CM CM
BH
EnHI
UNIV.OF
TORONTO
BINDING
MACMILLAN AND
LONDON
CO.,
LIMITED
THE MACMILLAN
OF CANADA,
LTD.
TORONTO
AN INTRODUCTION
TO TIIK TIIKoRY OF
INFINITE SERI1>
T.
.1.
KKI.I
LA.
BROMWH'H.
M.A..
F.fc/8
FORMKRLY PROFESSOR OF M
.,
($>/?
GLASGOW: PRINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY PR1 hV KOHKHT MA< 1.KH08K AND CO. LTD.
PREFACE,
THIS
hook
is
based
;it
on
courses
of
(
l<
(^min's Coll.^.. Analysis given ialway. dm Hut additions have naturally LOUS I!MiM!M)7.
:
Mi"
ln,n
n.
in
preparing the manuvript fot press: in parti r hapter X I. ami th part of added, in tinbeen r, selecting subja
1
!ia\.
attempt
itli
>!'
all
I\
tlironn,
in
Priu^lM.iin'
Irrationalzahlen
thIn
i
////'/
wnendlicher
nlatin^ to coiitinu'l
is
j
\<rpti<.n
oi'
tli.oirins
tVad
1'
i.
n.
n
a
ol'
preliminary account
COTr
I
the
this
ha\e
not
in
clia
athiiipt..l
the funi to supply arithmetic proof ,,f thecrein^ (..nctTnin the existence of limits, l.m bave allow'l
their truth
to
rest on an appeal to the reader's intuition the diseu^ion may thus lr maii,
Ih^inners.
J..
An
arithnietie treatment
will
!>
f"iin<l
;
in
where Dedekiml's definition ..i irratinnal num is the adapted as fundamental: this metliod lea<U at niom.tonic ]rimipl of mce (Art. 14!h. I'roni \\hicli e\i breme limits t ia deduced L60);itist]
Appendix
<
easy
t"
In the remainder <,f the l,(...k fiv n> is made ,,f the n and principles of the >itlivntial and Integral Calculus: I for BOme time l>em c. mvince.l that b uld not attempt
1
1
to
study
Intinite
Series
in
any
detail
until
after
they
H.I.
I..
1'1>.
17 ;in.l
H'Jl).
litTf.
t Not only
Imt
in ni:tny <>th:
>e
by a
systt nur
i.uin
vi
PKEFACE.
of
the
simpler
and the geometrical meaning of these operations. The use of the Calculus has enabled me to shorten and
simplify the discussion of various theorems (for instance, Arts. 11, 61, 62), and to include other theorems which must have
been omitted otherwise (for instance, Arts. 45, 46, and the latter
part of 83).
It will be noticed that
free
use
is
made
of the equation
although the limit of (1 + 1/V)" (from which this equation is commonly deduced) is not obtained until Art. 57. To avoid the appearance of reasoning in a circle, I have given in Appendix II. a treatment of the theory of the logarithm of
a real number, starting from the equation
The use of this definition of a logarithm goes back to Napier, but in modern teaching its advantages have been overlooked
until comparatively recently. An arithmetic proof that the integral represents a definite number will be found in Art. 163, although this fact would naturally be treated as axiomatic when the subject is approached for the first time.
of double series,
In Chapter V. will be found an account of Pringsheim's theory which has not been easily accessible to English
readers hitherto.
uniform convergence usually presents diffifor this reason it has been explained at some length, and the definition has been illustrated by Osgood's The use of Abel's and Dirichlet's names graphical method. for the tests given in Art. 44 is not strictly historical, but i^
of
culties to beginners;
The notion
intended
to emphasise the similarity between the tests for uniform convergence and for simple convergence (Arts. 19, 20). In obtaining the fundamental powerseries and products
is
constant reference
made
to the
principle of
uniform con;
vergence, and particularly to Tannery's theorems (Art. 49) the proofs are thus simplified and made more uniform than is
otherwise possible.
Considerable use
is
also
made
of
Abel's
ri;i:i
\ii
(Arta, 50
'1
88) on
nl'
tip
<.ntinuity of powerseries, a
the,,ivm which,
spit.importance has u'ially not been diseased in textbook. Mately ral.lv contaii ('hapt.r XI complete account of thof not, nt ami asymptotic iitly de\,l,,p,'d theoriefl
iii
its
Beri<
iiPnt
li
'ontimd
JMiitlhMiy
t,,
tli
antlimth.
applicatiMiis tM
tipM!'
i'linct
f \H'\w f
nutsid'
sr
,,p,
iM,,k.
tip
Afl
mi'lit
IH
exp
l..l
systematic
M!'
knnwn
r.sults
has
IM MUM exteosiODfl
L21,
IL':;.
th
th
For
Tin
('haj.t.T
intinit.t'ir
ar.juaiii'
inaiiii
with
tip
COnveTJ
I'l'Min
in!
wlpn th
repared
a\ailaM.I
piintini:
t
no
Kiiuli^h
ln>ok
(
was
an
which
lrl
tin
Qe0688ary
writ*
h< IPIMS
CMiiM
III.,
qnot
^ivin^r
was
tlpnfMiv
ti
out
App.iplix
intnuliictiun to tip throry ..!' int_i:raN: IP: HMH is (lir ct. ,1 to the lntv. of of and difference points similarity this tlpory ami that To emphasise tip siinila961166,
!'
the tests of convrrviic, ami of unit'Mnn <Mii\vrirence (Ai 171. 17'J. are callid l>y tip saiip nanps as in the case ol
ami
i^
Second Theorem of M.an Valuiiplatiil l,y iip<iialitirs (Art. Uiii) which are IMMI. obvioc Connected with Alul's Lcnnna (Art To illustrate the ral tlu'Miy. a ^h<.rt discu^siMii nt' IHrichlet' inte^iaN and
tip
'
i.
"t'
will
the (ianmia integrals i^ given; it i hoped that these pmnt's le t'niind Imth simple and riorou.
ol
The examples (.,!' which there are over li(M>) include a nuinl.rr tlpMivms which CMiild not inserted n the fcert, and in
!
i
t<>
SOD
it
I'urther inl'minatiMn.
the
l.M,,k
have made
nl'
my
aim
tn
keep
]ml.l.
i
in
the
tlpMreins to ev
which present
Settled
'
that
most
in
dniiMelimit
r<iU;/.
nl'
connexion with
.
9,
dilltrentiatiMii
l.y
and
BO I'Mrth.
h.
:
witliMUt ditliculty
l>ook has
l.tfii
iisin
\VhiK
my
in
tin
press, three
<
\UiKli
roiitums
MB
Integral* (ch. iv.),
'ml
ntctiuns </
viii
PREFACE.
Lecturer of Trinity great help during the preparation of the book he has read all the proofs, and also the manuscript of Chapter XL and the Appendices. I am deeply conscious
College, has given
;
me
much increased by Mr. and Hardy's suggestions by his assistance in the selection and manufacture of examples. The proofs have also been read by Mr. J. E. Bowen, B.A., Senior Scholar of Queen's College, Galway, 19061907 and in part by Mr. J. E. Wright, M.A., Fellow of Trinity College, and Professor at Bryn Mawr College, Pennsylvania. The examples have been verified by Mr. G. N. Watson, B.A., Scholar of Trinity College, who also read the proofs of Chapter XL and Appendix III. To these three gentlemen my best thanks are due for
valuable
;
BROMWICH.
CAMBRIDGE, December,
1907.
The following list comprises those books of use in arranging the material
:
which
2.
Hobson, Trigonometry.
Osgood, Infinite Series. De la Vallee Poussin, Cours d* Analyse Infinitesimal?. Goursat, Cours d' Analyse Mathdmatique.
Tannery, The'orie des Fonctions d une Variable, t. Cesaro, Lehrbuch der Algebraischen Analyti*. Pringsheim, Mathematische Annalen, Bd. 35, pp.
y
1.
2973!)
Reference has also been made to works on Analysis and Theorv .if Functions by Baire, Borel, Dini, Harkness and Morley, Hohs.m, Jordan, Lebesgue, Nielsen, Osgood, Picard, Runge, Schlomilch, Stolz, Vivanti, and various other authors, in addition to the sources iiunUnmd alu.vf and
in
Chapter XI.
CONTENTS
(
'HAITI:!!
I.
M"!l<'l"!
l'i
I
i!i''i]>:<
'i"i
ami
L.iu.r
Lii:
Intiuir.
17
CHAPTEB
SI:KIK>
II.
01
I'OMTIVK TKK.MS.
'>
(
'.iiiil.ii
;.
('"iii
;.
Logarithm:
Mrin.tki:
Aii"tli:
EXAMPl
rilAITKK
i\\..
III.
Xwtl
i
Abel
and
l>irirhi.
i
Hati"
rniatiun.
Lfiiiin;t.
60
HAl'TKi;
IV
t.
Ajj)li.ati"ii>.
i'
i:.\
IMP
CONTENTS.
CHAPTER
DOUBLE SERIES, Sum of a Double
Positive Terms.
Series.
V.
PAGES

7290
Repeated Summation.
Series of
Tests for Convergence. Absolute ConMultiplication of Series. Mertens' and PringsSubstitution of a PowerSeries in another
PowerSeries.
NonAbsolute Convergence.
EXAMPLES,
ThetaSeries (16)
;
90
other Elliptic FunctionSeries (1924).
CHAPTER
INFINITE PRODUCTS,
Weierstrass's
either Sign.
Inequalities.
VI.
95103
Positive
Absolute Convergence.
Terms UammaProduct.
Terms.
of
EXAMPLES,
ThetaProducts (1420).
103
CHAPTER
SERIES OF VARIABLE TERMS, Uniform Convergence of Sequences.
of
Series.
VII.

