ÉíÜ áÅ ~ä= íêÉ~íáëÉ= áå= í~ã áä= ÇÉ~äáåÖ = ï áíÜ = ~ää= íÜ É= íê~Çáíáçå~ä= ~ëéÉÅ íë= çÑ = Ü ì ã ~å= äáÑ ÉK áí= áë= Å ~ääÉÇ= íÜ É= í~ã áä= ëÅ êáéíì êÉ= E ?í~ã áòÜ Jî ÉÇ~ã ?F = áí= Ü ~ë= Ä ÉÉå= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= áåíç=ã ~åó=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö Éë=K =fí=áë=~å=ÉíÜ áÅ ~ä=ï çêâ=íÜ ~í=î áÄ ê~íÉë=ï áíÜ =Å çåî áÅ íáçå=ëÉåëáíáî áíó=~åÇ= Éñèì áëáíÉ= éçÉíáÅ = ëÉåëáÄ áäáíóK qÜ É= î ÉêëÉë= éêÉëÅ êáÄ ÉÇ= Ñ çê= ëíì Çó= ~êÉ= í~âÉå= Ñ êçã = íÜ É= Å Ü ~éíÉê= çå= ÉÇì Å ~íáçå= E â~äî áF = ï Ü áÅ Ü = áë= íÜ É= Ñ çêíáÉíÜ = Å Ü ~éíÉê= áå= íÜ É= Ä ççâI= Ñ ~ääáåÖ = ì åÇÉê= íÜ É= Çáî áëáçå= ~ê~ã K K = åÇ íÜ s ~ääì î ~ê=ã ì ëí=Ü ~î É=ï êáííÉå=íÜ É=âì ê~ä=ëçã Éíáã É=Ä Éíï ÉÉå=íÜ É=O Å Éåíì êó=_ K I` íç=U Å Éåíì êó^ K aK = ~ë= áë= íÜ É= Å ~ëÉ= ï áíÜ = ã çëí= áåÇá~å= ï çêâëI= ëÅ Ü çä~êë= ~êÉ= Çáî áÇÉÇ= áå= íÜ Éáê= çéáåáçå= ~Ä çì í= åÇ íÜ É= éÉêáçÇ= çÑ = íÜ áë= Ö êÉ~í= éçÉíK = qÜ çì Ö Ü = íÜ É= ã çëí= Å çã ã çåäó= ëí~íÉÇ= éÉêáçÇ= áë= O Å Éåíì êóK = ^K aK I= íÜ É= í~ã áä= å~Çì = Ü ~î É= íê~Çáíáçå~ääó= Å çåëáÇÉêÉÇ= PN = _ ` ~ë= íÜ É= óÉ~ê= çÑ = Ü áë= Ä áêíÜ = ~ë= ~Å Å ÉéíÉÇ= Ä ó= íÜ É= í~ã áä= ~Å ~ÇÉã ó= çÑ = = ã ~Çì ê~á= K = ^Å Å çêÇáåÖ = íç= ëçã É= ëÅ Ü çä~êëI= Ü çï Éî ÉêI= Ü É= äáî ÉÇ= ~åÇ= ï êçíÉ= Çì êáåÖ = éçëí= ë~åÖ ~ã = éÉêáçÇ= E PM M ^K aK íç= SM M ^K aK F = ê~êÉäó= Çç= ëÅ Ü çä~êë= éä~Å É= î ~ääì î ~ê= ~åÇ= Ü áë= ï çêâ= áå= íÜ íÜ É= TíÜ çê= U Å Éåíì êó^ K a qÜ É= âì ê~ä= áë= Å çåëáÇÉêÉÇ= éçëíÉêáçê= íç= ~êíÜ ~ë~ëíê~= = E Ä Éíï ÉÉå= O RM _K `K = C= ^K aK F = ~ë= íÜ É= ~ì íÜ çê= ëÉÉã ë= íç= Ü ~î É= Å äÉ~êäó= Ä çêêçï ÉÇ= ëçã É= çÑ = â~ì í~äó?ë= áÇÉ~ë= áåíç= Ü áë= ï çêâK qÜ É=íÜ áêì äì ê~ä=E çê=íÜ É=âì ê~ä=~ë=áí=áë=éçéì ä~êáíó=Å ~ääÉÇF =áë=~=ëã ~ää=Å çääÉÅ íáçå=çÑ =N PPM = ~éÜ çêáëã ëI= ï êáííÉå= áå= ã ÉíêáÅ ~ä= î ÉêëÉë= çÑ = íï ç= äáåÉëK = ` çåëáÇÉêÉÇ= ~ë= íÜ É= Ä áÄ äÉ= çÑ = ëçì íÜ = áåÇá~= çê= íÜ É= Ñ áÑ íÜ = î ÉÇ~= çÑ = í~ã áäëI= íÜ É= âì ê~ä= áë= É~ëáäó= íÜ É= ã çëí= éçéì ä~ê= Å çåíêáÄ ì íáçå= Ñ êçã = í~ã áäë= íç= íÜ É= ëíçêÉÜ çì ëÉ= çÑ = áåÇá~å= äáíÉê~íì êÉK = qÜ É= ï çêÇ= ?íÜ áêì âì ê~ä?= áë= Å çã éçëÉÇ= çÑ = íï ç= ï çêÇë= íÜ áêì = = ~åÇ= âì ê~ä= = ï Ü áÅ Ü = ã É~å= ?ë~Å êÉÇ?= ~åÇ= ?Å çì éäÉí?= êÉëéÉÅ íáî ÉäóK = i áâÉ= íÜ É= Å çåÑ ì ëáçå= äì å= óì I= ï Ü áÅ Ü = áë= ï çêÇë= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= ~ë= W ë~Å êÉÇ= ë~óáåÖ ë?I= íÜ É= Å çã ã çå= ÉåÖ äáëÜ = êÉåÇÉêáåÖ = çÑ = íÜ áêâJâì ê~ä= áë= ë~Å êÉÇ= Å çì éäÉíëK s ~ääì î ~ê?ë= Å çì éäÉíë= êÉÑ äÉÅ í= íÜ É= î ~ëí= ~ã çì åí= çÑ = âåçï äÉÇÖ É= Ü É= Ü ~Ç= áå= ~ää= ï ~äâë= çÑ = äáÑ ÉW = Ççã ÉëíáÅ I=ëçÅ á~äI=~åÇ=Éî Éå=ëéáêáíì ~äK =q Ü É=âì ê~ä=Å çåëáëíë=çÑ =P=Å çåíçë=çê=Ä ççâë=çÑÇáî áëáçå=áë= Ä ~ëÉÇ= çå= íÜ É= Q = ~áã ë= çÑ = Ü ì ã ~å= éì êëì áíë= çÑ = íÜ É= áåÇá~å= íê~ÇáíáçåI= å~ã Éäó= î áêíì ÉI= ï É~äíÜ I= äçî É= ~åÇ= äáÄ ê~íáçåK =q Ü É=êÉ~ëçå=ï Ü ó=î ~ääì î ~ê=äÉÑ í=çì í=íÜ É=Ñ çì êíÜ =?äáÄ Éê~íáçå?=~åÇ=Ñ çÅ ì ëÉÇ=çåäó=çå=íÜ É= Ñ áêëí= íÜ êÉÉ= E Å ~ääÉÇ= íêáî ~êÖ ~= áå= ë~åëâêáí= ~åÇ= ã ì éé~ä= áå= í~ã áäF = áë= ì åÅ äÉ~êK

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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar e çï Éî ÉêI=~ää=ë~áÇ=~åÇ=ÇçåÉI=åçí=~=ëáåÖ äÉ=Å çì éäÉí=~ééÉ~êë=íï áÅ É=áå=íÜ áêì âì ê~äI=ì åäáâÉ=ëçã É= çíÜ Éê= ë~Å êÉÇ= íÉñíë= äáâÉ= íÜ É= Ä ççâ= çÑ = éêçî ÉêÄ ë= áå= íÜ É= Ä áÄ äÉë= ï Ü áÅ Ü = Ü ~ë= ã ~åó= ~= î ÉêëÉ= êÉéÉ~íÉÇ= áå= ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåí= éä~Å Éë= E éêçî = N RW O M I= O RW O Q I= O SW N RF = çê= ëçã É= í~ã áä= ï çêâë= äáâÉ= íÜ áêì ã ~åÇáê~ã = E ÉK Ö K = N O O = C= N PM SI= Q Q U = C= PM N N I= Q M S= C= Q N Q F K = k ç= Ççì Ä íI= íÜ É= ë~ã É= áÇÉ~= Ü ~ë= Ä ÉÉå= ëçã Éíáã Éë= êÉéÉ~íÉÇ= áå= íÜ áêì âì ê~äI= ÉëéÉÅ á~ääó= ï áíÜ áå= ~= Å Ü ~éíÉêK = b ñ~ã éäÉë= TV Q = C= U M M I= V TU = C= V TV I= N M V S= C= N M V V I= Ñ çê= êÉéÉíáíáçì ë= áÇÉ~ë=ï áíÜ áå= Å Ü ~éíÉêë=~åÇ=PPR C =Q O PI=U TN =C =V V R=~åÇ=V SO =C =N M N T=Ñ çê= Ä Éíï ÉÉå= Å Ü ~éíÉêëK fêçåáÅ ~ääó= íÜ É= äáíÉê~êó= ã Éêáíë= çÑ = íÜ É= âì ê~ä= ï ÉêÉ= Ä êçì Ö Ü í= íç= íÜ É= åçíáÅ É= çÑ = íÜ É= ï Éëí= Ä ó= íÜ É= `Ü êáëíá~å=ã áëëáçå~êáÉëK =fí=ï ~ë=^ êáÉäI=_ ÉëÅ Ü áI=d K rK m çéÉ=~åÇ=çíÜ Éêë=ï Ü ç=ï ÉêÉ=éáçåÉÉêë=áå= íê~åëä~íáåÖ = íÜ É= âì ê~ä= áåíç= ï ÉëíÉêå= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK = _ ÉÅ ~ì ëÉ= çÑ = áíë= áã ã ÉåëÉ= éçéì ä~êáíóI= áí= Ü ~ë= Ä ÉÉå= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= áåíç= ~ää= ã ~àçê= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö Éë= çÑ = íÜ É= ï çêäÇ> qÜ É=î ÉÇ~ëI=Ä áÄ äÉI=íáéáí~â~=~åÇ=íÜ É=èì ê~å=ÇáÇ=åçí= Éñáëí=~ë=Ä ççâë= Ñ êçã = íÜ É=Ä ÉÖ áååáåÖ K = qÜ Éó= ï ÉêÉ= éêÉëÉêî ÉÇ= áå= Å áêÅ ì ä~íáçå= Ä ó= çê~ä= êÉÅ áí~íáçå= ~åÇ= ï êáííÉå= Ñ ê~Ö ã Éåíë= Ä ÉÑ çêÉ= íÜ Éó= ï ÉêÉ= Å çã éáäÉÇ= ~ë= Ä ççâ= Ä ó= ~= êÉÇ~Å íçê= ~í= ~= ä~íÉê= Ç~íÉK = qÜ É= s ÉÇ~ë= ï ÉêÉ= ÉÇáíÉÇ= ~åÇ= Å çã éáäÉÇ= íç= íÜ É= éêÉëÉåí=Ñ çêã =Ä ó=î ÉÇ~=î ó~ë~X =íÜ É=m Éåí~íÉì Å Ü =E íÜ É=Ñ áî É=Ä ççâë=çÑ =ã çëÉëF =Ä ó=~å=ì åâåçï å= êÉÇ~Å íçê= ï Ü ç= Å çã Ä áåÉÇ= ~ää= íÜ É= íÉñí= áåíç= ~= ëã ççíÜ = å~êê~íáî ÉX = íÜ É= Å ~åçå= çÑ = íÜ É= åÉï = íÉëí~ã Éåí= Ä áÄ äÉ= ï ~ë= Ñ áå~äáòÉÇ= áå= PST= ^a= Ä ó= = ~íÜ ~å~ëáì ëI= íÜ É= Ä áëÜ çé= çÑ = ^ äÉñ~åÇêá~= ì åÇÉê= ` çåëí~åíáåÉ= íÜ É= Ö êÉ~íX = íÜ É= _ ì ÇÇÜ áëí= ë~óáåÖ = ï ÉêÉ= áå= çê~ä= Å áêÅ ì ä~íáçå= ì åíáä= íÜ Éó= ï ÉêÉ= ï êáííÉå= Ççï å= Çì êáåÖ = íÜ É= Ñ çì êíÜ = Ö êÉ~í= Å çì åÅ áä= Çì êáåÖ = U V JU U = _K `= IÅ Éåíì êáÉë= ~Ñ íÉê= íÜ É= ÇÉ~íÜ = çÑ = = _ ì ÇÇÜ ~K = xO N z= íÜ É= ëíçêó= áë= íÜ É= ë~ã É= ï áíÜ = íÜ É= n ì ê?~åI= íÜ É= ëÅ êáéíì êÉ= çÑ = j ì ëäáã ëK = qÜ çì Ö Ü í= áí= ë~óë= ?íÜ áë= áë= íÜ É= Ä ççâI= áå= áí= áë= Ö ì áÇ~åÅ É= ëì êÉI= ï áíÜ çì í= Ççì Ä í?E O W O F I= áí= ï ~ë= åçí= Å çã éáäÉÇ= ~ë= ~= Ä ççâ= Ñ çê= O M = óÉ~êëK = qÜ É= íÉñíì ~ä= î ~êá~íáçåë= çÑ = íÜ É= âì ê~ä= Ü ~î É= Ä ÉÉå= ëíì ÇáÉÇ= áå= ÇÉí~áä= Ä ó= éáää~áIxN U z~Å Å çêÇáåÖ = íç= ï Ü çã = íÜ ÉêÉ= ~êÉ= çåäó= ~Ä çì í= PM R= î ~êá~íáçåë= áå= íÜ É= ï Ü çäÉ= Ä ççâK = qÜ ÉëÉ= î ~êá~íáçåë= ~êÉ= ã áåçê= ~åÇ= Çç= åçí= Å Ü ~åÖ É= íÜ É= ã É~åáåÖ = çÑ = = íÜ É= Å çì éäÉíë= áå= ~åó= ï ~óK qÜ áêì ââì ê~ä= = Ü ~ë= Ä ÉÉå= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= ~åÇ= Å çã ã Éåí~êáÉë= ~äã çëí= ~ää= ã ~àçê= ã ~åó= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= çÑ = íÜ É=ï çêäÇK =q Ü É=~åÅ áÉåí=í~ã áä=Å çì åíêó=éêçÇì Å ÉÇK =d êÉ~í=ë~áåíëI=éçÉíëI=éçÉíÉëëÉëI=ë~Ö Éë=~åÇ= êÉÑ çêã Éêë= áå= íÜ É= ï çêäÇK = o bcbo ^ k ` bW q ê~åëä~íáçåë= çÑ = âì ê~ä= éêçÇì Å ÉÇ= ~Ä çî É= Ä ÉäçåÖ = íç= íÜ É= Ñ çääçï áåÖ = íê~åëä~íçê pK j ~Ü ~ê~à~åI= `K o ~à~Ö çé~ä~Å Ü ~êáI= ks h= ^ ëÜ ê~Ñ I= ÉíÅ ? ? ? ? ? ? K q e fo r h h r o ^ i hK m r s ^ k b pe t ^ o ^ k = = f= j K ^= b k d i fpe = o s p= ` ^p qÜ áë= é~éÉê= íÜ êçï ë= äáÖ Ü í= çå= q Ü áêì ââì ê~ä= ï Ü áÅ Ü = ï ~ë= ï êáííÉå= Ä ó= qÜ áêì î ~ääì î ~êK qÜ áêì ââì ê~äáë=çåÉ=çÑ =íÜ É=~åÅ áÉåí=ï çêâë=áå=íÜ É=q ~ã áäK =fí=ï ~ë=íê~åëä~íÉÇ=áåíç= b åÖ äáëÜ =Ä ó=d K rK m çéÉ=Ü É=Ä êçì Ö Ü í=Ä É~ì íáÑ ì ä=íÜ çì Ö Ü íë=çÑ =q Ü áêì ââì ê~ä=áåíç=t ÉëíÉêå=t çêäÇ=áå= N U U SK fí= éçêíê~áíë= íÜ É= Ü ì ã ~å= ã çê~äë= ~åÇ= Ö ì áÇÉë= éÉçéäÉ= Ñ çê= íÜ É= Ä ÉííÉêã Éåí= çÑ = äáÑ ÉK qÜ áêì ââì ê~ä= áë íÜ É= çåäó= Ä ççâ= ï Ü áÅ Ü = áë= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= áåíç= ã ~åó= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö Éë= åÉñí= íç= _ áÄ äÉI= n ì ê~åI= ~åÇ= d áí~K = fí= ï ~ë= íÜ É= ï çêâ= çå= ÉíÜ áÅ ë= áå= q~ã áä= äáíÉê~íì êÉK = qÜ áêì ââì ê~ä= áë= íÜ É= Å çã Ä áåÉÇ= ï çêÇ= Ñ çêã ÉÇ= Ä ó= àçáåáåÖ = íÜ É= íï ç=ï çêÇë= qÜ áêì =~åÇ=h ì ê~äK qÜ áêì ââì ê~ä=ï ~ë= íê~åëä~íÉÇ=áå=i ~íáå=Ä ó= ` çåëí~åòç_ ÉëÅ Ü á=áå= N TPM I=áí=Ü Éäéë=b ì êçéÉ~å=áåíÉääÉÅ íì ~äë=íç=âåçï =~Ä çì í=íÜ É=êáÅ Ü åÉëë=~åÇ=Ä É~ì íó=çÑ =q~ã áä= i áíÉê~íì êÉK åÇ q áêì î ~ääì î ~ê=ï ~ë=Ä çêå=~í=j óä~éçêÉ=ï Ü ç=äáî ÉÇ=Ä Éíï ÉÉå=O Å Éåíì êó=_ ` b =~åÇ=RíÜ Å Éåíì êó= ` bK = fí= áë= ~= Ä ÉäáÉî É= íÜ ~í= Ü É= ï êçíÉ= qÜ áêì ââì ê~ä= áå= PM = _` = ï Ü áÅ Ü = áë= é~êí= çÑ = q ~ã áä= p~åÖ ~ã = m ÉêáçÇK = fí= áë= çåÉ= çÑ = íÜ É= q~ã áä= Ä ççâë= çÑ = i ~ï K = e É= áë= Å çåëáÇÉêÉÇ= ~ë= Å ÉäÉÄ ê~íÉÇ= q ~ã áä= éçÉí= ï Ü ç= Ö áî Éë=íÜ É=ã çê~ä=î ~äì Éë=Ñ çê=äáÑ ÉI=Ü É=áë=~äëç=âåçï å=Ä ó=íÜ É=å~ã É=~ë=a Éáî ~m ì ä~î ~êI=s ~ääì î ~êI= m çóó~ã çòÜ ám ì ä~î ~êI= pÉåå~m çíÜ ~êI= d å~å~s Éííáó~åK = e áë= ï áÑ É= s ~ëì âá= ï ~ë= ~= ÇÉî çíÉÇ= ä~Çó= ~åÇ= áÇÉ~ä= ï áÑ ÉI= ï Ü ç= åÉî Éê= ÇáëçÄ Éóë= íÜ É= çêÇÉê= çÑ = Ü ì ëÄ ~åÇK = _ ó= Ü áë= äáÑ É= Ü É= ëÜ çï ÉÇ= íÜ ~í= éÉêëçå= Å ~å=
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar äÉ~Ç=íÜ É=äáÑ É=çÑ =Ü çì ëÉ=Ü çäÇÉê=ë~ã É=~ë=Çáî áåÉ=äáÑ É=çê=äáÑ É=çÑ =éì êáíóK =e É=ë~óë=íÜ ~í=áí=ï ~ë=åçí= åÉÅ Éëë~êó= íç= äÉ~î É= Ü çì ëÉ= Ü çäÇ= äáÑ É= ~åÇ= íç= ëì êêÉåÇÉê= íÜ Éã ëÉäî Éë= íç= d çÇK e É= äáî ÉÇ= ~ë= íÜ É= ã çÇÉä= Ñ çê= ëçÅ áÉíóK = ^ í= éêÉëÉåí= Ü áë= î áÉï ë= ~åÇ= ~Çî áÅ Éë= Ñ çê= ëçÅ áÉíó= ~êÉ= áå= íÜ É= Ñ çêã = çÑ = Ä ççâ= q áêì ââì ê~äK = q ~ã áä= Å ~äÉåÇ~ê= áë= Ç~íÉÇ= Ñ êçã = Ñ êçã = íÜ ~í= éÉêáçÇ= áí= ï ~ë= Å çåëáÇÉêÉÇ= ~ë= qÜ áêì î ~ääì î ~ê^ ~åÇì K j É~åáåÖ = çÑ = íÜ É= ï çêÇ= h ì ê~ä= ï ~ë= ëÜ çêí= î ÉêëÉK = fí= ï ~ë= Å ä~ëëáÑ áÉÇ= Ä ó= s Éåé~= ï Ü áÅ Ü = ã É~åë= ã ÉíêÉ= Å çåëáëíë= çÑ = íï ç= äáåÉë= áå= íÜ É= Ñ çêã = çÑ = ëÉî Éå= Å áêëI= ï áíÜ = Ñ çì ê= Å áêë= çå= íÜ É= Ñ áêëí= äáåÉ= ~åÇ= íÜ êÉÉ= çå=íÜ É=ëÉÅ çåÇ=äáåÉK =q Ü áêì î ~ääì î ~ê?ë=ï çêâë=ï ÉêÉ=áå=çäÇ=ëÅ êáéíì êÉ=Ñ çêã I=çåäó=Ü áÖ Ü ëÅ Ü çä~ê= éÉêëçåë ã ~ó= = êÉ~Ç= áí= ~åÇ= êÉÅ Éáî É= íÜ É= âåçï äÉÇÖ É= çÑ = áíK = ^Ñ íÉêm ~êáã Éä~òÜ ~Ö ~ê?ëÅ çã ã Éåí~êó= áíáë= íÜ É=ã ~áå=ëçì êÅ É=çÑ =áåíÉêéêÉí~íáçå=çÑ =q Ü áêì ââì ê~äï Ü áÅ Ü =ï ~ë=Ñ çääçï ÉÇ=Ä ó=ã ~åó=Ö êÉ~í=q ~ã áä= ëÅ Ü çä~êëK =^ äã çëí=~ää=íÉñí=Ä ççâë=çÑ =pÅ Ü ççäë=~åÇ=r åáî ÉêëáíáÉë=çÑ =q ~ã áä=k ~Çì =ì ëÉë=Ü áë= Å çã ã Éåí~êóI= áí= áë= ì ëÉÑ ì ä= Ñ çê= éÉçéäÉ= íç= êÉ~Ç= áí= ëáã éäó= ~åÇ= íç= Ö ~áå= ã çêÉ= ì ëÉÑ ì ä= âåçï äÉÇÖ É= Ñ êçã = íÜ áë= Ä ççâK = fí= áë= çåÉ= çÑ = íÜ É= ã çëí= áã éçêí~åí= ï çêâë= áå= q ~ã áä= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK = fí= áë= ~äëç= Å ~ääÉÇ= ~ë= q~ã áä= ã ~ê~áI= m çóó~ã çòÜ áI= a Éáî ~åççäK qÜ áêì ââì ê~ä=Å çåëáëíë=çÑ =N PPM =q ~ã áä=Å çì éäÉíëI=ï Ü áÅ Ü =áë=çêÖ ~åáòÉÇ=áåíç=N PP=Å Ü ~éíÉêë= ~åÇ= íÜ É= Ñ áêëí= âì ê~ä= áë  Agaramudhalaezhuthellamaadhi bhagavanmudhattreaulagu qÜ áë= âì ê~ä= ï ~ë= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= áåíç= b åÖ äáëÜ = ~ëI  A, as its first of letters, every speech maintains; The "Primal Deity" is first through all the world's domains få= íÜ áë= âì ê~ä= Ü É= ÉñéçëÉ= Ü áë= íÜ çì Ö Ü í= ~Ä çì í= Ö çÇI= íÜ É= äÉííÉê= ^= áë= íÜ É= Ñ áêëí= çÑ = ~ää= äÉííÉêëI= ëç= íÜ É= ÉíÉêå~ä= d çÇ= áë= Ñ áêëí= áå= íÜ É= ï çêäÇ pçã É= çíÜ Éê= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= âì ê~äë= ~êÉI  No fruit have men of all their studied lore, Save they the 'Purely Wise One's' feet adore E t Ü ~í= m êçÑ áí= Ü ~î É= íÜ çëÉ= ÇÉêáî ÉÇ= Ñ êçã = äÉ~êåáåÖ I= ï Ü ç= ï çêëÜ áé= åçí= íÜ É= ëÖ ççÇ= Ñ ÉÉí= çÑ = e áã = ï Ü ç= áë= éçëëÉëëÉÇ= çÑ = éì êÉ= âåçï äÉÇÖ É= \F  His feet, 'Who o'er the full-blown flower hath past,' who gain In bliss long time shall dwell above this earthly plain = = = = E qÜ Éó= ï Ü ç= ~êÉ= ì åáíÉÇ= íç= íÜ É= Ö äçêáçì ë= Ñ ÉÉí= çÑ = e áã = ï Ü ç= é~ëëÉë= ëï áÑ íäó= çî Éê= íÜ É= = Ñ äçï Éê= çÑ = íÜ É= ã áåÇI= ëÜ ~ää= Ñ äçì êáëÜ = äçåÖ = ~Ä çî É= ~ää= ï çêäÇëF  His foot, 'Whom want affects not, irks not grief,' who gain Shall not, through every time, of any woes complain E q ç= íÜ çëÉ= ï Ü ç= ã ÉÇáí~íÉ= íÜ É= Ñ ÉÉí= çÑ = e áã = ï Ü ç= áë= î çáÇ= çÑ = ÇÉëáêÉ= çê= ~î ÉêëáçåI Éî áä= ëÜ ~ää= åÉî Éê= Å çã ÉF  The men, who on the 'King's' true praised delight to dwell, Affects not them the fruit of deeds done ill or well E qÜ É= íï çJÑ çäÇ= ÇÉÉÇë= íÜ ~í= ëéêáåÖ = Ñ êçã = Ç~êâåÉëë= ëÜ ~ää= åçí= ~ÇÜ ÉêÉ= íç= íÜ çëÉ= ï Ü ç= ÇÉäáÖ Ü í= áå= íÜ É= íêì É= éê~áëÉ= çÑ = d çÇF  Long live they blest, who 've stood in path from falsehood freed; His, 'Who quenched lusts that from the sense-gates five proceed' E qÜ çëÉ= ëÜ ~ää= äçåÖ = éêçéçëÉê= ï Ü ç= ~Ä áÇÉ= áå= íÜ É= Ñ ~ì äíäÉëë= ï ~ó= çÑ = e áã = ï Ü ç= Ü ~ë= ÇÉëíêçóÉÇ= íÜ É= Ñ áî É= ÇÉëáêÉë= çÑ = íÜ É= ëÉåëÉëF  r åäÉëë= e áë= Ñ ççíI= D íç= t Ü çã = åçåÉ= Å ~å= Å çã é~êÉID = ã Éå= Ö ~áåI D qÜ áë= Ü ~êÇ= Ñ çê= ã áåÇ= íç= Ñ áåÇ= êÉäáÉÑ = Ñ êçã = ~åñáçì ë= é~áå
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar E ^ åñáÉíó= çÑ = ã áåÇ= Å ~ååçí= Ä É= êÉã çî ÉÇI= ÉñÅ Ééí= Ñ êçã = íÜ çëÉ= ï Ü ç= ~êÉ= ì åáíÉÇ= íç= íÜ É= Ñ ÉÉí= çÑ = e áã = ï Ü ç= áë= áåÅ çã é~ê~Ä äÉF b ~Å Ü = ~åÇ= Éî Éêó= Å Ü ~éíÉê= ÇÉ~äë= ï áíÜ = ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåí= ëì Ä àÉÅ í= ã ~ííÉêK = fí= íÉ~Å Ü = ì ë= ëáã éäáÅ áíó= ~åÇ= íêì íÜ = íÜ êçì Ö Ü çì í= íÜ áë= î ÉêëÉK = fí= áë= Çáî áÇÉÇ= áåíç= íÜ êÉÉ= ëÉÅ íáçåë= íÜ É= Ñ áêëí= é~êí= áë= ^ ê~ã I= Ä ó= íÜ áë= é~êí= Ü É= éçêíê~óë= Ö ççÇ= ÉíÜ áÅ ~ä= Ä ÉÜ ~î áçê= ~åÇ= Ü çåçê= áí= ï ~ë= Å ~ääÉÇ= ~ë= êáÖ Ü íÉçì ëåÉëëK = pÉÅ çåÇ= é~êí= ÇÉ~äë= ï áíÜ =m çêì äIáå=íÜ áë=é~êí=Ü É=ÇÉ~äë=ï áíÜ =íÜ É=ã ~ííÉê=ëì Å Ü =~ë=íÜ É=êáÖ Ü í=ã ~ååÉê=çÑ =Å çåÇì Å íáåÖ = ï çêäÇäó=~Ñ Ñ ~áêëK =c áå~ääó=íÜ É=íÜ áêÇ=é~êí=ÇÉ~äë=ï áíÜ fåÄ ~ã I=Ä ó=íÜ áë=Ü É=ÉñéçëÉë=íÜ É=êÉ~ä=äçî É= Ä Éíï ÉÉå= = ã ~å= ~åÇ= ï çã ~åK = få= íÜ áë Aram ~åÇ Inbam ~êÉ= ÇÉî çíÉÇ= íç= éêáî ~íÉ= äáÑ É= çÑ = ~å= áåÇáî áÇì ~ä= ã çêÉ= íÜ ~å= Ü ~äÑ = íÜ É= Å çì éäÉíë= áå= qÜ áêì âì ê~ä= ~êÉ= Ö êçì éÉÇ= ì åÇÉê Porul ï Ü áÅ Ü = ÇáëÅ ì ëëÉë= ÉíÜ áÅ ë= áå= éì Ä äáÅ = äáÑ ÉK = qÜ ì ë= qÜ áêì î ~ääì î ~ê= Ö áî Éë= ã çêÉ= áã éçêí~åÅ É= íç= êáÖ Ü íÉçì ë= äáî áåÖ = áå= éì Ä äáÅ = äáÑ ÉK qÜ É= c áêëí=ëÉÅ íáçå=Ü ~ë=PU =Å Ü ~éíÉêëI=pÉÅ çåÇ=Ü ~ë=TM =Å Ü ~éíÉêë=~åÇ=íÜ É=q Ü áêÇ=O R=Å Ü ~éíÉêë Aram Å çåí~áåë= PU M = î ÉêëÉëI= Porul ï áíÜ = TM M = ~åÇ= Inbam ï áíÜ = O RM K = ` çì éäÉíë= ~åÇ= íÜ É= íçéáÅ ë= ï áää= Ä É= áå= íÜ áë=ã ~ååÉê=ëì Å Ü =~ëI=Q M =Å çì éäÉíë=çå=d çÇI=o ~áåI=s áêíì É=~åÇ=^ ëÅ ÉíáÅ ëI=O M M =Å çì éäÉíë=çå= a çã ÉëíáÅ = s áêíì ÉI= N Q M = Å çì éäÉíë= çå= e áÖ Ü Éê= s áêíì É= Ä ~ëÉÇ= çå= d ê~Å ÉI= O RM = Å çì éäÉíë= çå= o çó~äíóI= N M M =Å çì éäÉíë= çå= j áåáëíÉêë= çÑ = pí~íÉI= O O M =Å çì éäÉíë= çå= íÜ É= b ëëÉåíá~ä= êÉèì áêÉã Éåíë= çÑ = ^ Çã áåáëíê~íáçåI= N PM = Å çì éäÉë= çå= j çê~äáíóI= Ä çíÜ = éçëáíáî É= ~åÇ= åÉÖ ~íáî ÉI= O RM = Å çì éäÉíë= çå= e ì ã ~å i çî É= ~åÇ= m ~ëëáçåK = = b~Å Ü = `Ü ~éíÉê= Å çåëáëíë= çÑ = N M = Å çì éäÉíë= çê= kurals íÜ ì ë= ã ~âÉë= N PPM = Å çì éäÉíë= áå= íçí~äK qÜ áêì ââì ê~ä= áë= éê~áëÉÇ= ï áíÜ = ã ~åó= å~ã Éë= ëì Å Ü = ~ë= r íí~ê~î ÉÇ~ã = ï Ü áÅ Ü = ã É~åë= pì éÉêáçêJ s ÉÇ~ã I= m çóó~ã çòÜ á= ã É~åë= pí~íÉã Éåíë= ï Ü áÅ Ü = ~î çáÇë= çÑ = ì å= íêì íÜ I= s ~óì ê~áî ~òÜ íÜ ì= áíë= q êì íÜ Ñ ì ä= ì ííÉê~åÅ ÉëI=a Éóî ~åççä=Ä ççâ=çÑ =Çáî áåÉI=m çíÜ ì ã ~ê~á=ï Ü áÅ Ü =íÉ~Å Ü =ì ë=Å çã ã çå=ã ~å?ë==î ÉÇ~I= j ì éé~ä=íÜ É= íÜ êÉÉÑ çäÇ=é~íÜ I=q ~ã áä=ã ~ê~á=ÇÉåçíÉë=q ~ã áä=î ÉÇ~K =q Ü ÉêÉ= ~êÉ= Å ä~áã ë=~åÇ= Å çì åíÉê= Å ä~áã ë=íç=íÜ É=~ì íÜ çêëÜ áé=çÑ =Ä ççâK =b ñ~Å í=åì ã Ä Éê=çÑ =Å çì éäÉíë=ï ~ë=ï êáííÉå=Ä ó=q Ü áêì î ~ääì î ~êK = ^Ñ íÉê= ëÉî Éê~ä= Å Éåíì êáÉë= ä~íÉê= ~ì íÜ çê?ë= å~ã É= ï ~ë= ã ÉåíáçåÉÇ= ~ë= qÜ áêì î ~ääì î ~ê= áå= ëçåÖ = çÑ = éê~áëÉ= Å ~ääÉÇ= ~ë= d ~êä~åÇ= çÑ = qÜ áêì î ~ääì î ~ê= áå= q áêì î ~ääì î ~j ~ä~áK = = = = = = = = = ` çã ã Éåí~êáÉë=ï ÉêÉ=áã éçêí~åí=áå=q Ü áêì ââì ê~äK =pÉî Éê~ä=Å çã ã Éåí~êáÉë=ï ÉêÉ=ï êáííÉå çå= qÜ áêì ââì ê~ä= Ä ì í= íÜ É= = éçéì ä~ê= Å çã ã Éåí~êó= áå= q ~ã áä= ï ~ë= ï êáííÉå= Ä ó= íÜ É= Ö êÉ~í= m ~êáã Éä~òÜ ~Ö ~ê= áí= ï ~ë=~äëç=âåçï å=~ë=m ~êáã Éä~òÜ ~Ö ~êì ê~á=çê=` çã ã Éåí~êó=çÑ =m ~êáã Éä~òÜ ~Ö ~ê=áí=Å ~éíì êÉÇ=~= ëí~åÇ~êÇ= éä~Å É= áå= Ö áî áåÖ = íÜ É= ã É~åáåÖ = Ñ çê= qÜ áêì ââì ê~äI= íÜ ÉêÉ= ~êÉ= ~äëç= çíÜ Éê= çäÇ= Å çã ã Éåí~êáÉë= ï êáííÉå= Ä ó= Ä óh ~ä~áÖ å~êI= j ~å~âì Ç~î ~êI= m ~êáéÉêì ã ~ä= Im ~êáÇÜ áó~êI= o ~à~àáI= j ìK s ~ê~ÇÜ ~ê~à~åIq Ü áêì ââì ê~äs K j ì åì ë~ã ó= ~åÇ= s K pm K = j ~åáÅ â~ã I= ï êáíÉê= pì à~íÜ ~= ~äëç= ~ííÉã éíÉÇ= áí= çåÅ ÉK qÜ ÉêÉ= ~êÉ= ~äëç= Ñ Éï = Å çã ã Éåí~êáÉëI= ï Ü áÅ Ü = ~êÉ= åçí= ~î ~áä~Ä äÉ= åçï I= ï Ü áÅ Ü = ï ~ë= ï êáííÉå= Ä ó= aÜ ~êì ã ~êI= qÜ ~~ã ~Å Ü ~êI= k ~Å Ü ~êI= qÜ áêì ã ~ä~áó~êI= j ~ää~êI= ~åÇ= h ~î áéÉêì ã ~äK r ê~á= Ö áî Éë= ì ëã É~åáåÖ = Ñ çê= íÜ É= ~ã çì åí= çÑ = áåÑ çêã ~íáçåë= Å çã éêÉëëÉÇ= áå= É~Å Ü = ~åÇ= Éî Éêó= h ì ê~äK = d êÉ~íÅ çã ã Éåí~êáÉm ~êáã Éä~òÜ ~Ö ~ê=Ä ÉäçåÖ ë=íçN PíÜ Å Éåíì êóK =i áíÉê~êó=ã É~åáåÖ =Ñ çê=íÜ É=å~ã É= m ~êáJj ÉäJ^ òÜ ~Ö ~ê= ï ~ë= e ~åÇëçã É= j ~å= r éçå= qÜ É= e çêëÉK = e áë= äáÑ É= ~åÇ= ï çêâë= ëì áíë= íç= Ü áë= å~ã É= Å çêêÉÅ íäó= ~ë= áí= Ü áë= Å çã ã Éåí~êáÉë= éä~óë= ~= ã ~àçê= êçäÉ= áí= Ä ÉÅ çã Éë= ~ë= ëçì êÅ É= Ñ çê= çíÜ Éê= íê~åëä~íçêë= ï Ü ç= íê~åëä~íÉë= qÜ áêì ââì ê~ä= áå= çíÜ Éê= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉëK = oÉ Ñ É êÉ åÅ É ë  pì Ä ê~ã ~åáó~ã I=h ~k ~~I Tiruvalluvar and his Tirukkural._ Ü ~ê~íáó~gå~åéáíÜ W =k Éï = a ÉäÜ á= N V U TK  m K = pK = pì åÇ~ê~ã I= TheKural. m ÉåÖ ì áå= _ ççâëW = i çåÇçåI= N V V M K  _ ä~Å âÄ ì êåI= píì ~êíK = E O M M M F K = Corruption and Redemption: The Legend of Valluvar and Tamil Literary HistoryK = j çÇÉêå= ^ ëá~å= píì ÇáÉëI= î çäK = PQ I= åçK = O I= ééK Q Q V ?U O I= j ~ó= O M M M K  v çÖ á=pÜ ì ÇÇÜ ~å~åÇ~_ Ü ~ê~íá=E N U V TF I= Thirukkural with English Couplets J q ~ã áä= `Ü ~åÇêçêm Éê~î ~áW = `Ü Éåå~áK E N R= j ~ó= N V V RF

