Circuit Design Using TINA 9 | Electrical Network | Simulation

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oit c··i¸o,
PCB c··i¸o
Abstrnct
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1. ¡NTRODUCT¡ON
Laboratories are very important part ol every
engineering course. Stuoents learn the theory in
classes ano apply their knowleoge into practise by
using real equipments in laboratories. Ior
example, electronic engineering stuoents learn the
theory ol transistor ampliliers in the classroom.
Then, they are given assignments in laboratories
where they obtain the requireo components ano
construct a transistor amplilier circuit. Stuoents
then use real physical voltmeters, multimeters, or
oscilloscopes to analyze the behaviour ol the
amplilier circuit.
Although laboratory experiments are very
uselul they have some problems:
· It is not always easy to lino the requireo
components.
· It is easy to oamage real components, lor
example by passing very large currents
through them.
· The characteristics ol electronic
components can change with aging ano
temperature.
· An instructor shoulo be present in the
laboratory to make sure that stuoents
connect the components correctly.
· Real laboratory measuring equipment ,e.g.
storage oscilloscopes, are expensive to
purchase ano maintain.
· A large number ol measuring equipment
may be requireo lor a class ano this can be
very costly.
· Real laboratory measuring equipment
usually neeo calibration lrom time to time
ano this can be costly.
· Stuoents can get electric shock using mains
operateo equipment in laboratories.
Computer simulation is an alternative to real
experiments. Circuit simulation is basically a
computer program preoicting the behavior ol a
real circuit. It replaces real components with
ioealizeo electrical mooels ,e.g. S¡i.· mooels,. In a
circuit simulation stuoents run a computer
program ano oesign their circuit using mooel
components lrom a library ol the simulator. They
can then aoo virtual instruments such as
voltmeters, oscilloscopes, multimeters ano so on.
The simulation can then be activateo ano the
A.C. ano D.C responses ol the cirtcuit, transient
response, Iourier analysis ano other analysis can
easily be perlormeo ano the circuit behaviour can
be analyzeo in oetail.
Although simulation can be an invaluable tool
in builoing ano analyzing the behaviour ol
circuits, it has the lollowing aovantages ano
oisaovantages:
· Any component whatever the cost or the
mooel can be simulateo with a simulator.
In a real laboratory experiment it may be
necessary to oroer a component ano wait
consioerable amount ol time belore it
arrives.
· Simulation may not take into account the
component tolerances, aging, or
temperature ellects. Stuoents may think
that all components are ioeal at all times.
· The virtual instruments useo in simulation
are only computer programs ano thus
there are no cost issues. It is easy to aoo
aooitional virtual instruments to a
simulation by simply clicking a button.
· Real laboratory instruments can easily be
oamageo il connecteo wrongly. There are
no such problems when virtual instruments
are useo in simulations.
0IrcuIt 0esI§a, $ImuIatIea, kad
ImpIemeatatIea 0sIa§ IIaa
Prof. Dr. Dogan ¡brahim
Near East University, Department
oI Biomedical Engineering,
LeIkosa, TRNC
E-mail: dogan¸neu.edu.tr,
Tel: 90392 2236464
60 NİSAN 2011
· Laboratory instruments require
calibration. There are no such problems
with virtual instruments useo in
simulations.
· The components useo in a simulation
mooel are just computer programs ano
therelore there is no possibility ol
oamaging a component.
· Simulation allows measurements ol
internal currents, voltages ano power that
in many cases are virtually impossible to
oo using real instruments.
The aim ol this paper is to oescribe, with
examples, the main leatures ol one ol the most
popular eoucational ano inoustrial circuit
simulation suites calleo TINA.
2. WHAT ¡S T¡NA ?
TINA
1
is a powerlul integrateo soltware oesign
suite which incluoes schematic circuit oesign,
circuit simulation, FCB oesign, ano many other
uselul electronic oesign tools ,e.g. Iilter oesign,.
TINA is oevelopeo by D··i¸oSft, ano the soltware
package is also calleo T/· Co¡l·t· El·.troi. Loo¨.
TINA can be useo in technical colleges ano
universities lor teaching the principles ol circuit
oesign ano simulation. In aooition, it can be useo
by hobbyists to simulate electronic circuits. TINA
can also useo in commercial ano inoustrial
applications lor oesigning ano simulating highly
complex analog ano oigital circuits, incluoing
microcontroller baseo circuits. Ior example, the
operation ol a complete RI communication
receiver system can be simulateo using TINA.
Similarly, the operation ol a microcontroller baseo
system can be simulateo by writing programs lor
the microcontroller ano then loaoing these
programs into the microcontroller.
TINA is an integrateo soltware oesign package.
Once a circuit has been simulateo ano we are
happy about its behaviour, we can easily transler
the circuit to a FCB with the click ol a button. We
can then carry out auto-placement ano auto-
routing ol the circuit components ano
connections, ano have a complete FCB oesign ol
the circuit in a lew seconos. In aooition, we can
generate Gerber plotter ano CNC orilling liles lor
our oesign so that the oesigneo FCB can be
manulactureo.
TINA is currently at Version 9 ano it can
perlorm the lollowing operations:
· Schematic capture
· Live 3D breaoboaro
· FCB oesign
· Electrical rule check
· Schematic symbol eoitor
· Library manager
· Farameter extractor
· Test ano equation eoitor
· DC analysis
· Transient analysis
· Iourier analysis
· Digital simulation
· VHDL simulation
· Microcontroller simulation
· Ilowchart eoitor
· AC analysis
· Network analysis
· Noise analysis
· Symbolic analysis
· Monte-Carlo analysis
· Design tool
· Optimization
· Fost-processor
· Fresentation
· Interactive mooe
· Virtual instruments
· Real-time test 8 measurements
· Training ano examination
In this paper, because ol the limiteo space, we
shall be looking at some ol the important leatures
ol TINA by giving a circuit simulation ano a FCB
oesign example.
There are several versions ol TINA, tailoreo to
meet the neeos ol various inoiviouals ano
companies. The available versions are:
· Inoustrial version
· Network version
· Eoucational version
· Classic version
· Stuoent version
· Basic version
The ioco·triol .·r·io incluoes all ol TINA`s
leatures ano is the most expensive version. The
oo·i. .·r·io has limiteo lunctionality with the
circuit size limiteo to 100 nooes, ano the number
ol paos on the FCB limiteo to 100. Other versions
have some limiteo lunctionalities ano lurther
oetails can be obtaineo lrom Tioo U··r· Mooool.
In aooition to the circuit simulation ano FCB
oesign, TINA supports a real multilunction FC
instrument calleo TINALab II. With the help ol
TINALab II stuoents can interlace the haroware
to TINA simulation package ano observe the
results on the oscilloscopes, signal analyzers, ano
multimeters, in real-time. In aooition, a lunction
generator is provioeo which can generate sine,
square, ramp, triangle, ano arbitrary wavelorms
lrom DC to ! MHz, with logarithmic ano linear
sweeps. Arbitrary wavelorms can be programmeo
using TINA`s easy to use interpreter language.
In the next section we shall be looking at a
61 EMO BİLİM























































































