108125
Weierstrass's,
Abel's,
EXAMPLES,
Bendixson's Test of Uniform Convergence
(14).
125
CHAPTER
POWER
SERIES,

VIII.

128142
Intervals of Convergence.
Differentiation, Integration.
Abel's Theorem.
Continuity,
Theorem
of Identical Equality
SPECIAL
POWER
SERIES,
Series.
143160
Binomial
Series.
EXAMPLES,
Series for
TT
161
(A. 48)
;
Abel's
Theorem
(B. 1321)
Lagrange's
&
us
.II:NTS.
\i
<
EAFTEE
IX.

TRIGONOMETRICAL INVK>HSin.a
'
IT,
Miiltip!
188
CHAPTEB
<
X.

'o.MI'I.KX
\M>
I'!;
1'.'
Complex Numbers.
ami
le Moj\.
in.
Ooir
lencec,
IV
\\
Oonvergenoe.
i
el's
hiii.hkt's
t
Tr>t
!'
rnifoiin

<
'iivk
l;\lt.iHnti,i
Sim ami
Cnsiii.
S.
!!.
it
In:
tnd
Differentiatioo "
imnM'tri.Mi sMir>.

The OotanFiiu.ti.
gent Kultrs
I'.rrnonlli's
BZAMPl
Tri
('.
I
41
an
An.irli
(A.
12
Tli.i
vm
1
<
15.
27.
911):
\\Vi.i >uass's
I)..ul.k
(I
..
32).
CHAlTKIi
.(
XI.
'uNVKK'iKNT AM'
I'lililiu^rapliy.
AsY.MI'T TI
'
SKIM
(nmial
Historical
Intr>iln.ti<.n.
Cn
BORBL'8
MKMiMi'
MIS
UMATION,
I'liiulitimi
<i
Borel's Integral.
lo a
Addition of
Suiniiiati
<
SuiuiMaM
Al^oluti Siiiiiinalulity.
nt iati"ii,
Multiplication.
Ai.
'oininuit y. Di:
and Integration.
in.
OTHKI;
MKTII>I.S
OF SCMMATIMN.
I{.y's
Boivl's
and Le
of
i
othT
Kuleis

Minit
Series
ion>.
Q
1
of
,al.
ition.
an
I'.oi
Examples
Kvil.
heorem.
'
Multiph'
\.iuiplea
xii
CONTENTS.
PAfiE.S
ASYMPTOTIC SERIES,
Eider's use of Asymptotic Series.
322346
Remainder
in Euler's
Formula.
Logarithmic
Stirling's Series.
EXAMPLES,
Fejer's
347
la
and de
(57).
APPENDIX
Infinite Decimals.
I.
Irrational
Numbers.
Extreme Limits
vergence.
of a Sequence.
of
Limits
Quotients.
Abel's
Lemma.
Theorems on Limits.
EXAMPLES,
Infinite Sets (1517)
;
390
Goursat's
Lemma (1820)
Continuous
Functions (2123).
APPENDIX
DEFINITIONS
OF
II.
THE
LOGARITHMIC
AND
EXPONENTIAL

FUNCTIONS,
Definition
396410
Exponential
Exponential Series.
(Single and Double).
KXAMIM.KS.
410
APPENDIX
FUNCTIONS,

III.
Lemma
(or
S>n<l Theorem
of
the
Mean).
Absolute
FAOE*
.ui.l
lMri.lil.t
T.I
Fi
ili.t
Int.
1
nif.iin
'
1'g
>iri<hl<t'>
Tt
f
hil'
,.>
M. ,in.l
.f
Intriati.
.n.
Sj).i;il
Liiniti
Illtr<_ri:i
hit.Jl
Intiu'r.il.
I:
Repeated
<
lnt::i;i!.
<
Tli
;:iiniii;i
ii
.nil.
i'i
Stii
hunma Panction
.
mn
Camma
Fun. ti.
.us (3547,
5557).
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLI
EXAMPLES,
iiann's
I
i506
)isi.intiinnus
Strirs
(18);
i.
(19,20):
\V.'i.r>tras>'> \(,ii)illrivnti;il.lf
Kunrtimi (3236)
Theniius
li*ta'1
Miami's
(FnnctioD
S.ii.s
(4449);
(6466);
Hifinann's
J.icolii's
(
n
:
.)U..nutri.al
Kun.i
(7077):
Fiinrtii.ns \vith..,it
Analyti.al
'..ntinuati..ns (78
85);
Kumm.
;Mc ?ow{
87100).
iNhKX
OF
SPECIAL
LNTBGEALS,
PBODUCT8
AND
7508
I;AL
INII
509Mi
16,
l."17.
1
The
series is here
is
2 + 34+...
:
supposed to oscillate
finitely
such a series as
excluded.
p.
29,
Art. 11, and p. 80, 1. 2. The integral test is commonly attributed to Cauchy it occurs in Maclaurin's Fluxions, 1742, Art. 350.
p.
p.
97.
Ex.1.
is
101.
p.
122.
The
discussion
limits
;
thus,
m
l
l
we
p.
get at once
of
141.
For methods
determining the region of convergence of Lagrange's series, see Goursat,. Cours d' Analyse Math., t. 2, p. 131, and Schlomilch, Kompendium der hoheren Analysis, Bd. 2, p. 100 ; the relation between these methods will be seen from theorems due to Macdonald, Proc. Lond. Math. Soc., vol. 29, p. 576.
be 48105...
instead of 4 '80,
1
.
p.
146, Ex.
and
p. p.
164. 190.
4.
The index
is
 1
is
omitted from
{(1
xy)(l xly)}~
This
It is
assumed that
2?r).
v(w)
p.
= v(u
2?r,
so that
Professor Dixon's own version of his proof has just been published in the Quarterly Journal of Mathematics (vol. 39, p. 94, Oct. 1907).
1.
p.
227.
8.
to Arts. 44, 45
(1),
p. 323.
1.
3.
should be 8 instead of the following four figures are 6060, according to Gauss.
last figure in Euler's constant
The
and
p..
410,
1.
4.
by using
division.
The proof that 2 > 8 n and a < S n can be made purely arithmetical 2', <r', the sums obtained by superposing the two modes of
We
is
<r
have then 2'rxr', while 2' is less than both 2' Thus 2 a' greater than both s n and <r.
>
> >
N,, *
and ami
471.
Exs.
(compare
p.
490.
Other examples of a simple character Nondifferentiable functions. have I.e. M ixen recently by H. von Kmh. A<tn Matin ninfifi. \'\. /hnt*>l, n Math. 30, 1!K)7, p. 14",; and by Faber, Jahr, *l rirhf <1>
/
t
Verdi,,
p.
!',<!.
Hi,
1JI07,
1
p.
,
:>3S.
is
495,
Ex. 51.
The
function /(a,
;/i
Mippo.etl monntniik
with respect to
n.
CHAPTEB
SEQUENCES AND
1.
I.
LIMITS.
convergence and divergence. we have agreed upon MIL rule, OT rul< which we can BSSOCiate a definite numher ,/, \\itli any .iH^ned
Infinite sequences
that
:
SiipjM.s.
positive intevr
,,
then the
'
set
of numl..!^
"i
arranged
1.
BO as to
I
c<
HIV>JM m<
to
the
set
of
]nsit:
'!.
/'
will
\V.
IM
iallr.l
an
infill
siiujily
!!tin
shall
l'r.iucnt ly
timl
it
convenienl
'I'h'lisequence, the word infinite simply means that every t.'ini iii the miju. is followed hy anothei term.
notation (am) to
i]irs.'nt
this
The
rule
detinin(oi
the >en,iice
may
either
l>e
expl
ome
loiiiiuln
me
Ex.
Ex.
1.
I'
formulae)
_d\ in a
rm
t.nns.
imnil.rrs
1.
2.
I'M.'
li;u iM"iii<
Ex.3.
Tlir
ni'_C
't'
thr
rati.iial
positi
arm
of
;
to
i
ill't
>.!
ami
I
ini>
h'T'
'an
'
ami
80
this
nutlr
.f
\\
aiiuvm.Mit