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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar k bt = q o b k a p= fk = q o ^ k pi ^ q fl k j K o ^ g^ pb h ^ o = Cm K i ^ h pe j ^ k ^ k = ff= j ^= b k d i fpe Io s p= ` ^p

få=íçÇ~ó?ë=Ö äçÄ ~äáëÉÇ=ëçÅ áÉíóI=íê~åëä~íáçå=~åÇ=áåíÉêéêÉíáåÖ =~êÉ=Ö ~áåáåÖ =î áëáÄ áäáíó=~åÇ= êÉäÉî ~åÅ É= ~ë= ~= ã É~åë= íç= Ñ çëíÉê= Å çã ã ì åáÅ ~íáçå= ~åÇ= Çá~äçÖ ì É= áå= áåÅ êÉ~ëáåÖ äó= ã ì äíáÅ ì äíì ê~ä= ~åÇ= ã ì äíáäáåÖ ì ~ä=Éåî áêçåã ÉåíëK =m ê~Å íáëÉÇ=ëáåÅ É=íáã É=áã ã Éã çêá~äI=Ä çíÜ =~Å íáî áíáÉë=Ü ~î É=Ä ÉÅ çã É= ã çêÉ= Å çã éäÉñ= ~åÇ= ã ì äíáÑ ~Å ÉíÉÇ= áå= êÉÅ Éåí= ÇÉÅ ~ÇÉëI= áåíÉêëÉÅ íáåÖ = ï áíÜ = ã ~åó= çíÜ Éê= ÇáëÅ áéäáåÉëK = k Éï =q êÉåÇë=áå=q ê~åëä~íáçå=píì ÇáÉë=áë=~å=áåíÉêå~íáçå~ä=ëÉêáÉë=ï áíÜ =íÜ É=ã ~áå=çÄ àÉÅ íáî Éë=çÑ = éêçã çíáåÖ = íÜ É= ëÅ Ü çä~êäó= ëíì Çó= çÑ = íê~åëä~íáçå= ~åÇ= áåíÉêéêÉíáåÖ = ~åÇ= çÑ = Ñ ì åÅ íáçåáåÖ = ~ë= ~= Ñ çêì ã = Ñ çê= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íáçå= ~åÇ= áåíÉêéêÉíáåÖ = êÉëÉ~êÅ Ü = Å çã ã ì åáíóK qÜ áë=ëÉêáÉë=éì Ä äáëÜ Éë=êÉëÉ~êÅ Ü =çå=ëì Ä àÉÅ íë=êÉä~íÉÇ=íç=ã ì äíáã ÉÇá~=íê~åëä~íáçå=~åÇ= áåíÉêéêÉíáåÖ I= áå= íÜ Éáê= î ~êáçì ë= ëçÅ á~ä= êçäÉëK = fí= áë= éêáã ~êáäó= áåíÉåÇÉÇ= íç= ÉåÖ ~Ö É= ï áíÜ = Å çåíÉã éçê~êó= áëëì Éë= ëì êêçì åÇáåÖ = íÜ É= åÉï = ã ì äíáÇáã Éåëáçå~ä= Éåî áêçåã Éåíë= áå= ï Ü áÅ Ü = íê~åëä~íáçå= áë=Ñ äçì êáëÜ áåÖ I=ëì Å Ü =~ë=~ì Çáçî áëì ~ä=ã ÉÇá~I=íÜ É=áåíÉêåÉí=~åÇ=Éã ÉêÖ áåÖ =åÉï =ã ÉÇá~= ~åÇ=íÉÅ Ü åçäçÖ áÉëK =fí=ëÉíë=çì í=íç=êÉÑ äÉÅ í=åÉï =íêÉåÇë=áå=êÉëÉ~êÅ Ü =~åÇ=áå=íÜ É=éêçÑ ÉëëáçåI=íç= ÉåÅ çì ê~Ö É= Ñ äÉñáÄ äÉ= ã ÉíÜ çÇçäçÖ áÉë= ~åÇ= íç= éêçã çíÉ= áåíÉêÇáëÅ áéäáå~êó= êÉëÉ~êÅ Ü = ê~åÖ áåÖ = Ñ êçã = íÜ É= íÜ ÉçêÉíáÅ ~ä= íç= íÜ É= éê~Å íáÅ ~ä= ~åÇ= Ñ êçã = íÜ É= ~ééäáÉÇ= íç= íÜ É= éÉÇ~Ö çÖ áÅ ~äK k Éï = q êÉåÇë= áå= q ê~åëä~íáçå= píì ÇáÉë=éì Ä äáëÜ Éë=íê~åëä~íáçåJ ~åÇ=áåíÉêéêÉíáåÖ JçêáÉåíÉÇ=Ä ççâë=íÜ ~í=éêÉëÉåí=Ü áÖ Ü Jèì ~äáíó= ëÅ Ü çä~êëÜ áé=áå=~å=~Å Å ÉëëáÄ äÉI=êÉ~ÇÉêJÑ êáÉåÇäó=ã ~ååÉêK =q Ü É=ëÉêáÉë=Éã Ä ê~Å Éë=~=ï áÇÉ=ê~åÖ É=çÑ = éì Ä äáÅ ~íáçåë=? 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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

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~êíáÅ äÉë= ~Ä çì í= íê~åëä~íáçå= ~åÇ= íê~åëä~íçê= êÉä~íÉÇ= áëëì ÉëK = fí= éêçî áÇÉë= áåÑ çêã ~íáçå= íç= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íçêë= ï Ü ç= ~êÉ= áåíÉêÉëíÉÇ= íç= âåçï = ã çêÉ= ~Ä çì í= íÜ É= Å ì êêÉåí= íêÉåÇëI=~ééêç~Å Ü ÉëI=íê~ÇáíáçåI=Å êáíáÅ áëã =ÉíÅ =áå=íê~åëä~íáçåK =q Ü É=àçì êå~ä=~äëç=áåíÉåÇë=íç=ê~áëÉ= ~ï ~êÉåÉëë=~Ä çì í=íê~åëä~íáçåI=áíë=éçëëáÄ áäáíáÉë=~åÇ=éçíÉåíá~äá ^ =gçì êå~ä=çÑ =i áíÉê~íì êÉI=` ì äíì êÉ= ~åÇ= i áíÉê~êó= q ê~åëä~íáçå c çì åÇÉÇ= áå= O M M V = Ä ó= r åáî Éêëáíó= çÑ = w~Ç~ê= Ñ ~Å ì äíó= ã Éã Ä ÉêëI= = ‐^= gçì êå~ä= çÑ = i áíÉê~íì êÉI= ` ì äíì êÉ= ~åÇ=i áíÉê~êó=q ê~åëä~íáçå=áë=ÇÉî çíÉÇ=íç=éì Ä äáëÜ áåÖ =èì ~äáíó=~Å ~ÇÉã áÅ =ï êáíáåÖ =çå=íÜ É=íçéáÅ =çÑ = äáíÉê~êó= ~åÇ=Å ì äíì ê~ä=íÜ ÉçêóI=î ~êáçì ë=ëçÅ á~ä= ~åÇ=Å ì äíì ê~ä=éÜ Éåçã Éå~= Å çã áåÖ =çì í=çÑ =ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåí= äáíÉê~êó= ~åÇ=Å ì äíì ê~ä=éê~Å íáÅ Éë=~åÇ=~ééêç~Å Ü ÉëI= ~ë=ï Éää=~ë=íç=éêçã çíáåÖ =èì ~äáíó=äáíÉê~íì êÉ=áå= íê~åëä~íáçåK = fí= áë= éì Ä äáëÜ ÉÇ= Ä á‐~ååì ~ääó= áå= ëéêáåÖ = ~åÇ= Ñ ~ääK = _ ÉëáÇÉë= ~Å ~ÇÉã áÅ = ï êáíáåÖ I= = éì íë= ~= ëéÉÅ á~ä= Éã éÜ ~ëáë= çå= äáíÉê~êó= íê~åëä~íáçå= ~ë= ~= Ñ çêã = çÑ = Å çã ã ì åáÅ ~íáçå= ~ã çåÖ = Å ì äíì êÉë= ~åÇ= ëÉÉë= íê~åëä~íáçå=~ë=~=âáåÇ=çÑ =Å êÉ~íáî áíó=ëáã áä~ê=íç=íÜ ~í=çÑ =Å êÉ~íáî É=ï êáíáåÖ I=áK ÉK =~=âáåÇ=çÑ =äáíÉê~êó= éê~Å íáÅ É= çÑ = áã ã ÉåëÉ= î ~äì É= Ñ çê= íÜ É= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= ~åÇ= äáíÉê~íì êÉ= Ñ êçã = ~åÇ= áåíç= ï Ü áÅ Ü = íÜ É= ï çêâë= ~êÉ= íê~åëä~íÉÇK = xëáÅ z= íÜ ì ë= ëì ééçêíë= éì Ä äáëÜ áåÖ = íê~åëä~íáçåë= çÑ = Ñ çêÉáÖ å= ï çêâë= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= áåíç= ` êç~íá~å= ~ë= ï Éää= ~ë= íê~åëä~íáçåë= çÑ = ` êç~íá~å= ~ì íÜ çêë= áåíç= Ñ çêÉáÖ å= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉëK = áë= ~å= çéÉå= ~Å Å Éëë= àçì êå~ä= ï Ü áÅ Ü = ã É~åë= íÜ ~í= ~ää= Å çåíÉåí= áë= Ñ êÉÉäó= ~î ~áä~Ä äÉ= ï áíÜ çì í= Å Ü ~êÖ É= íç= íÜ É=ì ëÉê=çê=Ü áëL Ü Éê=áåëíáíì íáçåK =r ëÉêë= ~êÉ=~ääçï ÉÇ=íç=êÉ~ÇI=Ççï åäç~ÇI=Å çéóI ÇáëíêáÄ ì íÉI=éêáåíI= ëÉ~êÅ Ü I= çê= äáåâ= íç= íÜ É= Ñ ì ää= íÉñíë= çÑ = íÜ É= ~êíáÅ äÉë= áå= íÜ áë= àçì êå~ä= ï áíÜ çì í= ~ëâáåÖ = éêáçê= éÉêã áëëáçå= Ñ êçã = íÜ É= éì Ä äáëÜ Éê= çê= íÜ É= ~ì íÜ çêK = qÜ áë= áë= áå= ~Å Å çêÇ~åÅ É= ï áíÜ = íÜ É= _l ^ = = K q ê~åëä~íáçå= o Éî áÉï q ê~åëä~íáçå= o Éî áÉï = áë= éì Ä äáëÜ ÉÇ= íï áÅ É= óÉ~êäó= Ä ó= qÜ É= ` ÉåíÉê= Ñ çê= q ê~åëä~íáçå=píì ÇáÉë=~í=q Ü É=r åáî Éêëáíó=çÑ =q Éñ~ë=~í=a ~ää~ë=~åÇ=íÜ É=^ ã ÉêáÅ ~å=i áíÉê~êó= q ê~åëä~íçêë=^ ëëçÅ á~íáçå=E ^ i q^ F K =pí~êíÉÇ=áå=N V TU I=q ê~åëä~íáçå=o Éî áÉï =áë=ì åáèì É=áå=íÜ É= b åÖ äáëÜ ‐ëéÉ~âáåÖ =ï çêäÇK =t Ü áäÉ=ã ~åó=äáíÉê~êó=àçì êå~äë=éì Ä äáëÜ =íê~åëä~íáçåë=çÑ =íÜ É=ï çêâë=çÑ =
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar êáëÜ áë=ï Ü ç=Å ~ëí=ã ó=Ü çêçëÅ çéÉ=Ü ~Ç=íçäÇ=h áåÖ =a Ü êáíÜ ~ê~ëÜ íê~=íÜ ~í=f=ï ~ë=Ä çêå=íç=ÇÉëíêçó=íÜ É= h ì êì = ê~Å ÉK t Ü ó= ï ÉêÉ= íÜ Éó= Å ~ääáåÖ = ã É= ëçå= çÑ = î ~~óì \ ï Ü ó= ï ~ë= f= Ä çêå= íç= ÇÉëíêçó= íÜ É= âì êì = Å ä~å\ ÇáÇ= íÜ É= êçÅ â= êÉ~ääó= ëéäáåíÉê= ï Ü Éå= f= Ñ Éää= çå= áí\ fí=ï ~ëå?í=~=Ö ççÇ=íáã É=íç=~ëâ=èì ÉëíáçåëJã çíÜ Éê?ë=~ííÉåíáçå=ï ~ë=Å äÉ~êäó=ÉäëÉï Ü ÉêÉIëÜ É=ï ~ë= äççâáåÖ = íçï ~êÇë= íÜ É= Å áíó= Ö ~íÉë= ï áíÜ = êÉäáÉÑ = ~åÇ= ~åíáÅ áé~íáçå= çå= Ü Éê= Ñ ~Å ÉK f= íì êåÉÇ= áå= íáã É= íç= ëÉÉ= íÜ É=Éåçêã çì ë=Ö ~íÉë=ëï áåÖ =çéÉåK q ï ç=ã ÉåIÄ çÇáÉë=ëäáÅ â=ï áíÜ =çáäIÅ äáã Ä ÉÇ=çåíç=íÜ É=ê~áëÉÇ= éä~íÑ çêã ë= çå= ÉáíÜ Éê= ëáÇÉ= çÑ = íÜ É= Éåçêã çì ë= Ñ ä~Ö éçäÉ= íÜ ~í= êÉ~Å Ü ÉÇ= áåíç= íÜ É= ëâóK t áíÜ = Çêì ã ëíáÅ âë= ~ë= íÜ áÅ â= ~ë= ã ó= äÉÖ ëIíÜ Éó= Ä ÉÖ ~å= éçì åÇáåÖ = çì í= ~= êÜ óíÜ ã= çå= íÜ É= íï ç= Éåçêã çì ë= âÉííäÉ= Çêì ã ë= ëÉí= çå= ÉáíÜ Éê= ëáÇÉ= çÑ = íÜ É= Ö ~íÉK ^= ã ~å= Å ~ã É= ëíêáÇáåÖ = íÜ êçì Ö Ü = íÜ É= çéÉå= Ö ~íÉëJ~å= ÉäÇÉêäó= ã ~åIï áíÜ = äçåÖ = ï Ü áíÉ= Ü ~áê= éáäÉÇ= äáâÉ= ~= Å êçï å= çå= íçé= çÑ = Ü áë= Ü É~ÇI~åÇ= ~= ï Ü áíÉ= Ä É~êÇ= íÜ ~í= ëíêÉ~ã ÉÇ= çî Éê= Ü áë= Å Ü Éëí ?d ê~åÇÑ ~íÜ Éê= _ Ü áëã ~I?ã çíÜ Éê= ë~áÇ= ì åÇÉê= Ü Éê= Ä êÉ~íÜ = ~ë= ëÜ É= ï ~äâÉÇ= Ñ çêï ~êÇIéì ëÜ áåÖ = v ì ÇÜ áëíáê~Iã É= ~åÇ= ^ êàì å~= áå= Ñ êçåí= çÑ = Ü ÉêK pÉííáåÖ = k ~âì ä~= Ççï åIëÜ É= Ñ Éää= íç= Ü Éê= âåÉÉë= áå= = Ñ êçåí= çÑ = íÜ É= çäÇ= ã ~åIÜ Éê= Ä çï ÉÇ= Ü É~Ç= íçì Å Ü áåÖ = Ü áë= Ñ ÉÉíK e É=ê~áëÉÇ=Ü Éê=ì éIëã áäÉÇ=Ççï å=~í=Ü ÉêK ?q Ü É=Å Ü áäÇêÉå=Ü ~î É=Å çã ÉK d ççÇ> ?=v ì ÇÜ áëÜ íáê~Iï Ü ç= ~äï ~óë= ëÉÉã ÉÇ= íç= âåçï = íÜ É= êáÖ Ü í= íÜ áåÖ = íç= ÇçIï ~ë= éêçëíê~íáåÖ = ~í= Ä Ü áëÜ ã ~ë= Ñ ÉÉíX ~ë= Ü É= Ä Éåí= Ççï å= íç=Ä äÉëë=ã ó=Ä êçíÜ Éê=ï áíÜ =çéÉå=é~äã =çå=íçé=çÑ =Ü áë=Ü É~ÇIã çíÜ Éê=éì ëÜ ÉÇ=ã É=Ñ çêï ~êÇ=íç=é~ó= çÄ Éáë~åÅ É= áå= ã ó= íì êåK ^ ë= Ü É= Ä äÉëëÉÇ= ã ÉIÜ É= ë~áÇ= ëçã ÉíÜ áåÖ = f= ÇáÇå?í= Ü É~ê= áå= íÜ É= Çáå= çÑ = íÜ É= Çêì ã ë= ~åÇ= íÜ É= Å êçï ÇëX f= Ö çí= Ä ~Å â=çå=ã ó=Ñ ÉÉí=~åÇ=íêáÉÇ=íç=Ä êì ëÜ =ëçã É=çÑ =íÜ É=Çì ëí=çÑ Ñ =ã ó=~êã ë=~åÇ=Å Ü ÉëíK Ä ó=íÜ ÉåI~= éêçÅ Éëëáçå= Ü ~Ç= Å çã É= íÜ êçì Ö Ü = íÜ É= Ö ~íÉëI~åÇ= ëì êêçì åÇÉÇ= ì ëK ^= Ö êçì é= çÑ = éêáÉëíë= Ä ÉÖ ~å= êÉÅ áíáåÖ = ëçã É= ã ~åíê~ëX ã ~áÇë= Å ~êêóáåÖ = íê~óë= ï áíÜ = Ä ì êåáåÖ = ä~ã éëIáåÅ ÉåëÉ= ~åÇ= Ñ äçï Éêë= Å áêÅ äÉÇ= ì ë= ï Ü áäÉ= çíÜ Éêë= Ä Éåí= íç= ï ~ëÜ = çì ê= Ñ ÉÉí= ï áíÜ = ï ~íÉê= Ñ êçã = Ö çäÇÉå= éçíëK ?Å çã ÉI?f= Ü É~êÇ= _Ü áëã ~= íÉääáåÖ = ã çíÜ ÉêK ?íÜ É= âáåÖ = ~åÇ= èì ÉÉå= ~êÉ= ï ~áíáåÖ = íç= Ö êÉÉí= óçì ?K e É= Ä Éåí= Ççï åIéáÅ âÉÇ=k ~âì ä~=~åÇ=p~Ü ~ÇÉî ~=ì é=~åÇ=ëï ì åÖ =íÜ Éã =çåíç=Ü áë=ëÜ çì äÇÉêëK j çíÜ Éê=íççâ= ^ êàì å~= Ä ó= íÜ É= Ü ~åÇK v ì ÇÜ áëÜ íáê~= ï ~äâÉÇ= = ~Ü É~Ç= çÑ = ì ë= ~åÇI~ë= íÜ É= Çêì ã Ä É~í= ã çì åíÉÇ= íç= ~= Ñ êÉåòó= ~åÇ= íÜ É= Å êçï Ç= = Å Ü ÉÉêÉÇ ~åÇ=Å ~ääÉÇ=çì í=çì ê=å~ã ÉëIï É=ï ~äâÉÇ=íÜ êçì Ö Ü =íÜ çëÉ=Ö ~íÉë=~åÇ=ÉåíÉêÉÇ=íÜ É=âáåÖ Ççã =ã çíÜ Éê= íçäÇ= ì ë= ï É= ï ÉêÉ= Ä çêå= íç= êì äÉK _ e ^ o ^ q f?p= m l b j p= fk = b k d i fpe q o ^ k pi ^ q fl k W = o r b p= ^ka = o b j b a fb p oK o ^ k gfq e ^ = f= j K ^= b k d i fpe = o s p= ` ^p = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = o É~ÇáåÖ =éçÉíêó= áë=~å=~êí=áå=áíëÉäÑ K =q Ü É= êÉ~ÇÉê=Ü ~ë=~å=çééçêíì åáíó= íç=ã ~âÉ=~= àçì êåÉó= ï áíÜ = íÜ É= éçÉí= Ü áã ëÉäÑ I= íç= ï Ü ÉêÉî Éê= Ü É= Ü ~ë= íê~î ÉääÉÇI= áå çêÇÉê= íç= Å ~éíì êÉ= íÜ É= éçÉí?ë= íÜ áåâáåÖ = ~åÇ= áã ~Ö áå~íáçåK = få= Ö ÉåÉê~äI= íÜ É= Ä Éëí= ~ééêç~Å Ü = íç= êÉ~Ç= ~= éçÉã = áë= íç= ~ééêç~Å Ü = áí= ~ë= ~= ï Ü çäÉI= ê~íÜ Éê= íÜ ~å= äáåÉ= Ä ó= äáåÉI= íêóáåÖ = íç= Å ~éíì êÉ= íÜ É= äáíÉê~ä= ã É~åáåÖ = çÑ = É~Å Ü = ï çêÇK = qÜ É= éçÉã = Ü ~ë= íÜ É= Ä É~ì íó= çÑ = ã ì ëáÅ I= ~åÇ= íÜ É= ëçì åÇ= ~åÇ= êÜ óíÜ ã= çÑ = íÜ É= ï çêÇëI= íÜ Éã ëÉäî ÉëI= Å çã ã ì åáÅ ~íÉ= íÜ É= éçÉí?ë= î áëáçåK q çÇ~óI= äáíÉê~êó= êÉéì í~íáçåë= çÑ íÉå= ÇÉéÉåÇ= çå= íÜ É= ~Ä áäáíó= çÑ = íÜ É= b åÖ äáëÜ JëéÉ~âáåÖ = éì Ä äáÅ = íç=êÉ~Ç=~åÇ=êÉÅ çÖ åáòÉ=Ö êÉ~í=ï êáíÉêë=Ñ êçã =Å çì åíêáÉë=~åÇ=Å ì äíì êÉë=~êçì åÇ=íÜ É=ï çêäÇK =b î Éå=áå= fåÇá~I= ã çëí çÑ = íÜ É= êÉ~ÇáåÖ = éì Ä äáÅ = ÇçÉë= åçí= êÉ~Ç= q ~ã áäX = óÉí= _Ü ~ê~íá= áë= ~= Ñ çì åÇáåÖ = Ñ ~íÜ Éê= çÑ = íÜ áë= å~íáçå= çÑ = ã óêá~Ç= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉëI= ~åÇ= ï Ü ~í= Ü É= ï êçíÉ= áë= êÉäÉî ~åí= íç= íÜ Éã = ~ää= ? ~= Ö áÑ í= Ñ çê= Éî Éêó= ëáåÖ äÉ= fåÇá~åI=êÉÖ ~êÇäÉëë=çÑ =ã çíÜ Éê=íçåÖ ì ÉK =q ê~åëä~íáçåI=áåíç=b åÖ äáëÜ I=~åÇ=áåíç=çíÜ Éê=fåÇá~å= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉëI= áë= áã éçêí~åíK = _Ü ~ê~íÜ á=ï ~ë=Ä çêå=çå=a ÉÅ Éã Ä Éê=N N I=N U U O I=áå=b íí~ó~éì ê~ã =áå=íÜ É=éêÉëÉåí=q ì íáÅ çêáå= ÇáëíêáÅ íK =e É=é~ëëÉÇ=~ï ~ó=~í=íÜ É=êÉä~íáî Éäó=óçì åÖ =~Ö É=çÑ =PV =áå=` Ü Éåå~áK =_ ó=íÜ Éå=Ü É=Ü ~Ç= ê~ÇáÅ ~ääó= íê~åëÑ çêã ÉÇ= ~åÇ= ã çÇÉêåáòÉÇ= q ~ã áä= éçÉíêóI= éêçëÉI= Å ~êíççåáåÖ = ~åÇ= Éî Éå= àçì êå~äáëã K =