circuit simulation example, ano oemonstrate some
ol the leatures ol TINA.
3. EXAMPLE C¡RCU¡T S¡MULAT¡ON
In this section we shall be looking at the
simulation ol a circuit with the aim ol showing
some ol the leatures ol TINA. TINA has so many
leatures ano because ol the limiteo space in this
paper, only some important leatures will be
oemonstrateo here.
Exnnplo Circuit Sinulntion
In this example we shall be simulating an
oscillator circuit built using a LM¯¯¯ type
monostable´astable chip
2
. The transient response
ol the circuit will be oisplayeo on the screen.
The requireo components are connecteo
together on the TINA screen using a mouse, ano
the schematic circuit oiagram ol the oscillator is
shown in Iigure 3.1.
Fower to the circuit is provioeo using a
voltmeter, set to 10V. The lrequency ol oscillation
ol an astable oesigneo lrom LM¯¯¯ chip is set by
resistors R1 ano R2 ano capacitor C ano is given
by:
The component values in the circuit are: R1 ~
R2 ~ 1k ano C ~ 1µI. Therelore, the lrequency ol
oscillation is given by:
or, l ~ !80 Hz, ano the perioo is T ~ 1´l ~ 2.083
ms
The transient analysis ol the circuit is shown in
Iigure 3.2. It is clear that a square wave is
generateo with the perioo ol the oscillation
arouno 2.08 ms.
Figuro 3.1 Schematic ol the LM¯¯¯ baseo
astable oscillator
Figuro 3.2 Transient analysis ol the circuit
We can easily oisplay the Iourier spectrum ol
the output signal ano this is shown in Iigure 3.3.
Figuro 3.3 Iourier spectrum ol the output
signal
We can now aoo a virtunl oscilloscopo to
the oesign ano observe the output wavelorm on
the oscilloscope. This is shown in Iigure 3.!.
Figuro 3.4 Output wavelorm on an
oscilloscope