.1.
n..t
Itail
!"
anv OOITeBpOod
..'to
UK!
the
i
si<inii.
it
mil
<>f
llxii
"hrir inn.
[(
H.
I,
The most important sequences in the applications of analysis are those which tend to a limit,
The
be
limit of a sequence (an ) is
to
said
to be
I,
found
correspond
i
to every positive
< an <i +
to
provided
only that
n*>m.
contract these
It is generally
more convenient
two
in
\la n \<6,
where the symbol
of x.
\x\
is
The following notations will be convenient abbreviations for the above property
:
I = Km a n
or
= lim an
or
a n +l
is
>oo
the two latter being only used when there to what variable tends to infinity.
no doubt as
it is
useful to distinguish
A
the
sequence (a n ) has an
number
may
be,
an index
an
771.
can
found such
that
>N,
n>
;
><x>
oo
n >oo
finite
limit
I,
it
is
called
if
is
said
to
converge
to
as a limit',
the
divergent*
odd integers) we Imvj
1 big.
;
With a w = 2w
(the sequence
of
a diverge/it sequence.
2
ftfa.
Ex.
With a n =l/n
we have
*<);
convergent sequence.
but it <lir<i<j< at us equivalent to nonconn r<j< nt distinguish l/<t\veen sequences which tend to infinity as a limit and We shall fall the latter sequences <>.<<,i//<tturit (Ai those which oscillate.
*
Some
writers regard
.oii\ cnitnt to
1]
Ex. 3
ln>
It
til
ler
liiHttrl
h<
in
liu
s.Mjii.li'
.
in
tin*
tli.i.
will
,i!.v;i\
!:
unlimited nun.
it
convenient some! im
an OrdlE
'
MM
abfiG
'
<<iial
the
8
sr
U.n<.
may
'
pirtund hy joining
liin.
tini
In
li.
tli'
OOni
points
lii
\\holly within a liuri/mital .strip <>!' \\i<lt! rtain valu: if tin sequence is divergent, fch< has passed al')\,wholly (or below) a certain itaiii valur.
!
'I'in
>n
i
!'
tin
initial
tmns
tin
thr
given
It
will
1)0
srrn
at
a ^lann that
tin t'.w
tennfl r<j'rs,ntrl
is
in
tintin
iliMT.ini
slnw
that
tin
tirst
s..junin
111
s.cMinl
converge, and
tin
is
9
oft.n ]oo>,ly
/'//M'/
/.
th
'//
makt
<!
I
Smdi
aa
a definition
id:
tin
pos^jl.i;
may
l>
Been tYmi th
'
'
'
h
in
h
/
which
Hd.. l.y
n f 4)
n
\
if
is
,'\
en.
taking
large enough,
iut
we can
tinl
berm
whirh
is
as .small
M W
tin
and
r(,/ f
4
(2) Infinity. It is to be
infinite,
[CH.
I.
remembered that the symbol oo and the terms infinity, infinitely great, etc., have purely conventional
in fact, anticipating the that infinity must be regarded q# an upper limit which cannot be attained. The statement that a set contains an infinite number of objects may be under
definitions of Art. 4,
we may say
number
suffices to
count the
set.
Similarly, an equation such as lima n =oo is merely a conventional abbreviation for the definition on p. 2. In speaking of a divergent sequence (aw ), some writers use The numbers an become infinitely great, when phrases such as n increases ivithout limit. Of course this phrase is used as an
:
but
we
finite
number
of
2, i,
3,
4,
J,
i,...
i, J,
i i
*, fc..
zero.
Further,
it
terms from
the limit;
evident that the omission of any number of a convergent or divergent sequence does not affect
is
may
13,
2.
change
the character of o
oscillatory sequence.
Ex.
5.
1, 5, 9,
1,
... and 1, , 1, ... have the same But the omission of the alternate
;\,
1, fc I, i,
!,*,*,...
changes
it
/////"//////.
ji i/ifc
mi mix
may
be equal to the
limit.
^ivm ly
5
= sm(iw7r);
in
"N
=
W
^ +
a^J
mdrr, 1,0,0,0.
1,
2
IfONOTONK
i
We
'
shall
usually employ
:
to
<!
ily
ive
iiuiiil..!'It,
si
rid
i\
..!'
/
,.
irord
'/
(
hOW
>//"'//.
whir!
added
\\.
l.ut
i
861
.
!!.
is
/,
tliau
shall
al
b<
A'
(or
'')
to
denote an arl.itrarily
i"
:
tive
unii
numher:
Inn
variahl'
fco
emphasise
that
In
hail
N.
denot,
any
positiv, nunilir.
t
we could
d
,
I
with
l.ut
it
it
avoids roMt'usioM
xnliut ilil.s
c< Hi \
,
we two
H
II. \\.\rJ
is