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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar e áë= ï êáíáåÖ ë= íÜ ~í= Å Ü ~ã éáçåÉÇ= Ñ êÉÉÇçã = Ñ êçã = Ñ çêÉáÖ å= êì äÉI= Å ~ëíÉ= ëóëíÉã = ~åÇ= é~íêá~êÅ Ü ó= ÇÉÑ áåÉÇ= ï Ü ~í= ~= q~ã áä= Å áíáòÉå= áÇÉ~ääó= çì Ö Ü í= íç= Ä ÉK j ^ a r o ^ fW = v Éí= ~åçíÜ Éê= Ä áêíÜ = ~ååáî Éêë~êó= çÑ = j ~Ü ~â~î á= pì Ä ê~ã ~åá~= _Ü ~ê~íÜ á= ï áää= Ä É= Å ÉäÉÄ ê~íÉÇ= çå= t ÉÇåÉëÇ~óK = _ ì í= ã ~åó= çÑ = íÜ É= ~Çã áêÉêë= çÑ = íÜ É= éçÉíJíÜ áåâÉêJ~Å íáî áëí= Ä ÉäáÉî É= íÜ ~í= ã ìÅ Ü = ã çêÉ= åÉÉÇë= íç= Ä É= ÇçåÉ= íç= éçéì ä~êáòÉ= íÜ É= äáÑ É= ~åÇ= ï çêâë= çÑ = _Ü ~ê~íÜ á= ~Å êçëë= íÜ É= Å çì åíêóK ^ =Ñ Éï =çíÜ Éêë=éçáåí=çì í=íÜ ~í=_ Ü ~ê~íÜ áD ë=ï çêâ=êÉéêÉëÉåíë=íÜ É=ëéáêáí=çÑ =íÜ É=fåÇá~å= ` çåëíáíì íáçåK =fÇÉ~ë=çÑ =àì ëíáÅ ÉI=äáÄ ÉêíóI=Éèì ~äáíóI=Ñ ê~íÉêåáíó=~åÇ=ëçî ÉêÉáÖ åíó=çì íäáåÉÇ=áå=íÜ É= éêÉ~ã Ä äÉ= íç= íÜ É= ` çåëíáíì íáçå= ~êÉ= Å Éåíê~ä= íç= _Ü ~ê~íáD ë= éçÉíêó= ~åÇ= éêçëÉK = ?e É= ï ~ë= ~= Ö êÉ~í= ëçÅ á~ä= ~Å íáî áëíI=ÉÅ çåçã áëí=~åÇ=ÉÇì Å ~íáçåáëíK =e É=Ñ çì Ö Ü í=Ñ çê=Éèì ~ä=êáÖ Ü íë=Ñ çê ï çã Éå ~åÇ=éççêK =e É= éêÉ~Å Ü ÉÇ=Ä êçíÜ ÉêÜ ççÇ=~ã çåÖ =fåÇá~å=Å áíáòÉåI?=ë~áÇ=q ~ã áä~êì î á=j ~åá~åI=ï êáíÉê=~åÇ=çê~íçêK = _Ü ~ê~íÜ áó~ê=Ä áêíÜ =Å ÉåíÉå~êó=~ êÉëçäì íáçå ï ~ë=é~ëëÉÇ=íç=ÇÉÅ ä~êÉ=_ Ü ~ê~íÜ á=~=å~íáçå~ä=éçÉíI= Éåëì êÉ= íÜ ~í= Ü áë= ï çêâë= ï ÉêÉ= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= áåíç= ~ää= fåÇá~å= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö Éë= ~åÇ= _Ü ~ê~í= o ~íå~= Ä É= Å çåÑ ÉêêÉÇ= çå=Ü áã K =?k ç=Ñ êì áíÑ ì ä=ëíÉé=ï ~ë=í~âÉå=íç=Ñ ì äÑ áää=íÜ É=êÉëçäì íáçå=ëç=Ñ ~êI?=i ~âëÜ ã á=k ~ê~ó~å~å= j ~Çì ê~áJÄ ~ëÉÇ= _Ü ~ê~íÜ áó~ê= qÜ áåâÉêë= c çêì ã = êì ÉëK få= _Ü ~ê~íá?ë= éçÉíêóI= Ü áë= ÇÉ~äáåÖ = ï áíÜ = éçÉíáÅ ~ä= ?Ñ çêã ?= áë= èì áíÉ= Éñíê~çêÇáå~êóK^ ë= ~= íêì É= o Éå~áëë~åÅ É= éçÉí= ~åÇ= Å êÉ~íçê= çÑ = íÜ É= ã çÇÉêå= q ~ã áä= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉI= Ü É= ï ~ë= ~å= áååçî ~íçêI= ~åÇ= Ä ì áäí= Ü áë= áååçî ~íáçåë= çå= íÜ É= Ñ çì åÇ~íáçå= çÑ = íÜ É= ~Ö ÉJäçåÖ = íê~Çáíáçå= çÑ = q ~ã áä= éçÉíêóKj çÇÉêå= áå= Éî Éêó= ëÉåëÉI= åçí= çåäó= áå= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉI= Ä ì í= ~äëç= áå= íÜ çì Ö Ü íI= áÇÉ~ëI= áã ~Ö áå~íáçåI= Å êÉ~íáî áíóI= ~åÇ= î áëáçåI= Ü É= Å Ü çëÉ=íç=ï êáíÉ=áå=~éé~êÉåíäó=?ëáã éäÉ?=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK _ ÉÅ ~ì ëÉ=çÑ =íÜ áë=ëáã éäáÅ áíóI=íÜ É=Å Ü çáÅ É=çÑ = ëáã éäÉ ï çêÇëI= Å çã ã çå= êÜ óã ÉëI= ~åÇ= ~ÇÜ ÉêÉåÅ É= íç= Ü áë= Ñ ì åÇ~ã Éåí~ä= éêáåÅ áéäÉ= íÜ ~í= ?çåÉ= ëÜ çì äÇ= ï êáíÉ=~ë=çåÉ=ëéÉ~âëI?=áí=áë=É~ëó=íç=íÜ áåâ=íÜ ~í=_ Ü ~ê~íá?ë=éçÉíêó=áë=ëáã éäÉ=íç=ì åÇÉêëí~åÇ=~åÇ= ÉåàçóK = _ ì í= áí=áë= èì áíÉ= íÜ É= Å çåíê~êóK = ^ ë= íÜ É= Ñ Éï = Éñ~ã éäÉë= ÇáëÅ ì ëëÉÇ= Ü ÉêÉ= áääì ëíê~íÉI= _Ü ~ê~íá?ë= äÉ~êåáåÖ = ~åÇ= áåÑ äì ÉåÅ Éë= ~êÉ= èì áíÉ= ~ã ~òáåÖ I= ~ë= íÜ Éó= êÉéêÉëÉåí= ã ~åó= íê~Çáíáçåë= çÑ = äáíÉê~íì êÉ= ~åÇ= Å ì äíì êÉI= Ö çáåÖ = ~ää= íÜ É= ï ~ó= Ä ~Å â= íç= íÜ É Vedic ÉñéÉêáÉåÅ ÉK _Ü ~ê~íá?ë=ï çêâë=Ü ~î É=Ä ÉÉå=íê~åëä~íÉÇ=áåíç=~=åì ã Ä Éê=çÑ =ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉëK =pçã É=çÑ =íÜ ÉëÉ= íê~åëä~íáçåë ~êÉ=Ü áë=çï åI=ï Ü áäÉ=çíÜ Éêë=Ü ~î É=Ä ÉÉå=ÇçåÉ=Ä ó=Ü áë=éÉêëçå~ä=~Å èì ~áåí~åÅ ÉëK q Ü É= î ~ëí= ã ~àçêáíó= çÑ = íê~åëä~íáçåë= çÑ = Ü áë= ï çêâëI= Ü çï Éî ÉêI= ï ÉêÉ= Å çã éäÉíÉÇ= ~Ñ íÉê= Ü áë= ÇÉ~íÜ K = j ~åó= çÑ = íÜ ÉëÉ= ~ééÉ~ê= íç= Ä É= çÑ = Çáë~ééçáåíáåÖ äó= éççê= èì ~äáíóI= é~êíáÅ ì ä~êäó= íÜ çëÉ= áå= b åÖ äáëÜ = ~åÇc êÉåÅ Ü K få= ~= î ~ëí= ~åÇ= Å ì äíì ê~ääó= Çáî ÉêëÉ= Å çì åíêó= äáâÉ= fåÇá~I= íÜ É= èì ~äáíó= çÑ = íê~åëä~íáçåë= ã ~ó= Ä É= î áêíì ~ääó=~ë=áã éçêí~åí=íç=~å=~ì íÜ çê=~ë=íÜ É=èì ~äáíó=çÑ =Ü áë=çêáÖ áå~ä=ï çêâëK =q ê~åëä~íáçåë=ï áää= ÇÉíÉêã áåÉ= ï Ü ÉíÜ Éê= íÜ É= ~ì íÜ çê?ë= ï çêâë= ~êÉ= êÉ~Ç= áå= çíÜ Éê= äáåÖ ì áëíáÅ = ~êÉ~ë= çÑ = fåÇá~I= ~ë= ï Éää= ~ë= çì íëáÇÉ=íÜ É=Å çì åíêóK =q Ü É=èì ~äáíó=çÑ =íê~åëä~íáçåë=áë=~äã çëí=Å Éêí~áå=íç=~Ñ Ñ ÉÅ í=Ü áë=áåíÉêå~íáçå~ä= êÉéì í~íáçå= ~åÇ= ëí~åÇáåÖ K = qÜ É= ~î ~áä~Ä áäáíó= çÑ = Ö ççÇ= íê~åëä~íáçåë= åçí= çåäó= ÇÉíÉêã áåÉë= ï Ü ÉíÜ Éê= ~å= ~ì íÜ çê?ë= ï çêâë= ~êÉ= êÉ~Ç= Ñ çê= éäÉ~ëì êÉ= áå= ~åçíÜ Éê= Å çì åíêóI= Ä ì í= íÜ Éó= ï áää= ~äëç= Ü ~î É= ~å= áã é~Å í= çå= áåíÉêå~íáçå~ä=ëÅ Ü çä~êëÜ áé=çå=Ü áë=ï çêâëI=~åÇ=áå=íÜ É=Ö êçï íÜ =çÑ =áåíÉêå~íáçå~ä=áåíÉêÉëí=áå=Ü áë= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉI= Å ì äíì êÉI= ~åÇ= Å çì åíêóK i Éí= ì ë= ëÉÉ r ëÜ ~= o ~à~Ö çé~ä~å?ë= Selected Poems K fí= ~ééÉ~êë= áå= ~= êÉÅ Éåíäó= êÉäÉ~ëÉÇÄ ççâ= çÑ = pì Ä ê~ã ~åá~= _Ü ~ê~íáI= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= Ä ó= r ëÜ ~= o ~à~Ö çé~ä~åI= ~åÇ= éì Ä äáëÜ ÉÇ= Ä ó= e ~Å Ü ÉííÉ= fåÇá~K “Thath tharikita Thath tharikita thiththom,?= ë~óë= j ~Ü ~â~î á= _Ü ~ê~íáK ?Whoosh, crackle, snap, sizzle,?= ë~óë= r ëÜ ~= o ~à~Ö çé~ä~åK qÜ áë= Å ä~áã ë= íç= Ä É= íÜ É= b åÖ äáëÜ = íê~åëä~íáçå= çÑ = íÜ É= ä~ëí= äáåÉ= çÑAgni Kunju ? ~= éêçÑ çì åÇ= ~ääÉÖ çêáÅ ~ä= éçÉã = Ä ó= _Ü ~ê~íáK = qÜ áë= ä~ëí= äáåÉ= Å êÉ~íÉÇ= ~= Ä áÖ = áëëì É= çå= êÉ~ÇÉêëK _Ü ~ê~íÜ á?ë=Ö ê~åÇÇ~ì Ö Ü íÉê=ë~áÇ=~Å Å çêÇáåÖ =íç=íÜ áë=äáåÉW ==cçê=~=äçåÖ =íáã ÉI=f=ï çåÇÉêÉÇ= ï Ü ~í=j ëK =o ~à~Ö çé~ä~å=?íê~åëä~íáçå?=çÑ =íÜ É=ä~ëí=äáåÉ=çÑ =^ Ö åá=h ì åàì =Å çì äÇ=ã É~åëK =q Ü Éå=E f= íÜ çì Ö Ü íF = f= ì åÇÉêëíççÇW = áí= ã ì ëí= êÉéêÉëÉåí= íÜ É= ëçì åÇ= çÑ = ~= Ñ áêÉ> m ÉêÜ ~éë= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íçê= ï ~ë= áã ~Ö áåáåÖ = íÜ É= ëçì åÇ= çÑ = íÜ É= Ñ áêÉ= ï Ü Éå= áíë= Ñ ä~ã Éë= Ä ì êåí= Ççï å= íÜ É= Ñ çêÉëí= áå= _Ü ~ê~íá?ë= éçÉã W

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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar

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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar q ê~åëä~íáåÖ =_ Ü ~ê~íá=áë=~=Ñ çêã áÇ~Ä äÉ=í~ëâK fí=êÉèì áêÉë=êÉëÉ~êÅ Ü =~åÇ=âåçï äÉÇÖ ÉI= ëÅ Ü çä~êëÜ áéI= ÉñéÉêí= Ñ äì ÉåÅ ó= áå= Ä çíÜ = q ~ã áä= ~åÇ= b åÖ äáëÜ I= ~åÇ= ëçã ÉíÜ áåÖ = ÉäëÉ= ? ~= äáíÉê~êó= íçì Å Ü = ? ï Ü ~í=^ äÉñ~åÇÉê=m çéÉ=Å ~ääÉÇI=?å~ã ÉäÉëë=Ö ê~Å Éë=ï Ü áÅ Ü =åç=ã ÉíÜ çÇë=íÉ~Å Ü K ?=q ê~åëä~íáåÖ = _Ü ~ê~íá=áë=~ÇÇáíáçå~ääó=Å çã éäáÅ ~íÉÇ=Ä ó=íÜ É=Ñ ~Å í=íÜ ~í=íê~åëä~íáçå=ÇçÉë=åçí=ÇÉéÉåÇ=çåäó=çå= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK _ Ü ~ê~íá?ë= éçÉã ë= áåî çäî É= ~= Å ì äíì ê~ä= Ñ ê~ã Éï çêâ= íÜ ~í= áë= éêçÑ çì åÇ= ~åÇ= Å çã éäÉñI= ~åÇ= çåÉ=íÜ ~í=áëI=áå=ã ~åó=ï ~óëI=èì áíÉ=êÉã çíÉ=Ñ êçã =t ÉëíÉêå=Å ì äíì êÉK få=íÜ áë=Å ~ëÉI=ÉÑ Ñ ÉÅ íáî É= íê~åëä~íáçå= ã É~åë= Å ì äíì ê~ä= íê~åëä~íáçåK q ~âáåÖ = ~ää= çÑ = íÜ ÉëÉ= Å çåëáÇÉê~íáçåë= áåíç= ~Å Å çì åíI= íÜ É= ë~Ç= íêì íÜ = ã ì ëí= Ä É= ~Å âåçï äÉÇÖ ÉÇK q ç= Ç~íÉI= åç qualified íê~åëä~íçêë= çÑ = _Ü ~ê~íá= Ü ~î É= Å çã É= Ñ çêï ~êÇK f= Ü ~î É= Éñ~ã áåÉÇ= áå= ÇÉí~áä= íÜ É= çêáÖ áå~ä=éçÉã I Agni Kunju. fí=áë= ~äëç= ÉëëÉåíá~ä=íç=Ä É~ê=áå=ã áåÇ=íÜ ~í=~= Ö ê~ëé=çÑ =íÜ É= ?ëçì êÅ É?= éçÉã = Ñ çê= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íáçå= áë= çåäó= íÜ É= Ñ áêëí= é~êí= çÑ = íÜ É= íê~åëä~íçê?ë= àçÄ K = qÜ É= íê~åëä~íçê= ~äëç= Å ~êêáÉë= íÜ É= êÉëéçåëáÄ áäáíó= çÑ = ÉñéêÉëëáåÖ = Ü áë= çê= Ü Éê= íÜ çì Ö Ü íë= çå= íÜ É= ëçì êÅ É= éçÉã = áå= ~= åÉï = ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= ? çåÉ=ï Ü áÅ Ü =ã ~ó=Ä É=Ñ ~ê=êÉã çî ÉÇ=Ñ êçã =íÜ É=ëçì êÅ É=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É=~åÇ=Å ì äíì êÉK =qÜ ÉêÉÑ çêÉI=íÜ É= íê~åëä~íçê= ã ì ëí= Ä É= Éèì áééÉÇ= íç= Ü ~åÇäÉ= Ä çíÜ = íê~ÇáíáçåëI= ï Ü áÅ Ü = ã ~ó= çê= ã ~ó= åçí= Ä É= Å çã é~íáÄ äÉ= ï áíÜ = É~Å Ü = çíÜ ÉêK o ÉÖ ~êÇáåÖ =j ëK = o ~à~Ö çé~ä~å?ë=íê~åëä~íáçåë=çÑ =_ Ü ~ê~íáI=ëçã ÉíÜ áåÖ =ã ì ëí=Ä É=ÇçåÉK =q Ü É= éì Ä äáÅ ~íáçå= çÑ = íÜ ÉëÉ= íê~åëä~íáçåë= Ü ~ë= ~äêÉ~Çó= Å ~ì ëÉÇ= Ö êÉ~íäó= Çáë~ééçáåíÉÇ= _Ü ~ê~íÜ á?ë= Ñ çääçï ÉêëK f= Ü ~Ç= íÜ É= Ñ çääçï áåÖ = íÜ çì Ö Ü íë= ~Ä çì í= éçëëáÄ äÉ= êÉã ÉÇáÉëW J qÜ É=~ì íÜ çê=çÑ =íÜ É=íê~åëä~íáçåë=Å çì äÇ=~ííÉã éí=íç=êÉÇç=Å Éêí~áå=íê~åëä~íáçåë=~åÇ=êÉJ éì Ä äáëÜ = íÜ Éã = áå= ~= åÉï = ÉÇáíáçå= çÑ = íÜ É= Ä ççâK m ìÄ äáÅ ~íáçå=ÇÉéÉåÇë=çå=íÜ É=ëì Ä ã áëëáçå=çÑ =~=ÇÉí~áäÉÇ=éêçéçë~äI=Éñéä~áåáåÖ =ï Ü ~í=íÜ É= áåíÉääÉÅ íì ~ä= Å çåíêáÄ ì íáçå= çÑ = íÜ É= Ä ççâ= ï áää= Ä ÉI= ï Ü ~í= íÜ É ï êáíÉêë= ëÉÉ= ~ë= áíë= ã ~êâÉí= éçíÉåíá~äI= ~åÇ= Ü çï = íÜ É= ï êáíÉêë= ~êÉ= èì ~äáÑ áÉÇ= íç= ï êáíÉ= íÜ É= ï çêâ= íÜ ~í= íÜ Éó= Ü çéÉ= íç= éì Ä äáëÜ K = få= ã çëí= Å ~ëÉëI= íÜ ÉëÉ= éêçéçë~äë= ~êÉ= Éñ~ã áåÉÇI= åçí=çåäó= Ä ó= íÜ É= éì Ä äáëÜ ÉêI= Ä ì í= Ä ó= áåÇÉéÉåÇÉåí=éÉÉê= êÉî áÉï Éêë= ï Ü ç= ~ëëÉëë= íÜ É= Å êÉÇáÄ áäáíó= çÑ = íÜ ÉéêçàÉÅ íI= éçáåí= çì í= éçíÉåíá~ä= ï É~âåÉëëÉë= çê= éêçÄ äÉã ëI= ~åÇ= Å çã ã Éåí= çå=íÜ É=èì ~äáÑ áÅ ~íáçåë=çÑ =íÜ É=~ì íÜ çê=íç=ì åÇÉêí~âÉ=íÜ áë=ï çêâK =q Ü É=~ì íÜ çê=ã ì ëí=ë~íáëÑ ó=íÜ É= éì Ä äáëÜ Éê= çå= ~ää= Å çì åíë= Ä ÉÑ çêÉ= ~= Ä ççâ= Å ~å= Ä É= ~Å Å ÉéíÉÇ= Ñ çê= éì Ä äáÅ ~íáçåK _Ü ~ê~íá?ë=Ö êÉ~íJÖ ê~åÇÇ~ì Ö Ü íÉêI j áê~ q Kpì åÇ~ê~ o ~à~åI Ü ~ë=Ä ÉÅ çã É=~å=ÉñéÉêí=çå=íÜ É= ?ã çê~ä=êáÖ Ü íë?=çÑ =íÜ É=~ì íÜ çê=? ~å=~êÉ~=íÜ ~í=ëÜ É=ÇÉÅ áÇÉÇ=íç=ëíì Çó=áå=çêÇÉê=íç=~ÇÇêÉëë=íÜ É= íêÉ~íã Éåí= çÑ = íÜ É= j ~Ü ~â~î á?ë= ï çêâëK = j çê~ä= êáÖ Ü íë= ~êÉ= ~å= ~ì íÜ çê?ë= êáÖ Ü í= íç= éêçéÉê= ~ííêáÄ ì íáçå= çÑ = Ü áë= ï çêâI= ~åÇ= íç= éêçíÉÅ í= íÜ É= áåíÉÖ êáíó= çÑ = Ü áë= ï çêâ= Ñ êçã = Ç~ã ~Ö ÉI= ÇáëíçêíáçåI= çê= ã ì íáä~íáçåK = få= fåÇá~I= íÜ É= fåÇá~å= ` çéóêáÖ Ü í= ^ Å íI= ëÉÅ íáçå= RTI= éêçíÉÅ íë= íÜ É= ã çê~ä= êáÖ Ü íë= çÑ = ~ì íÜ çêëK = fåíÉêå~íáçå~ääóI= ~= Å çéóêáÖ Ü í íêÉ~íó= Å ~ääÉÇ= íÜ É= _ ÉêåÉ= ` çåî Éåíáçå= éêçíÉÅ íë= ã çê~ä= êáÖ Ü íë= ~åÇ= áë= ~Å Å ÉéíÉÇ= Ä ó= î áêíì ~ääó= Éî Éêó= Å çì åíêó= áå= íÜ É= ï çêäÇK q ê~åëä ~íá çå= oá Ö Üíë= á å= fåÇá ~å= i ~ï r åÇÉê=íÜ É=fåÇá~å=` çéóêáÖ Ü í=^ Å íI=íÜ É=êáÖ Ü í=íç=íê~åëä~íÉ=~=ï çêâI=äáâÉ=íÜ É=êáÖ Ü í=çÑ = êÉéêçÇì Å íáçåI=áë=î ÉëíÉÇ=áå=íÜ É=~ì íÜ çêK =q Ü É=~ì íÜ çê=ã ~ó=~ì íÜ çêáòÉ=~=íê~åëä~íáçå=çÑ =Ü áë=ï çêâ= ÉáíÜ Éê=Ä ó=éêçî áÇáåÖ =~=äáÅ ÉåÅ É=íç=íÜ É=íê~åëä~íçêI=çê=Ä ó=~ëëáÖ åáåÖ =Ü áë=íê~åëä~íáçå=êáÖ Ü íë=íç=íÜ É= íê~åëä~íçêK qÜ É= íê~åëä~íçê= Ü ~ë= Å çéóêáÖ Ü í= áå= Ü áë= íê~åëä~íáçåK = e É= ã ~ó= éêçíÉÅ í= Ü áë= íê~åëä~íáçå= ~Ö ~áåëí= áåÑ êáåÖ Éã Éåí=~ë=~å=çêáÖ áå~ä=ï çêâ=áå=áíë=çï å=êáÖ Ü íK =e çï Éî ÉêI=ì åÇÉê=fåÇá~å=ä~ï I=çåäó= ~ì íÜ çêáòÉÇ= íê~åëä~íáçåë= ~êÉ= ~ëëì êÉÇ= çÑ = éêçíÉÅ íáçå= ~ë= çêáÖ áå~ä= ï çêâëK = r å~ì íÜ çêáòÉÇ= íê~åëä~íáçåë= ~êÉ= Å çåëáÇÉêÉÇ= íç= Ä É= áåÑ êáåÖ áåÖ = ï çêâë= ï Ü áÅ Ü = Çç= åçí= ã Éêáí= Å çéóêáÖ Ü í= éêçíÉÅ íáçåK qÜ É=ëáíì ~íáçå=çÑ =íê~åëä~íáçå=áå=fåÇá~å=ä~ï =ã ~ó=Ö êçï =çì í=çÑ =~å=~ï ~êÉåÉëë=çÑ =íÜ É= ÇáÑ Ñ áÅ ì äíáÉë=çÑ =éì êëì áåÖ =äÉÖ ~ä=êÉã ÉÇáÉë=áå=íÜ É=fåÇá~å=Å çåíÉñíK =^ ì íÜ çêë=ã ~ó=åçí=Ü ~î É=íÜ É= Ñ áå~åÅ á~ä=ã É~åë=íç=î áåÇáÅ ~íÉ=íÜ Éáê=äÉÖ ~ä=êáÖ Ü íë=íÜ êçì Ö Ü =íÜ É=Å çì êí=ëóëíÉã K =c ì êíÜ ÉêI=íÜ É íáã É= éÉêáçÇ= ï Ü áÅ Ü = áë= äáâÉäó= íç= é~ëë= Ä ÉÑ çêÉ= íÜ É= Ö ê~åíáåÖ = çÑ = ~å= áåàì åÅ íáçå= çê= ~= Ç~ã ~Ö Éë= ~ï ~êÇ= ã ~ó= Ä É= ëç= äçåÖ = íÜ ~í= íÜ É= Ç~ã ~Ö É= íç= íÜ É= ~ì íÜ çê?ë= êÉéì í~íáçå= çêI= áåÇÉÉÇ= Ñ áå~åÅ Éë= áë= áêêÉé~ê~Ä äÉK få= _Ü ~ê~íá?ë= Å ~ëÉI= ~äã çëí= ~ää= íê~åëä~íáçåë= çÑ = Ü áë= ï çêâ= ~êÉ= ì å~ì íÜ çêáòÉÇK = ^Ñ íÉê= Ü áë= ÇÉ~íÜ I= åÉáíÜ Éê= Ü áë= Ñ ~ã áäó= ã Éã Ä Éêë= åçê= ~= äÉÖ ~ä= êÉéêÉëÉåí~íáî É= çÑ = Ü áë= Éëí~íÉ= ~ì íÜ çêáòÉÇ= ~åó= íê~åëä~íáçå=
192
Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar ï çêâK =t Ü Éå=íÜ É=Ö çî Éêåã Éåí=íççâ=çî Éê=íÜ É=Å çéóêáÖ Ü íI=íÜ É=éì Ä äáëÜ áåÖ =Å çã ã áííÉÉ=ï ~ë=åçí= Å çåÅ ÉêåÉÇ=ï áíÜ =íê~åëä~íáçåë=çÑ =Ü áë=ï çêâK =c áå~ääóI=ï Ü Éå=íÜ É=Å çéóêáÖ Ü í=Ä ÉÅ ~ã É=éì Ä äáÅ I=íÜ ÉêÉ= ï ~ë= åç= ëóëíÉã = Ñ çê= ã çåáíçêáåÖ = çê= ëì éÉêî áëáåÖ = íê~åëä~íáçåëK qÜ É= áã éçêí~åÅ É= çÑ = íê~åëä~íáçåë= ëÜ çì äÇ= åçí= Ä É= ì åÇÉêÉëíáã ~íÉÇK = qÜ Éó= êÉèì áêÉ= ~ë= ã ìÅ Ü = ~ééêçî ~ä=~åÇ=ëì éÉêî áëáçå=Ä ó=èì ~äáÑ áÉÇ=éÉçéäÉ=~ë=çêáÖ áå~ä=ÉÇáíáçåë=~åÇ=ëÅ Ü çä~êäó=ï çêâK =fÑ = _Ü ~ê~íá?ë= ï çêâ= ï ÉêÉ= íç= Ä É= áåÅ çêéçê~íÉÇ= áåíç= ~= ëóëíÉã = êÉëÉã Ä äáåÖ = íÜ É= Ççã ~áåÉ= éì Ä äáÅ = é~ó~åíI= íê~åëä~íáçåë= ëÜ çì äÇ= ~äëç= Ä É= ëì Ä àÉÅ í= íç= íÜ áë= êÉÖ áã ÉK ? o bcbo bk ` bW = N K o ~à~Ö çé~ä~åI= r ëÜ ~= pÉäÉÅ íÉÇ= éçÉã ë m ìÄ äáëÜ ÉêW = e ~Å Ü ÉííÉ m ìÄ äáì ëÜ ÉÇ= áåW = O M N O K O K j ~Ü ~â~î á= pì Ä ê~ã ~åá~= _Ü ~ê~íá= Ä ó= _ ~Ü ~íáë= Ö ê~åÇÇ~ì Ö Ü íÉêI= pK = s áà~óK = _Ü ~ê~íá= = áå= k Éï = íï ç= Å çã ã Éåíë PK j ~Ü ~â~î á= Ä ó= páêéá= _ ~ä~ëì Ä ê~ã ~åáó~ã = Ñ áêëí= ÉÇáíáçåW = k çî = O M M PK = m ìÄ äáëÜ ÉÇ= Ä óW = h ~î áíÜ ~= m ìÄ äáÅ ~íáçå Q K h ~ä~= s ~êáë~áé~Çì íÜ ~é~íí~= _ Ü ~ê~íá= m ~Ç~áéì Ö ~ä= PêÇ ÉÇáíáçåK =m ìÄ äáëÜ ÉÇ= Ä óW = pÉÉåá= s áëÜ î ~å~íÜ ~å= E N V M U F m l qo ^v ^i = l c= pr m b o pq fq fl r p= _ b i fb c p= ^ka = j v q e p= fk = l K = sK = s fg^ v ^ k ?p= ?i b d b k a p= l c= h e ^ p^ h ? po b b = o b pj f ` I=f= j K ^= b k d i fpe o s p= ` ^p q ê~åëä~íáçå= áë= çåÉ= çÑ = íÜ É= ã çëí= ÉëëÉåíá~ä= ä~Ä çì êë= áå= ~åó= äáíÉê~íì êÉ= ~ë áí= é~î Éë= íÜ É= ï ~ó= Ñ çê= = = áåíÉêå~íáçå~ä=áåÑ äì ÉåÅ ÉëI=~åÇ áåíêçÇì Å Éë=åÉï =Ö ÉåêÉë=Ñ çì åÇ=áå=çíÜ Éê==ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉëI=ï áÇÉåë=íÜ É= Å ~é~Å áíó= = Ñ çê= = ã É~åáåÖ = ~åÇ= ÉñéêÉëëáçå= çÑ = íÜ É= í~êÖ Éí= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK = = qÜ É= åçî Éä legends of khasak áë= ï êáííÉå=çêáÖ áå~ääó=áå=j ~ä~ó~ä~ã =Ä ó=çK î =î áà~ó~å=~ë=Khasakinde ithihasam Ñ çê=ï Ü áÅ Ü =Ü É= êÉÅ áÉî ÉÇ=odakuzhal award ~åÇ=muttathu varkey awardK =e É=íççâ=~Ä çì í=íï Éäî É=óÉ~êë==íç= Å çã éäÉíÉ= áíK = qÜ É= åçî Éä= ï ~ë= éì Ä äáëÜ ÉÇ= áå= íÜ É= óÉ~ê= çÑ = N V SV K e É= Ü áã ëÉäÑ = íê~åëä~íÉÇ= íÜ É= åçî Éä= íç= ÉåÖ äáëÜ = ~åÇ= = éì Ä äáëÜ ÉÇ= = áå= íÜ É= óÉ~ê= çÑ = N V V Q K Khasakkinte ItihisamI= ï ~ë= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= íç= ÉåÖ äáëÜ = O R= óÉ~êë= ~Ñ íÉê= áí= ï ~ë= Ñ áêëí= éì Ä äáëÜ ÉÇK = fí= áë= Ä ó= Éî Éêó= ëí~åÇ~êÇI= Éî Éå= áå= íê~åëä~íáçåI= ~= ã ~ëíÉêéáÉÅ ÉK Ie É=ï Éåí=çå=íç=ï êáíÉ=Dharmapuranam E íê~åëä~íÉÇ=áåíç=b åÖ äáëÜ =~ë=The Saga of Dharmapuri), íÜ É= ÇÉÉéäó= ã çî áåÖ = Gurusagaram E The Infinity of GraceF = JJ Ñ çê= ï Ü áÅ Ü = Ü É= ï çå íÜ É= Vayalar Award áå= N V V N = ~åÇ= éäÉåíó= çÑ = Ñ ä~â= Ñ çê= Ü áë= ëéáêáíì ~ä= äÉ~åáåÖ ë= K = = qÜ É= Ñ ~ã çì ë= Å êáíáÅ = äì âçëÉ= ã ~íÜ Éï = ë~óë= ~Ä çì í= äÉÖ ÉåÇë= çÑ = âÜ ~ë~â= = íÜ ~í= ''the legends of khasak stands out in the collection for its originality and depth.in this book vijayan succeeded in universalising his personal experiance which is the hallmarkof great works of art''. l K sK = s áà~ó~å=áå=ëçã É=éä~Å Éë=ë~óë=~Ä çì í=Ü áë=çï å=ÉñéÉêá~åÅ É=áå=âÜ ~ë~âK ==e É=ë~óë=áí==Ñ êçã =Ü áë= = Ö ê~åÇÑ ~íÜ ÉêD ë= Ü çì ëÉ= åÉ~ê= m ~ä~ââ~Ç= Ü É= Å ~å= ëÉÉ= ~= ê~åÖ É= çÑ = å~ã ÉäÉëë= Ä äì É= Ü áääë= çÑ = íÜ É= t ÉëíÉêå= dÜ ~íëK = = hÜ ~ë~â= JJ ~å= b ä= a çê~Çç= éÉçéäÉÇ= ï áíÜ = Ç~êâI= Ä ~êÉJÄ çëçã ÉÇ= ^ Çáî ~ëá= ï çã ÉåI= ~= äçî ~Ä äÉ= é~êêçíJäáëéáåÖ = Å êÉíáå= å~ã ÉÇ= ^ ééì I= ~åÇ= íÜ Éáê= ~êê~Å âJÇêì åâI= ëã ~ääéçñJ ëíêáÅ âÉå= Ö Ü çëíëK = âÜ ~ë~â= áë= Ñ çì åÇ= áå= Ü áë= åì ã Ä Éê= çÑ = ~ì íçÄ áçÖ ê~éÜ áÅ ~ä= ÉäÉã ÉåíëK = î áà~ó~å= ë~óëI= íÜ ~í= 'From the moment I alighted the bus at the Koomankavu I felt as if Ravi is walking along with me.He lead me to the outhouse where he lived,the village school and the mosque'. = = = = = = e É= éì Ä äáëÜ ÉÇ= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= î Éêëáçå= ~Ñ íÉê= ã ÉÉíáåÖ = ëï ~ã á= â~êì å~Ö ~ê~= Ö ì êì K = qÜ É= åçî Éä= ÇçÉëå?í= Ü ~î É= ëáåÖ äÉ= å~êê~íáî É= éäçíK = áíë= ~= Ñ çêã = çÑ = ÉéáÅ = = ï Ü áÅ Ü = ë~ó= ~Ä çì í= íÜ É= äáÑ É= çÑ = ê~î á= ï Ü ç= áë= ~= ëíì ÇÉåí= çÑ = ~ëíêçéÜ óëáÅ ëK fíë= ë~áÇ= áå= íÜ É= Ñ çêã = çÑ = ëéáêáíì ~ä= àçì êåÉóK o ~î á= ï ~ë= éä~Ö ì ÉÇ= Ä ó= Ü áë= áääáÅ áí= ëíÉé=ã çíÜ Éê=~åÇ=Ü É=~Ä ~åÇçåë=Ü áë=Ä êáÖ Ü í=~Å ~ÇÉã áÅ =Å ~êÉÉê=~åÇ=ÇÉëÉêíë=Ü áë=äçî Éê=é~Çã ~=~åÇ=
193
Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar äÉ~î Éë= Ñ çê= ~= äçåÖ = éáäÖ êáã ~Ö ÉK = e É= íÜ Éå= ëí~êíë= ~= ëáåÖ äÉ= íÉ~Å Ü Éê= ëÅ Ü ççä= ~í= âÜ ~ë~â= åÉ~ê= é~äÖ Ü ~íK = e É= íÜ ÉêÉ= ã Éí= ã ~åó= éÉçéäÉ= äáâÉ= = ^ ää~ééáÅ Ü ~= j çää~ââ~I= ^ ééì ââáäáI= pÜ áî ~ê~ã ~å= k ~áêI= j ~ÇÜ ~î ~å= k ~áêI=h ì ééì î ~Å Ü ~åI=j ~áã ççå~I=h Ü ~äáó~êI=^ äáó~êI=~åÇ=íÜ É=ëíì ÇÉåíë=çÑ =Ü áë=ëÅ Ü ççä=äáâÉ= h ì åÜ ~ã áå~I= h ~êì î ì I= r åáéé~ê~ÇáI= h çÅ Ü ì ëì Ü ~ê~= ~åÇ= çíÜ ÉêëK = ^Ñ íÉê= ëçã É= óÉ~êëI= Ü áë= äçî Éê= m ~Çã ~= Å ~ääë= çå= Ü áã = ~åÇ= o ~î á= ÇÉÅ áÇÉë= íç= äÉ~î É= hÜ ~ë~âK = e É= Å çã ã áíë= ëì áÅ áÇÉ= íÜ êçì Ö Ü = ëå~âÉÄ áíÉ= ï Ü áäÉ= ï ~áíáåÖ = Ñ çê= ~= Ä ì ë= ~í= h ççã ~åâ~î ì K Ä ÉÑ çêÉ= Ü áë= ÇÉ~íÜ = o ~î á= ë~óë= íÜ ~í= '' I wish to escape nothing, Ravi answered from within his silence, I want to bethe sand of the desert, each grain of sand; I want to be the lake, each minute droplet. Iwant to be the laya, the dissolution''.` Ü ÉêáëÜ ÉÇ= áå= Ä ó=íÜ É=ÉåÅ çì åíÉêë=ï áíÜ =éÉçéäÉ=s áà~ó~å=å~êê~íÉë=åì ã Éêçì ë=ëíçêáÉëI=ã óíÜ ë=~åÇ==ëì éÉêëíáíáçåë= = hÜ ~ë~âK Ü É= ~äëç= ë~ó= ~Ä çì í= íÜ É= Ä ~ííäÉ= Ä Éíï ÉÉå= Ü áåÇì ë= ~åÇ= ã ì ëäáã ë= çÑ = N SíÜ = Å Éåíì ~êóK i ÉÖ ÉåÇë= l Ñ = hÜ ~ë~â= ÇÉëÅ êáÄ Éë= o ~î áX ë= áåíÉê~Å íáçå= ï áíÜ = íÜ É= î áää~Ö ÉêëI= ~ë= ï Éää= ~ë= ï áíÜ = íÜ É= ëíì ÇÉåíë= çÑ = Ü áë= ëÅ Ü ççäK =q Ü êçì Ö Ü =íÜ ÉëÉ=ÉåÅ çì åíÉêëIíÜ É=~ì íÜ çê=ëÜ çï Å ~ëÉë=ã ~åó=ëì éÉêëíáíáçåë=~åÇã óíÜ ë=íÜ ~í= Éñáëí= áå= íÜ áë= é~êí= çÑ = íÜ É= ï çêäÇK ?t É ä ä I=ã ó=Å Üá ä ÇêÉ åI=?o ~î á =ë~á ÇI=?Ççå?í=íÜêçï = ëíçåÉ ë=~í= íÜÉ =ï ~íÉ ê=ÇÉ ã çåK =fí=á ë= ~= Ö É åíä É = ÄÉ á åÖ K ? o ~î á = ÇêÉ ï ~ï ~ó= Ñ êçã = íÜÉ = Å Üá ä ÇêÉ å= ~ë= íÜÉ ó= éä ~óÉ Ç= á å= íÜÉ = é ççä K = eÉ = ë~í= ÄÉ åÉ ~íÜ= ~= s ~â~= íêÉ É = ï Üá Å Ü= ëíççÇ= á å= Ñ ìä ä = Ää ççã K = eÉ = ï ~ë= ëì êé êá ëÉ Ç= íç= Ñ á åÇ= íÜ~í= h ì åÜ~ã á å~= Ü~Ç= Ñ çä ä çï É Ç= Üá ã= íÜÉ êÉ K = = = qÜ ÉëÉ= äáåÉë= çÑ = äÉÖ ÉåÇë= çÑ = âÜ ~ë~â= ëÜ çï ë= íÜ É= ëì éÉêëíáíáçì ë= Ä ÉäáÉÑ ë= çÑ = âÜ ~ë~âáåëK = qÜ É= äáÑ É= çÑ = j çää~â~= ëÜ çï ë= ~Ä çì í= j ì ëäáã ë?= äáÑ É= ~åÇ= áí= = ëÜ çï ë= íÜ É= ã óíÜ = áå= íÜ É= åçî Éä= çÑ = s áà~ó~åK qÜ É=éêçí~Ö çåáëí=~äëç=êÉ~äáòÉë=íÜ ~í=â~êã ~=Ñ çääçï ë=~=éÉêëçåI=áå=íÜ É=åçî Éä=íÜ É=î áää~Ö ÉêëI=íÜ Éáê= Å Ü áäÇêÉå= ï Ü çã = Ü É= íÉ~Å Ü Éë= áå= íÜ É= î áää~Ö ÉêëI= íÜ Éáê= Å Ü áäÇêÉå= ï Ü çã Ü É= íÉ~Å Ü Éë= áå= ëÅ Ü ççä= ~åÇ= íÜ Éå= êÉ~äáíóI= é~áåÑ ì ä= ~åÇ= íÜ êÉ~íÉåáåÖ I= Ä ÉÖ áåë= íç= áåíêì ÇÉ çå= íÜ É= éÉêëçåë= êÉëíáåÖ = éä~Å É= ~åÇ= o ~î á= Ä ÉÖ áåë= íç= ì åÇÉêëí~åÇ= íÜ ~í= íÜ ÉêÉ= áë= åç= ÉëÅ ~éÉ= Ñ êçã = íÜ É= êÉäÉåíäÉëë= ÇáÅ í~íÉë= çÑ = â~êã ~K K K o ~î á= Å ~å= Ä É= = Å çåëáÇÉêÉÇ= ~ë= ~= ë~áåí= çå= ~= éáäÖ êáã ~Ö É= íç= ì åÇÉêëí~åÇ= íÜ É= áååÉê= ã É~åáåÖ ë= çÑ = äáÑ ÉK = = = = = = = = = = o ~ã ~Å Ü ~åÇê~= dìÜ ~= ï ~êåëI= íÜ É= Ç~åÖ Éê= Ñ çê= ã ~åó= çÑ = íÜ É= éêÉëÉåí= Ö ÉåÉê~íáçåë= áë= íÜ ~í= íÜ Éó= ï áää= Ä É=ã çåçäáåÖ ì ~äI=çê= Ü ~î É=çåäó= Ñ ì åÅ íáçå~ä= Ñ äì ÉåÅ ó= áå= ~åó= çÑ = íÜ É=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö Éë=íÜ Éó= çÅ Å ì éóI= äáâÉ= íÉå~åíë= áå= êÉåíÉÇ= Ü çì ëÉëI= åÉî Éê= Å çã éäÉíÉäó= ~í= É~ëÉ= = íê~åëä~íáçå= ëíì ÇáÉë= ~å= ~åçíÉê= Ä ê~åÅ Ü = çÑ = äáíÉê~íì êÉ= ëì áíë= Ñ çê= íÜ É= Å Ü ~åÖ áåÖ = ëÉèì ÉåÅ É= çÑ = ã ì äíáäáåÖ ì ~ä= ëÅ Éå~êáç= çÑ = áåÇá~K íê~åëä~íáçå= Ü Éäéë= íÜ É=ï ÉëíÉêå=éÉçéäÉ=íç=ì åÇÉê=ëí~åÇ=íÜ É=áåÇá~å=Å ì äíì êÉK íÜ É=åçî Éä=äÉÖ ÉåÇë=Ü Éäéë=íÜ É=éÉçéäÉ=íç= ì åÇÉêëí~ååÇ= íÜ É= Ä ÉäáÉÑ ë= ~åÇ= íê~Çáíáçå= çÑ = áåÇá~= ~åÇ= é~êíáÅ ì ä~êäó= çÑ = âÜ ~ë~âK íÜ É= äáÑ É= çÑ = ê~î á= ááë= íÜ É= ã ~áå= éäçí= ~åÇ= íÜ É= äáÑ É= çÑ = p~áÇ= ã á~å= ëÜ Éáâ= ~åÇ= Ü áë= Ñ çääçï Éêë= áë= íÜ É= ëì Ä éäçíK l K sK s áà~ó~å= ë~óë= ~Ä çì í= íÜ É= êÉ~äáíó= çÑ = âÜ ~ë~âK i áâÉ= íÜ É= êÉ~äáíó= çÑ = íÜ çì ë~åÇë= çÑ = ~åÇ= çíÜ Éê= î áää~Ö Éë= = = ~Å êçëë= fåÇá~I= áë= ~= äáî ÉJï áêÉ= Ö êáÇ= çÑ = éçíÉå= ã óíÜ ëI= ëì éÉêëíáíáçåëI= ëóã Ä çäë= ~åÇ= Çáî áåÉ= éêÉëÉåÅ ÉëK = o ~î á= ëáåâë= áåíç= áíI= ÉåÅ Ü ~åíÉÇK = i áÑ É= Ü ÉêÉ= Ü ~ë= äÉëëçåë= åç= Ä ççâë= Å ~å= áääì ã áåÉK = = = = = = = = qÜ ÉêÉ= ~êÉ= íÜ É= äáî áåÖ = í~äÉëI= ëì Å Ü = ~ë= íÜ É= ë~Ö ~= çÑ = íÜ É= î áää~Ö ÉK = ^ í= íÜ É= Ü É~Ç êçÇÉ= íÜ É= Ü çäáÉëí= p~óÉÇ= j á~å= pÜ ÉáâÜ I= Ä ì í= çå= ~= Ü çêëÉ= çäÇ= ~åÇ= áää= x~= íêì É= Ä ÉäáÉî Éê= çÑ = ^ ää~Ü F K = qÜ ~í= åáÖ Ü í= íÜ É= Ü çêëÉ= ÇáÉÇ= ~åÇ= ï ~ë= Ä ì êáÉÇ= áå= íÜ É= Ö êçî ÉI= ~åÇ= íÜ É= Ü çêëÉã Éå= ÇÉÅ áÇÉÇ= íç= éáíÅ Ü = íÉåí= íÜ ÉêÉK s áà~ó~åD ë= ì ëÉ= çÑ =Ä ÉäáÉÑ ëI=ã óíÜ ë=~åÇ=ëíçêáÉë=íç=Å çåî Éó=ëçã ÉíÜ áåÖ =çÑ =íÜ É=áååÉê=äáî Éë=çÑ =éÉçéäÉ=~ë=ï Éää=~ë= áääì ã áå~íáåÖ = íÜ É= ëíêì Å íì êÉ= çÑ = íÜ É= ëçÅ áÉíó= qÜ áë= åçî Éä= êÉî çäì íáçåáòÉÇ= íÜ É= äáíÉê~íì êÉçÑ = h Éê~ä~= áå= íÜ É=ëáñíáÉëK =t êáííÉå=áå=j ~ä~ó~ä~ã I=áí=ÇÉÑ áåáíÉäó=Ä êçâÉ=ï áíÜ =íÜ É=Å ä~ëëáÅ ~ä=Å êáíÉêá~==çÑ =íÜ É= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= íç= ÉñéäçêÉ= áå= ~= ã çÇÉêå= ëÉåëÉK = = = = = = = = = = = = = hÜ ~ë~â= áë= Ä çíÜ = ï çåÇêçì ë= ~åÇ= Ñ ~ì äíóK = fí= áë= åç= êÉ~äJäáÑ É= b ÇÉå= Ä ì í= s áà~ó~å= ëâáääÑ ì ääóéêÉëÉåíë=áí=~ë=~=ëóã é~íÜ ÉíáÅ =~åÇ=äáÖ Ü íäó=ã ~Ö áÅ ~ä=éä~Å ÉK =q Ü ÉêÉD ë=~=Ñ áåÉ=íçì Å Ü =áå=Ü áë= ï êáíáåÖ K Ü çï Éî Éê=Ü É=ï ~ë=ì å~Ä äÉ=íç=íê~åëä~íÉ=ëçã É=ï çêÇë=ëì Å Ü =~ëJJâÜ ~Ñ Ñ áêI=?íÜ É=madrassa ï Ü ÉêÉ= íÜ É= ã ì ää~Ü = í~ì Ö Ü í= íÜ É= h çê~åI= ~åÇ= íÜ É= ezhutthu palliI= äáíÉê~ääó= íÜ É= Ü çì ëÉ= çÑ = ï êáíáåÖ I= êì å= Ä ó=~=Ñ ~ã áäó=çÑ =Ü ÉêÉÇáí~êó=e áåÇì =~ëíêçäçÖ Éêë?=JJ íÜ É=äÉÖ ÉåÇë=çÑ =âÜ ~ë~â=ëì Ö Ö Éëíë=~Ä çì í=íÜ É= áåÇá~å= å~íáçå~ä= áÇÉåíáíóK i ÉÖ ÉåÇë= çÑ = âÜ ~ë~â= áë= ~äëç= ~å= ~Å Å ì ê~íÉ= íê~åëä~íáçå= çÑ = áåÇá~å= î áää~Ö É= ~åÇ= áíë= íê~ÇáíáçåK qÜ ÉêÉ= áë= ã ìÅ Ü = áå= hÜ ~ë~â= íÜ ~í= áë= ìÖ äóW = áí= Ü ~ë= áíë= ëÜ ~êÉ= çÑ = ÇÉ~íÜ = ~åÇ= ÇáëÉ~ëÉ= ~åÇ=
194
Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar áÖ åçê~åÅ É= ~åÇ= Å êì Éäíó= ~åÇ= éçî ÉêíóK = t áíÜ çì í= = ëÉåíáã Éåí~äáëáåÖ = î áää~Ö É= äáÑ ÉI= Ü çï Éî ÉêI= s áà~ó~å= ã ~âÉë= íÜ É= î áÉï = éçëáíáî ÉäóK = = = = = = = qÜ É= åçî Éä= áë= ëáÖ åáÑ áÅ ~åí= Ñ çê= = d ~åÇÜ á~å= î áëáçå= çÑ = î áää~Ö É= Å çääÉÅ íáî áíóK = Khasak ï ~ë Ñ áêëí= ëÉêá~äáòÉÇ= áå= íÜ É= j ~ä~ó~ä~ã = ï ÉÉâäó= åÉï ëé~éÉê= Mathrubhumi áå= N V SU = ~åÇ= éì Ä äáëÜ ÉÇ= ~ë= ~= Ä ççâ= áå= N V SV K = Oottupulackal Velukkutty Vijayan (1930-2005) ï ~ë= Ä çêå= áå= m ~ä~ââ~Ç h Éê~ä~= K = s Éäì ââì ííó= ï Ü ç= ï ~ë= ~å= çÑ Ñ áÅ Éê= áå= j ~ä~Ä ~ê= péÉÅ á~ä= m çäáÅ É= çÑ = íÜ É= Éêëíï Ü áäÉ= j ~Çê~ë m êçî áåÅ É= áå= _ êáíáëÜ = fåÇá~= K s áà~ó~å= Ü ~ë= ë~áÇ= íÜ ~í= ã ~åó= çÑ = íÜ É= Å Ü ~ê~Å íÉêë= áå íÜ É= åçî Éä= ~êÉ= Ä ~ëÉÇ= çå= íÜ É= éÉçéäÉ= Ü É= ÉåÅ çì åíÉêÉÇ= áå= Thasarak ~åÇ= áåÇÉÉÇI o ~î áI= íÜ É= éêçí~Ö çåáëí= çÑ = KhasakI= áëI= äáâÉ= s áà~ó~å?ë= ëáëíÉêI= ~= íÉ~Å Ü Éê= áå= íÜ É= çåäó= ëÅ Ü ççä= éêçí~Ö çåáëí= çÑ = KhasakI= áëI= äáâÉ= s áà~ó~å?ë= ëáëíÉêI= ~= íÉ~Å Ü Éê= áå= íÜ É= çåäó= ëÅ Ü ççä= áå= hÜ ~ë~â '' afterword to the English translation of the novel, Vijayan wrote:it had all begun this way: in 1956 my sister got a teaching assignment in the village of Thasarak. This was part of a State scheme to send barefoot graduates to man single-teacher schools in backward villages . . . . Since it was hard for a girl to be on her own in a remote village, my parents had rented a little farmhouse and moved in with my sister. Meanwhile I had been sacked from the college where I taught. Jobless and at a loose end, I too joined them in Thasarak to drown my sorrows . . . . Destiny had been readying me for Khasak. (204-205) = = = = = = = = = = = = = qÜ áë=åçî Éä=äáíÉê~ääó=êÉî çäì íáçåáëÉÇ=j ~ä~ó~ä~ã =Ñ áÅ íáçåK =fíë=äáåâÉÇ=íçÖ ÉíÜ Éê=çÑ =ã óíÜ = ~åÇêÉ~äáíóI=I=áíë=Ä ä~Å â=Ü ì ã çì êK =q Ü É=Å Ü ~ê~Å íÉêë=çÑ =íÜ É=åçî Éä=Ü ~î É=åçï =Ä ÉÅ çã É=äÉÖ ÉåÇ~êóW = qÜ ÉêÉ= áë= o ~î áI= íÜ É= éêçí~Ö çåáëí= ï Ü ç= äáî Éë= ~í= íï ç= äÉî Éäë= ~å áåëíáåÅ íáî É= äÉî Éä= çÑ = äì ëí= ~åÇ= äçåÖ áåÖ = äÉî Éä=çÑ =ÇÉí~Å Ü ã Éåí=~åÇ=ëéáêáíì ~ä=èì Éëí=ÇÉí~Å Ü ã Éåí=~åÇ=ëéáêáíì ~ä=èì ÉëíK =e É=áë=Ü ~ì åíÉÇ=Ä ó= ~= ëÉåëÉ= çÑ = Ö ì áäí= Ñ çê= Ü áë= é~ëí= áåÅ Éëíì çì ë= êÉä~íáçåëÜ áé= ï áíÜ = Ü áë= ëíÉéã çíÜ Éê= ~åÇ= Ü áë= ÇÉëÉÅ ê~íáçå= çÑ = ~å=ashram Ä ó=Å çã ã áííáåÖ =~=ëáå=ï áíÜ =~=yogini íÜ ~í=éêçã éíë=Ü áã =íç=äÉ~î É=íÜ É=éÉ~Å É=çÑ =íÜ ~í= ëÜ ÉäíÉê= ~åÇ= ï ~äâ= áåíç= íÜ É= Ä ä~òáåÖ = ëì å= çÑ = hÜ ~ë~â= íç= êì å= ~= ëáåÖ äÉJíÉ~Å Ü Éê= ëÅ Ü ççä= áå= íÜ ~í= êÉã çíÉ= î áää~Ö ÉK = ^ å= áåíÉääÉÅ íì ~ä= ï Ü ç= Ü ~Ç= íêáÉÇ= íç= Å çêêÉä~íÉ= ~ëíêçéÜ óëáÅ ë= ~åÇ= ì é~åáëÜ ~ÇáÅ = ã Éí~éÜ óëáÅ ë= ~åÇ= ï ~ë= ~ää= ëÉí= íç= Ö ç= íç= íÜ É= r åáíÉÇ= pí~íÉë= Ñ çê= Ü áÖ Ü Éê= ëíì ÇáÉëI= o ~î á= ï ~ë= Çêáî Éå= Ä ó= Ü áë= ëÜ ~ã É= ~åÇ= Å ~ã É= íç= hÜ ~ë~â= íç= Éñéá~íÉ= Ü áë= ëáåW = Ü É= áë= ~å= ~äáÉå= ~ã çåÖ = íÜ É= êì ëíáÅ = Ñ çäâ= ëÉÉáåÖ = íÜ Éã = ï áíÜ = ~= âáåÇ=çÑ =éÜ áäçëçéÜ áÅ ~ä=ÇÉí~Å Ü ã ÉåíI=Éî Éå=ï Ü áäÉ=ã áñáåÖ =ï áíÜ =íÜ Éã =~í=íÜ É=äÉî Éä=çÑ =Éî ÉêóÇ~ó= ÉñéÉêáÉåÅ ÉK = _ ì í= Ü ÉêÉ= íççI= ÇÉëáêÉ= çî Éêï Ü Éäã ë= Ü áã = ~åÇ= ~í= íÜ É= ÉåÇ= çÑ = ~= ëÉêáÉë= çÑ = Éî ÉåíëI= Ñ ~Å áåÖ = íÜ É= íÜ êÉ~í=çÑ = ëì ëéÉåëáçåI= Ü É= âÉÉéë=Ü áë= ï çêÇ=íç=Ü áë=Ä Éäçî ÉÇ=m ~Çã ~= íç=äÉ~î É= hÜ ~ë~âW =Ü É=äáÉë= Ççï å=áå=Å ~äã =ÇÉí~Å Ü ã Éåí=áå=íÜ É=ï Ü áíÉ=ã çåëççå=ê~áåI=ï ~áíáåÖ =Ñ çê=Ü áë=Ä ì ëI=~Ñ Ñ ÉÅ íáçå~íÉäó= ï ~íÅ Ü áåÖ = íÜ É= Ä äì ÉJÜ ççÇÉÇ= ëÉêéÉåí= íÜ ~í= Ü ~Ç= ëíêì Å â= Ü áã = Å çåíÉåí= áåíç= áíë= Ü çäÉ= ëì êêçì åÇÉÇ= Ä ó= íÜ É= åÉï Ä çêå= Ö ê~ëëK = = = = = = ^ åÇ= íÜ ÉêÉ= ~êÉ= íÜ É= êì ëíáÅ = Ñ çäâW = ^ ää~éáÅ Ü ~I= íÜ É= maulvi ï Ü ç= Å çåëáÇÉêë= ã çÇÉêå= ëÅ Ü ççäë= íÜ É= ÇÉî áäD ë= áåëíáíì íáçåë= íÉ~Å Ü áåÖ = íÜ É= âáåÖ D ë= ~åÖ ì ä~ê= ëÅ êáéí= ~åÇ= íÜ É= kaffirD ë= ëÅ áÉåÅ Éë= ~åÇ= áë= ~= éçíÉåíá~ä= Ñ çÉ= Ñ çê= o ~î á= ÉåÇáåÖ = ì é= ~ë= íÜ É= ëÅ Ü ççäD ë= éÉçåX = k áò~ã = ^ äáI= ~å= çêéÜ ~å= Ä êçì Ö Ü í= ì é= Ä ó= ^ ää~éáÅ Ü ~I= åçï = ~= khaliyar ëì ééçêíáåÖ = o ~î áI= íÜ É= ëÉäÑ J~ééçáåíÉÇ= êÉéêÉëÉåí~íáî É= çÑ = póÉÇ= j á~å= pÜ ÉáâÜ I= íÜ É= Ö Ü çëí= çÑ = ï Ü çëÉ= äÉ~å= Ü çêëÉ= ëíáää= Ö ~ääçéë= áå= íÜ É= ï Ü ÉÉòó= É~ëí= ï áåÇ= ~åÇ= Ü Éäéë= áåî ~äáÇë= ~åÇ=ï áÇçï ëI=Å ~êêóáåÖ =íÜ Éã =çå=Ü áë=Ä ~Å â=~Å êçëë=íÜ É=î ~ääÉóX =j ~ÇÜ ~î ~å=k ~áêI==í~áäçê=Ä ó= éêçÑ ÉëëáçåI= ~= ` çã ã ì åáëí= ï áíÜ = s ÉÇ~åíáÅ = íê~áåáåÖ = ~åÇ= o ~î áD ë= Å çåÑ áÇ~åíÉI= j ~áã ì å~= íÜ É= î áää~Ö É= Ä É~ì íóI= çåÅ É= k áò~ã = ^ äáD ë= Ä Éäçî ÉÇ= ~åÇ= åçï = o ~î áD ëI= Ä ì í= ã ~êêáÉÇ= Ä ó= Ü Éê= Ñ ~íÜ Éê= íçíÜ É= ä~ã É= ~åÇ= ìÖ äó=` Ü ì âê~=o ~ï íÜ ~êX =^ ééì ââáäá=E ^ ééì I=íÜ É=_ áêÇF I=~=Çì ää=~åÇ=ÇÉÑ çêã ÉÇ=ã ~åJÄ çó=Éî Éê= Ü ì åíáåÖ =Ñ çê=ëéáÇÉêë=~åÇ=Ä ì ííÉêÑ äáÉë=áå=h Ü ~ë~âD ë=î ~ääÉóëX =h ì ééì =^ Å Ü ~åI=~=íçÇÇóJí~ééÉêI=~= î áÅ íáã çÑ =éêçÜ áÄ áíáçåX =h ì íí~Ç~åI=íÜ É=íÉã éäÉJéêáÉëí=ï Ü çëÉ=çê~Å äÉë=íï áÅ É=~=ï ÉÉâ=ï ÉêÉ=d çÇD ë= ï çêÇë=íç=íÜ É=î áää~Ö ÉêëI= íêóáåÖ =Ü ~êÇ=íç= Å çåî áåÅ É= íÜ É= ÉÇì Å ~íÉÇ=o ~î á=çÑ =íÜ É= ~ì íÜ ÉåíáÅ áíó=çÑ = Ü áë= êÉî Éä~íáçåëX =páî ~ê~ã ~å=k ~áêI=~=e áåÇì =Ñ ì åÇ~ã Éåí~äáëí=ï Ü ç=}Ñ çì åÇD =~=Å çåëéáê~Å ó=Ä Éíï ÉÉå= j ~ÇÜ ~î ~å= k ~áê= íÜ É= ` çã ã ì åáëí= ~åÇ= o ~î á= íÜ É= ~å~êÅ Ü áëí= çì í= íç= ÇÉëíêçóe áåÇì áëã K K K K = = = = s áà~ó~å= ï ~ë= ~ï ~êÉ= íÜ ~í= ~= åÉï = ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= ï ~ë= î áí~ä= Ñ çê= íÉääáåÖ = ëçã ÉíÜ áåÖ = ì åë~áÇ= Ä ÉÑ çêÉK = c çê= íÜ áëI= Ü É= ã ~ÇÉ= ì ëÉ= çÑ = ~ää= íÜ ~í= ï ~ë= ~î ~áä~Ä äÉ= áå= íÜ É= éáÉÅ Éë= çÑ j ~ä~ó~ä~ã = íç= ÉåÖ äáëÜ ~äëç= ëì Å Ü W = ëä~åÖ I= Çá~äÉÅ íëI= éçäáíáÅ ~ääó= ~åÇ= éÜ áäçëçéÜ áÅ ~ääóÅ Ü ~êÖ ÉÇ= Å çáå~Ö ÉëI= ã Éí~éÜ óëáÅ ~ä= áåíÉêéçä~íáçåëI=
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar ~åÇ= ëç= çåK = qÜ áë= ï ~ë= ~å= ~ííÉã éí= ~íêÉÑ áåáåÖ = ~åÇ= Éèì áééáåÖ = íÜ É= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= Ñ çê= êÉÑ äÉÅ íáåÖ = íÜ É= áååÉê= ~ë=ï Éää=~ë=íÜ É=çì íÉêK =^ ës áà~ó~å=ï êçíÉ=áå=íÜ É=^ Ñ íÉêï çêÇ=íç=íÜ É=b åÖ äáëÜ =íê~åëä~íáçåI=íÜ É= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É=çÑ =Khasak Ö ~î É=~å=~ëëì ê~åÅ É=íç=~=ëì Å Å ÉÉÇáåÖ =Ö ÉåÉê~íáçå=“No language, however physically deprived, however historically confined, is left without springheads of regeneration. There is as much narrative potential in Malayalam as in the imperial language'' o b c b o b k ` b pX N K =m K m =o ~î ÉÉåÇê~åI=?=íê~åëä~íáçå=~åÇ=ëÉåëáÄ áäáíóW =íÜ É=âÜ ~ë~â=ä~åÇëÅ ~éÉ=áå=ã ~ä~ó~ä~ã =~åÇ= ÉÖ äáëÜ ?I= áåÇá~å= ä~íÉê~íì êÉ= u i ff= E PF I= m K N TTJN U S O K s áà~ó~åI= ëÉäÉÅ íÉÇ= Ñ áÅ íáçåI= éÉåÖ ì áå= Ä ççâëI= åÉï = ÇÉÜ äáI= N V V U I= éK = N TP PK o^ e ^ = m bk W = çÄ áíì ~êóW = l K sK s fg^ v ^ k = Ä ó= pì åáä= h= m ççä~åá Q K qÜ É= e áåÇì = W = äáíÉê~ó= êÉî áÉï = W = ëéáêáíì ~ä= çì íëáÇÉê RK qÜ É= äÉÖ ÉåÇë= çÑ = hÜ ~ë~â= Jl K sK s áà~ó~å t fk d p= l c= c fo b pK s fs b h f= j ^= b k d i fpe o s p= ` ^p qÜ áë= = é~éÉê= = ~áã ë= íç= áÇÉåíáíó= ~åÇ= = ÇÉëÅ êáÄ É= íÜ É= Ñ É~íì êÉë= çÑ = íê~åëä~íÉÇ= = íÉñíëI= ~= Ä áäáåÖ ì ~ä= çê=ã ì äíáäáåÖ ì ~ä=áåÇÉñ=çÑ =íÜ É=áã éçêí~åí=ï çêÇë=áå=íÜ É=ï êáííÉå=ï çêâI=éä~óë=~=î áí~ä=êçäÉ=áå=íÜ É= Å çåíê~ëíáî É= = ~å~äóëáëI= ÉëéÉÅ á~ääó= áå= Å çã é~êáåÖ = = íÜ É= = ëçì êÅ É= íÉñí= ~åÇ= áíë= ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåí= î Éêëáçåë= çÑ = íê~åëä~íáçåK ?q Ü É= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= íÉñí= ã ì ëí= íêó= íç= = ~Å Ü áÉî É= ~= ëáã áä~ê= ÉÑ Ñ ÉÅ í= çå= íÜ É= Ñ çêÉáÖ å= êÉ~ÇÉê= ~ë= íÜ É= ëçì êÅ É= = ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= = íÉñí= ÇçÉë= çå= íÜ É= = å~íáî É= êÉ~ÇÉê?K = qÜ É= ã ~áå= éì êéçëÉ= = çÑ = = äáíÉê~êó= íê~åëä~íáçå= áë= íç=êÉÖ ÉåÇÉê=ëáã áä~ê=Ñ ÉÉäáåÖ ë==~åÇ==êÉ~Å íáçåë=áå=íÜ É=êÉ~ÇÉêK =få=íÜ áë=ëíì ÇóI=^ m gK =^ _ a e r i = h ^ i ^ j ?p= = ^ ì íçÄ áçÖ ê~éÜ ó= áå= Ñ çì ê= = ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåí= = ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉëK = qÜ É= ~ì íçÄ áçÖ ê~éÜ ó= = Ñ áêëí= éì Ä äáëÜ ÉÇ= áå=b åÖ äáëÜ =Ü ~ë=ëç=Ñ ~ê=Ä ÉÉå==íê~åëä~íÉÇ=~åÇ=éì Ä äáëÜ ÉÇ=áå=N P=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö Éë=áåÅ äì ÇáåÖ =h ~åå~Ç~=I= q Éäì Ö ì= I= e áåÇá= I= d ì à~ê~í= ÉíÅ = ~é~êí= Ñ êçã = _ ê~áääÉK = l ì íëáÇÉ= çÑ = íÜ É= ã ~àçê= fåÇá~å= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö Éë= ï áåÖ ë= çÑ = Ñ áêÉ= ï ~ë= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= áå= `Ü áåÉëÉ= íáíäÉÇ= ?= e ì ç= v á?I= Ä ó= gá= m ÉåÖ = íê~åëä~íÉÇ= áå= c êÉåÅ Ü K ?t áåÖ ë=çÑ =c áêÉ?=E N V V V F =áë=~å=~ì íçÄ áçÖ ê~éÜ ó=çÑ =^ m gK =^ _ a e r i =h ^ i ^ j I=c çêã Éê= éêÉëáÇÉåí= çÑ = fåÇá~K = fí= ï ~ë= ï êáííÉå= Ä ó= h ~ä~ã = ~åÇ= ^ êì å= = q áï ~êá= K = â~ä~ã = Éñ~ã áåÉë= Ü áë= É~êäó= äáÑ ÉI= ÉÑ Ñ çêíI=Ü ~êÇëÜ áéI=Ñ çêíáíì ÇÉ=äì Å â=~åÇ=Å Ü ~åÅ É=íÜ ~í=Éî Éåíì ~ääó==äÉÇ==Ü áã =íç=äÉ~Ç=fåÇá~å=ëé~Å É= êÉëÉ~êÅ Ü I= åì ÉäÉ~ê= ~åÇ= ã áëëáäÉ= éêçÖ ê~ã K = h ~ä~ã = ëí~êíÉÇ= Ü áë= Å ~êÉÉêI= ~Ñ íÉê= Ö ê~Çì ~íáåÖ = Ñ êçã = ^ Éêç= ëé~Å É= ÉåÖ áåÉÉêáåÖ = ~í= j qE `Ü Éåå~áF K = qÜ áë= Ä ççâ= áë= ï êáííÉå= Ñ çê= íÜ É= çêÇáå~êó= éÉçéäÉ= çÑfåÇá~= Ñ çê= ï Ü çã =h ~ä~ã =Ü ~ë=~å=áã ã ÉåëÉ=~Ñ Ñ ÉÅ íáçåI=~åÇ=ï Ü çã =h ~ä~ã =áë=Å Éêí~áåäó==çåÉK =e É=Ü ~ë=~å= áåíì áíáî É= ê~ééçêí= ï áíÜ = íÜ É= Ü ìã Ä äÉëí= ~åÇ= ëáã éäÉëí= éÉçéäÉ= ~å= áåÇáÅ ~íáçå= çÑ = Ü áë= çï å= ëáã éäáÅ áíó= ~åÇ= áåå~íÉ= ëéáêáíì ~äáíóK c çê=q áï ~êá=ï êáíáåÖ =íÜ áë=Ä ççâ=Ü ~ë=Ä ÉÉå=äáâÉ=~=éáäÖ êáã ~Ö ÉK =q Ü êçì Ö Ü =h ~ä~ã I=Ü É=ï ~ë= Ä äÉëëÉÇ= ï áíÜ = íÜ É= êÉî Éä~íáçå= íÜ ~í= íÜ É= êÉ~ä= àçó= çÑ = äáî áåÖ K = qÜ É= êÉ~ÇÉêë= ã ~ó= åÉî Éê= ã ÉÉí= h ~ä~ã = áå= éÉêëçåI=Ä ì í=íÜ Éó=ï áää=Éåàçó=Ü áë=Å çã é~åó=íÜ êçì Ö Ü =íÜ É=Ä ççâ=ï áåÖ ë=çÑ =Ñ áêÉI=~åÇ=íÜ ~í=Ü É=ï áää= Ä ÉÅ çã É=íÜ É=êÉ~ÇÉêë=ëéáêáíì ~ä=Ñ êáÉåÇK =q Ü áë=Ä ççâ=áë=Ä ÉáåÖ =êÉäÉ~ëÉÇ=Ü çã É=ã ~ÇÉ=éáÅ âäÉë=~åÇ=~= ÇçääÉé= = çÑ = Ñ êÉëÜ = Å çÅ çåì í= ?Å Ü ì íåÉó?E éK Q F K qÜ áë==áë=Ü áë==~ì íçÄ áçÖ ê~éÜ ó=áå=~ää=íÜ É=q ~ã áäI=e áåÇá=~åÇ=j ~ä~ó~ä~ã =ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉëK =q Ü É= íÜ áåÖ = áë= íÜ ~í= íÜ É= ï çêÇ= ?Å Ü ì íåÉó?= áë= ì ëÉÇ= ~ë= ë~ã É= ~ë= áå= ~ää= íÜ É= Ñ çì ê= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉëK _ ÉÅ ~ì ëÉ çÑ = íÜ É= íê~åëä~íáçåë= çÑ = ?ï áåÖ ë= çÑ = Ñ áêÉ?= ~ää= íÜ É= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= éÉçéäÉ= Å ~å= âåçï = ~Ä çì í= = Ü áë= äáÑ É= = ~åÇ= Ü áë= î áÉï ë= çÑ = ÇÉî ÉäçéáåÖ = = fåÇá~K qÜ áë= ~ì íçÄ áçÖ ê~éÜ ó= ~Å Å çì åí= Ü ~ë= = Ä ÉÉå= çåÉ= çÑ = íÜ É= ã çëí= áåëéáêáåÖ = = ï çêäÉK = e áë= äáÑ É= Ü ~ë= Ä ÉÉå=ã çëí=ëÉäÑ äÉëëäó==ÇÉî çíÉÇ==íç=Ü áë==Å çì åíêóI=~åÇ=êÉï ~êÇÉÇ==ã çëí=ÇÉëÉêî áåÖ äóI=ï áíÜ =íÜ É= Ü áÖ Ü Éëí= Å áî áä~å= ~ï ~êÇ= çÑ = = íÜ É= = Å çì åíêóI= íÜ É= _Ü ~ê~í= o ~íå~K =
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