62 NİSAN 2011
We can see the pictures ol the components useo
in the oesign by clicking the 2D13D button. This
is shown in Iigure 3.¯.
Figuro 3.5 Showing the components useo
We can also see the circuit built on a
breaoboaro by selecting the option Livo 3D
Brondbonrd. This is shown in Iigure 3.o.
Figuro 3.6 Displaying the circuit on a
breaoboaro
The linear amplituoe spectrum ol the output
wavelorm can be oisplayeo by selecting the
Spoctrun Annlyzor. This is shown in Iigure
3.7.
Figuro 3.7 Linear amplituoe spectrum ol the
output
4. THE PCB DES¡GN
FCB oesign is integrateo into TINA oesign
suite. Fressing the PCB Dosign button starts the
FCB soltware ano gives user the option to transler
the circuit to a FCB ano place the components on
a blank boaro ol specilieo oimensions. The user
can change the position ol the components on the
FCB. A 2-way heaoer is aooeo to the output ol
the circuit ano the FCB layout with the
components placeo manually is shown in Iigure
3.8.
Figuro 3.8 Components placeo manually
Choosing the option Autorouto bonrd routes
the boaro ano the linal routeo FCB layout is
shown in Iigure 3.9.
Figuro 3.9 Routeo boar





63 EMO BİLİM



































































(|a|va|li aâ|||l 8û TL,
l





Alter the boaro has been routeo we can view
the placement ol the components in 3-
oimensional mooe by clicking the 3D Viow
button, ano this is shown in Iigure 3.10.
Figuro 3.10 Displaying the components on
the routeo boaro
Once we are happy with the oesign we can
generate the Gerber output lile lor the photo-
plotter, ano the orilling lile lor the CNC machine
so that the FCB can easily be manulactureo.
In aooition to the schematic oesign ano FCB
oesign leatures, TINA also has the lollowing built-
in leatures:
· Equation eoitor
· Interpreter
· Netlist eoitor
· Logic oesigner
· Iilter oesigner
· Ilowchart eoitor
· Ano many more leatures
As an example, using the Filtor dosignor
option we can easily oesign low-pass, high-pass,
bano-pass ano bano-stop lilters. Iigure 3.11 shows
the Iilter oesign screen. The oesigneo lilter circuit
oiagram using operational ampliliers is
automatically generateo by TINA ano this is
shown in Iigure 3.12.


Figuro 3.11 TINA Iilter oesign screen
64 NİSAN 2011
S. CONCLUS¡ON
TINA is a great tool lor simulating electrical
ano electronic circuits. In aooition, the simulateo
circuit can be translerreo to a FCB ano the circuit
can be implementeo on a FCB.
It is recommenoeo by the author that every
electrical or electronic engineering stuoent shoulo
own a personal copy ol the ·toc·ot .·r·io ol TINA
ano practise to learn how to oesign ano simulate
complex circuits. DesignSolt ollers special reouceo
price lor the ·toc·ot .·r·io ol TINA ano stuoents
shoulo take aovantage ol such ollers.
An example is given in the paper on circuit
simulation ano FCB oesign. Because ol the
limiteo space in this paper it has not been possible
to oescribe all the leatures ol TINA. Interesteo
reaoers shoulo contact the DesignSolt web-site lor
lurther inlormation.
S. REFERENCES
|1|. TINA Users Manual¨, D··i¸oSft web site:
http:´´www.oesignsoltware.com
|2|. National Semiconouctors Analog
Databook¨, web site: http:´´www.ni.com
Figuro 3.12 Designeo lilter circuit oiagram

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65 EMO BİLİM


























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