j,
\}'
)
\.
i
M.'ii
!)
ha]iMiis
hat
rirtain
limit
can
lesa
than
<!'
+
iii'i
wlnn
f,,,
can
mal.
arlit
rarily small
hy
>ull
choic.
an
K'r
/
ii'
wer
than
tin
".
hypoth.
leSfl
A
Special '\aui]lc
s.ijii,
'lie. s
ol'
this, supposi
such that
can
I"
mal.
than
hy takinthditr.rciM
,>
^>
n>
then
w.
can
ch..,
j.iovidcd
///
that
//>///.
Thus
lini
/>
lini",,
<
=
i(
lin
should
s
..... l).s,Tv.l
that
it
ii'
Bequencee
U rh
that
,<i>,.
lim "
may
=
lim
easily ha].]Mn
that
K..r
the
.lit!
Ithou'h constantly
imit.
j.osi
Thus
lim
<i,,
th
'.uiclusion
\'v\\,
hif'Ualit\
'
<
:_
lim
2.
Monotonic
iu
sequences
and conditions
tor all
for
their
conailed
all
vergence.
which a
and
calle
vulu
an
yah,
similar.;
1
and
ied
in
[CH.
I.
may now
be stated
infinite;
monotonic sequence has always a limit, either finite or the sequence is convergent provided that \an is less than a number A independent of n; otherwise the sequence
\
diverges.
detiniteness, suppose that tt+1 constantly less than the fixed number A.
of
and
positive
fraction
such that a n <^a m \e, if n^>m', for, if not, it would be possible to select an unlimited sequence of indices p, q, r, s, ... such that ap >a^ + e, a q p + e,
,
may
be,
it
will
Then, be
>a
ar
>a +
g
e,
as ^>ar \,
etc.;
and consequently,
,
in the sequence p, q, r, s, ... we A contrary to hypothesis. index v such that a v if we the Thus, graphical representation described in employ the last article, we see that all the points to the right of the line x = will be within a strip of breadth e; and that the
enough*
>
breadth of
the
far
strip
can
to
be
the
made
right.
as
small
as
we
please
by going
enough
it
From
the
graphical
representation
approaches some
be
equal
to
appears intuitively obvious that the sequence limit, which cannot exceed A (but may
But inasmuch as intuition has this value). in mathematical reasoning, led to serious blunders occasionally it is desirable to give a proof depending entirely on arithmetical
grounds; such a proof will be found in the Appendix, Art.
Ex,
1.
14!>.
As an example
t
which
is
i
8.
i>
>>
1234567
FIG.
4.
In this case we
may
take
A = \, and
there
;
is
but that the limit of the sequence is equal to .1 have takin .1=2, in which case the limit would In
*The nmnher
of
terms to he taken
in
the
se^umce
/i.
</,
/,
v.
..
would he
2
KONOTON*
Ex.
2.
7
\
si
the sequence
(1
iv
that
tli
that
\
limit
obtained
jn.,ji.i
is
th
formal pr.mf
">s
:
!'
th
ni..ii"t,,ni,
iiuli\.
I'.ut
Ait.
ainl tin
lit,
in
ease
1
n<>
inl,
iinl
so that,
> .1.
then
it
is
plain
that
if
/'
tin
+00,
in niodifyini:
^
I
>
Thwork
iva.lcr will havt;1
)
.1.
^m.
a sequence which
n
no ditliculty
tr)
l ^
!''y
tt
ie
case
BO tliat
m+j
'/.
0,,
Ex.
If
3.
('niisiihr
tin
s.Mjufnce
= ^.
dftinitt*
t,
0<r<l,
:
the
se<
/
j..Mti\.1 /
and
r..nsfiiuMitly
wt
approadirs a
'
limit
such
that
> _ o.
II.
'I'hu
can lind
//<
:".nd to
,
s.i
that
^<r"<^ +
1
if
n>r/i.
<r(/ +
itly
);
)
J<r" + <r(/ +
/(I
;)</.
however
Miiall
e
;
jiiality
is
inn,
may
U,
\vt
havi
= 0.
we can
:it
\Vhiii
/>
1,
it
follows
fi'.'in
Thus
>
aii
iaMi>hd
MI
It
ty "f tin
Mquenoe
"i
by
<i
K.\.
An
(l)".r"
t'
tin
sr.ju.'iHe
can be drtfrniim
btained.
Sniinuinjr
It
"]>,
''"it
Kr<l,
r"*0;
1
:
8
In
If
all
[CH.
find
:
I.
and we
r<l,
r=l,
r2M >oo,
r2n+
Woo
=l.
^=
1,
r" +1
Ex.
4.
Take next
o n =r/w!.
p be its integral part. Then the sequence (a,,) decreases and since is positive it follows steadily, after n exceeds the value p that a n +l ^0.
If r is positive, let
:
()
Now
Thus we can
and
an
find
n+ I
n+2
..
2n
Zn
so that
a2n 3,
<a
>TO
)
Hence, as in Ex.
we
obtain
l<^(l + t) or
It follows that
= 0.
we
obtain the same result by writing
When
r is negative,
a
Thiis for all values of r
= (l)". r"/!.
we have
lira
n\
=0
3.
If a sequence is not monotonic, the condition that a constantly less than a fixed number is by no means sufficient to ensure convergence this may be seen at once from the
;
sequence given in
it
Example
3,
Art.
1,
for
which
0<a n <l.
is tin it
may
be possible to
to any
positive
number
e,
such that
n greater than m. Interpreted graphically, this implies that sequence which are to the right of x = m,
of breadth
2e.
all
lie
points of the
within a strip
The statement
is
the breadth of the strip can be made as small as we pithy going far enough to the right; an arithmetical, proof will be found in the Appendix, Art. 151.
2,3]
Ex.
GENERAL PRINCIPLE
the
J>
"I
OONVJ
012345678
Pic
hieh
aiid
it
it
is
easily
>.tn
is
1.
Tin diairiain
i
will
CAT
above
;i
der
test of
<oii\ .I'Li'iicf
must
wunud
tin
(even
condition
f<rr
conv*
~
,
/////
This condition
/////.
is
certainly
f<>
/,.
necessary,
lnit
is
NT
<>j
siitli
^,II>IH,S,<I
,i ,,
a/rbtirary function
//.
>'//
l'l
may
KT
tend towards
i\;iliiiU',
/'///////'///
///'/A
*///
arbitral
suppose that
HIM
=
then
/')=0,
\J
it"
//
is
any
tixnl
tin
iiuinlnr.
I'.ut
tinl."7.
B6qU61
be
seen t'mni
Appendix, Ait.
will
Tin
ivjulrr
have
no
ditliculty
!//,
in
prnviii^
that
ll>
den
limits a
liin6
6ll)=limall
]>r<\ idid
that
tin
sequencer
liu
nt.
]T"\idd
tli
and that
^n. rally
/
.
1:
And
where
that
liin/(" a
J
,.)=/(HmamJ Iim6w>
any
n>iiil linat
lim
l'<>ur
demurs
in
of
th
liMjisj,,.ritiid.
10
[CH.
I.
If the functional symbol contains other operations (such as extraction of roots), the equation above may be taken as a definition of the righthand side, assuming that the lefthand
side
is
indices
found to converge. On this basis the theory of irrational and logarithms can be satisfactorily constructed.*
remembered that the
limits
It is to be
on the
left
may be
.
perfectly
illustrate
definite without implying the existence of liman and lini b n = (!)", b = ( l)"^! !/). this possibility, take
tl
To
Then
a n + b n = (
n~l
l)
/n
and
(a n
+ 6,,)+0,
a n .b n =(l
+ l/n)
(.&)> 1,
a n /b H =n/(n
so that these three limits are quite definite, in spite of the nonexistence of Km an and lini bn
.
If a n is convergent
without
6 n >0, we cannot infer that n /& n ^oo that a n /b n has a fixed sign. proving If a n >0, and 6 n >0, the quotient ajb n may or may not have a
and
first
Thus with aw = l,
Again, with a
lt
bn
= (l) n /n, we
oo
so a n /b n oscillates between
and
+ oo
= l/n,
bH
=(
and +1.
When one of the sequences diverges (say n *oo ) and the other converges (say to a positive limit) it is easy to see that
<
(a&n)^c
.sequences (an .b n )
a n .b n +x>
n /6 n >oo
6 n /a n
0
Again,
if
and then the and (a n/b n ) need special discussion. both a n and b n diverge to oo we have
6 n >0,
,
when
but both (a n
bn )
(see
*<nin,n/ tlmt
(iii)
it
aw /6 n ^0;
(ii)
ajbn >k>0:
(a,,)
a.
J,
/>
TlniH \vc can define AV^ a8 lima?"", where n \\hcn iunl / ate botli nionotonic,
(
;.
= l,
H.
tlu srijiirn,
.\.i.ii(lix,
Art.
l.VJ,
Kx.
4).
3, 4j
rril;
\M LOWER
UM
.
11
hi
C
////
in
i'
<'
than
>'<.
In
eastr
(ii)
eon\ enient
to
wbn
Kill.
iven
in
the
in
mhiat ion of
in
Mm
<
Appendix a number of
Ait.
\:,'2\
for
the d
in.
practical work.
4.
limits of a sequence.
rm
tin
//.
this
\\
i
.Mid
is
similarly.
l.a^t
callcl
1
r.ut
quence
term,
he. thrc
is is
it
i'oll.\\
tliat
in1
n.
may
such
tli
always
an
e
lar^r
I'uith.'i. tlnrt
inimhcr of such
fcerm
in
]
imlici.s
!:
t.tlnr\vis.'
ii
the
tile Sllpp'sr j, I,, index sati^l'yine the required condition. Hence t)i terms the sequence which fall het ween am and Op are all
J)
\\
'
Iliake
definite
than
a,,
and
('lioose
now
Succession
<>f
values of
/>
such that
"^""r
/'!>'
">_
P*>Pl>
.
Pt>j
Then WG
:
i
and
a
truct.d
moiiotonic sequence blt and this se.jUence limit (Art. 2). either a finite numl.er // or ao. If lim
eaii
has a
//.
find
e
///
BO that
bm
lies
hetweeii
and
//.
no m.r
how
small
may
//
he:
, f
and consc,Uently we ha
e</
/
<
//,
II
is
//'
///.
>//>{
lim
//
if
of
fi
ll
'Hi/ iiff.iinn/
Similarly,
if
lin.
\\
can find
,i>
so that
>
no mailer
h,,\\
A',
provided that
lare
A'
ma;
12
[CH.
I.
If the upper limit of the sequence is H, whether attained or not, the sequence has the two following properties:
term of the sequence is greater than H. least one term of the sequence is greater than (ii) however small e may be* But if the upper limit of the sequence is oo, it has the
(i)
No
At
He,
property
An
how
no matter
great
may
be.
It is easy to
modify these
definitions
oo
).
and
results so as to
8
7.
1O
11
12
FIG.
The diagram gives an indication of the mode of selecting the and h\ these are represented by dotted lines. subsequences for
Ex.
1.
(Art. 1)
&
a w = 2?il.
=
,
and
is
oc
A = l, because
is
in the sequence.
Here
an =
is
l/it.
;
seen to be
which
is
the greatest number in the sequence and A is not actually attained by any number of the sequence.
1,
is
,
Ex.
3.
(Art. 1)
i,
1,
,
f, f,
i
f,
,
...
f,
f,
....
,
and gives
to be 0.
lines.
H=l
and similarly
^, J, , ^,
...
by the dotted
Maximum and minimum limiting values of a sequence. We have seen in the last article that any infinite sequence
lias
limits.
,
a lt az a s a4> a
":;
fi
,...,
>
"r
";
"
".,>
",.
<V".
on.
and so
*
4,
5
MAXIM
I
II
\\<
\M. MINIMI M
i>jMr
1.
Mil v
.t
ami I0W6T
:
limit 1 d>n<
<d
l.y
>
:
//,,
//
'
:
//,.
A,
an.
BO OIL
",
Thru
in
which 0886
iae
miM
//
!>
th
trnii in
M all
in
sequ<
//.
>
w
^liall lia\ e //
//
cam
<
//
i
Thus
//
.UP!
//
//
the sequence
//.
jnonoh.nir
givee a limit
tliat
.'/
or
/:
<Ar
a
in
Jl
i
Similarly
limit
OftSe
gTOrfoo,
//!
:
It
may
be DOticed
3c:
//
f
'/:
//
...
//
... = +
and
ran
00,
ii'
= h> = h i=
It
=
t<
is
imp.Mtant
notice
that
./
CCW1
/
//"
14m
rithrr
//..
//
...
,<//
Ic'loll<>
'I
which
and
thr subsequence
for
i
rr.incidmt
//
with
II
<
//
... ',.
II
thru
tVi.ni
//,
is
Itself
thr limit
<,['
a cn'tain
BubSequel
(i.
suhsr.jii.nc, d.'tin.//.
An
have
similar
ar^uiwnt
o
ajiplirs to
//'
///
con
''
#ub&
</"< n
it
in,
if
n'l,ii/i
f
is
greater
///
tha/n
G
//
///"//
//.
!'
lim//
small
lt
= ^r we
,
ran find
BO that
&+,
//,,.
no
matt.i
is:
luit.
ly
tin
drtinition of
//
\v
have
so
hat
ii'
_
/
(j fe,
if
//_
///.
thr limit of any numr^rnt 8ub8equenC nmt ha\r /i.^'je: and. rlutrarily small. this \\c In likr mann.r 0. requiree prove that m can found to makr a, if and drdnrr tlia //e,
is
Thus,
just
;/
rMaMislird justify us
llf
//<>'// /'///
in
ralli
ant/
MM
1
! :
in
symbols we
.
<
'
.
1 i
Thr symhol
Mm"
/'.
is
th./'
maximum
minimum
If
it
impli.s tliat
/<</ and d
<
s
irr
an;
..ntly
than an\
14
[CH.
I.
when y =
N.
x
;
there must
if
an
oc co it is easy to see that and similarly =4oo we must have limaw =+oo. From what has been explained it is clear that every sequence has a maximum and a minimum limit; and these limits
liin if
infinity of
,
terms
less
than
On
Inn a n =
lim/< u
if,
call
sequences
are
oscillatory
when
shall
the
call
unequal. these limits the extreme limits of the sequence, in case wish to refer to both maximum and minimum limits.
It will
limits
We
we
maximum
the
upper limit, except ^vhen the latter is actually attained by one or more terms of the sequence; and similarly for the minimum and lower limits.
123456789
FIG.
8.
1O
Hn
The diagram gives an indication of the process. The points and h n are marked with O and are joined by dotted lines.
Ex.
1.
3,
Art. 1)
we have //"=!, A B =
so that
i t, i i # = 1, g = Q.
f
to give
Here it is plain that convergent subsequences can be selected any limit between the extreme limits. Thus
i
f>
and
f, ft,
v*
Ex.2.
With
8,
f,l,
2,
J
fc.fc...
,,
ll
=
(])i(i+l)
//,
we
ami
get
J71 =
//
1
f
//,
//
;
,
//,
4
= !!,...
=/t.
if, /<3
//
=^
o(l)
can
QO
80 that
6 = l,
3.
#=
//
/(
1.
i.
Ex.
\vc
tiinl
With
1,
2,
3,
5,
A,,
<:,...
and HO
In
=
IH>
</= oc.
suit M'iinMH''s
In
ErS,
!
J,
:5
it
will
<.tlii
he seen that
than
t'ouiul
to
limits
cxticnir limits.
5,
6
OF AN
MINITI: SERIES
reme
1
Exa
17
the
'nl
..i
thi cha]
Sum
we
of an infinite series
that
il'tlm.
lYni
tliis
.s..Miire
;iMlt
'hat
x
l=
= "l + ":i +
and
i
Thrn
tl
/'/'
th,
A">
/A*
lim
"+
It
+ =
'
*!//,/
is,
//,.
'
iiw.\
is
!ii'l;niint;il
iiii])(.it;inc.IM
in
iniii'l
that
"
'in it:
tak'n DOl
tinitr
oi
MUMS
limits
sud
or oedtto
to
nsr',ll,ih
Similarly, if
/,/
div(
1
reap
Ex.