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óK = h ~ä~ã = Å Ü ççëÉë= íç= = íÜ É= = çêÖ ~åáòÉ= íÜ É= ~ì íçÄ áçÖ ê~éÜ áÅ ~ä= ã ~íÉêá~ä= áåíç= Ñ çì ê=ëÉÅ íáçåëW =l êáÉåí~íáçåI=Å êÉ~íáçåI=éêÉéçëáíáçå=~åÇ=Å çåíÉã éä~íáçåI=ÇÉî çíÉÇ=êçì Ö Ü äó=íç=íÜ É= Ñ áêëí= PO = óÉ~êë= E N V PN JN V SPF I= íÜ É= åÉñí= N T= óÉ~êë= E N V SPJN V U M F I= ~åçíÜ Éê= N M = óÉ~êë= E N V U N JN V V N F I= ~åÇ= Ä ÉóçåÇK _ çêå= íç= ~å= çÄ ëÅ ì êÉ= ã áÇÇäÉJÅ ä~ëë= Ñ ~ã áäó= áå= ~= êÉã çíÉ= Ä ì í= ëéáêáíì ~ääó= ëì éÉêÅ Ü ~êÖ ÉÇ= áëä~åÇ= íçï å= ~í= íÜ É= ëçì íÜ Éêå= íáé= çÑ = íÜ É= fåÇá~å= éÉåáåëì ä~I= h ~ä~ã = éêçÖ êÉëëÉÇ= áå= ëì êÉ= ~åÇ= ëíÉ~Çó= ëíÉéë= íÜ êçì Ö Ü =Å Ü áäÇÜ ççÇI=~ã çåÖ =äçî áåÖ =Ñ ~ã áäó=ã Éã Ä Éêë=ï Ü ç=ë~Å êáÑ áÅ ÉÇ=êÉ~Çáäó=Ñ çê=Ü áã I=íÜ êçì Ö Ü = ëÅ Ü çä~êëÜ áé= ï áíÜ = ÇÉî çíÉÇ= ~åÇ= áåëéáê~íáçå~ä= íÉ~Å Ü ÉêëE o ~ã Éëï ~ê~ã = b äÉã Éåí~êó= pÅ Ü ççäI= píK gçëÉéÜ ?ë=` çääÉÖ ÉI=q êáÅ Ü óI=j ~Çê~ë=fåëíáíì íÉ=çÑ =q ÉÅ Ij ~Çê~ëF I=áåíç=Ü áë=Ñ áêëí=Ñ çê~ó=áåíç= éêçÑ Éëëáçå~ä= äáÑ É= K = qÜ áë= Ñ áêëí= éÜ ~ëÉ= çÑ = Ü áë= äáÑ É= Å çî Éêë= PO = Éî ÉåíÑ ì ä= óÉ~êë= ã çëí= Ñ ÉäáÅ áíáçì ëäó= áå= íÜ É= ëé~Å É= çÑ = PN = é~Ö ÉëK = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = a fc c f` r i q fb p= fk = qe b= q o ^ k pi ^ q fl k = l c= ?a fc c f` r i q ?m l bj qK p^ _ ^ o b b p^ k = = f= j K ^K b k d i fpe = = o s p= ` ^p qÜ áë= é~éÉê= ~áã ë= çå= íÜ É= Ö ÉåÉê~ä= íÜ Éã É= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íáçå= çÑ = íÜ É= éçÉíêóK = ï Ü áÅ Ü = áë= Å çåÅ ÉêåÉÇ= ï áíÜ = êÉ~ÇáåÖ = ~åÇ= ì åÇÉêëí~åÇáåÖ = éçÉã ë= ~ë= ~= ëÉÅ çåÇ= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= ~Å íáî áíó= ~åÇ= Ä ÉÅ ~ì ëÉ= áåíÉêéêÉíáåÖ = ~åÇ= íÉ~Å Ü áåÖ = Ñ çêÉáÖ å= éçÉã ë= Ü ~î É= ã ~åó= éêçÄ äÉã ë= áå= íÜ É= Å çã ã çå= ï áíÜ = íÜ É= í~ëâë= çÑ = íê~åëä~íáçåK = ^ ë=~=éçÉí=~åÇ=ï Ü ç=íÜ ì ë=ëíêì Ö Ö äÉ=íç=ÉñíÉåÇ=íÜ É=Ä çì åÇ~êáÉë=çÑ =Å ì äíì ê~ä=âåçï äÉÇÖ É=~åÇ= Éåàçóã ÉåíK = f= Ü ~î É= åç= ëéÉÅ á~ä= íê~áåáåÖ = áå= íÜ áë= Ñ áÉäÇ= ã ó= ëÉäÑ I= Ä ì í= f= Ü ~î É= ã ~ÇÉ= Å çää~Ä çê~íÉÇ= ï áíÜ = íê~åëä~íáçåë=çÑ =éçÉíêó=Ñ êçã =~åÇ=áåíç=cêÉåÅ Ü I=d Éêã ~åI=fí~äá~å=~åÇ=Å Éêí~áå=çíÜ Éê=b ì êçéÉ~å= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö Éë=~åÇ=ï É=Ü ~î É=Ä ÉÉå=î Éêó=Å äçëÉäó=áåî çäî ÉÇ=ï áíÜ =~=Å ì êêÉåí==Å çääÉÅ íáî É==éêçàÉÅ í==íç= íê~åëä~íÉ= áåíç= `Ü áåÉëÉ= ~= ëì Ä ëí~åíá~ä= ëÉäÉÅ íáçå= = çÑ = ã ó= = çï å= éçÉã ëK qÜ É==~Å íáî áíó=çÑ ==Å çã éçëáåÖ =~=éçÉã =áå=íÜ É=Ñ áêëí=éä~Å É=ëÜ ~êÉë=ëçã É=Ñ É~íì êÉë=ï áíÜ = íê~åëä~íáçå= = ï çêâ= é~ì ëáåÖ = = = íç= Å çåëáÇÉê= Éñ~Å íäó= ï Ü áÅ Ü = ï çêÇë= ~åÇ= ÉñéêÉëëáçåë= íç= Ä ì áäÇáåÖ = ì é= íÜ É=Ñ çêã =~åÇ=ëçì åÇ=çÑ =íÜ É=éçÉã =~ë=áÑ ==~äêÉ~Çó=Éñáëíë=áå=óçì ê=ã áåÇK =pçã ÉíÜ áåÖ =~Ä çì í=íÜ áë= = ï çêÇ==?ÇáÑ Ñ áÅ ì äí?K =f=íÜ áåâ=ï É=~ää=âåçï =íÜ ~í=áå=~ää=ã çëí=~ää=íÜ É=Å ì äíì ê~ä=íê~Çáíáçåë=çÑ =ï çêäÇ= Ü áëíçêóI= éçÉíêó= áë= ï áÇÉäó= êÉÖ ~êÇÉÇ= ~ë= ?ÇáÑ Ñ áÅ ì äí?I= ~ë= ã çêÉ= Å Ü ~ääÉåÖ áåÖ = íç= ì åÇÉêëí~åÇ= íÜ Éå= çíÜ Éê= ã çÇÉë= çÑ = ï êáíáåÖ K = få= ã çÇÉêå= íáã ÉëI= ëçã É= íÉåÇÉåÅ áÉë= áå= éçÉíêó= ï êáíáåÖ = Ü ~î É= Çáëéä~óÉÇ= Éî Éå= Ö êÉ~íÉê= ÇáÑ Ñ áÅ ì äíó= íÜ ~å= íÜ É= ã çêÉ çäÇJÑ ~ëÜ áçåÉÇ= Ö ÉåÉê~ä= ï ~ó= çÑ = ï êáíáåÖ = éçÉã ë= Ñ çê= íÜ É= Ö ÉåÉê~ä= êÉ~ÇÉêK = qÜ áë= áë= íÜ É= åçíçêáçì ëäó= ÉñíêÉã É= ÇáÑ Ñ áÅ ì äí= çÑ = ã çÇÉêåI= ~Çî ~åÅ É= çê= ÉñéÉêáã Éåí~ä= éçÉíêóI= Å äÉ~êäó=êÉÅ çÖ åáòÉÇ=~ë=~=Å Ü ~ê~Å íÉêáëíáÅ =Ñ É~íì êÉ=áå=b åÖ äáëÜ =~åÇ=^ ã ÉêáÅ ~å=ã çÇÉêåáëã I=ï áíÜ = é~ê~ääÉä= Ü áëíçêáÅ ~ä= ÇÉî Éäçéã Éåíë= áå= Ñ çê= Éñ~ã éäÉ= c ê~åÅ ÉI= óçì ê= çï å= j çÇÉêå= j çî Éã Éåí= Ü ÉêÉ= áå= `Ü áå~K = få= ÇáÑ Ñ áÅ ì äí= ã çÇÉêåáëí= éçÉíêó= = íÜ ÉêÉ= Å ~å= Ä É= çÄ ëÅ ì êÉ= Å çã éäÉñ= ~ëéÉÅ íë= êÉä~íáåÖ = íç= íÜ çì Ö Ü í= ~åÇ= áÇÉ~ëK = fí= áë= ï çêíÜ = éçáåíáåÖ = çì í= íÜ ~í= ÇáÑ Ñ áÅ ì äí= áÇÉ~ë= áå= éçÉã ë= ~êÉ= åçí= ~äï ~óë= ÉñéêÉëëÉÇ= áå= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= íÜ ~í= áë= ~äëç= ÇáÑ Ñ áÅ ì äíX = Ñ çê= Éñ~ã éäÉI= t áääá~ã = _ ä~âÉ= áå= Ü áë= pçåÖ ë= çÑ = fååçÅ ÉåÅ É= ~åÇ= çÑ = b ñéÉêáÉåÅ É= Çê~ï ë= çå= i ~åÖ ì ~Ö É= çÑ = ~äã çëí= çÄ ëÅ ì êÉK = b ã áäó= a áÅ âáåëçå= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= áë= ~äëç= ã çëíäó= åçí=ÇáÑ Ñ áÅ ì äí=íÜ ÉêÉ=~êÉ=~äëç=Å ~ëÉë=íÜ É=~åçíÜ Éê=ï ~ó=~êçì åÇ=çÑ =~=ëáã éäÉ áÇÉ~ë=ÉñéêÉëëÉÇ=áå= Éä~Ä çê~íÉäó=ëì Ä =ëíáää=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É=ëçã Éíáã Éë=qÉååóëçå=áë=äáâÉ=íÜ áëK =pÜ ~âÉëéÉ~êÉ?ë=ëçååÉíë=~êÉ= Å Éêí~áåäó=çÑ =íÜ áë=âáåÇ=Çç=åçí=Ü ~î É=~=ï áÇÉ=êÉ~ÇÉêëÜ áé=~åÇ=íê~åëä~íçêë=çÑ =ã ó=ï çêâ=Ü ~î É=íç= Å çåÑ êçåí= ~åÇ= Éñíê~JÜ ~êÇ= ëíêì Ö Ö äÉK = qÜ É= ì ëì ~ä= ã ÉíÜ çÇ= Ñ çê= êÉëíêáÅ íáåÖ = íÜ áë= Çáëíê~Å íáåÖ = î ~êáÉíó= ~åÇ=
197
Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar ê~åÖ É= çÑ = Å Ü çáÅ É= áë= Å çåíÉñíK = m çÉã ë= ~êÉ= ã çëíäó= åçí= äáâÉ= íÜ áë= ~åÇ= áå= ~= ÇÉî ÉäçéÉÇ= äáíÉê~êó= Å ì äíì êÉ= ?a áÑ Ñ áÅ ì äí?= éçÉã ë= ~êÉ= î Éêó= ÇáëíáåÅ íäó= ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåíK = qK pK = bä á çí= çÄ ëÉêî ÉÇ= íÜ ~í= íÜ É= ?íÉäÉëÅ çéáåÖ = çÑ = áã ~Ö Éë=~åÇ=ã ì äíáéäáÉÇ=~ëëçÅ á~íáçå?=?Å çã éÉääÉÇ=áåíç=ì åáíó=Ä ó=íÜ É=çéÉê~íáçå=çÑ =íÜ É=éçÉí?ë= ã áåÇ?K = qÜ É= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= ì ëÉÇ= áå= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íáçå= çÑ = ~= ÇáÑ Ñ áÅ ì äí= ëì êéêáëáåÖ = éçÉã K = fí= ï ~ë= gçÜ å= h É~íë= ï Ü ç= áå= ~= äÉííÉê= íç= gçÜ å= q ~óäçê= ë~áÇI= ?f= íÜ áåâ= éçÉíêó= ëÜ çì äÇ= ëì êéêáëÉ= Ä ó= ~= Ñ áåÉ= ÉñÅ Éëë?K = qÜ É= ì ëÉ= çÑ = êÜ óã ÉJÑ çêã ë= áå= íê~Çáíáçå~ä= b åÖ äáëÜ = ~åÇ= ~äëç= `Ü áåÉëÉ= éçÉíêó= ã ~ó= ï çêâ= äáâÉ= íÜ áëK = fí= áë= çÑ íÉå= ë~áÇ= íÜ ~í= ?= m çÉíêó= áë= ï Ü ~í= Ö Éíë= äçëí= áå= íê~åëä~íáçå?= çå= íÜ É= Å çåíê~êóK = = ^= íê~åëä~íçê= áë= åçí= áå= íÜ É= Ä ì ëáåÉëë=çÑ =éêçî áÇáåÖ =Éñéä~å~íáçåë=~åÇ=íÜ áë=ã ~ó=Ä É=~å=áã éçêí~åí=~Çî ~åí~Ö É=áå=íê~åëä~íáåÖ = ï çêâK = få= `Ü áå~= íÜ ÉêÉ= áë= ~= ä~êÖ É= Ä çÇó= çÑ = b ì êçéÉ~å= ~åÇ= ^ ã ÉêáÅ ~å= ã çÇÉêåáëí= éçÉíêó= éêçÇì Å ÉÇ= áå= íÜ É= ëÉÅ çåÇ= çÑ = íÜ É= íï ÉåíáÉíÜ = Å Éåíì êó= ~åÇ= Ä ÉóçåÇI= ï Ü áÅ Ü = áë= ï ~áíáåÖ = Ñ çê= Ä ê~î É= åÉï = íê~åëä~íçêë= íç= ã ~âÉ= Ä ê~î É= åÉï = ÉñéÉêáã ÉåíëK o ^ i i fb p= fk = j ^ k a ^ o fk I= g^ m ^ k b pb I= b k d i fpe = ^ka = q ^ j fi pe b k = gfk v ^ k I= ff= j ^= b k d i fpe o s p= ` ^p q ê~åëä~íáçå= áë= íÜ É= éêçÅ Éëë= çÑ = íì êåáåÖ = ~å= çêáÖ áå~ä= çê= ?ëçì êÅ É?= íÉñí= áåíç= ~= íÉñí= áå= ~åçíÜ Éê= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉI= Ñ çê= Éñ~ã éäÉI= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íáçå= çÑ = íÜ É= _ áÄ äÉ= áåíç= b åÖ äáëÜ K = q ê~åëä~íáçå= áë= ÉëëÉåíá~ääó= ~= ëâáää= ~åÇÇÉéÉåÇë= ä~êÖ Éäó= çå= ~= ëÉêáÉë= çÑ = êì äÉë= ~åÇ= êÉÖ ì ä~íáçåëK = íÜ c êçã = íÜ É= Ä ÉÖ áååáåÖ = çÑ = íÜ É= O M Å Éåíì êó= çåï ~êÇëI= íç= äÉ~êå= ~= Ñ çêÉáÖ å= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= áå= ëçã É= Å çì åíêáÉë=Å çåëáëíÉÇ=áå=ÇçáåÖ =áí=íÜ êçì Ö Ü =Ö ê~ã ã ~êJíê~åëä~íáçå=ã ÉíÜ çÇI=ï Ü çëÉ=çêáÖ áåë=Å ~å=Ä É= Ñ çì åÇ= áå= íÜ É= ï ~ó= i ~íáå= ~åÇ= d êÉÉâ= ì ëÉÇ= íç= Ä É= ~ééêç~Å Ü ÉÇK = qÜ áë= ï ~ó= çÑ = ëíì ÇóáåÖ = ~= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= ï ~ë= ä~íÉê= ~ééäáÉÇ= íç= ã çÇÉêå= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö Éë= ï Ü áÅ Ü = Å çåÅ Éåíê~íÉÇ= çå= äÉ~êåáåÖ = íÜ É= Ö ê~ã ã ~íáÅ ~ä= êì äÉë= çÑ = íÜ É= í~êÖ Éí= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= ~åÇ= íÜ Éå= Å ~êêóáåÖ = çì í= ~= äáíÉê~ä= íê~åëä~íáçåK = q ê~åëä~íáçå= ÉñÉêÅ áëÉë= ï ÉêÉ= Å çåëáÇÉêÉÇ= íç= Ä É= ~= ï ~ó= çÑ = äÉ~êåáåÖ = ~= Ñ çêÉáÖ å= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= çê= çÑ = êÉ~ÇáåÖ = ~= Ñ çêÉáÖ å= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= íÉñíK i áíÉê~êó= íê~åëä~íáçå= ÇÉ~äë= ï áíÜ = äáíÉê~êó= íÉñíëI= Ñ çê= Éñ~ã éäÉI= ï çêâë= çÑ = Ñ áÅ íáçå= çê= éçÉíêó= ï Ü çëÉ= ã ~áå= Ñ ì åÅ íáçå= áë= íç= ã ~âÉ= ~å= Éã çíáçå~ä= çê= ~ÉëíÜ ÉíáÅ = áã éêÉëëáçå= ì éçå= íÜ É= êÉ~ÇÉêKq Ü Éáê= Å çã ã ì åáÅ ~íáî É= î ~äì É= ÇÉéÉåÇë= çå= íÜ Éáê= ~êíáëíáÅ = èì ~äáíó= ~åÇ= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íçê?ë= éêáã ~êó= í~ëâ= áë= íç= êÉéêçÇì Å É= íÜ áë= èì ~äáíó= áå= íê~åëä~íáçåK fåÑ çêã ~íáî É=íê~åëä~íáçå=áë=êÉåÇÉêáåÖ =áåíç=íÜ É=í~êÖ Éí=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É=åçåJäáíÉê~êó=íÉñíëI=íÜ É= ã ~áå= éì êéçëÉ= áë= íç= Å çåî Éó= ~= Å Éêí~áå= ~ã çì åí= çÑ = áÇÉ~ëI= íç= áåÑ çêã = íÜ É= êÉ~ÇÉêK = e çï Éî ÉêI= áÑ = íÜ É= ëçì êÅ É= íÉñí= áë= çÑ = ëçã É= äÉåÖ íÜ I= áíë= íê~åëä~íáçå= Å ~å= Ä É= äáëíÉÇ= ~ë= äáíÉê~êó= çê= áåÑ çêã ~íáî É= çåäó= ~ë= ~å= ~ééêçñáã ~íáçåK o çã ~å=g~âçÄ ëçå=áÇÉåíáÑ áÉë=íÜ êÉÉ=ï ~óë=çÑ =áåíÉêéêÉíáåÖ =~=î ÉêÄ ~ä=ëáÖ åW =áåíê~äáåÖ ì ~äI áåíÉêäáåÖ ì ~ä= ~åÇ= áåíÉêëÉã áçíáÅ K fåíê~äáåÖ ì ~ä=íê~åëä~íáçå=áë=ÇÉÑ áåÉÇ= ~ë=íÜ É= íê~åëÑ Éê= çÑ =ëçã É=î ÉêÄ ~ä=ëáÖ åë=áåíç=ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåí= î ÉêÄ ~ä= ëáÖ åëI= éÉêí~áåáåÖ = íç= íÜ É= ë~ã É= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK = fí= ã É~åë= íê~åëä~íáçå= ï áíÜ áå= çåÉ= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉI= áí= Å ~å= áåî çäî É=Çá~äÉÅ í=çê=é~ê~éÜ ê~ëÉI=áí=áë=~äëç=Å ~ääÉÇ=~ë=?êÉï çêÇáåÖ ?K =fåíê~äáåÖ ì ~ä=íê~åëä~íáçå= áåî çäî Éë= ~Ç~éíáåÖ = ~= íÉñí= íç= ~= åÉï = éì êéçëÉ= áå= íÜ É= ë~ã É= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉI= áí= Å çåí~áåë= ï áíÜ áå= íÜ É= ë~ã É= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉI= áåî çäî áåÖ = ~= ã çåçäáåÖ ì ~ä= éêçÅ ÉëëK fåíÉêäáåÖ ì ~ä= íê~åëä~íáçå= ã É~åë= íê~åëä~íáçå= ~ã çåÖ = ã ì äíáéäÉ= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉëK = fí= Ü ~ë= ~= ã ì äíáäáåÖ ì ~ä= Ñ ä~áê= çê= èì ~äáíóK = fí= áë= ~å= áåíÉêéêÉí~íáçå= çÑ = äáåÖ ì áëíáÅ = ëáÖ åë= Ä ó= ã É~åë= çÑ = ëçã É= çíÜ Éê= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK = qÜ É= Å ~íÉÖ çêó= áë= Å çåëáÇÉêÉÇ= íç= Ä É= íÜ É= Ö Éåì áåÉ= ëáåÅ É= áí= Å çåëáëíë= áå= íê~åëä~íáåÖ = ~= íÉñí= áåíç= ~åçíÜ Éê= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK fåíÉêëÉã áçíáÅ = íê~åëä~íáçå= áë= ~å= áåíÉêéêÉí~íáçå= çÑ = î ÉêÄ ~ä= ëáÖ åë= Ä ó= ã É~åë= çÑ = åçåJî ÉêÄ ~ä= ëáÖ å= ëóëíÉã ëK = cçê= Éñ~ã éäÉI= ~= íÉñí= áë= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= áåíç= ~= åçåJî ÉêÄ ~ä= íÉñíI= ëì Å Ü = ~ë= ã ì ëáÅ I= Ñ áäã = çê= é~áåíáåÖ K q ê~åëä~íáçå= áë= äáâÉ= ~= ï çã ~åK = fÑ = áí= áë= Ä É~ì íáÑ ì äI= áí= áë= åçí=Ñ ~áíÜ Ñ ì äK = fÑ = áí= áë= Ñ ~áíÜ Ñ ì äI= áí= áë= ã çëí= Å Éêí~áåäó= åçí= Ä É~ì íáÑ ì äK = qÜ É= íê~åëä~íçê= ëÜ çì äÇ= Ö áî É= ~= Å çã éäÉíÉ= íê~åëÅ êáéí= çÑ = áÇÉ~ë= íçï ~êÇë= íÜ É= çêáÖ áå~ä= ï çêâK = ^= Å çã éÉíÉåí= íê~åëä~íçê= áë= åçí= çåäó= Ä áäáåÖ ì ~ä= Ä ì í= Ä áÅ ì äíì ê~äK = ^= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= áë=
198
Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar åçí= ã ÉêÉäó= ~= Å çääÉÅ íáçå= çÑ = ï çêÇëI= êì äÉë= çÑ = Ö ê~ã ã ~ê= ~åÇ= ëóåí~ñI= Ñ çê= Ö ÉåÉê~íáåÖ = ëÉåíÉåÅ ÉëI= Ä ì í= ~äëç= ~= î ~ëí= áåíÉêÅ çååÉÅ íáåÖ = ëóëíÉã = çÑ = Å çååçí~íáçåë= ~åÇ= Å ì äíì ê~ä= êÉÑ ÉêÉåÅ ÉëK f=~äëç=íêáÉÇ=íç=íê~åëä~íÉ=íÜ É=Ä ~ëáÅ =Å çåî Éêë~íáçå=Ñ êçã =b åÖ äáëÜ =íç=j ~åÇ~êáå=E çÑ Ñ áÅ á~ä= `Ü áåÉëÉ= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉF I= Ñ êçã = j ~åÇ~êáå= íç= g~é~åÉëÉI= Ñ êçã = b åÖ äáëÜ = íç= q ~ã áäK fí= áë= àì ëí= äáâÉ= ì ëáåÖ = íÜ É= ã ~áåíÉå~åÅ É=ã ÉíÜ çÇ=~ë=~=íÉååáë=ã ~íÅ Ü I=ï áíÜ =ê~ääáÉë=áå=j ~åÇ~êáåI=g~é~åÉëÉI=b åÖ äáëÜ =~åÇ= q ~ã áäK = f= ~ã = äÉ~êåáåÖ = ï Ü áäÉ= íê~åëä~íáåÖ K = q ê~åëä~íáçå= áë= áåíÉêÉëíáåÖ I= Ä ì í= íÜ É= éêçÅ Éëë= áë= ëíêì Ö Ö äáåÖ I= çåÉ= ëÜ çì äÇ= çî ÉêÅ çã É= ~ää= íÜ É= Ä ~êêáÉêëK = c çääçï áåÖ = ëÉåíÉåÅ Éë= ~êÉ= íÜ É= Ä ~ëáÅ = Å çåî Éêë~íáçåë= ï Ü áÅ Ü = f= íê~åëä~íÉÇI= åçï = f= ï áää= ëÜ ~êÉ= ï áíÜ = óçì X = ï áëÜ = óçì = ~äëç= Ñ ~ää= áå= äçî É= ï áíÜ = íê~åëä~íáçåK pÉåíÉåÅ É= N W 你好!(k á= = e ~ç= > ) `Ü áåÉëÉ= i ~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉW = g~é~åÉëÉ= i ~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉW = こんにちは! b åÖ äáëÜ W = e Éääç> q ~ã áäW = வண? க? ! pÉåíÉåÅ É= N l êáÖ áå~ä q ~ã áä pçì åÇë `Ü áåÉëÉ i ~åÖ ì ~Ö É g~é~åÉëÉ i ~åÖ ì ~Ö É b åÖ äáëÜ q ~ã áä 你好! நி ெஹா ேகா நி சி வ ஹ ேலா வண? க?

b åÖ äáëÜ m Ü çåÉíáÅ L = åáW = Ü ~çW L

j ~åÇ~êáå= pçì åÇë k á= Ü ~ç

こんにちは! e Éääç>

L ?âç= åá= í= =h ~ç= åá= èá= ï ~= ï L L Ü ə}äəì = L e É= äçì

வண? க? !

L = ï = å = t ~= å~= â~= ã }â ã L

pÉåíÉåÅ É= O = W 早上好!(w~ç= pÜ ~åÖ = = e ~ç= > ) `Ü áåÉëÉ= i ~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉW = g~é~åÉëÉ= i ~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉW = おはようございますK b åÖ äáëÜ W = d ççÇ= ã çêåáåÖ > q ~ã áäW = காைல வண? க? ! pÉåíÉåÅ É= O l êáÖ áå~ä q ~ã áä pçì åÇë `Ü áåÉëÉ i ~åÖ ì ~Ö É g~é~åÉëÉ i ~åÖ ì ~Ö É b åÖ äáëÜ 早上好!

b åÖ äáëÜ m Ü çåÉíáÅ

j ~åÇ~êáå= ëçì åÇë w~ç= ëÜ ~åÖ = Ü ~ç 

å= ெசா ஷ? ெஹா /ò~çW Ü ~çW L ஒ ஹ ெயா? ெகாஷ இ ம? ? ? ெமா? நி?

おはよう ございますK d ççÇ= ã çêåáåÖ >

L ç= Ü = ó~çW = ì = ~ç=Ü ~=ó~ç=Ö ~ç=ò~= Ö W = ò= á= ã = óá= ã ~= ëá ëL L Ö ìÇ d çì = ÇÉ= ã ~ç= åáåÖ ?ã W åáŋL

199
Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar q ~ã áä காைல வண? க? ! காைல வண? க? L â~W = ä~áW = h ~= ä~á= ï å â ã L ï ~= å~= â~= ã=

pÉåíÉåÅ É= PW `Ü áåÉëÉ= i ~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉW = 上好!(t ~å pÜ ~åÖ = e ~ç> = ) g~é~åÉëÉ= i ~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉW = こんばんはK b åÖ äáëÜ W = d ççÇ= Éî ÉåáåÖ > மாைல வண? க? ! q ~ã áäW = pÉåíÉåÅ É= P l êáÖ áå~ä q ~ã áä pçì åÇë `Ü áåÉëÉ i ~åÖ ì ~Ö É g~é~åÉëÉ i ~åÖ ì ~Ö É b åÖ äáëÜ q ~ã áä 上好! வ? ஷ?

b åÖ äáëÜ m Ü çåÉíáÅ /ï åW å= Ü ~çW L L â å= ï L L Ö ìÇ ?áW î åáŋL

j ~åÇ~êáå= ëçì åÇë t ~å ëÜ ~åÖ = Ü ~ç

ெஹா こんばんはK d ççÇ= Éî ÉåáåÖ > ேகா? பா? வா ? ? ஈ? ன ? மாைல வண? க?

Ä = h ~ç= å= Ä ~= å= ï ~ d çì = ÇÉ= óá= ï ì åáåÖ

மாைல வண? க? !

L ã ~W = ä~áW = ã ~= ä~á= ï å â ã L ï ~= å~= â~= ã=

pÉåíÉåÅ ÉQ W `Ü áåÉëÉ= i ~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉW = 你好吗\ = (k á= e ~ç= j ~= \) g~é~åÉëÉ= i ~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉW = お元気(げんき)ですかK b åÖ äáëÜ W = e çï = ~êÉ= óçì \ q ~ã áäW = நீ? க எ? ப? இ? ? கறீ? க? pÉåíÉåÅ É= Q l êáÖ áå~ä q ~ã áä pçì åÇë `Ü áåÉëÉ i ~åÖ ì ~Ö É g~é~åÉëÉ i ~åÖ ì ~Ö É b åÖ äáëÜ q ~ã áä 你好吗\ お元気(げんき )ですかK e çï = ~êÉ= óçì \ நீ ெஹா மா ஒேக? கி ேதசிகா ெஹா? ஆ? ? நீ? க எ? ப?

b åÖ äáëÜ m Ü çåÉíáÅ

j ~åÇ~êáå= ëçì åÇë

L åáW = = Ü ~çW ã L k á= Ü ~ç= ã~ L Ö É= å âá= ÇÉ= ^ ç=Ö Éå=âá=ÇÉ=ëá= ë= Ö L â~ L Ü ~ì = ~W ê= = àì W L e ~ç= ~= óçì L åáW å= Ö ə Ééì Çá k áå= Ö É= É= éì = Çá= fêì â~êáW åâ~ L v á= êì = â~= êá= å= â~

நீ? க

எ? ப?

இ? ? கறீ? க?