1.
f
/'
1'"
+
1
;
'//'///
'
1.
i,t
\vh.n
/=!,
,,
/)
and
\\h.
=w.
1 <><!,
r
\\hrr.'
/
(1
+ </),
+
i>
jM.sitivf.
Tlnn
rj"<
I
(1
cm.
n
Thus
ill
liinr"=0,
*oo
I
\vhifh was
ulitaiiiid
indf]'ndntly in
1

'.
~2.
II.
5
it
lim*
that
Kr<l.
/,
is
nli\ j.ius
\,
_
and KOOOrdil
/
.
lim
sd that
ll;
When
and
II
is
1.
1.
\vr
(
have
r
1
f 6),
r)">
d.l.
H<
16
Thus
[CH.
=*
lim
oo
s,,
= + cc
oo
.
between
if if
and +
ig
r=
1,
and
Thus the
= l, sn = 0,
sn
n
n
odd,
even.
is
We
have now
It follows at once
from the
1
and
then
fifT=(a1
51 )+(a2
62)+(a8
68)+....
The
brackets in a
series
equivalent to the
selection of
a subsequence from
the sequence (s n )', and since an oscillatory sequence always contains at least two convergent subsequences (those giving the extreme limits), it is evident that an oscillatory series can
always
be
made
to
converge
by
grouping
the
terms
in
may
cause
The
series
and
1306...;
'306...,
but the
while
1
the values
converges
the
to the
1306....
sum
[306. ..
= llog2 =  + +...,
)()
...
converges to
sum
It is
evident that
mining whether a
series is
any
finite
number
are only concerned with deterconvergent or not, we may neglect of terms of the series; this is often con
when we
The sum of the latter ore simultaneously convergent. terms of the former. the remainder after
is
often
1.
1
17
Arts.
1.
It'
3.
+ /'.
i
here
'.
<
3.
inn. us
fin.
:.!
if
Ex.
4.
I
5.
I'
+ /.
6.
If
i
..
prove that
(<>,
+
an
/,<,)
!'
(!+/).
tl.
In
.!,
if
'
tllf
and
in.
::iiiniii
val
similarly
tin
iken,
/
7.
If
:i"ii
limit.
If
:IM"M linn:
!>n
8.
tli
limit
is
(sinli
;n nlniMtic
ami
li;irm..n:
hen
N
tip;
'nil ami
inmoii limit
are
9.
If
"., Ac
ii.'ii,t,,ni.
tlif
aiithiiMr
ami
and
i
la
TT
rl
ri"
La
18
[CH.
10. In general, if a H+ i=f(a ), and if (a n ) converges to a limit I, then I must be a root of the equation x = f(x). But there are two limits which can be derived from (a n ) by means of subsequences, they must satisfy the equations x = f(y\ y =f(x). For illustrations, see Ex. 11.
11.
If
a n+ i = &",
>0, a number
loga,, +1
of alternatives arise;
if
we can write
of the
= Aa,,,
we can
A = log&.
By means
;
if
A>l/e, (a n )
1
is
(ii) if
the equation A# = log x has two real roots a, /? (say <A< that a < ft) then the sequence (a,,) is monotonic, and a n * a
/e,
;
if
!</?; but
if
!>/?, a n
><x).
When A
difficulty
/
is
the sequence
\
)
()
negative, the equation log#=Ao; has one real root (a); but will be seen to be no longer monotonic. To meet this
we may

n + l/
= Iog(
y = log (log(iii) if
and the
y = log( A) + \x.
(a2n+i)
and
a.> n
e<A<0,
A<<9,
if
aj
:
a w >a.
+i*,

a*,,
*<>,
a 1 <a',
but
^u,
a.,)+1
^v,
>a
and
= a,
if
a:
a.
Here
w, v
u<a<v
and ^ M = v,
^*
= w.
This problem was discussed in the special case a^ = k by Seidel (Abhandlungen der k. Akad. der Wissensch. zil Miinchen, Bd. 11, 1870), who was the
first
to point out the possibility of oscillation, in case (iv). Previously, Eisenstein (CrelUs Journal fur Math., Bd. 28, 1844, p. 49) had obtained the this series is the same as root a as a series proceeding in powers of A
;
4,
below.
Arts.

4,
5.
12.
limits,
The reader may find it instructive to determine the upper and lower and also the extreme limiting values of the following sequences.
(1) a M
(3)
a,,
Th<
(2)
(4)
M
CT,,
13. In an oscillatory sequence there may be a finite numlxr of limits derived from subsequences, all, sinnc, or none of the limits bring attained, as may bo seen by considering
:
(1)
tl
= Hin(ttir),
1
which consists of
tlir
sevrn numbers
0,
ti,
i x/3,
all
(2)a,,=
M4
has
is
the
same
seven
limits
as
in
ca
luit
only
value n
attained.
.'
J.I
Tli.
ba
:i
\V!IM!.
..f
;
limits (>
l.x.
1.
limits
:n
may
nil
tin
lin.
rith
tilt
.mt
"t
ail.
tli.vt'..iv
raiiUMt
f.,MM
''
14.
It'
liiii/,,
/,
/,
lim<>,, = A'
and
/
liin
/'
lim
/>
= A,
+ /^lim(^, + /O = A'+A
a n.l
/'/.
tinrtsiilts

Kl
tplej
fi
iiiiiltiiliiatinn
\vt
may
I"
>M)M.>.
A"
and A
Mil
<></
I= A'A;
it'
<></<
A'
and /<i)<r
A,
w.
1:
,,AA
if
/<>< A"
winre
and
/<0<A,
A
\v
i:
_lim ((//>)__//,
nuin.rically
:
is
tlu>
/A
and
A'/.
//
,.f
//
and
A"/..
iscs /A*,
",
A'^
in
:ists
!tandinu
also
tliat
tin
rulis <an
iriv,
D"
inf.>rinati..n
when
It
is
t,,
In
i..Mvri:'i
that
tlnsr
in. .jualit
i's
ma\
jiarii.nlai
iv
nnK'h
\\id.r
lii
',,6 W )
than
15.
\
in
'
is
usually
an1
!we
lind
multiplication ly
(1)
If
tin
rMiii,,,al.
(</1
/.
and
l.ut
if
/<()
A'.
in
i'iu1 i
all;
i
:n
thosi/,
I
tin
values of
Jjive
no
20
16.
[CH.
of Exs.
14,
15,
the reader
may
consider
(O=
1,
i,
,
i,
... ...
&,,* 0,
an /b n
(&)=> +
= (2)(a,,)
(6,,)=
(3)
1,
f,
^,
lim
lim
0.^
*
i,
...
..
(O=l,
(&)=!,
is
2, i,
J, 2,
3, i,
4,
..
a n b n *
lira
1.
3,
(a n /b n ) = 0,
Era"
(/&) = x
There
17.
bility,
no
Verify the following table, and construct examples of each possiwhere (1) denotes convergence to a limit not zero, (2) to zero.
to
(3)
divergence
+x,
(3')
divergence to
x,
(4)
finite
oscillation,
I.]
LMPLE8.
22.
1f
':
s.uin
lines ax tin
'_'
'lut lira
prOgTM0i<
'.
6.
Miscellaneous.
23.
If
the
srM.ii..
/'ili
rue of
tern
h.it
tin.
Sequence* vary
iii
tip
:ise.
...+/;),
24.
.i
sequence (la")/n
<a<l,
>1,
ami examine th eztenaioi]
25.
hftlur,t'
tln^
iiuMjnaliii
frni
it
tin
iii<([iialiti'
I >
i.iuai'
deduce
that
limit
f(a\
I"
.'in.!
that
,
26.
"" thf. *
1
nattiiv nf thIf
ti,
i'".,t
nf tin
iii:ili:.
,,iv
iliiiMtnl
l.v
a, /3,
\vi
can
J.K.V.
that
if
/j
iiali"n
i'
Himtly,
r
a,
ft\
;
j.ioviilnl
that
in
i..iial
case
;al
\vh.
t.. til
'
thr
f..nil
\\h.
i
tasily
expressed
will
lent
that
timl
that

ami
jirin.i:
i" >!"'
ial
CHAPTER
II.
a2 a3
,
...)
sequence (sn ) steadily increases and so (by Art. 2) the series 2 n must be either convergent or divergent; that is, oscillation is It is therefore clear (from the same article) that impossible.
; :
The
(2)
The
series diverges if
a value of n can
sn is greater
found
so that
is.
Ex.
1.
= i + J_ + J_ + JL
i
1
T
Compare
sn
+ + 02 + 03+
,
,
+ o^i'
;
It
is
clear that
and
so on,
= 3.2>2 n\ = n. (n 1)
3!
2
;
4!
...
= 4.3.2>2 3
2>2"~
1
.
3.
Thus, from the third term onwards, every term in <r n is greater than the and the first and second terms in the sums corresponding term in s n
are equal.
Thus
cr,,>s,,.
so that
<
x,
<
<r n
< 2.
its sum cannot exceed we ran prove similarly that
2.
2a n
e
is
1,
convergent and
as usual,
In
Mini
is
denoted by
By
direct
calculation
1^71*'*
to
decimals
we
find
that
ll*;
lies
between
lies
and that l/{7(7!)} is less than 00003, 10 between 2'7182 and 2'7183. Further calculations ha\e shewn
27182818!
and
that
that
81
POeiTn
liaiiiK.nir serieH
i:
EB
\O
Ex.
2.
<'<>ni(!.i
tin
On^ln). (r
li
r<>u>
is
a power of
2.
ainl
Sow
ioiiii;iiT
.<
\\itli
the
sum
fi
DHi
*(^4
>;tni
as
in
tl.
Imt
tli
all
i]
tl,'
last
t.rm
!'
tlu
u i"iij.
Tlirn
tion.
cai'li
Hut
n.iita,1
1
'
'_MiMij
in
<r n
i>
tijiin
t.
1
),
Sn
>)t(nt + \).
<<>ni'.mMit ly
//
Timall
L'.Vl
tin
and
t0TM
<l'"r<)8.
ten
lifl
wmiM
Hate,
in
t.idtr
It"
iinilailv
.f...
*G
t. a
l''"i
it
i:i
million trniis
is
less
than
i'
\N'
DOt
that
"
5
+f+
24
[CH.
II.
But the
of
in
rule (often called Cauchy's test of condensation): The series 2a n converges or diverges with ^Na N
;
N=2 n
>
and an ^ an+l and it is easy to extend the proof given above so as to shew that we may take as the integral part of kn where k is any number greater than 1. (3) It is clear also, from the results of Art. 2, that if we can find n v so that s ni s n ^>h (where, h is a fixed positive constant), no matter how large n may be, then the series must
be divergent.
n l} n z n s>
,
n,
...
such that
h
Thus, on adding,
Sh
etc.
we
find that
and therefore
above.
nf
sufficiently great;
and so the
As an example,
because
so,
s
we have then
s n >(n l n)ln^
!/(??
+ 1)
to
/^
ami
by taking
= 2w, we
get
*Jn
 *n >
(4) If
is
(
the
sum
the sequence
reach,
than
ami
;ies;
for
all
can be chosen
lai^v
includes
these terms.
On
number smaller than N. (say N e), we can liml terms in the 861168 whose
7,
81
It
i
now
M
cl.aiit'
tli.i
an
i
mini
IMit
i
pro\,i
fco

ijMil
iii
l.rack.tx,
/,,
will still
wh.n
IP
\,.l.
8.
l!'
positive
f,
'';;
f
li.r
Mt
ami
if
anot
series
"
l
<i.,\<t.,\ ...
lias
valuts
of
ent,
ber
than >>MM
ti\i'ii
wli.n
>
a'
we
1'
4...f",
if
'/'
is
the sun.
Thi