இ? ? கறீ? க

200
Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar pÉåíÉåÅ É= RW `Ü áåÉëÉ= i ~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉW = 很好,谢谢 。(e Éå= Ü ~çI= u áÉ= ñáÉK = ) g~é~åÉëÉ= i ~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉW = おかげさまでK = ありがとうございますK b åÖ äáëÜ W = f= ~ã = Ñ áåÉI= íÜ ~åâ= óçì > q ~ã áäW =ந? றாக ( ந? லா ) இ? ? கிேற? , ந? றி. pÉåíÉåÅ É= R l êáÖ áå~ä q ~ã áä b åÖ äáëÜ pçì åÇë m Ü çåÉíáÅ `Ü áåÉëÉ i ~åÖ ì ~Ö É g~é~åÉëÉ i ~åÖ ì ~Ö É 很好,谢谢K おかげさまでK = ありがとうござ いますK ெஹ? ேஹா , சிஎசிஎ ஒகேக சமேட. அலிகேடா? ெகாஷ இ ம?

j ~åÇ~êáå= ëçì åÇë

L Ü əå= Ü ~çW = L e Éå= Ü ~ç L = áW É= áW ÉL u áÉ= ñáÉ L  â = Ö É= ^ ç=â~=Ö Éá=ë~=ã ~= ë= ã = ÇÉL ÇÉáK = ^= äá= Ö ~= Çç= Ö ç= L óá= ã ~= ëá = äá= Ö = Ç= ò~= ï =Ö =ò= óá= ã ëL

b åÖ äáëÜ

f=~ã =Ñ áåÉI=íÜ ~åâ= ஐ எ? óçì > த? ? ? ந? றாக

~á= ¦ ã= Ñ ~áåL ^ á= ã ì= Ñ = ~á= å ைப? , L L = θ¦ ŋâàì L

q ~ã áä

å å=ê=Ö ~= k ~å= ê~= Ö ~= E å~= ä~F ந? றாக (ந? லா) L L v á= êì = âá= êÉ= åI= å~å= இ? ? கிேற? , (ந? லா) E = L å = äL = F êá L óáW êì âáêÉáåL இ? ? கிேற? , ந? றி. L å å= êáL ந? றி.

pÉåíÉåÅ É= SW `Ü áåÉëÉ= i ~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉW = 再见 。(w~á= àá~å= ) g~é~åÉëÉ= i ~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉW = さようならK b åÖ äáëÜ W = d ççÇÄ óÉ> q ~ã áäW =ம? ? ? ச? தி? ேபா? (டா டா) pÉåíÉåÅ É= S l êáÖ áå~ä q ~ã áä pçì åÇë `Ü áåÉëÉ i ~åÖ ì ~Ö É g~é~åÉëÉ i ~åÖ ì ~Ö É b åÖ äáëÜ 再见K さようなら. d ççÇÄ óÉ> ைஜஜிய? ச ேயா? ந? லா ? ? ைப

b åÖ äáëÜ m Ü çåÉíáÅ L ò~á= Çá~åL L ë= ó= ï = å = ä= L L = Ö ÇD Ä ~L

j ~åÇ~êáå= ëçì åÇë w~á= àá~å p~= ó~ç= å~= ä~ d ç= ÇÉ= Ä ~á

201
Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar q ~ã áä ம? ? ? ச? தி? ேபா? (டா டா) ம? ? ? ச? தி? ேபா? (டா டா) L = ã áW å= Çì ã = j áå=Çì =ã =ë~å= = = = = = ëå=² áé=é ã = íá= é~ç= ã L E q ~= í~= F E = L í~W = í~W L = F

qÜ É=ê~ääáÉë=áå=j ~åÇ~êáåI=g~é~åÉëÉI=b åÖ äáëÜ =~åÇ=q ~ã áä=~êÉ ~äã çëí=ëã ççíÜ I=Ä ì í= ëçã Éíáã Éë=çåÉ= Å ~å=åçí= ~Ä äÉ=íç= Ñ áåÇ=íÜ É= ëì áí~Ä äÉ= í~êÖ Éí=ëçì åÇ=íç=êÉéä~Å É= íÜ É=çêáÖ áå~ä=ëçì åÇK = l åÉ= ã ì ëí= åçí= Ñ çêÖ Éí= íÜ ~í= íê~åëä~íáçå= Éñáëíë= áå= çêÇÉê= íç= íê~åëã áí= íÜ É= çêáÖ áå~ä= ã É~åáåÖ = çÑ = ~= íÉñí= íç= ~= ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåí= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉI= ~î çáÇáåÖ = Å ì äíì ê~ä= éêÉàì ÇáÅ Éë= ï Ü áÅ Ü = ã ~ó= äÉ~Ç= ì ë= íç= Å Ü ~åÖ É= íÜ É= íÉñí= ï É= ~êÉ= íê~åëä~íáåÖ K = l åÉ= ëÜ çì äÇ= Ä É= Ñ ~áíÜ Ñ ì ä= íç= íÜ É= çêáÖ áå~ä= íÉñíI= ~åÇ= Ä É= Ñ ~áíÜ Ñ ì ä= íç= íÜ É= í~êÖ Éí= íÉñíK = q ê~åëä~íáçå= áë= ~= ÇáÑ Ñ áÅ ì äí= í~ëâ= íÜ ~í= Ü ~ë= åç= Å çêêÉÅ í= çê= áåÅ çêêÉÅ í= ~åëï ÉêëI= Ä ì í= ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåí= çéáåáçåë= çê= ~ééêç~Å Ü ÉëK qe b= o l i b= l c= q o ^ k pi ^ q l o p pK pK = pl r k a ^ o v ^ f= j ^= b k d i fpe = o s p= ` ^p q ê~åëä~íáçå áë= íÜ É= Å çã ã ì åáÅ ~íáçå= çÑ = íÜ É= ã É~åáåÖ = çÑ = ~= ëçì êÅ ÉJä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= íÉñí= Ä ó= ã É~åë= çÑ =~å=Éèì áî ~äÉåí=í~êÖ ÉíJä~åÖ ì ~Ö É=íÉñíK =t Ü ÉêÉ~ë=áåíÉêéêÉíáåÖ ì åÇçì Ä íÉÇäó=~åíÉÇ~íÉë=ï êáíáåÖ I= íê~åëä~íáçå= Ä ÉÖ ~å= çåäó= ~Ñ íÉê= íÜ É= ~ééÉ~ê~åÅ É= çÑ = ï êáííÉå= äáíÉê~íì êÉK êçã =íÜ É=i ~íáå=translatio E ï Ü áÅ Ü =áíëÉäÑ =Å çã Éë=Ñ êçã = qÜ É=ï çêÇ=translation ÇÉêáî Éë=Ñ trans- ~åÇ= feroI íÜ É= ëì éáåÉ= Ñ çêã = çÑ = ï Ü áÅ Ü = áë= latumI= íçÖ ÉíÜ Éê= ã É~åáåÖ = ?íç= Å ~êêó= ~Å êçëë?= çê= ?íç= translation ÇÉêáî ÉÇ= Ñ êçã = íÜ ~í= Ä êáåÖ = ~Å êçëë?F K = qÜ É= ã çÇÉêå= o çã ~åÅ É= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö Éë= ì ëÉ= ï çêÇë= Ñ çê= ëçì êÅ É=çê=Ñ êçã =íÜ É=~äíÉêå~íáî É=i ~íáå=traduco E ?íç=äÉ~Ç=~Å êçëë?F K =q Ü É=pä~î áÅ =~åÇ=d Éêã ~åáÅ = ä~åÖ ì ~Ö Éë=E ÉñÅ Ééí=Ñ çê=íÜ É=a ì íÅ Ü ?vertaling?I=?äáíÉê~ääó?=~=?êÉJä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉJáåÖ ?F =äáâÉï áëÉ=ì ëÉ= Å ~äèì Éë= çÑ = íÜ ÉëÉ= i ~íáå= ëçì êÅ ÉëK = ^= Å çã éÉíÉåí= íê~åëä~íçê= ëÜ çï ë= íÜ É= Ñ çääçï áåÖ = ~ííêáÄ ì íÉëW  ~= very good âåçï äÉÇÖ É= çÑ = íÜ É= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉI= ï êáííÉå= ~åÇ= ëéçâÉåI= from which Ü É= áë= íê~åëä~íáåÖ = E íÜ É= ëçì êÅ É= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉF X  ~å= excellent Å çã ã ~åÇ= çÑ = íÜ É ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= into which Ü É= áë= íê~åëä~íáåÖ = E íÜ É= í~êÖ Éí= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉF X  Ñ ~ã áäá~êáíó= ï áíÜ = íÜ É= ëì Ä àÉÅ í= ã ~ííÉê= çÑ = íÜ É= íÉñí= Ä ÉáåÖ = íê~åëä~íÉÇX  ~= éêçÑ çì åÇ= ì åÇÉêëí~åÇáåÖ = çÑ = íÜ É= = Éíáã çäçÖ áÅ ~ä~åÇ= áÇáçã ~íáÅÅ çêêÉä~íÉë= Ä Éíï ÉÉå= íÜ É=íï ç=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉëX ==~åÇ=~==Ñ áåÉäó=íì åÉÇ=ëÉåëÉ=çÑ =ï Ü Éå=íç=metaphrase E ?íê~åëä~íÉ= äáíÉê~ääó?F =~åÇ=ï Ü Éå=íç= paraphraseI=ëç=~ë=íç=~ëëì êÉ=íêì É=ê~íÜ Éê=íÜ ~å=ëéì êáçì ë= equivalents Ä Éíï ÉÉå íÜ É=ëçì êÅ ÉJ ~åÇ=í~êÖ ÉíJä~åÖ ì ~Ö É=íÉñíëK q Ü É=íê~åëä~íçêD ë=êçäÉ=áå= êÉä~íáçå= íç= ~= íÉñí= Ü ~ë= Ä ÉÉå= Å çã é~êÉÇ= íç= íÜ ~í= çÑ = ~å= ~êíáëíI= ÉK Ö K I= ~= ã ì ëáÅ á~å= çê= ~Å íçêI= ï Ü ç= áåíÉêéêÉíë= ~= ï çêâ= çÑ = ~êíK = q ê~åëä~íáçåI= äáâÉ= çíÜ Éê= ~êíëI= áåÉëÅ ~é~Ä äó= áåî çäî Éë= Å Ü çáÅ ÉI= ~åÇ= Å Ü çáÅ É= áã éäáÉë= áåíÉêéêÉí~íáçåK e áëíçêó= çÑ = íê~åëä~íáçå= áë= ~ë= Ñ çääçï ë = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = qÜ É= Ñ áêëí= áã éçêí~åí= íê~åëä~íáçå= áå= íÜ É= t Éëí= ï ~ë= íÜ ~í= çÑ = íÜ É= pÉéíì ~Ö áåíI= ~= Å çääÉÅ íáçå= çÑ = gÉï áëÜ pÅ êáéíì êÉë= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= áåíç= É~êäó= h çáåÉ= d êÉÉâ áå= ^ äÉñ~åÇêá~ Ä Éíï ÉÉå= íÜ É= PêÇ=~åÇ=N ëí=Å Éåíì êáÉë=_ ` b K =q Ü É=ÇáëéÉêëÉÇ=gÉï ë Ü ~Ç=Ñ çêÖ çííÉå=íÜ Éáê=~åÅ Éëíê~ä=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É=~åÇ= åÉÉÇÉÇ= d êÉÉâ= î Éêëáçåë= E íê~åëä~íáçåëF = çÑ = íÜ Éáê= pÅ êáéíì êÉëK  qÜ É=Ñ áêëí=Ñ áåÉ=íê~åëä~íáçåë=áåíç=b åÖ äáëÜ =ï ÉêÉ=ã ~ÇÉ=áå=íÜ É=N Q íÜ =Å Éåíì êó=Ä ó= d ÉçÑ Ñ êÉó= `Ü ~ì Å ÉêI= ï Ü ç=~Ç~éíÉÇ=Ñ êçã =íÜ É= fí~äá~å çÑ =d áçî ~ååá=_ çÅ Å ~Å Å áç áå=Ü áë=çï å= Knight's Tale ~åÇ= Troilus and CriseydeX = Ä ÉÖ ~å= ~= íê~åëä~íáçå= çÑ = íÜ É= cêÉåÅ Ü Jä~åÖ ì ~Ö É Roman de la RoseX = ~åÇ= Å çã éäÉíÉÇ= ~= íê~åëä~íáçå= çÑ = _ çÉíÜ áì ë Ñ êçã = íÜ É= i ~íáåK = `Ü ~ì Å Éê= Ñ çì åÇÉÇ= ~å= b åÖ äáëÜ = éçÉíáÅíê~Çáíáçå= çå= adaptations ~åÇ= íê~åëä~íáçåë= Ñ êçã = íÜ çëÉ= É~êäáÉêJ Éëí~Ä äáëÜ ÉÇ= äáíÉê~êó= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉëK
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar
 qÜ É=Ñ áêëí=Ö êÉ~í=b åÖ äáëÜ =íê~åëä~íáçå=ï ~ë=íÜ É=Wycliffe Bible E Å ~K =N PU O F I=ï Ü áÅ Ü = ëÜ çï ÉÇ= íÜ É= ï É~âåÉëëÉë= çÑ = ~å= ì åÇÉêÇÉî ÉäçéÉÇ= båÖ äáëÜ = éêçëÉK = l åäó= ~í= íÜ É= ÉåÇ= çÑ = íÜ É= N RíÜ =Å Éåíì êó=ÇáÇ=íÜ É=Ö êÉ~í=~Ö É=çÑ =b åÖ äáëÜ =éêçëÉ=íê~åëä~íáçå=Ä ÉÖ áå=ï áíÜ =q Ü çã ~ë= j ~äçêóD ë= Le Morte Darthur? ~å= ~Ç~éí~íáçå= çÑ = ^ êíÜ ì êá~å= êçã ~åÅ Éë ëç= Ñ êÉÉ= íÜ ~í= áí= Å ~åI= áå=Ñ ~Å íI=Ü ~êÇäó=Ä É=Å ~ääÉÇ=~=íêì É=íê~åëä~íáçåK =q Ü É=Ñ áêëí=Ö êÉ~í=q ì Ççê íê~åëä~íáçåë=~êÉI= ~Å Å çêÇáåÖ äóI=íÜ É=Tyndale New Testament E N RO RF I=ï Ü áÅ Ü =áåÑ äì ÉåÅ ÉÇ=íÜ É=Authorized Version E N SN N F I= ~åÇ= i çêÇ= _ ÉêåÉêëD = î Éêëáçå= çÑ = gÉ~å= c êçáëë~êíD ë= Chronicles E N RO P?O RF K

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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar
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204
Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

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k ~= à~ó~íÜÉ = ã êá ó~íÉ = î ~= â~ÇÜ~Å Üá í k ~ó~ã = ÄÜççíÜî ~= ÄÜ~î á íÜ~= î ~= å~= ÄÜççó~ ^ àç= åá íÜó~= ëÜ~ëÜï ~íÜç= ó~ã = é ì ê~å~ k ~= Ü~åó~íÜÉ = Ü~åó~ã ~åÉ = ëÜ~êÉ É êÉ

sÉ Ç~î á å~ëÜá å~ã = åá íÜó~ã = v ~= É å~ã ~à~ã ~î ó~ó~ã h ~ÇÜ~ã = ë~= é ì êì ëÜ~= m ~êíÜ~> h ~ã = âÜ~íÜ~ó~íÜá = Ü~åíÜá = â~ã \

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qe o l r d e = qe b= o l ^a = l c= q o ^ k pi ^ q fl k l åÉ=ÇáÑ Ñ áÅ ì äíó=áå=íê~åëä~íáçå=ëíÉã ë=Ñ êçã =íÜ É=Ñ ~Å í=íÜ ~í=ã çëí=ï çêÇë=Ü ~î É=ã ì äíáéäÉ= ã É~åáåÖ ëK = _ ÉÅ ~ì ëÉ= çÑ = íÜ áë= Ñ ~Å íI= ~= íê~åëä~íáçå= Ä ~ëÉÇ= çå= ~= çåÉJíçJçåÉ= ëì Ä ëíáíì íáçå= çÑ = ï çêÇë= áë= ëÉäÇçã =~Å Å Ééí~Ä äÉK =q Ü ÉëÉ=ã ì äíáéäÉ=ã É~åáåÖ ë=~êÉ=~í=íáã Éë=ëáã áä~ê=çê=ÉåíáêÉäó=çééçëáíÉK =v Éí= É~Å Ü = çÑ = íÜ É= ëáã áä~ê= ã É~åáåÖ ë= ÇáÑ Ñ Éê= áå= íÜ Éáê= ÇÉéíÜ K = e ÉåÅ É= ~= Ö êÉ~í= ÇÉ~ä= çÑ = ÇÉéíÜ = áå= ã É~åáåÖ = áë= ~äï ~óë=äçëí=áå=~=íê~åëä~íÉÇ=íÉñíK =o ~êÉäó=ÇçÉë=~=íê~åëä~íáçå=~ã çì åí=íç=íÜ É=Ö êÉ~íåÉëë=çÑ =íÜ É= çêáÖ áå~ä= íÉñíK = få= çêÇÉê= íç= éêçÇì Å É= ~å= ~Å Å Ééí~Ä äÉ= íê~åëä~íáçåI= çåÉ= ã ì ëí= Ñ áåÇ= ~Å Å Ééí~Ä äÉ= ï çêÇë= áå= íÜ É= çíÜ Éê= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK = b î Éêó ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= áë= áåÑ äì ÉåÅ ÉÇ= Ä ó= íÜ É= Å ì äíì êÉ= áí= áë= ~= é~êí= çÑ K = j É~åáåÖ = áë= åçí= ëçã É=~Ä ëíê~Å í=çÄ àÉÅ í=íÜ ~í=áë=áåÇÉéÉåÇÉåí=çÑ =éÉçéäÉ=~åÇ=Å ì äíì êÉK =t çêÇë=ï Ü áÅ Ü =~êÉ=é~êí=çÑ =~= Å ì äíì êÉ=~åÇ=åçí=éêÉëÉåí=áå=~åó= çíÜ Éê= Å ì äíì êÉ= ï áää=åÉî Éê= Ü ~î É=Éèì áî ~äÉåí=ï çêÇë=áå=~åó=çíÜ Éê= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK = b èì áî ~äÉåí= ï çêÇë= Ñ çê= íÜ É= ï çêÇë= ?v çÖ ~?I= ?a Ü ~êã ~?I= ?^ íã ~å?= ÉíÅ = Ñ çê= áåëí~åÅ É= ï áää= åÉî Éê= Ü ~î É= Éèì áî ~äÉåí= ï çêÇë= áå= ~åó= çíÜ Éê= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= Ä ì í= p~åëâêáíK fåÇá~å= Å ì äíì êÉ= áë= ~å= ~ã ~äÖ ~ã ~íáçå= çÑ = ëÉî Éê~ä= Å ì äíì êÉëK = fí= áë= ì åáèì É= áå= áíë= Å êì ÇÉ= ~åÇ= ê~ï = = å~íì êÉK =fí=ëé~åë=~Å êçëë=íÜ É=fåÇá~å=ëì Ä =Å çåíáåÉåíK =fí=Ü ~ë=Ä ÉÉå=áåÑ äì ÉåÅ ÉÇ=Ä ó==Ü áëíçêó= ëÉî Éê~ä= ã áääÉååá~=çäÇK =j çëí=ÉäÉã Éåíë=çÑ =fåÇá~?ë=Çáî ÉêëÉ=Å ì äíì êÉ=ëì Å Ü =~ë=êÉäáÖ áçåëI=óçÖ ~I=äáíÉê~íì êÉI= éÜ áäçëçéÜ ó=~åÇ=Å ì áëáåÉ=Ü ~î É=Ü ~Ç=~=éêçÑ çì åÇ=áã é~Å í=~Å êçëë=íÜ É=ï çêäÇK =l åäó=~å=fåÇá~å=Å ~å=
205
Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

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^= o b` bk q= qo bk a = fk = q o ^ k pi ^ q fl k ^K pq b m e bk = o ^ g= ff= j K ^= b k d i fpe = o s p= ` ^p C= sK po fg^ = ff= j K ^= b k d i fpe = _ e ^ o ^ q e f^ o = r k fs b o fq v ?fÑ = óçì = í~äâ= íç= ~= ã ~å= áå= ~= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= Ü É= ì åÇÉêëí~åÇëI= íÜ ~í= Ö çÉë= íç= Ü áë= Ü É~ÇI= fÑ = óçì = í~äâ= íç= Ü áã = áå= Ü áë= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉI= íÜ ~í= Ö çÉë= íç= Ü áë= Ü É~êí?= ? k b i pl k j ^ k a b i ^ ? = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = t É= íê~åëä~íÉ= íÜ É= Ñ çêÉáÖ å= íÜ áåÖ ë= áåíç= çì ê= ã çíÜ Éê= íçåÖ ì É= Ñ çê= ëÉî Éê~ä= êÉ~ëçåëK = j çëí= áã éçêí~åí=êÉ~ëçå=áë=íç=âåçï =Éî ÉêóíÜ áåÖ K =t Ü áäÉ=íê~åëä~íáåÖ =íÜ É=íê~åëä~íçê=Å çã É=~Å êçëë=Ñ Éï = çÄ ëí~Å äÉë= äáâÉ= Å ì äíì ê~ä= ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåÅ ÉI= ï çêÇ= ì ë~Ö ÉI= éì åëI= áÇáçã ë= ~åÇ= ëäçÖ ~åK = q ç= çî ÉêÅ çã É= íÜ ÉëÉ= áëëì Éë= íê~åëÅ êÉ~íáçå= Å çã Éë= áåíç= éêçÅ ÉëëK = q ê~åëÅ êÉ~íáçå= áë= ì ëÉÇ= ~ë= ÇÉî áÅ É= íç= Ä êÉ~â= íÜ É= ã óíÜ = çÑ = ?ì åíê~åëä~í~Ä áäáíó?K =q ê~åëä~íçêë=ÉåíÉê=áåíç=íÜ É=ëçäÉ=çÑ =íÜ É=çêáÖ áå~ä=~ì íÜ çê=~åÇ=íÜ Éå=Ü áã ëÉäÑ = Ä ÉÅ çã É= Å êÉ~íçêK = q ê~åëÅ êÉ~íáçå= êÉÑ Éêë= íç= íÜ É= éêçÅ Éëë= çÑ = í~âáåÖ = ~= ã Éëë~Ö É= íÜ ~í= ï ~ë= Å êÉ~íÉÇ= áå= çåÉ= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= ~åÇ= Å çåî ÉóáåÖ = áí= áå= ~åçíÜ Éê= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= ï áíÜ çì í= íÜ É= äçëë= çÑ = ë~äáÉåÅ ÉK = qÜ É= Ö ç~ä= çÑ = íê~åëÅ êÉ~íáçå áë= íç= íê~åëÑ Éê= íÜ É= áåíÉåíI= ëíóäÉI= î çÅ ~ä= íçåÉ= ~åÇ= Éã çíáçå~ä= ë~äáÉåÅ É= çÑ = íÜ É= ã Éëë~Ö É= Ñ êçã = íÜ É= ëçì êÅ É= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= íç= íÜ ~í= çÑ = íÜ É= í~êÖ ÉíÉÇ= ~ì ÇáÉåÅ ÉK = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = q ê~åëä~íáçå= íÜ Éçêó= áå= íÜ É= fåÇá~å= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= Ü ~ë= Ä ÉÉå= ëçã ÉíÜ áåÖ = áåÜ ÉêÉåí= áå= éê~Å íáÅ ÉI= áå= íÜ É= ~åÅ áÉåí íáã Éë= íÜ ÉêÉ= áë= åç= ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåÅ É= Ä Éíï ÉÉå= íê~åëä~íáçå= ~åÇ= Å êÉ~íáî É= ï êáíáåÖ K = _ ì í= áå= íÜ É= ã çÇÉêå= Éê~= ëÜ çï å= ëçã É= ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåÅ ÉK = få= íÜ É= ~åÅ áÉåí= éÉêáçÇ= ã ìÅ Ü = íê~åëä~íáçå= ï ~ë= ÇçåÉ= Ä Éíï ÉÉå= Å ä~ëëáÅ ~ä= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö Éë= äáâÉ= p~åëâêáí= ~åÇ= éê~âêáíëK = qÜ ÉëÉ= íê~åëä~íáçåë= ï ÉêÉ= Å ~ääÉÇ= íç= ?Å Ü ~ó~= Å Ü ~ó~?= çê= ?íê~åëä~íáçå= ~ë= ëÜ ~Ççï = çÑ = íÜ É= çêáÖ áå~ä= íÉñí?K = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = q ê~åëä~íáçå= ëÜ çì äÇ= Ñ çääçï = íÜ É= çêáÖ áå~ä= íÉñí= äáâÉ= ëÜ ~Ççï I= ï Ü áÅ Ü = Ñ çääçï ë= íÜ É= çêáÖ áå~ä= çÄ àÉÅ íëK = pÜ ~Ççï = Å ~å= ÇáÑ Ñ Éê= Ñ êçã = áíë= çêáÖ áå~ä= çÄ àÉÅ íI= ÇÉéÉåÇáåÖ = çå= áåíÉåëáíó= ~åÇ= íÜ É= ~åÖ äÉ= çÑ = äáÖ Ü í=Ñ ~ääáåÖ =áå=áíK =p~ã ÉI=íÜ É=íê~åëä~íáçå=ã ~ó=ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêI=ÇÉéÉåÇáåÖ =çå=íÜ É=áåíÉêéêÉí~íáçå=çÑ =íÜ É= íê~åëä~íçêK = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = qÜ É= éÉçéäÉ= çêáÉåíÉÇ= ~åÇ= íÜ É= íáã É= çêáÉåíÉÇ= Å êÉ~íáî É= íê~åëä~íáçå= ~êÉ= Ö ÉåÉê~ääó= íÉêã ÉÇ= ~ë= íê~åëÅ êÉ~íáçåK = qÜ áë= m K i ^i =Ñ çê= Ü áë= b åÖ äáëÜ = íê~åëä~íáçå= çÑ = íÜ É= ?pÜ ~âì åí~ä~= ~åÇ= _ êÜ ~Ç~ê~åó~â~= r é~åáëÜ ÉÇK = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = q ê~åëÅ êÉ~íáçå=Å ~å=çÑ Ñ Éê=íÜ É=Ä Éëí=éçëëáÄ äÉ=ëçäì íáçå=Ñ çê=íÜ É=éêçÄ äÉã ë=çÑ =Å ì äíì ê~ääó= çêáÉåíÉÇ=äáíÉê~êó=íÉñíëK =q ê~åëÅ êÉ~íáçå=áå=íÜ áë=Å çåíÉñí=Å ~å=Ä É=ì åÇÉêëíççÇ=~ë=~=êÉÄ áêíÜ =çê= áåÅ ~êå~íáçå=çÑ =íÜ É=çêáÖ áå~ä=ï çêâK =d ÉåÉê~ääó=áí=áë=ÇÉÑ áåÉÇ=~ë=êÉJáåíÉêéêÉí~íáçå=çÑ =íÜ É=çêáÖ áå~ä= ï çêâ= ~Å Å çêÇáåÖ = íç= íÜ É= íáã É= ~åÇ= ëé~Å É= çÑ = íÜ É= é~êíáÅ ì ä~ê= ~ì ÇáÉåÅ Éy êÉ~ÇÉê?ë= í~êÖ Éí= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = b ñ~ã éäÉW ==^ =ã çÇÉêå=éçÉí=s Éååáâì ä~ã =Ü ~ë=~Ö ~áå=íê~åëÅ êÉ~íÉÇ=íÜ É=o ~ã ~ó~å~=çÑ = q ì ä~ëáÇ~= Ñ êçã = e áåÇá= íç= j ~ä~ó~ä~ã = ì ëáåÖ = íÜ É= íê~Çáíáçå~ä= éçÉíáÅ = ëíóäÉ= Å ~ääÉÇ= ?âáäáéé~ííì ?= E é~êêçí= ëçåÖ F = ~åÇ= áí= Å çì äÇ= Ä ÉÅ çã É= ~= éçéì ä~ê= íê~åëä~íáçå= íççK = = = = = = = = = = qÜ É= Å çÖ åáíáî É=éêçÅ Éëë=çÑ = íê~åëä~íáçå=áë=äáâÉ= ~å~äóëáë=~åÇ=Å çã éêÉÜ Éåëáçå=çÑ =íÜ É= äáíÉê~ä= ~åÇ íÜ É= ëì Ö Ö ÉëíÉÇ= ã É~åáåÖ = çÑ = íÜ É= í~êÖ Éí= íÉñí= ~åÇ= Ñ áåÇáåÖ = çÑ = ëì áí~Ä äÉ= Éèì áî ~äÉåÅ É= áå= íÜ É= í~êÖ Éí= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK =_ ì í=íÜ É=éêçÅ Éëë=çÑ =íÉñí=~å~äóëáë=áë=ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåíK =q Ü É=Ñ ä~ëÜ Éë=Ñ êçã =íÜ É=?ëì éÉê=ã áåÇ?= íÜ êçì Ö Ü =íÜ É=ã ÉÇáì ã =çÑ =áåíì áíáçå=ï áää=Ä É=çÑ =Ö êÉ~í=Ü Éäé=Ñ çê=íÜ É=íê~åëä~íçêëK =q Ü É=ì ëÉ=çÑ =íÜ É=
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