[&BB
independent of
,,
}.
wi
all
valmT.
we
hav.
<C
BO that
mlititm
the
tliat
sum cannot
<///
txc.Md
TinIn1
tin tiiins
must
Inf
It.
jH^itivi' in
^1"
and
a
tinit
ill
ii.it
atl'i.'tfil
tli
liy
tli
.mii..ii
,.f
nun
'
in>
at
tin
lM"_rimiinur
taki
tlr
+ i_
with
in
tin
>,.,,,
ml m
;
'
(. inline
"
trini
in
:
.uid tini
Hut
tin
in
thi
timl
s.th.u
In
26
9.
[CH.
II.
The comparison
is
which
often easier to
r
work with
^an
will converge,
provided that
is
For,
not infinite, both series containing only positive terms. when this condition is satisfied, we can find a constant
Hence a n
convergent
is less
is
series.
It is useful to
remark that
there is
;
no need
to
assume
the
this is seen
by considering
for
is alternately equal to 1 and 2. the test is sufficient only and is not necessary Further,
which a n Cn
see
as
t
we may
then anGn >n/2 by taking But Ea n converges (see Ex. 1, Art. 6). so that lim(a (7n ) = oo. The corresponding test for divergence runs
1
Cn = nl and
a.n
= l/2 n ~
ri
2aw
itfiM
diverge,
provided that
lira( n Z)n )>0,
/>o///
series
The proof
tion,
containing only positive terms. is practically identical with the previous investiga
when the signs of inequality are reversed. We note also that the limit lim(a n Dn ) need not exist; and that the test is not necessary.
follows immediately that necessary but not sufficient
It
:
the
folln! ,/</
rttmlitnmx are
For convergence,
for divergence,
lint,
Mm Mm
(a n
Dn ) =
'
(",/')
in
^vn.ral
tlicrc
is
////
no need for
condition,
tin
limits
<>!'
(<>
1>
of (a n Cn ) to <xist: and
is incorrect,
9,
10
1
BS]
Ex.
If
\Mliiu
tilnl
i
.
iiat
liiu
(a
in
/'
will
lie
seen
Art.
1.
It
is
tliat
if
MK
t>
///
<>
cmnlitinn
i
liin
is
.....
rergent,
we ran
li
...+"<.
\M\V
iacll
!'
tllrsr
(
t.TlllS
a/
is
i,,,t
1,
BO tliat
/'
)'',.<
iii
e,
it'
r.m
it'
//
choose
an(
>
> >
//'.
iiat
//"'<
6.
'.
Tims
/"/,
<
2t\
if
//
>
.t
r.
cnn.s.Untly
liin
nOn)f..ll<.\vs f i.n.
is n.
snlliiirnt
\it. 11)
liiu (/"',,)
which ivrv
di\
:
.iltlmuirh
= 0.
"li(liti"M
li'ini
\\hi.h
("
such as lim(. //>..) (l ilv than N and r\ani]> DO ililiiiitr limit will le found in
;
L'I
iiiLTshrin
HIM
Mt inijih
/>).
10.
It'
C(,lii],;l!V.l
\\ill)
til.
iiil'.r
Cauchj
wliicli
i
tlj.M.ntitally
of
__
If
It
i
liin
"">!.
:i
.
ti"
it
inijM.rlaiK,\
I
\vitii
tin
rat;
J.
limit in^
\a
28
[CH.
II.
!_
n Further, to ensure divergence, it is not necessary that a n should be ultimately greater than unity, in spite of what is
i
sometimes stated in textbooks; and if a nn oscillates between limits which include unity, the series diverges*
To prove
these rules, suppose
first
j_
that
lima n n = Gf
Take any number p between
_i_
<
;
1.
6'
and
1
,
rn so that
an
<p<
is,
if
n>m.
2
ro
n
;
that
2a n
is
convergent.
And
the remainder
p>m.
n,
But
(say
nt,
if
be an
infinite
sequence of values of
n2 n3
...),
such that
i_
a n n >],
if if
n = np
and therefore
a w >l,
n = np
,
Thus the sum 2a, taken from 1 to np must be may be taken as large as we please, so that 2 n
greater than
diverges.
and
54 that lim a n n
lies
<
1,
") >>
1.
from Cauchy's.
since
falls
we only know
it
is
in
its
full generality
from
we
#<!,
where
./
and se>l,
for divergence,
Z=lim/v.
= ]/
com vrgrnt
supposing
at
\
to be diflrrcnt
from
niadIn
/m
and
rni^lit
'Jncl
SIMHI
to
<li.
In
ariaiicJj
\\itli
slat iimnl
\>\
('lirvMal
edition.
\\\l.
of
(
">,
I):
Imt
his
ivinaik must
in
umlirst
cod as
.
implying the
toi in
.,!'
t
insiiHiiiiiny
is
tin
nictliod
5
1 1
ns.d
that
atticlc.
Tin roniplrt
In t.st
^ivin
iy
'hrystal in
10, ll
I\TI:;I;
I
\ i.
MM
li
it
It
'
= 0,
\
the
condition
all
p.ii
I
ive
\;dil>
aln
x
tin
rge
r.ui
if
\\.apply d'Alembert's
t
!
test
to the pov.
mly
inf.r
;id
\vli.
./
>
'
'iat
and
t;
Em(6
may
IM!I;I\ i,,ur
(as they
tl,,.
I'htain
no
information
as
t,,
radly of tl
.</<'<
In
this
ti
'on.
th.C
it
d'Alinilfrt^
f
t.
aMish
this
t.^t
th
of
its
simp!
\\id.ly
(with
in
ordinary \\ork.
Second test for convergence; the logarithmic scale. :nv ,inan^iil Suppose that tli. tennfl of a p,
11.
ord.i
in
of maiiitudf. so thai
>
O.
may happm
is
also dilinilr
for
\ai
which
aiv
if
not
./
ii
md
beti
tha
ever ina
//
Th.n.
n,. s
and
f
I,
it
i>
plain that
>o.
Thus. iVoin
th,.
d,tinitioii
of an
int'ral.
we
ha\
rfi
<>r
J n
=
.ml
+r
we
find
Add'
.(iialit
iis
we
h:.
11.
!'
>().
30
[CH.
IF.
(s n+l
 7n+1 ) 
(.s
 7J =
n+l
 fn+lf(x)dx ^ 0,
Jn
and therefore the sequence whose ??th term is s n increases', and since its terms are contained between the sequence must have a limit (Art. 2) and
a,
f(x)dx ; if convergent, the sum of the series differs from the I" integral by less than a l ; if divergent the limit of (s n In )
,
nevertheless exists
Ex.
If
3C
and
+ l),
is
lies
between
!),
and a r
and f*/{*)drlog.8.
a n = l/n(n
ci n
/(#) = !/#(# +
And 2
in
= l, which
A large number of very important special series are easily tested by this rule
:
(1)
Consider
if
+
^4+...,
where
ci
= n'P.
and gives
Here,
is
p
thus the integral to
oo is
(^ip1);
if
convergent only
>
1.
Thus
the
given series converges only if p^>l: and the sum is tlifi) contained between the values l/(p 1) and p/(p l). If p = 1 the integral is equal to log x, and shews that the
,
harmonic
we
n>cc
.xists
and
lies
between
and
1.
This
is
Euler's or
M*rln ',<>,/
/".s
constant.
The convergence
L
Art. 9
+ gf+3
^,
+ ..^^ +
^1...
can
*
in
inferred.
The
integral converges or <livrrm:s with the scqurnrr (/): for further details
iix
III.
LOG
an
\i:i
HMi'
9<
\u.
ini'i.i..l
'+V4* 9* 16*
leM than
'
toi sum
'
ii
lonmder
\\
\Qogi)
./,
'.'
liidi
()
and
II.
faTHl
!
<!/'>
Of
=
Thus
1 .
]<Mr(lo^r
if
/'=!
'^
tinit
^ivin
!
seriee
n..t.<l
com
that
if
/'>! an
//=
!.;
it'
'^'
lioiiM
1.
th
li\.
s.\\.
th
MUM
in
.t'
..I'
lillinn
t.nns
I).
piov.il
similarly that
t>
\\v
all
>mit
tin
a
1
suti
nuinlxr
tin
rarly tnns
it'
nisun llmt
'^arit
Inns
aiv
jMi.sitiv..
ami
n n =(
or
if
i'
>
I.
<1.
i'
/'
=!
that
tli
I
I
F'I
slog
/
[/'
tWO
<li\<
int.^ials
nnl
/'
:iv.3
lnit
deci
>r..\
a limit, tin
>am
will
IM
tn;
l.ilnr. tli.
ill
tl
Ifl
]sitivi anl BO
we can
r.nlt
1.
This
1.
iv.suit
'hat
th.
;n
in
binued
i.
\vith<ut
For
nli
are
32
The following
Let
[CH.
II.
field of application
(Mn )
denote
that
limMn = cc
is
then
are divergent
For,
see
if
series,
Mn+1
as
n
convergent if
p>\.
to
r,
we take
its
the
is
n ranges from q
we
that
value
greater
than ~Z(Mn+l i
M )/Mr+l
^,
(Mr+l  Mg)/Mr+l
no matter how
<J/r+1
sum
is
We
is
may
be.
this
greater than
series diverges.
Similarly, 2(J/n+1
If
/?
 M n )/Mn+l
divergent.
= 2,
;
^(jr*/
is
:=
)
17
'
an ^ so
con "
vergent
series,
thus
p>
2,
and
given by
< p < 2.
From Ex.
Write now
m/n = k,
c*>(lc)
fraction.
To apply
this
lemma, write
Mn+l
^ M
< L [l 
(^
1
)" ']
1/1
From this it is plain that the given series has its terms less than those of a convergent series.
Ratiotests for convergence. Rummer's test for the series 2a n runs thus:
12.
//
SAr
is
a divergent
if
series,
then
t/
2aM
is
(C) convergent,
lim (l) n
\
''
"
. i
L> /J+1
)>0, X
I,
if
"'"
lini(/>,, >
is
' '
>/
AHI)<O. /
limit
IK
For
in
tin
first
case,
i!'
//
tin
minimum
//,
;m<l
//
is
any
tl.at
positive
numlxT
less
can
found
siuh
^n)
nfl
i>
''
'*'
11, 12
i;
1
P8
Tl,
Mini:.
W(
II
+<..+an <amDm /h
inn
ft
nn
lli'
ri'lit
</<><>
SO
5]
tllfl.
Iii
lit.
fixed
number,
and
tin
v,.r..nl
case
'
hat
/>
;
<<>,
I'ni
if
,/<,
if
II
if
>
than
Phllfl
tl
ami BO
of
th.
term
861166
<
aftr
tin
th'
diveruynt
!'
i
also
_nt.
</'A/< n>l
/'
I :
tlun
tin1
condition^ are
i>
In
(D)
In.
)<1.
Ex.
that
it
1.
..
If
th
i
rhf >rirs
...
we
see
if
.,
<
i,
,1.
>]
'litn
l,ut
ol.vimi>ly
!.!
/'.
wh.n
;,]v
lini
(OM
'.,
1.
thrll
tll
minlitinlis
hn.,
!)]>!;
x
(D
IS
!
EX.
2.
If
w.
tak.
^)
.1
and
'
if
ft>a+
1.
It"
o'
th.
with
I
s.
34
[CH.
II.
we must
use
more
and so
on.
is
where f(x)
continuous
and f"(x) tends to zero as x tends to infinity. Then Rummer's test becomes (C) iim^ w >0; (D) lhn~/c n <0, where
For
f(n + 1) f(n) f(n} =
[f(n + #) f(n}}dx =
if
v.
\
^=
ffaf*f(n
+ t)dt.
Now we
is
easily seen to
f(n + I)f(n)f(n)*0, as 91^00. Writing f(n + l) and f(ri) for Z) n+ i and Z)M in Rummer's at once to the form given above.
test,
we
are led
In
f
particular
1/X',
f' (x)
x log x, we find /'(#) = log ar+ 1/ thus we find de Morgan's and Bertrand's first test,
if
f(x)
(C) lim
/0n
"
>l;
(D)
KS /0n <l,
where
Their further
little
= 1 +  + ~^
etc.,
tests,
are of
practical importance.
(4) It is
last test
by the following:
>
(D)
!W <
7l
1,
where
w_^i=1
<an /a n +i
if
thus
<p,,(r,
and
in
in
'"
so p n o, *0.
t
(5)
the quotient
ajan+l
being expressed
<*
work admit
of
an+1
where
yU
=!
ff
,
?'
is
remains
less
a constant, X an indrx ^r'atr than than a fixed nnmlMT .1 I'oi all values of
1.
//.
and
12,
13
1
i:
\Tl'
'
It'
osion
I
ii
tort's
//<!.
T.
diaciiflfl
tl"
ease
//.
I.
apply
<
tin1
t.
ider
tin
limit
.i
~A
Hut, Since
\\
<
1
.1.
ami lim
<
log
<.,>
= 0,
may
thi
!'
ha\v
//
lim
UY
I..
.=0.
\\V
rQfl
Thus
up
in
th..si
ivMilt> in
the
working
tintlu>
rule (^s.ntially
lu
t<>
his
//'
in
ins
mi
Hypergeometric
quoh
>
i'
fl
^_
"
tl"
It'