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ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK = qÜ Éó= ã ì ëí= Ü ~î É= ~å= áå= ÇÉéíÜ = ì åÇÉêëí~åÇáåÖ = çÑ = íÜ É= íï ç= Å ì äíì êÉë= áåî çäî ÉÇI= ~åÇ= Ä É= ~å= ~Å Å çã éäáëÜ ÉÇ= ï êáíÉêK = qÜ áë= Ö áî Éë= íÜ Éã = íÜ É= Å çåÑ áÇÉåÅ É= íç= ã çî É= ~ï ~ó= Ñ êçã = íÜ É= çêáÖ áå~ä= íÉñí= ï Ü Éå= åÉÅ Éëë~êóI= ï áíÜ çì í= Å Ü ~åÖ áåÖ = ï çêÇë= ~åÇ= áÇÉ~ë= ëáã éäó= Ñ çê= íÜ É= ë~âÉ= çÑ = Å Ü ~åÖ ÉK = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = q ê~åëä~íáçå= áë= ~Ä çì í= íÜ É= ~Ä áäáíó= íç= ì åÇÉêëí~åÇ= ëçã ÉçåÉ= ÉäëÉ?ë= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK = q ê~åëÅ êÉ~íáçå= áë= ~Ä çì í= íÜ É= ~Ä áäáíó= íç= ï êáíÉ= áå= óçì ê= çï åK = q ê~åëÅ êÉ~íáçå= í~âÉë= áåíç= ~Å Å çì åí= íÜ É= ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåÅ É= áå= Å çåíÉñí= Ä Éíï ÉÉå= íÜ É= ëçì êÅ É= ~åÇ= í~êÖ Éí= î ÉêëáçåK = qÜ áë= çÑ íÉå= ã É~åë= ã ~âáåÖ = Å ì äíì ê~ä= ~Çàì ëíã ÉåíëK = qÜ ÉêÉ= ~êÉ= ã ~åó= Éñ~ã éäÉë= Ñ çê= íÜ áë= Å çåÅ ÉéíK = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = b ñ~ã éäÉW ==få=íÜ É=_ áÄ áäáÅ ~ä=éÜ ê~ëÉë=?q Ü É=i ~ã Ä =çÑ =d çÇ?=íÜ É=ä~ã Ä =ëóã Ä çäáòÉë= áååçÅ ÉåÅ ÉK = _ ì í= áå= íÜ É= b ëâáã ç= î Éêëáçå= íÜ É= _ áÄ äÉ= íÜ áë= ÉñéêÉëëáçå= áë= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= ~ë= ?íÜ É= ëÉ~ä= çÑ = d çÇ?K = qÜ áë= áë= Ä ÉÅ ~ì ëÉ= ëÉ~äë= êÉéêÉëÉåí= áååçÅ ÉåÅ É= áå= b ëâáã ç= Å ì äíì êÉK = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = j ` =a çå~äÇ?ë=ÇÉÅ áÇÉÇ=íç=~Ç~éí=áíë=áÅ çåáÅ =?f?ã =äçî áå?=áí> ?=ï Ü áäÉ=íê~åëä~íáåÖ =íç= Å Ü áåÉ~ëÉ= íÜ Éó= Ççå?í= Çç= äáíÉê~ä= íê~åëä~íáçåK = qÜ Éó= íê~åëÅ êÉ~íÉ= ~ë= 我就喜欢 ï Ü áÅ Ü = ã É~åë= ?f= àì ëí= äáâÉ?K = qÜ áë= áë= Ä ÉÅ ~ì ëÉ= íÜ É= ï çêÇ= ?äçî É?= áå= Å Ü áå~= áë= í~âÉå= î Éêó= ëÉêáçì ëäó= ~åÇ= åÉî Éê= ì ëÉÇ= äáÖ Ü íäóK = q ê~Çáíáçå~ääó= íÜ É= ï çêÇ= äçî É= ï ~ë= åÉî Éê= Éî Éå= ë~áÇ= ~äçì ÇK = b î Éå= íçÇ~óI= äçî Éêë= ë~ó= ?f= äáâÉ= óçì ?= íç= Å çã ã ì åáÅ ~íÉ= Ö êÉ~í= ~Ñ Ñ ÉÅ íáçå= ï áíÜ çì í= ~Å íì ~ääó= ì ëáåÖ = íÜ É= ï çêÇK = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = l åÉ= çÑ = íÜ É= Ä ÉëíëÉääáåÖ = åçî Éäë= çÑ = êÉÅ Éåí= óÉ~êë áë= píáÉÖ = i ~êëëçå?ë= ?q Ü É= d áêä= ï áíÜ = íÜ É= a ê~Ö çå=í~ííçç?=Ä ì í= áíë=çêáÖ áå~ä=pï ÉÇáëÜ =íáíäÉ=ã É~åë= ?j Éå=íÜ ~í=Ü ~íÉ=ï çã Éå?K =få=íÜ É=äáÄ Éê~äI= ëçÅ 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~äì Éë= ~ééÉ~ä= íç= fåÇá~å= êÉ~ÇÉêëI= ~åÇ= Ü áë= ÇÉã çåJäáâÉ= ~Çî Éêë~êáÉë í~é= áåíç= ã óíÜ çäçÖ áÉë= ëì Å Ü = ~ë= íÜ É= o ~ã ~ó~å~I= ã ~âáåÖ = íÜ áë= ~= Ö êÉ~í= Éñ~ã éäÉ= çÑ = Ü çï = áÇÉ~ë Å ~å= êÉëçå~íÉ= ~Å êçëë= Å ì äíì êÉëK = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = q ç= ëì ã = ì é= q ê~åëÅ êÉ~íáçå= Éñé~åÇë= ì éçå= íê~åëä~íáçå= Ä ó= Ñ çÅ ì ëáåÖ = åçí= ëç= ã ìÅ Ü = çå= íÜ É= äáíÉê~ä= íÉñíI= Ä ì í= çå= ÇáëÅ ÉêåáåÖ = íÜ É= Éã çíáçå~ä= êÉëéçåëÉ= Ä ó= î áÉï Éêë= áå= íÜ É= ëçì êÅ ÉJä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= ~åÇ= ï çêâáåÖ = íç= ÉäáÅ áí= íÜ É= ë~ã É= êÉëéçåëÉ= Ñ êçã = î áÉï Éêë= áå= íÜ É= í~êÖ Éí= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK = fí= áë= ~Ä çì í= ?í~âáåÖ = ~= Å çåÅ Ééí= áå= çåÉ= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= ~åÇ= Å çã éäÉíÉäó= êÉÅ êÉ~íáåÖ = áí= áå= ~åçíÜ ÉêK o l i b= l c= q o ^ k pi ^ q l o gK pr d ^ k v ^ f= j K ^= b k d i fpe o s p= ` ^p ^= q ê~åëä~íçê= I= ï Ü ç= íê~åëä~íÉë= ~= ï êáííÉå= ã ~íÉêá~ä= Ñ êçã = çåÉ= çê= ã çêÉ= pçì êÅ É= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö Éë= áåíç=q ~êÖ Éí=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK =t Ü áäÉ=íê~åëä~íáåÖ I=Ü É=áã éäÉã Éåíë=Ü áë=çï å=ëíóäÉ=íÜ êçì Ö Ü =Ü áë=ã çíÜ Éê= íçåÖ ì ÉK =e É=ëÜ çì äÇ=íê~åëä~íÉ=íÜ É=ï çêâ=ï áíÜ çì í=Å Ü ~åÖ áåÖ =íÜ É=ã É~åáåÖ =çÑ =çêáÖ áå~ä=íÉñíK =q Ü É= í~êÖ Éí=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É=áë=ì ëì ~ääó=íê~åëä~íçê?ë=ã çíÜ Éê=íçåÖ ì ÉK =q ê~åëÅ êÉ~íáçå=áë=~äëç=~=é~êí=çÑ =
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar íê~åëä~íáåÖ K = q ê~åëä~íçêë= ëÜ çì äÇ= Ä É= ÉÑ Ñ áÅ áÉåí= ~åÇ= éêçÑ Éëëáçå~äáëã K = o ÉëÉ~êÅ Ü = ~åÇ= ~å~äóíáÅ ~ä= ëâáää= áë= î Éêó= áã éçêí~åí= Ñ çê= íê~åëä~íçêëK ^ åóçåÉ=Å ~å=Ä É=~=íê~åëä~íçêK =_ ì í=çåäó=~=ëì Å Å ÉëëÑ ì ä=íê~åëä~íçê=Å ~å=Ö áî É=~=ëì Å Å ÉëëÑ ì ä= íê~åëä~íáçåK = = j çííç= çÑ = íê~åëä~íçêW = f= i çî É= t Ü ~í= f= a çI= t çêâáåÖ = t Ü Éå= f= t çêâI = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = l å= t Ü ~í= f= t ~åíI= cçê= t Ü çã = f= t ~åíK = pçã É= áåÇáëéÉåë~Ä äÉ= ëâáääë= ~êÉI= ^= Ö ççÇ= íê~åëä~íçê= ï áää= ì ëÉ= ÇáÅ íáçå~êó= ~åÇ= çíÜ Éê= êÉëçì êÅ Éë= íç= Ñ áåÇ= éêÝ Å áë= ï çêÇë= íç= ÉñéêÉëë= íÜ É= Å çåÅ Ééí= IíÉêã ë= ~åÇ= áÇÉ~ë= áå= q ~êÖ Éí= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK = e É= ëÜ çì äÇ= Ä É= Å äÉ~ê= áå= = pçì êÅ É= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É?ë= ÉñéêÉëëáî É= î çÅ ~Ä ì ä~êóI= î ~ëí= âåçï äÉÇÖ É= áå= Ö ê~ã ã ~ê= ~ë= ï Éää=~ë=áå=q ~êÖ Éí=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK =_ ~ëáÅ =Å çã éì íÉê=ëâáääë=~êÉ=åÉÅ Éëë~êó=Ñ çê=íê~åëä~íçêëI=ï Ü ÉêÉ~ë= ~Çî ~åÅ ÉÇ= Å çã éì íÉê= ëâáääë= ~êÉ= Å çåëáÇÉêÉÇ= ~ë= Ä çåì ëK = d ççÇ= äÉî Éä= çÑ = b Çì Å ~íáçå= áë= ~åçíÜ Éê= Ü ìÖ É= ~Çî ~åí~Ö ÉK = m êçÑ Éëëáçå~ä= íê~åëä~íáçå= èì ~äáÑ áÅ ~íáçå= E = j ~ëíÉê?ë= áå= íê~åëä~íáçå= ëíì ÇáÉë= çê= a áéq ê~åëF = Å ~å=~äëç=Ä É=~=ã ~ëëáî É=Ü Éäé=íç=íÜ Éã K =^ =éÉêÑ ÉÅ í=íê~åëä~íçê=~Ççéíë=íÜ É=_ Éëí=o Éëçì êÅ Éë=Ñ êçã = áåíÉêåÉíI= ëéÉÅ á~äáëí= Ä áäáåÖ ì ~ä= ~åÇ= ã çåçäáåÖ ì ~ä= ÇáÅ íáçå~êáÉëI= ëíóäÉ= Ö ì áÇÉI= Å çã éì íÉê= ëçÑ íï ~êÉ= ~åÇ= Ü ~êÇï ~êÉK = péÉÅ á~äáò~íáçå= = éä~óë= ~= î áí~ä= êçäÉ= áå= íê~åëä~íáçåK = k çÄ çÇó= Å ~å= Ä É= ~å= ÉñéÉêí= áå= Éî ÉêóíÜ áåÖ I= Ä ì í= ~= íê~åëä~íçê= áë= ÉñéÉÅ íÉÇ= íç= Ä É= ~å= ÉñéÉêí= áå= íê~åëä~íáåÖ K = = = = = = qÜ ÉêÉ=~êÉ=Ñ Éï =íáéë=Ñ çê=íê~åëä~íçêë=áå=ëÉäÉÅ íáåÖ =íÜ Éáê=íê~åëä~íáçåëI=Ñ çääçï áåÖ =~êÉ= pÉäÉÅ íáåÖ = m êçàÉÅ í=ï áíÜ áå= v çì ê=^ Ä áäáíóI= fÑ =óçì =Çç=åçí=ëÉäÉÅ í íÜ É=éêçàÉÅ í=ï Ü áÅ Ü = áë=Ñ ~ã áäá~ê=íç= óçì I= óçì ê= ï çêâë= ï áää= Ä É= Çáëèì ~äáÑ áÉÇK = _ ÉÑ çêÉ= ëÉäÉÅ íáåÖ =óçì ê= íÉñíI= óçì = Ü ~î É= íç= Ä É= Å äÉ~ê= ï áíÜ = ~Ä áäáíáÉë= ~åÇ= äáã áí~íáçåëK = l ã áí= gçÄ = ï áíÜ = fã éçëëáÄ äÉ= a É~ÇäáåÉëI= a ç= åçí= ~Ö êÉÉ= ~= àçÄ = ï áíÜ = ëÜ çêí= ÇÉ~ÇäáåÉëK = qÜ É= èì ~äáíó= çÑ = óçì ê= ï çêâ= ï áää= Ä ÉÅ çã Éë= íç= ëéçáäI= Çì É= íç= áã éçëëáÄ äÉ= ÇÉ~ÇäáåÉëK = pç= ëÉäÉÅ íáåÖ = = íÜ É= àçÄ = ï áíÜ = Å çã Ñ çêí~Ä äÉ= ÇÉ~ÇäáåÉë= áë= ÉëëÉåíá~ä= íç= íê~åëä~íçêëK = a ç= åçí= e Éëáí~íÉ= íç= ~ëâ= èì ÉëíáçåëI= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = q ê~åëä~íçêë= ëÜ çì äÇ= åçí= Ü Éëáí~íÉ= íç= èì Éëíáçå= çíÜ ÉêëK = _ ó= èì ÉëíáçåáåÖ = Ü É= ã ~ó Ö ~áå= ã çêÉ= áåÑ çêã ~íáçå= ~Ä çì í= é~ëí= êÉÅ çêÇë= ~åÇ= ÇçÅ ì ã ÉåíëK = ^= = Å çã ã çå= Ä ÉÖ áååÉê= ã áëí~âÉ= áë= íç= íêó= íç= Ä É= ~= d ççÇ= ~åÇ= åçí= ~ëâ= èì ÉëíáçåëK = pÉåëÉ= çÑ = páã éäáÅ áíóI= i ~åÖ ì ~Ö É= áë= ÇÉëáÖ åÉÇ= Ñ çê= Å çã ã ì åáÅ ~íáçåK =q ê~åëä~íçêë=ëÜ çì äÇ=åçí=~ääçï =íçç=Éñ~Ö Ö Éê~íÉÇ=ï çêÇëI=ì åÑ ~ã áäá~ê=íÉêã ë=áå= íê~åëä~íáçåK = qÜ É= î çÅ ~Ä ì ä~êó= çÑ = íê~åëä~íçê= ëÜ çì äÇ= Ä É= åÉáíÜ Éê= ëáã éäÉI= åçê= éççêK qÜ ÉêÉ= ~êÉ= ëçã É= åçí~Ä äÉ= íê~åëä~íáçåë= ï Ü áÅ Ü = ~íí~áåÉÇ= íêáì ã éÜ K = _ f_ i b = W = qÜ É= _ áÄ äÉ= Ü ~ë= Ä ÉÉå= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= áåíç= ã ~åó= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö Éë= Ñ êçã = Ä áÄ äáÅ ~ä= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö Éë= çÑ =e ÉÄ êÉï I=^ ê~ã ~áÅ I=d êÉÉâK =r åíáä=k çî Éã Ä Éê=O M N O =íÜ É=_ áÄ äÉ=Ü ~ë=Ä ÉÉå=íê~åëä~íÉÇ=áåíç=RN U = ä~åÖ ì ~Ö Éë=K =b åÖ äáëÜ =_ áÄ äÉ=q ê~åëä~íáçå=Ü ~î É=~=êáÅ Ü =~åÇ=î ~êáÉÇ=e áëíçêó=çÑ =ã çêÉ=íÜ ~å= ã áääÉååáì ã K = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = _ ççâë= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= áå= åì ã Ä Éê= çÑ = ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉëW = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = qÜ É= i áííäÉ= m êáåÅ É= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = JO N S = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = m áäÖ êáã ?ë= = m êçÖ êÉëë= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = JO M M = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = ^ åÇÉêëÉå?ë= c ~áêó= q ~äÉë= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = JN RP = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = q ï Éåíó= qÜ çì ë~åÇ= i É~Ö ì Éë= r åÇÉê= íÜ É= pÉ~= JN Q T = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = n ì ê~å= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = JN N Q = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = m áåçÅ Å Ü áç= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = JN M M K = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = o bcbo bk ` b N K = ` çÜ ÉåIgK j K I= ?q ê~åëä~íáçå?I= b åÅ óÅ äçéÉÇá~= ^ ã ÉêáÅ ~åI= N V U SI= s PçäK = O T O K = ï ï ï K å~íáçå~ä= åÉíï çêâ= Ñ çê= íê~åëä~íáçåK ëÅ K r hL ï Ü ~íJ~êÉJëâáääëJêÉèì áêÉÇ PK = i áåÖ çÅ çÇÉK Å çã L ï Ü ~íJã ~âÉëJ~JÖ ççÇJíê~åëä~íçê Q K = ï ï ï K íáéë= Ñ çê= íê~åëä~íçêëK Å çã L íáéëK ~ëé

209
Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar a fc c f` r i q fb p= fk = q o ^ k pi ^ q fk d = m o l pb ^K r pe ^ f= j K ^= b k d i fpe = o s p= ` ^p qÜ áë=~êíáÅ äÉ=ÇÉ~äë=ï áíÜ =íÜ É=éêçÄ äÉã ë=áå=íê~åëä~íáåÖ =äáíÉê~êó=éêçëÉ=~åÇ=êÉî É~äë=ëçã É= éÉêíáåÉåí= ëçäì íáçåë= ~åÇ= ~äëç= Å çåÅ Éåíê~íÉë= çå= íÜ É= åÉÉÇ= íç= Éñé~åÇ= íÜ É= éÉêáã ÉíÉêë= çÑ = íê~åëä~íáçå= ëíì ÇáÉëK = qÜ É= íê~åëä~íçêë= ä~ó= ã çêÉ= Éã éÜ ~ëáë= çå= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íáçå= çÑ = éçÉíêóK = qÜ ÉêÉ= ëÜ çì äÇ= Ä É= ã çêÉ= êÉëÉ~êÅ Ü =êÉÖ ~êÇáåÖ =íÜ É=é~êíáÅ ì ä~ê=éêçÄ äÉã ë=çÑ =íê~åëä~íáåÖ =äáíÉê~êó=éêçëÉK =l åÉ=Éñéä~å~íáçå=çÑ = íÜ áë= Å çì äÇ= Ä É= íÜ É= Ñ ~Å í= íÜ ~í= íÜ É= ëí~íì ë= çÑ = éçÉíêó= áë= Å çåëáÇÉêÉÇ= Ü áÖ Ü ÉêI= Ä ì í= áí= áë ã çêÉ= éçëëáÄ äó= Çì É= íç=íÜ É=åçí~Ä äÉ=Ñ ä~ï ÉÇ=åçíáçå=íÜ ~í=íÜ É=åçî ÉäëI=Éëë~óëI=Ñ áÅ íáçå=ÉíÅ K =éçëëÉëë=~=ëáã éäÉ=ëíêì Å íì êÉ= Å çã é~êÉÇ= íç= íÜ ~í= çÑ = ~= éçÉã = ~åÇ= áë= íÜ ì ë= É~ëáÉê= íç= íê~åëä~íÉK = páã ì äí~åÉçì ëäóI= íÜ É= ?ì åíê~åëä~í~Ä äÉ?=Å ì äíì ê~äJÄ çì åÇ=ï çêÇë=~åÇ=éÜ ê~ëÉë=Ü ~î É=Ä ÉÉå=Å çåíáåì çì ëäó=Ñ ~ëÅ áå~íáåÖ =íÜ É= éêçëÉJíê~åëä~íçêë= ~åÇ= íê~åëä~íáçå= íÜ ÉçêáëíëK = b î áÇÉåíäóI= ?éêçëÉJíê~åëä~íáçåë?= áë= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íáçå= çÑ = åçî ÉäëI=Éëë~óëI=Ñ áÅ íáçåI=ëÜ çêí=ëíçêáÉëI=Å çã ÉÇóI=Ñ çäâ=í~äÉI=Ü ~Ö áçÖ ê~éÜ óI=ï çêâë=çÑ =Å êáíáÅ áëã I= ëÅ áÉåÅ É= Ñ áÅ íáçå= ÉíÅ K = áí= áë= ~= íóéÉ= çÑ = äáíÉê~êó= Å êÉ~íáî ÉåÉëë= ï Ü ÉêÉ= íÜ É= ï êáííÉåJï çêâ= çÑ = çåÉ= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= áë=êÉJÅ êÉ~íÉÇ=áå=~åçíÜ ÉêK =fí=áë=~å=áåÜ ÉêÉåí=áÇÉ~=íÜ ~í=íÜ É=íê~åëä~íçêë=~äëç=Ü ~î É=íç=Ñ ~Å É=äçíë=çÑ = ÇáÑ Ñ áÅ ì äíáÉë= ï Ü Éå= áí= Å çã Éë= íç= íê~åëä~íáåÖ = éêçëÉK e çï Éî ÉêI= ï Ü Éå= íÜ É= ëçì êÅ É= ~åÇ= í~êÖ Éí= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö Éë= Ä ÉäçåÖ íç= ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåí= Å ì äíì ê~ä= Ö êçì éëI= íÜ É= Ñ áêëí= éêçÄ äÉã = Ñ ~Å ÉÇ= Ä ó= íÜ É= éêçëÉJíê~åëä~íçê= áë= Ñ áåÇáåÖ = íÉêã ë= áå= Ü áë= çê= Ü Éê= çï å= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= íÜ ~í= ÉñéêÉëë= íÜ É= Ü áÖ Ü Éëí= äÉî Éä= çÑ = Ñ ~áíÜ Ñ ì äåÉëë= éçëëáÄ äÉ= íç= íÜ É= ã É~åáåÖ = çÑ = Å Éêí~áå= ï çêÇëK = qÜ Éó= ~äëç= Ñ áåÇ= áí= ÇáÑ Ñ áÅ ì äí= íç= êÉåÇÉê= ~ã Ä áÖ ì çì ë= éì åëK = j ~åó= éÉçéäÉ= íÜ áåâ= íÜ ~í= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íáçå= çÑ = äáíÉê~êó= ï çêâë= áë= çåÉ= çÑ = íÜ É= Ü áÖ Ü Éëí= Ñ çêã ë= çÑ = êÉåÇáíáçå= Ä ÉÅ ~ì ëÉ= áí= áë= ã çêÉ= íÜ ~å= ëáã éäó= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íáçå= çÑ = íÉñíI= ~= äáíÉê~êó= íê~åëä~íçê= ã ì ëí= ~äëç= Ä É= ëâáääÉÇ= Éåçì Ö Ü = íç= íê~åëä~íÉ= Ñ ÉÉäáåÖ I= Å ì äíì ê~ä= åì ~åÅ ÉëI= Ü ì ã çê= ~åÇ= çíÜ Éê= ÇÉäáÅ ~íÉ= ÉäÉã Éåíë= çÑ = ~= éáÉÅ É= çÑ = ï çêâI= áå= Ñ ~Å íI= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íçêë= Çç= åçí= íê~åëä~íÉ= ã É~åáåÖ = Ä ì í= íÜ É= ã Éëë~Ö ÉëK = qÜ ~í= áë= ï Ü óI= íÜ É= íÉñí= ã ì ëí= Ä É= Å çåëáÇÉêÉÇ= áå= áíë= íçí~äáíóK = qÜ É=ï çêÇ=?íê~åëä~íáçå=ÇÉêáî Éë=Ñ êçã =íÜ É=i ~íáå=íê~åëä~íáç=E ï Ü áÅ Ü =áíëÉäÑ =Å çã Éë= Ñ êçã = íê~åëJ~åÇ= Ñ ÉêçI= íÜ É= ëì éáåÉ= Ñ çêã = çÑ = ï Ü áÅ Ü = áë= ä~íì ã I= íçÖ ÉíÜ Éê= ã É~åáåÖ = ?íç= ~Å êçëë?= çê= ?íç= Ä êáåÖ = ~Å êçëë?F ?K = fí= ?Ä ÉÖ ~å= çåäó= ~Ñ íÉê= íÜ É= ~ééÉ~ê~åÅ É= çÑ = ï êáííÉå= äáíÉê~íì êÉ?K = fí= áë= íÜ É= ?Å çã ã ì åáÅ ~íáçå= çÑ = íÜ É= ã É~åáåÖ = = = çÑ = ~= ëçì êÅ ÉJä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= íÉñí= Ä ó= ã É~åë= çÑ = ~å= Éèì áî ~äÉåí= í~êÖ ÉíJ ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É=íÉñí?K =få=çíÜ Éê=ï çêÇëI=?Éî ÉêóíÜ áåÖ =íÜ ~í=áë=åçí=î ÉêëÉ=áë=éêçëÉ?K =pçI=Å çåÅ ÉêåáåÖ =íÜ É= ã ÉåíáçåÉÇ=ÇÉÑ áåáíáçåI=ï É=Å ~å=ë~ó=íÜ ~í=?íÜ áåâáåÖ =áë=íê~åëä~íáåÖ =?éêçë~áÅ JáÇÉ~ë?=ï áíÜ çì í= ~Å Å ÉëëçêáÉë?=ëáåÅ É=áÇÉ~ë=Çç=åçí=Ñ çääçï =~åó=ã ÉíêáÅ ~ä=Å çã éçëáíáçåK =q Ü É=ëì Ä àÉÅ íI=íê~åëä~íáçå= ëíì ÇáÉëI=ï ~ë=åçí=Ö áî Éå=ã ì Å Ü =áã éçêí~åÅ É=É~êäáÉêK =k çï I=éÉçéäÉ?ë=ã Éåí~äáíó=ëÉÉã ë=íç=Ä É= Å Ü ~åÖ áåÖ X = l Å í~î áç= m ~òE N V TN F = ~Ä êáÇÖ Éë= íÜ É= Å ~ëÉ= Ñ çê= íê~åëä~íáçå= ëíì ÇáÉë= ë~óáåÖ = íÜ ~í= ~ää= íÉñíë= ~êÉ= ?íê~åëä~íáçåë=çÑ = íê~åëä~íáçå= çÑ =íê~åëä~íáçåë?=~ë=íÜ Éó= ~êÉ=ÉäÉã Éåí=çÑ = ~= äáíÉê~êó= ëóëíÉã =íÜ ~í=åçí= çåäó=ëäáÇ=Ççï å=Ñ êçã =çíÜ Éê=ëóëíÉã ë=Ä ì í=~äëç=~êÉ=Å çååÉÅ íÉÇ=ï áíÜ =íÜ Éã K =k ç=íÉñí=áë=ÉåíáêÉäó= çêáÖ áå~ä=Ä ÉÅ ~ì ëÉ=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É=áíëÉäÑ I=áå=áíë=ÉëëÉåÅ ÉI=áë=~äêÉ~Çó=~=íê~åëä~íáçåW = Ñ áêëíäóI=çÑ =íÜ É=åçåJ î ÉêÄ ~ä=ï çêäÇ=~åÇ=ëÉÅ çåÇäóI=ëáåÅ É=Éî Éêó=ëáÖ å=~åÇ=Éî Éêó=éÜ ê~ëÉ=áë=íÜ É=íê~åëä~íáçå=çÑ =~åçíÜ Éê= ëáÖ å= ~åÇ= ~åçíÜ Éê= éÜ ê~ëÉK qÜ É=íê~åëä~íáçå=çÑ =äáíÉê~êó=éêçëÉ=áë=ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåí=Ñ êçã =äáíÉê~êó=Å êÉ~íáî áíó=Ä ÉÅ ~ì ëÉ=áíë= ÉñáëíÉåÅ É= ÇÉéÉåÇë= çå= íÜ É= ÉñáëíÉåÅ É= çÑ = ~å= çÄ àÉÅ í= çÑ = íê~åëä~íáçåI= ï çêâ= íç= Ä É= íê~åëä~íÉÇK = ^ í= íÜ É= î Éêó= Ä ÉÖ áååáåÖ = = = íê~åëä~íçê= âÉÉéë= Ä çíÜ = íÜ É= ëçì êÅ É= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= ~åÇ= í~êÖ Éí= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= áå= ã áåÇ= ~åÇ= íêáÉë= íç= íê~åëä~íÉ= Å ~êÉÑ ì ääóK = _ ì íI= áí= Ä ÉÅ çã Éë= î Éêó= ÇáÑ Ñ áÅ ì äí= Ñ çê= ~= íê~åëä~íçê= íç= ÇÉÅ çÇÉ= íÜ É= ï Ü çäÉ= íÉñíÄ ççâ=äáíÉê~ääóX =íÜ ÉêÉÑ çêÉI=Ü É=í~âÉë=íÜ É=Ü Éäé=çÑ =Ü áë=çï å=î áÉï =~åÇ=ÉåÇÉ~î çêë=íç=íê~åëä~íÉ= ~Å Å çêÇáåÖ äóK = pçI= íê~åëä~íáçå= Å ~å= Ä É= ?ëÉêî áíì ÇÉ?= ~åÇ= ?Ñ êÉÉÇçã ?K = fí= áë= Ä êç~Çäó= ~Å Å ÉéíÉÇ= íÜ ~í= ?íÜ É= çêáÖ áå~ä= íÉñí?I= ?íÜ É= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= î Éêëáçå?I= ?íÜ É= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= çÑ = íÜ É= çêáÖ áå~ä?= ~åÇ= ?íÜ É= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= çÑ = íÜ É= íê~åëä~íáçå?= ~êÉ= Å çåëí~åíäó= íê~åëÑ çêã ÉÇ= áå= ëé~Å É= ~åÇ= íáã ÉK = c êÉèì ÉåíäóI= íÜ É= Ñ çêã = çÑ = íÜ É= çêáÖ áå~ä= íÉñí=áë=Å Ü ~åÖ ÉÇX =Ä ì í=~ë=äçåÖ =~ë=íÜ É=Å Ü ~åÖ É=Ñ çääçï ë=íÜ É=êì äÉë=çÑ =Ä ~Å â=íê~åëÑ çêã ~íáçå=áå=íÜ É= ëçì êÅ É=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉI=çÑ =Å çåíÉñíì ~ä=Å çåëáëíÉåÅ ó=áå=íÜ É=íê~åëÑ ÉêI=~åÇ=çÑ =íê~åëÑ çêã ~íáçå=áå=íÜ É= êÉÅ Ééíçê= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉI= íÜ É= ã Éëë~Ö É= áë= éêÉëÉêî ÉÇ= ~åÇ= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íáçå= áë= Ñ ~áíÜ Ñ ì äK =
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar fí= áë= Éî áÇÉåíäó= ã ÉåíáçåÉÇ= Ä ó= íÜ Éã = íÜ ~í=íÜ É= Çóå~ã áÅ = Éèì áî ~äÉåÅ É= áå= íê~åëä~íáçå= áë= Ñ ~ê= ã çêÉ=íÜ ~å=ã ÉêÉ=Å çêêÉÅ í=Å çã ã ì åáÅ ~íáçå=çÑ =áåÑ çêã ~íáçåK =k áÇ~=ë~óëI=íÜ ~í=íÜ É=ÇÉÑ áåáíáçå=çÑ =~= Çóå~ã áÅ =Éèì áî ~äÉåí=íê~åëä~íáçå=áë=íç=ÇÉëÅ êáÄ É=áí=~ë=?íÜ É=Å äçëÉëí=å~íì ê~ä=Éèì áî ~äÉåí=íç=íÜ É= ëçì êÅ ÉJä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= ã Éëë~Ö É?K = = få=çíÜ Éê=ï çêÇëI=ï É=íê~åëä~íÉ=íÉñíëI=ëÉåíÉåÅ Éë=ÉíÅ K =~åÇ=íÜ áë=éêçÅ Éëë=Ü Éäé=ì ë=íç= Å çã ã ì åáÅ ~íÉ===ï áíÜ =çíÜ Éê=éÉçéäÉ=Ü ~î áåÖ =ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåí=Å ì äíì ê~ä=êççíëK =?q Ü É=ëáÖ å=çÑ =íê~åëä~íáçå= Ñ êÉèì Éåíäó=íÉääëI=çê=?íçääë?=íÜ É=ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåí=íáã Éë=~åÇ=ëé~Å Éë=Ä Éíï ÉÉå=Å ì äíì ê~ä=~ì íÜ çêáíó=~åÇ=áíë= éÉêÑ çêã ~íáî É= éê~Å íáÅ Éë?K = qÜ É= ?ÉåçåÅ É?= çéáåáçåI= íê~åëä~íáçå= áë= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= áå= ~Å í= ~ë= ï Éää= ~ë= áå= ëáíì = Ä ÉÅ ~ì ëÉ=áí=áåÅ äì ÇÉë=åçí=çåäó=íÜ É=?éêçÅ Éëë?=çÑ =ë~óáåÖ =ëçã ÉíÜ áåÖ =Ä ì í=~äëç=íÜ É=?ë~áÇ?=çê= ?éêÉëÉåíÉÇ?= íÉñí= çê= íÉñíëK = qÜ É= íê~åëä~íáçå= áë= ~= Å Ü ~ääÉåÖ áåÖ = ~Å íáî áíó= ~åÇ= íÜ ÉêÉ= ~êÉ= Ñ Éï = ÇáÑ Ñ áÅ ì äíáÉë= íÜ ~í=Éã ÉêÖ É=íÜ êçì Ö Ü çì í=íÜ É=íê~åëä~íáçå=éêçÅ Éëë=ëáåÅ É=Éî Éêó=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É=éçêíê~óë=íÜ É=ï çêÇ=áå= Çáî ÉêëÉ= ï ~ó= ~åÇ= áíë= çï å= Ö ê~ã ã ~ê= ëíêì Å íì êÉI= Ö ê~ã ã ~ê= êì äÉë= ~åÇ= ëóåí~ñ= î ~êá~åÅ ÉK qÜ É=ÇáÑ Ñ áÅ ì äíó=áå=íê~åëä~íáçå=àì ëí=äáÉë=áå=íÜ É=Ñ ~Å í=áåÅ äì ÇÉ=Ä çíÜ =íÜ É=ëíóäÉ=~êÉ=~äêÉ~Çó= ÉñáëíÉåí= áå= íÜ É= çêáÖ áå~ä= ~åÇ= ~ë= ~= êÉëì äíI= óçì = ï áää= Ü ~î É= íç= Çç= óçì ê= Ä Éëí= íç= êÉéêçÇì Å É= íÜ Éã = ~ë= íÜ Éó= ~êÉ= áå= èì áíÉ= ~ ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåí= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK = qÜ É= ã çëí= é~êíáÅ ì ä~ê= éêçÄ äÉã ë= íÜ ~í= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íçêë= Ñ ~Å É= áåÅ äì ÇÉJáääÉÖ áÄ äÉ= íÉñíI= ã áëëáåÖ = êÉÑ ÉêÉåÅ ÉëI= ëÉî Éê~ä= Å çåëíêì Å íáçåë= çÑ = Ö ê~ã ã ~êI= Çá~äÉÅ í= íÉêã ë= ~åÇ= åÉçäçÖ áëã ëI= áåÉñéäáÅ ~Ä äÉ= ~Å êçåóã ë= ~åÇ= ~Ä Ä êÉî á~íáçåëI= ì åíê~åëä~í~Ä áäáíóI= áåíÉåíáçå~ä= ã áëå~ã áåÖ I= é~êíáÅ ì ä~ê= Å ì äíì ê~ä= êÉÑ ÉêÉåÅ É= ÉíÅ K = k çåÉíÜ ÉäÉëëI= íÜ ÉêÉ= ~êÉ= ëçã É= íÜ Éçêáëíë= ï Ü ç= íÜ áåâ= íÜ ~í=?äáíÉê~ä=íê~åëä~íáçå?=áë=åçí=éçëëáÄ äÉK =q Ü Éó=éêÉëÉåí=íÜ êÉÉ=ã ~áå=êÉ~ëçåë=ëì ééçêíáåÖ =íÜ Éáê= ëí~åÅ ÉW = _ ÉÅ ~ì ëÉ=~=é~êíáÅ ì ä~ê=ï çêÇ=áå=çåÉ=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É=çÑ íÉå=Å çåí~áåë=ã É~åáåÖ =íÜ ~í=áåî çäî É= ëÉî Éê~ä= ï çêÇë= áå= ~åçíÜ Éê= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK = c çê= Éñ~ã éäÉI= íÜ É= b åÖ äáëÜ = ï çêÇ= ?ï ~ää?= ã áÖ Ü í= Ä É= êÉåÇÉêÉÇ= áåíç= d Éêã ~å= ~ë= ï ~åÇ= çê= ~ë= ã ~ì ÉêK = = _ ÉÅ ~ì ëÉ=Ö ê~ã ã ~íáÅ ~ä=é~êíáÅ äÉë=é~êíáÅ äÉë=~êÉ=åçí=~î ~áä~Ä äÉ=áå=Éî Éêó=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉI=~åÇ= _ ÉÅ ~ì ëÉ=áÇáçã ë=çÑ =çåÉ=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É=~åÇ=Å ì äíì êÉ=ã ~ó=Ä É=ì ííÉêäó=éÉêéäÉñáåÖ =íç=ëéÉ~âÉêë=Ñ êçã = ~åçíÜ Éê= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= ~åÇ= Å ì äíì êÉK = = = = = = = ?i ~åÖ ì ~Ö É=áë=áå=íÜ É=å~íì êÉ=çÑ =ã ~å?=~åÇ=?éêçî áÇÉë=íÜ É=î Éêó=ÇÉÑ áåáíáçå=çÑ =ã ~å?K = b Çï ~êÇ= p~éáê= Å ä~áã ë= íÜ ~í= Ü ì ã ~å= Ä ÉáåÖ ë= ~êÉ= ~í= íÜ É= ã ÉêÅ ó= çÑ = íÜ É= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= íÜ ~í= Ü ~ë= Ä ÉÅ çã É= íÜ É= ã ÉÇáì ã = çÑ = ÉñéêÉëëáçå= Ñ çê= íÜ Éáê= ëçÅ áÉíó= ~åÇ= Å ì äíì êÉX = ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= Ü ~Ä áíë= çÑ = íÜ É= Ö êçì é= çÑ = éÉçéäÉ= ÇÉíÉêã áåÉ= ÉñéÉêáÉåÅ É= Ö ÉåÉê~ääó= ~åÇ= Éî Éêó= ÇáëàçáåíÉÇ= ëíêì Å íì êÉ= ëáÖ åáÑ áÉë= ~= ëÉé~ê~íÉ= ~ì íÜ ÉåíáÅ áíóK = k ç= íï ç= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö Éë= ~êÉ= Éî Éê= ëì Ñ Ñ áÅ áÉåíäó= ëáã áä~ê= íç= Ä É= Å çåëáÇÉêÉÇ= ~ë= êÉéêÉëÉåíáåÖ = íÜ É= ë~ã É= ëçÅ á~ä= êÉ~äáíóK =qÜ É= íê~åëä~íçêëI= íÜ êçì Ö Ü = ì ëáåÖ = Éèì áî ~äÉåÅ É= ~ééêç~Å Ü ÉëI= ~äëç= ÉåÇÉ~î çì ê=íç=áåÑ äì ÉåÅ É=íÜ Éáê=êÉ~ÇÉêë=Ä ó=íÜ É=?ëí~åÇ~êÇ=íê~åëä~íáçå?K =v ÉíI=íÜ É=åçíáçå=çÑ = Éèì áî ~äÉåÅ É=Å êÉ~íÉë=ëÉî Éê~ä=éêçÄ äÉã ë=ëáåÅ É=ï É=Å ~å=áåíÉêéêÉí=áí=áå=ã áëÅ Éää~åÉçì ë=ã ~ååÉêëK = _ çíÜ =íÜ É=ï çêÇë=~ë=ï Éää=~ë=Å çåíÉñí=~êÉ=Å çåëáÇÉêÉÇ=áå=Éèì áî ~äÉåÅ ÉK =_ ì í=äáåÖ ì áëíáÅ =íÜ Éçêó=çÑ = íê~åëä~íáçå= ï ~ë= åçí= ~Å Å ÉéíÉÇ= äáÄ Éê~ääó= Ä ó= ã ~åóK = påÉääJe çêåÄ ó= ~êÖ ì Éë= íÜ ~í= Å ~íÑ çêÇ?ë= ÇÉÑ áåáíáçå= çÑ =íÉñíì ~ä=Éèì áî ~äÉåÅ É=áë=?Å áêÅ ì ä~ê?I=Ü áë=Ü óéçíÜ Éëáë=ÇÉéÉåÇÉåÅ É=çå=Ä áäáåÖ ì ~ä=áåÑ çêã ~åíë= ?Ü çéÉäÉëëäó= áå~ÇÉèì ~íÉ?I= ~åÇ= Ü áë= ã çÇÉä= ÉåíÉåÅ É= ?áëçä~íÉÇ= ~åÇ= Éî Éå= ~Ä ëì êÇäó= ëáã éäáëíáÅ ?K qÜ É= ëíêì Å íì êÉ= êÉä~íáçåëÜ áé= Ä Éíï ÉÉå= íÜ É= páÖ åáÑ áÉÇ= çê= Å çåÅ Ééí= çÑ = Ä ì ííÉê= ~åÇ= íÜ É= ëáÖ åáÑ áÉê= çê= íÜ É= ëçì åÇ= áã ~Ö É= ã ~ÇÉ= Ä ó= íÜ É= Ä ì ííÉê= ëÜ ~éÉë= íÜ É= äáåÖ ì áëíáÅ = ëáÖ å= Ä ì ííÉêK = pì ë~å= _ ~ëëåÉíí= Å ä~áã ë= íÜ ~í= ?ï Ü Éå= íê~åëä~íáåÖ =Ä ì ííÉê= áåíç= äí~äá~åI= íÜ ÉêÉ= áë= ~= ëíê~áÖ Ü íÑ çêï ~êÇ= ï çêÇJÑ çêJï çêÇ= ëì Ä ëíáíì íáçåW =Ä ì ííÉêJÄ ì êêç?K =pçã É=íÜ áåâ=íÜ ~í=íÜ É=Å çã ã çå=áÇáçã =Ä êÉ~Ç=~åÇ=Ä ì ííÉê=áë=Ñ ~ì äíó= Ä ÉÅ ~ì ëÉ= íÜ É= éêçÇì Å í= ì ëÉÇ= ã ~ó= Éî Éå= Ä É= ?ã ~êÖ ~êáåÉ?K = e çï Éî ÉêI= ï É= Å ~ååçí= íçí~ääó= ~Ö êÉÉ= ï áíÜ = ã ~ííÉê= ëáåÅ É= íÜ É= Å áíÉÇ= áÇáçã = áë= Ö Éåì áåÉ= ~åÇI= íÜ ì ëI= áë= ~å= ÉëëÉåíá~ä= é~êí= çÑ = íÜ É= å~íáî É= ëéÉ~âÉêë= b åÖ äáëÜ K =k Éî ÉêíÜ ÉäÉëëI=áí=ï çì äÇ=Ä É=ê~íÜ Éê=äçÖ áÅ ~ä=íç=ë~ó=íÜ ~í=íÜ áë=é~êíáÅ ì ä~ê=áÇáçã =áë= ?~ã Ä áÖ ì çì ë?K =^ Å íì ~ääóI=íÜ É=ã ÉåíáçåÉÇ=áÇáçã =áë=ï áÇÉäó=~Å Å ÉéíÉÇ=ëáåÅ É=Ä ì ííÉê=Ü çäÇë=~=äçÑ íó= éçëáíáçåK =q Ü É=éêçÄ äÉã =çÑ =Éèì áî ~äÉåÅ É=Ü ÉêÉ=áåî çäî Éë=íÜ É=ì íáäáò~íáçå=~åÇ=éÉêÅ Ééíáçå=çÑ =íÜ É= çÄ àÉÅ í= áå= ~= Ö áî Éå= Å çåíÉñíK = qÜ É= Ä ì ííÉêJÄ ì êêç= íê~åëä~íáçå= ï Ü áäëí= éÉêÑ ÉÅ íäó= ~ÇÉèì ~íÉ= çå= çåÉ= äÉî ÉäI= ~äëç= ëÉêî Éë= ~ë= ~= êÉã áåÇÉê= çÑ = íÜ É= î ~äáÇáíó= çÑ = p~éáê?ë= ëí~íÉã Éåí= íÜ ~í= É~Å Ü = ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= êÉéêÉëÉåíë= ~= ëÉé~ê~íÉ= êÉ~äáíóK = qÜ ÉåI= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íçê= ã ì ëí= Ä É= Å ~êÉÑ ì ä= ~Ä çì í= íÜ É= é~êíáÅ ì ä~ê= ì ëÉ= çÑ = ëéáêáí= áå= íÜ É=
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar ëÉåíÉåÅ É= áíëÉäÑ I= áå= íÜ É= ëÉåíÉåÅ É= áå= áíë= ëíêì Å íì ê~ä= êÉä~íáçå= íç çíÜ Éê= ëÉåíÉåÅ ÉI= ~åÇ= áå= íÜ É= Ö ÉåÉê~ä= íÉñíì ~ä= ~åÇ= Å ì äíì ê~ä= ëáíì ~íáçåë= çÑ = íÜ É= ëÉåíÉåÅ ÉK = l íÜ Éêï áëÉI= íÜ ÉêÉ= ï áää= Ä É= ã áëíê~åëä~íáçå= ~åÇ= íÜ É= êÉ~ÇÉêë= ï áää= Ä ÉÅ çã É= Å çåÑ ì ëÉÇK = = = = = = = j ~åó=éêçëÉJíê~åëä~íçêë=Ñ ~áä=íç=ì åÇÉêëí~åÇ=íÜ ~í=~=äáíÉê~êó=íÉñí=áë=~=Å çã Ä áå~íáçå=çÑ =~= Å çã éäÉñ=ëÉí=çÑ =ëóëíÉã ë=íÜ ~í=Éñáëí=áå=~=Çá~äÉÅ íáÅ ~ä==êÉä~íáçåëÜ áé=ï áíÜ =çíÜ Éê=ëÉíë=çì íëáÇÉ=áíë= Ä çì åÇ~êáÉëX = íÜ áë= âáåÇ= çÑ = Ñ ~áäì êÉ= Ü ~ë= êÉÖ ì ä~êäó= äÉÇ= íÜ Éã = íç= Å çåÅ Éåíê~íÉ= çå= é~êíáÅ ì ä~ê= é~êíë= çÑ = ~= íÉñí=~í=íÜ É=Å çëí=çÑ =çíÜ ÉêëK =q Ü É=b åÖ äáëÜ =íê~åëä~íçê=Ü ~ë=ã ~ÇÉ=j ~åå?ë=ëÉåíÉåÅ ÉJëíêì Å íì êÉë= Å çã é~Å íK = qÜ ì ëI= ëÜ É= Ü ~ë= êÉÇì Å ÉÇ= íÜ É= åì ã Ä Éê= çÑ = äÉî Éäë= çå= ï Ü áÅ Ü = íÜ É= êÉ~ÇÉê= Å ~å= ~ééêç~Å Ü = íÜ É= íÉñíK = qÜ É= íê~åëä~íçê= Ü ~ë= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= íÜ É= ï çêÇI= ?ÉáåÑ ~Å Ü Éê?= ~ë= ?ì å~ëëáã áåÖ ?= ~åÇ= íÜ áë= ~Å íáçå= çÑ = íÜ É= b åÖ äáëÜ = Ü ~ë= ëì êÉäó= áåíêçÇì Å ÉÇ= ~å= áåÑ äì Éåíá~ä= é~êí= çÑ = Å Ü ~ê~Å íÉêáò~íáçå= ~åÇ= Å Ü ~åÖ ÉÇ= íÜ É= êÉ~ÇÉêë= çì íäççâ= K = j çêÉçî ÉêI= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íçê= Ü ~ë= åçí= ä~áÇ= = ã ìÅ Ü = Éã éÜ ~ëáë= çå= íÜ É= åçî Éä= ~åÇ= íÜ áë= Ñ ~Å í= áë= éêçî ÉÇ= ï áíÜ = íÜ É= î áëáÄ äÉ= ã áëíê~åë~íáçå= çÑ = íÜ É= = ï çêÇI= ?pÅ Ü äì åÇÉ?I= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= ~ë= = ?= j ~êëÜ Éë?K = qÜ ÉêÉ= ã ~ó= ã É= ~= äçëë= çÑ = ÉäÉã Éåíë= áÑ = íÜ É= íê~åëä~íçê= Ü ~åÇäÉë= ëÉåíÉåÅ Éë= Ñ çê= íÜ Éáê= ÇÉÑ áåáíÉ= Å çåíÉåí= çåäó= ÉåÖ äáëÜ = íê~åëä~áçå= çÑ = íÜ É= ~Ä çî É= ëí~íÉÇ= íÉñí= Ü ~ë= äçëí= áíë= ~Å Å Ééí~Ä áäáíó= Ä ÉÅ ~ì ëÉ= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íçê= Ü ~ë= = çî ÉêäççâÉÇ= = íÜ É= ëÉÅ íáçå= ì åáíë= áå= ~= Å çã éäÉñ= Ö ÉåÉê~ä= ëíêì Å íì êÉK pçã É= êÉ~ÇÉêë= ã ~ó= åçí= ëì ééçêí= íÜ É= ~Å í= çÑ = éì ííáåÖ = ëç= ã ìÅ Ü = áã éçêí~åÅ É= çå= íÜ É= Å ~ëÉë= çÑ = åÉÖ ~íáî É= ëÜ áÑ í= íÜ ~í= Å çã É= çì í= Ñ êçã = íÜ É= çéÉåáåÖ = Ñ Éï = ëÉåíÉåÅ Éë= çÑ = qÜ É= j ~Ö áÅ = j çì åí~áåK = t É= ã ì ëí= ~Ö êÉÉ= ï áíÜ = íÜ É= Ñ ~í= íÜ ~í= íÜ É= ~å~äóëáë=çÑ =íÜ É=å~êê~íáî É=Ü ~ë=Ü ~Ç=î ~ëí=áåÑ äì ÉåÅ É=Éî Éê=ëáåÅ É=pÜ äçî ëâó?ë=É~êäó=Ü óéçíÜ Éëáë=çÑ = éêçëÉK = qÜ É=éêçëÉ=Jíê~åëä~íçêë= Ñ áåÇ=fí=î Éêó= ÇáÑ Ñ áÅ ì äí= íç= íê~åëä~íÉ=éêçéÉê=å~ã ÉëK =?_ ~Ä Éä?=Ñ áêëí= ~= éêçéÉê= å~ã ÉI= Ö ê~åíÉÇK = _ ì í= íÜ Éå= ï É= ë~ó= ?_ ~Ä Éä?= íçÇ~óI= Çç= ï É= âåçï = ï Ü ~í= ï É= ~êÉ= å~ã áåÖ \= a ç= ï É= âåçï = ï Ü çã \ = fÑ = ï É= Å çåëáÇÉê= íÜ É= ëì êJî áî ~ä= çÑ = ~= íÉñí= íÜ ~í= áë= ~= äÉÖ ~Å óI= íÜ É= å~êê~íáî É= çê= íÜ É= ã óíÜ = çÑ = íÜ É= íçï Éê= çÑ = _ ~Ä ÉäI= áí= ÇçÉë= åçí= Å çåëíáíì íÉ= àì ëí= çåÉ= Ñ áÖ ì êÉ= ~ã çåÖ = çíÜ ÉêëK K K K K áí= ï çì äÇ= åçí= Ä É= íÜ É= çåäó= ëíêì Å íì êÉ= Ü çääçï áåÖ = áíëÉäÑ = çì í= äáâÉ= íÜ ~íI= Ä ì í= áí= ï çì äÇ= Çç= ëç= áå= áíë= çï å= ï ~ó= E áíëÉäÑ = ~äã çëí= ì åíê~åëä~í~Ä äÉI= äáâÉ= ~= éêçéÉê= å~ã ÉF I= ~åÇ= áíë= áÇáçã = ï çì äÇ= Ü ~î É= íç= Ä É= ë~î ÉÇ= E a ÉêêáÇ~I= N V U RW N SRF K =s çäí~áêÉ?ë=áêçåó=ëì Ö Ö Éëíë=íÜ ~í=?_ ~Ä Éä=ã É~åëW =áí=áë=åçí=çåäó=~=éêçéÉê=å~ã ÉI=íÜ É= êÉÑ ÉêÉåÅ É=íç=~=éì êÉ=ëáÖ åáÑ áÉê=íç=~=ëáåÖ äÉ=Ä ÉáåÖ J~åÇ=Ñ çê=íÜ áë=êÉ~ëçå=ì åíê~åëä~í~Ä äÉ?=E a ÉêêáÇ~I= N V U RW N SSF K = qÜ É=íê~åëî ~äì ~íáçå=çÑ =íÜ É=ëóã Ä çäáÅ =ëíêì Å íì êÉ=çÑ =íÜ É=Å ì äíì ê~ä=ëáÖ å=áë=~Ä ëçäì íÉäó= åÉÅ Éëë~êó= ëç=íÜ ~í=áå=íÜ É=êÉå~ã áåÖ =çÑ =ã çÇÉêåáíó=íÜ ÉêÉ=ã ~ó=Éåëì É=íÜ ~í=éêçÅ Éëë=çÑ =íÜ É=~Å íáî É= ~Ö ÉåÅ ó=çÑ =íê~åëä~íáçåJíÜ É=ã çã Éåí=çÑ =ã ~âáåÖ =~=å~ã É=Ñ çê=çåÉëÉäÑ =íÜ ~í=Éã ÉêÖ Éë=íÜ êçì Ö Ü =íÜ É= ì åÇÉÅ áÇ~Ä áäáíó= ? E ~í= ï çêâF = áå= ~= ëíêì Å íì êÉ= Ñ çê= íÜ É= éêçéÉê= å~ã É= ï áíÜ áå= ~= ëÅ ÉåÉ= çÑ = Ö ÉåÉ~äçÖ áÅ ~ä= áåÇÉÄ íÉÇåÉëëE a ÉêêááÇ~I= N V U RW N TQ F K = qÜ É= éêçëÉJíê~åëä~íçê= Ü ~ë= íÜ É= êáÖ Ü í= íç= ÇáÑ Ñ Éê= çêÖ ~åáÅ ~ääóI= íç= Ä É=áåÇÉéÉåÇÉåíI=áÑ =íÜ ~í=áåÇÉéÉåÇÉåÅ É=áë=Ñ çääçï ÉÇ=Ñ çê=íÜ É=Ä ÉåÉÑ áí=çÑíÜ É=çêáÖ áå~ä=áå=çêÇÉê=íç= êÉéêçÇì Å É= áí= ~ë= ~= äáî áåÖ = ï çêâK = i Éí= ì ë= ëÜ ÉÇ= äáÖ Ü í= çå= î Éêó= ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåíI= áåíÉêÉëíáåÖ = ~åÇ= áã éçêí~åí= ~ëéÉÅ í= çÑ = íê~åëä~íáçå= áíëÉäÑ = íç= êÉ~äáòÉ= íÜ É= ÇÉéíÜ = ~åÇ= Éñ~Å í= î ~äì É= çÑ = íê~åëä~íáçåK = qÜ áë= áë= ~= éä~ååÉÇ= ã áëíê~åëä~íáçåK = ^ í= íÜ áë= éçáåíI= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íçê= Ñ áÖ ì êÉ= Ü ~ë= íçäÇ= ~= äáÉX = íÜ çì Ö Ü = Ü É= Ü ~ë= äáÉÇ= íç= ~î çáÇ= ~= èì ~êêÉäI=Ü É=áë=åçí=çåäó=Å Ü É~íáåÖ =Ü áã ëÉäÑ =Ä ì í=~äëç=Ü ~ë=íì êåÉÇ=áåíç=~=íê~áíçê=çê=Å Ü É~í=áå=íÜ É= êÉ~ÇÉêë=ÉóÉëK =q Ü É=íê~åëä~íçê=ëÜ çì äÇ=åçí=Çáëíçêí=íÜ É=ã É~åáåÖ =çÑ =íÜ É=Å çåíÉåí=íÜ ~í=Ü É=áë= íê~åëä~íáåÖ X = Ü É ëÜ çì äÇ= Ä É= Ü çåÉëíK = _ ÉÅ ~ì ëÉI= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íçêë= ëÜ çì äÇ= âÉÉé= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íáçå= ëÜ áÑ íë= áå= ã áåÇK =gK `K ` ~íÑ çêÇ=E N V SRF =ÇÉëÅ êáÄ Éë=íÜ Éã =~ë=ÇÉé~êíì êÉë=Ñ êçã =Ñ çêã ~ä=Å çêêÉëéçåÇÉåÅ É=áå=íÜ É= éêçÅ Éëë= çÑ = Ö çáåÖ = Ñ êçã = íÜ É= pK i= íç= íÜ É= qK i= E éK = TPF K = e É= Ä ÉäáÉî Éë= íÜ ~í= íÜ ÉêÉ= ~êÉ= íï ç= ã ~à~ê= = âáåÇë= çÑ = íê~åëä~íáçå= ëÜ áÑ íëI= áK ÉK = äÉî Éä= ëÜ áÑ íëI= ï Ü ÉêÉ= íÜ É= pK i= áíÉã = ~í= çåÉ= äáåÖ ì áëíáÅ = äÉî ÉäK qÜ É= éêçëÉJíê~åëä~íçêë= ã ì ëí= åçí= íÜ áåâ= íÜ ~í= ~åó= Ä áäáåÖ ì ~ä= áåÇáî áÇì ~ä= áë= ~Ä äÉ= íç= éêçÇì Å É= ë~íáëÑ ~Å íçêó= çê= Éî Éå= Ü áÖ Ü Jèì ~äáíó= ÇçÅ ì ã Éåí= íê~åëä~íáçåë= ëáã éäó= Ä ÉÅ ~ì ëÉ= Ü É= áë ~= Ñ äì Éåí= ëéÉ~âÉê= çÑ =~=ëÉÅ çåÇ=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉK =qÜ É=éêçëÉJíê~åëä~íçêë=ã ì ëí=Ä É=~Ä äÉ=íç=êÉ~ÇI=ì åÇÉêëí~åÇ=~åÇ=Å äáåÖ =íç= ëçã ÉÄ çÇó= ÉäëÉ?ë= íÜ çì Ö Ü íëI= íÜ ~å= íê~åëä~íÉ= íÜ Éã = ~Å Å ì ê~íÉäóI= Å çã éäÉíÉäó= ~åÇ= ï áíÜ çì í= çã áëëáçåK = qÜ É=íê~åëä~íáçå=ï áää=íêì äó=Ä É=~=ã çã Éåí=áå=íÜ É=Ö êçï íÜ =çÑ =íÜ É=çêáÖ áå~äI=ï Ü áÅ Ü =ï áää=Å çã éäÉíÉ= áíëÉäÑ = áå= Éåä~êÖ áåÖ = áíëÉäÑ = E a ÉêêáÇ~I= N V U RW N U U F K få= íÜ É= ÉåÇI= ëáåÅ É= íê~åëä~íáçå= áë= ëáã ì äí~åÉçì ëäó= ~= íÜ Éçêó= ~åÇ= ~= éê~Å íáÅ ÉI= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íçêëI= Ä ÉëáÇÉ= ÇÉ~äáåÖ = ï áíÜ = íÜ É= ÇáÑ Ñ áÅ ì äíáÉë= áåÜ ÉêÉåí= íç= íÜ É= íê~åëä~íáçå= çÑ = éêçëÉI= ã ì ëí= íÜ áåâ ~Ä çì í= íÜ É=
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar E N V V PF = Å çã ã ÉåíëI= ?íÜ É= íê~åëä~íçê= áë= åçí= çåäó= é~êí= çÑ = Ü Éê= Å çã ã ì åáíó= çÑ = êÉ~ÇÉêëW = ëÜ É= ~äëç= Å çã Éë= áåíç= Å çåí~Å í= ï áíÜ = ~åçíÜ Éê= Å çã ã ì åáíóI= åÉÖ çíá~íáåÖ = ï áíÜ = áíI= í~âáåÖ = é~êí= áå= áí? l åÉ= çÑ = íÜ É= ï ~óë= íç= Ö Éí= ~êçì åÇ= íÜ É= Å çåÑ áåÉë= çÑ = çåÉ?ë= ?áÇÉåíáíó?= ~ë= çåÉ= éêçÇì Å Éë= Éñéçëáíçêó= éêçëÉ= áë= íç= ï çêâ= ~í= ëçã ÉçåÉ=ÉäëÉ?ë=íáíäÉI=~ë=çåÉ=ï çêâë=ï áíÜ =~=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É=íÜ ~í=Ä ÉäçåÖ ë=íç=ã ~åó=çíÜ Éêë=E éK =N TV F K = ^Å Å çêÇáåÖ = íç= i ~Ü áêá= E O M M M F I= ?^ äã çëí= ~ää= çÑ = ã ó= Å Ü ~ê~Å íÉêë= ~êÉ= íê~åëä~íçêëI= ëç= Ñ ~ê= ~ë= íÜ Éó= ã ì ëí= ã ~âÉ= ëÉåÅ É= çÑ = íÜ É= Ñ çêÉáÖ å= íç= ëì êî áî É?= E éK = N O M F K = o bcbo bk ` bW N K ^Å Ü ÉÄ ÉI= Å K = E N V RU F K = qÜ áåÖ ë= Ñ ~ää= ~é~êíK = äçåÇçåW = e ÉáåÉã ~ååK O K ^ Ç~ã ëI= o K j K =E N V TPF K =m êçíÉì ëI= e áë= i áÉëI= e áë= q êì íÜ I= åÉï = v çêâW = t K t K k çêíçåK PK _ ~ëëåÉííI= pK K = E N V U M F K = q ê~åëä~íáçå= píì ÇáÉëK = i çåÇçåW = j ÉíÜ áÉå= C= ` çK = i íÇK Q K ` ~íÑ çêÇI=gK `K =E N V SRF =K =^ =i áåÖ ì áëíáÅ =q Ü Éçêó=çÑ =q ê~åëä~íáçåK =i çåÇçåW = l ñÑ çêÇ= r åáî Éêëáíó= m êÉëëK RK fëÉê= I= t K = E N V TQ F K = qÜ É= áã éäáÉÇ= êÉ~ÇÉêK = _ ~äáíáã çêÉ= ~åÇ= i çåÇçåW = qÜ É= gçÜ å= e çéâáåë= m êÉëëK q o ^ pi ^ q fl k = ^ka = i ^k d r ^d b= q b ^ ` e fk d gK s fk l q e h r j ^ o = C= j ^ ov= pq b o b b k ^ = a= ` r k e ^ ff= j ^= b k d i fpe o s p= ` ^p få= íÜ É= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= Å ä~ëëêççã = íê~åëä~íáçå= Ü ~ë= ~= î Éêó= éêÉÅ áëÉ= I= å~êêçï äó= ÇÉÑ áåÉÇ= éÉÇ~Ö çÖ áÅ = êçäÉ= K = t Ü Éå= íÜ É= íÉ~Å Ü Éê= ÉñÜ ~ì ëíë= ~ää= ã ÉíÜ çÇ= çÑ = Éñéä~áåáåÖ = íÜ É= ã É~åáåÖ = çÑ = ~= èì áíÉ= ì åÑ ~ã áäá~ê= ï çêÇ= çê= Å çåÅ Ééí= I= áí= áë= çåäó= íê~åëä~íáçå= çÑ = íÜ É= ëÉÅ çåÇ= çê= Ñ çêÉáÖ å= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= áåíç= ã çíÜ Éê= íçåÖ ì É= ï Ü áÅ Ü = Å çã Éë= íç= Ü áëL Ü Éê= êÉëÅ ì É= K qÜ çì Ö Ü = íê~åëä~íáçå= áë= çåÉ= çÑ = íÜ É= çäÇÉëí= ~ééêç~Å Ü Éë= íç= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= íÉ~Å Ü áåÖ I=áíë=ì åáèì ÉåÉëë=äáÉë=áå=íÜ É=Ñ ~Å í=íÜ ~í=áí=Å çì äÇ=åÉî Éê=Ä É=Å çã éäÉóÉäó=~Ä ~åÇçåÉÇ=~ë=~= ì ííÉêäó=ì ëÉäÉëë=~ééêç~Å Ü I=åçí=Éî Éå=Ä ó= éêçéçåÉåíë=çÑ =^ ì Çáç=äáåÖ ì ~äáëã =ï Ü ç íêáÉÇ=áå=î ~áå=íç= çëíê~Å áòÉ= áíK ^Å Å çêÇáåÖ = íç= éáí= Å çêåÉê= íê~åëä~íáçå= íÜ Éçêó= áë= ~= Ä ê~åÅ Ü = çÑ = Å çåíê~ëíáî É= äáåÖ ì áëíáÅ ë= ~åÇ= áë= Å çåÅ ÉêåÉÇ=ï áíÜ =Å çêêÉëéçåÇÉåÅ Éë=~åÇ=åçåJÅ çêêÉëéçåÇÉåÅ Éë=Ä Éíï ÉÉå=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö ÉëK =fí=áåî çäî Éë= çî ÉêÅ çã áåÖ = íÜ É= Å çåíê~ëíë= Ä Éíï ÉÉå= íÜ É= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É= ëóëíÉã ëK = qÜ ÉêÉ= áë= ~= ï áÇÉ= î ~êá~åÅ É= Ä Éíï ÉÉå= íÜ É= ëóåí~Å íáÅ ~ä= ëíêì Å íì êÉë= çÑ = b åÖ äáëÜ = ~åÇ= q~ã áäK = t Ü áäÉ= íÜ É= ì ëì ~ä= ëÉåíÉåÅ É= é~ííÉêå= áå= b åÖ äáëÜ = áë= ps l L ps ` L ps ` ^ I= áå= q ~ã áä= íÜ É= Ççã ì ÇÉåÅ É= ëÉåíÉåÅ É= é~ííÉêå= áë= pl s K = qÜ áë= î ~êá~íáçå= ã ~ó= éçëÉ= éêçÄ äÉã ë=~åÇ=ã ~ó=Ä É=çî Éê=Å çã É=Ä ó=Ä êáåÖ áåÖ =çì í=íÜ É=ÇáÑ Ñ ÉêÉåÅ Éë=áå=ëÉåíÉåÅ É=é~ííÉêåëK = i ~åÖ ì ~Ö É=Å çåî Éåíáçå=çÑ =b åÖ äáëÜ =~åÇ=q ~ã áä= ~äëç=î ~êó=Ö êÉ~íäóK =q Ü É= Å çåî Éåíáçå= çÑ =ëí~êíáåÖ =~= ëíçêó= ï áíÜ = ?çåÅ É= ì éçå= ~= íáã ÉI= äçåÖ I= äçåÖ I= ~Ö ç?=áå= b åÖ äáëÜ = Ä ÉÅ çã Éë= ?=få= ~= íçï å?=áå= q ~ã áäK = t Ü ÉêÉ~ë= b åÖ äáëÜ = Ü ~ë= Å ~éáí~äáò~íáçå= q ~ã áä= ÇçÉë= åçí= Ü ~î É= áíK ^ ää= å~íì ê~ä= ä~åÖ ì ~Ö Éë= Ü ~î É= íÜ É= Å ~é~Å áíó= íç= Å çåî Éó= ~ää= çÑ = íÜ É= ê~åÖ É= çÑ = ÉñéÉêáÉåÅ Éë= çÑ = Å ì äíì ê~ä=Å çã ã ì åáíáÉë=çÑ =ï Ü áÅ Ü =íÜ Éó=~êÉ=~=é~êí=~åÇ=íÜ É=êÉëçì êÅ Éë=çÑ =é~êíáÅ ì ä~ê=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö Éë= Éñé~åÇ=íç=Å ~íÉê=Ñ çê=åÉï =ÉñéÉêáÉåÅ É=íÜ êçì Ö Ü =Ä çêêçï áåÖ ëI=ã Éí~éÜ çêë=~åÇ=åÉçäçÖ áëã ëK =_ ì í= Ö ê~ã ã ~íáÅ ~ä=~åÇ=äÉñáÅ ~ä=ëíêì Å íì êÉë=~åÇ=Å ~íÉÖ çêáÉë=Ñ çêÅ É=ä~åÖ ì ~Ö É=ì ëÉêë=íç=Å çåî Éó=Å Éêí~áå= áíÉã ë= çÑ = ã É~åáåÖ = ~åÇ= áí= áë= Ü ÉêÉ= íÜ ~í= íÜ É= êÉ~ä= íê~åëä~íáçå= éêçÄ äÉã ë= äáÉK = qÜ É= Å ~íÉÖ çêáÉë= çÑ = ÇÉáñáë= íÜ ~í=áë=íÜ çëÉ=Å ~íÉÖ çêáÉë=ï Ü áÅ Ü =êÉä~íÉ=áå=ì ííÉê~åÅ É=íç=íÜ É=éÉêëçå~äI=ëé~íá~ä=~åÇ=íÉã éçê~ä= Å Ü ~ê~Å íÉêáëíáÅ ë= çÑ = íÜ É= ëéÉÉÅ Ü = ëáíì ~íáçå= î ~êó= Ö êÉ~íäóK ^Å Å çêÇáåÖ = íç= i b s fk pl k I= s áää~Ö É= q ~ã áä= Ü ~ë= ~ë= ã ~åó= ~ë= S= ëÉÅ çåÇ= éÉêëçå= éêçåçì åë= êÉÑ äÉÅ íáåÖ = î ~êáçì ë= Ö ê~Ç~íáçåë= çÑ = ~ÇÇêÉëëÉê= ~åÇ= ~ÇÇêÉëëÉÉ= êÉä~íáçåëÜ áéK = qÜ Éó= ~êÉ= நீI= நீ?I= நீவ? ீI நீ? கI= உ? கI உ? மK pç=íÜ É=q~ã áä=ëéÉ~âÉê=Ü ~ë=ã çêÉ=çéíáçåë=íç= Å Ü ççëÉ= Ñ êçã = ÇÉéÉåÇáåÖ = ì éçå=íÜ É=Çáëí~åÅ É=çê=áåíáã ~Å ó=áå=áåíÉêéÉêëçå~ä=êÉä~íáçåëÜ áéëK =_ ì í=áå=b åÖ äáëÜ =íÜ É=Å Ü çáÅ É=áë= äáã áíÉÇ= íç= çåäó= çåÉ= ëÉÅ çåÇ= éÉêëçå= éêçåçì å= Ñ çê= ëáåÖ ì ä~ê= ~ë= ï Éää= ~ë= éäì ê~ä= ï Ü áÅ Ü = ÇçÉë= åçí= ã ~âÉ= ~= ÇáëíáåÅ íáçå= Ä Éíï ÉÉå= Çáëí~åÅ É= ~åÇ= áåíáã ~Å óK
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Department of English, R.V.S. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore fp_ k W = V TU = V P= U M U M M = O P= P

Widening the Translation Horizon – Proceedings of the International Seminar ^ ë= k áÇ~= ë~óë= åçåJÅ çêêÉëéçåÇÉåÅ É= çÑ = Ö ê~ã ã ~íáÅ ~ä= ~åÇ= äÉñáÅ ~ä= Å ~íÉÖ çêáÉë= áë= íÜ É= ã ~áå= ëçì êÅ É= çÑ = äçëë= ~åÇ= Ö ~áå= áå= íê~åëä~íáçåK = qÜ É= Ñ çääçï áåÖ = b åÖ äáëÜ = íÉêã ë= Å ~ååçí= Ä É= íê~åëä~íÉÇ= áåíç= q ~ã áä=ï áíÜ çì í=äçëë=çÑ =ã É~åáåÖ K =_ çó=Ñ êáÉåÇ=~åÇ=Ö áêä=Ñ êáÉåÇ=ï çã ~åáòÉê=~åÇ=Éñíê~Jã ~êáí~ä= êÉä~íáçåëÜ áéK ?காதல? ?=~åÇ ?காதலி? íÜ É=q ~ã áä=Éèì áî ~äÉåíë=áå=b åÖ äáëÜ =êÉëéÉÅ íáî Éäó=ï çì äÇ= ~Å íì ~ääó=ã É~å=?äçî Éê?=~åÇ=?äçî É?=í