>
//
>
1.
we
a). ply
tinit
ivsiilti>
"i'
i
Art. 39,
t>
Iv
'i'nt
imt
the
Milieu It
ir..\.
thai
)
/'//
form' above,
tl"
condition lim(/' n
tin
<'>ntrat
=o
"nd
suits
I'm
with
Ex.
3.
('uiisid.i(/.( (/
Hy])fr^e')iiHtii'l
S.i
ojy
M.y*"
tfing
/
1.^. ;<y
.3 7(7
.
^(^ + 1X7+2)
family
^fii
t<>
d'Aleml
tliis
it'
snifIf
'
i
converge
<
1,
and
J?>1,
"
!,
(>t
+ l)(y + /Q_ ~
/^,
+ ia0)coir,
\\hifh
'_
i\r^
if
/t
= 7 + 1 a
/^.
so that
tin
sirii
di\iu
It
'
=a+
1
will
aj..ai
from
that
Ait.
it
.".<
>
that
the
als..
M!
if
1<
and
fiMiM
Ait. ^
.oiivcr^s
fop
./=],
if
13
It
'
tn
I.,
imti.l
that
'/'.I
n
lliat
will n>t
In
^.1>A>^
:
In
llivii
[
36
Secondly,
it is
[CH.
II.
Sa n
that
it
For
affect
the convergence of a series of positive terms the order may affect the value of lima n /a n+l
but
of course a
change in
Ex.
1.
The
series
a+
+ a + a + a + a + ...
3 2
5
4
,
is
a rearrangement of the
3 geometric series 1 +a + cr + a +... and so is convergent if 0<a<l. in this series the quotient an /a n+l is alternately a and I/a3
.
But
Ex.2.
is
Theseries
if
+ a + /3 2 + a 3 + /3 4 + a5 + /36 +...
;
convergent
<a<@<I
as
is
plain
by comparison with
In this series
we have
lim a n /ft n+1 = 0,
llm
n /3
/a
n+1
= oo
arranged in order of magnitude, the convergence imply the existence of the limit.
Ex.3.
has
its
Theseries
< a < 1 and terms arranged in order of magnitude, if 2 3 2 3 convergent, by comparison with l + a + a + a + a + u, + a +...
.
it is
then
But yet
Km (an /an + = 1.
:)
Thirdly, if the quotient an /an+l has maximum and minimum limits which include unity, the whole scale of ratiotests will
fail.
For,
if
\im(a n /a n+l
)O>
>g = \im(an/an+l we
),
can take
A",
k such that
for an infinite sequence of values of is greater than than k for a second infinite sequence of values. n belongs to the first set of values, we shall have
n,
but
if
it
Hence
extends to
If
limw(a n /a n +  1)=
1
+ 00,
 1)= 
co
we apply Raabe's
lira
and passing
!)!]= + 00,
= lim(log70[/<(",, ",,nl) 1] 0,
13, 14]
BUM LKO1
he se,n
It
will
from
i\
t:
mparat
it
fly
I.
limited
ran^inl
may
I
why
<
due
lniii
at
all.
I
and
Tin
ii"t
In
oompaiiBonteftfl
<iiotien!
answer
'i
to this
u,at. in
j
/.
and
I
l!
easier
t<>
086 the
ratio'
Historical Note.
Kuniiner him
in
the form
t'oi
convergence, where
siil.jrrt
1..
</><//>
is
an arhitrary Bequenoe
ion
liii;.
numler.s.
to
tin
r >t n'et
=(}.
whicli
i
was
to
pro\vd to
expresai
di\
.
siijHriliious
hy
l'.
)ini.
l)ini
aUo was
in
tin
used
Kintli
to
where the i
hy I'rin^^heim.
14.
Ermakoff s
Mffiee
1
tests.!
in
The
of
Art.
^f{n\
(i
)
which f(n)
if
i
suhject
to the conditions
I.
is
convei^vnt
Inn
X
'
<
'
1,
<
(ii)
divergent
i'
if
lim
'>!.
/
.
X>
'
I'"],
in
tin
tii
/>
4"
is
any nuiul.rr
!..(
wmi
tli.
in.ixiiiiuin
limit
and unity,
wt
ran tind
s"
^ 1;it
if
<>.
V
'
>$
Jug
\vli
.
tin
ind.prndtnt
.
vari.il.l.
to
'
in
tin
l.ftliand
intgral,
jr
Th
(l r
I
v.iriatic;
ha\v
Ixin
Lriven
bo
tlu
ue
iu
p.Miutriv.al
f.>il
represeiitatiou of f/(x)<fe as
aiva of
tin
cui\.
\vlun
38
[CH.
II.
x is positive, because e
greater than X,
we have
"
'
As
any value
of
;
X greater
than
it is
clear
As
7*
or
Jx
f(x)dx
.
f(x)dx,
f
if
how
is
great
X may be,
number X' = e x
/oo
f(x)dx
is
f(x}dx
(3).
Thus the
These
tests
scale.
f(x)=l/{x.\ogx. [log(log#)]
then
Thus
and so
or
ex
= e /{e .x. [log x]?}. f(e )/f(x) = [log(log x)y lim e xf(e x )/f(x) = Q, if
e x
f(e
,/'
^.
oo
= oo
That
It
is
is,
if if
1.
p>l and
diverges
if
increases
easy to see that if </>(x) is a function which steadily with x> in such a way that (/>(x)>x, the proof
be generalised to give ErmakofFs tests:
.
above
may
(i)
convergence,
if
x>
(ii)
divergence,
if
lim xi^;
*'<)/(())> L
./('')
14,
15
1
39
15.
Another sequence of
tests.
;s^
in
imp..:
,i
<*tecU>
continuation of
('and,
seen
_T.S
iii
An.
i
ii,
that
if
17"M
is
divergent,
'8t
:
"iily
if
p>l,
;"
>o
!
wh.i.
and
11
di verges if
!,,.:[/ Inn
log[/X tt)j
:aJ
<l
0.
th^u.h
lirst
tli.it
we
logK
/"(/')[^( /)]",
r
>,
>
(
This
>h,.\\>
in
that
(/_
tlii>
sluws that
;
l'<r,
Si..ia
(1)
/'() = /j
is
logO
logn
mction
is
log(l/wa,)
log (logn)'
;iicti"H
is
and
in
>n.
D
\\hi.li
It'
I,,
liape,
fiist
given by Jamet,
the
i.lati"ii
'a'h
).
h\
it
\v write A = log(l
,/.
is
ea>y
t.
>ee tliat
it
A>
iii
i,
Thi;
;^=[
if
i^
(1
"
is
this Condition
40
Similarly
it
[CH.
II.
[n(1
log flog *)
^> 1
'
0=^=1
16.
This form proves for example that the series but converges for x>\.
>
lognj
diverges
if
General notes on series of positive terms. Although the rules which we have established are sufficient to test the convergence of all series which present themselves naturally in elementary analysis, yet it is impossible to frame
any
rule
which
will
In other words, whatever rule is given, a series can be invented for which the rule fails to give a decisive
constructed series.
result.
(l)(3)
and
(8)
show how
certain rules
first sight have been proved to be either incorrect or insufficient. Notes (4)(7) shew that however slowly a series may diverge (or converge) we can
always construct series which diverge (or converge) still more slowly and thus no test of comparison can be sufficient for all
;
series.
sidered
Other interesting questions in this connexion have been conby Hadamard (Acta Mathematica, t. 18, 1894, p. 319,
t.
and
27,
1903,
p.
177).
has pointed out that there cannot be a positive function <j>(n) such that the two conditions
(1) Abel,
(i)
lim </>(n).an = Q,
(ii)
lim
</>()}).
an
>
are sufficient, the first for the convergence, the second for the divergence of any series Zf,,.
For,
l if so, 2J[<(wj)j~
would diverge
and
1
therefore,
if
Mn = wo)]* + wa)] +
. . .
+ ooor,
.
the sequence n would be an increasing sequence tending to oo Hence the series 2 (Mn n \ )IMn would diverge also (Art. 11); but
so that
)
,
I/,,
=0,
contradicting the
condition.
(2)
function
Pringsheim has proved that there cannot be a positive c/r such that the condition <f>(n) tending to
,
15,
16
1
U
.
function
BeriOfl
'id
I"
1
for
any com
'
an
nar
lin,
fiat
'
=
II
J0
'
'
See
Mth. A
ini
\>.
:ni.
lias
pi..
v.l
that
thr.
i>e
a po
function
uch that
tinlin.
condition
I'm
tin
dhvrirence of
>() 1"
In
;
function
r/>(//
ami
"//// di\<
can
I)
BO arrani:v'l that
lim
i'l.<l
=0,
the
!
that
tin
t.Tin. .
!'
nl
to zero.
SetA1..1
!.
8ft,
p,
il'
r.iuarkt.l
ii<l
that
1
also <Mv<Tiit
.
which
is
l>ut
BOCfa
lim (6^
write
i/ M = a +
>
+

..+//,
l,,
=
;
<i n
n.
MriM
'
I.v
An.
11
and
(5) dii
1'iuis
IHVIIIOII.!
shewed that
!/>
it'
^<>
i^
r ,n v.rvnt.
,
second
OOnvergeni
Beriee
can
1
Tound
which
has
thi
rty
MI.M
.!/,
a,
J/,..,
.<
,/
_ 1+ ,,, i+ ._,4
Then
J/ M >x
and
<..nsMjiuiitly tin<
6M =
1'iovidfd
tliat
1.
7
it
is
jM.sitivi.\
>
11).
idrnt
tliat
>/.
.
Sti.'ltjrs
sh.w.d
:
that
as
1'
il
...
i>
d*
ndin^
limit,
di
L/m,; then
seriea
M + M
n
}
1
''..
"~F^T ^fww..*!
BO that
i/~"' M
42
[CH.
proved that
if
v lt v 2 v 3
,
... is
an increasing
sequence, tending to infinity as a limit, a convergent series 2c n can be found so that Zv n cn is divergent.
cn
i'
ll
For, write cM = l/vM l/v,l+1 which makes 2c n a convergent series; then = (vn+ iv n )/vn+ i, so that 2vn cn is divergent.
,
(8) Finally, even when the terms of the series 2a n steadily decrease, the following results have been found by Pringsheim
However
fast
may
always divergent
2an such
that limcw a n =
oo
However slowly
may
increase to
,
for
9).
which Kmti.
an =
<x>
EXAMPLES.
1.
2# M
where a n
is
given by the
following expressions
1
"'
(log)
10
n>
10
[log(logw)]
M'
a 1 /"2.
(Art. 15)
1.
I.,
and Art.
11)
Prove that
if
6l>>0,
the series
a(a+l)(q+2)
converges to the
sum
(6
1)/(6
1).
Shew
sum
of
al)(6a2),
[If the first series is
if
&
denoted by w
?i
+ M 2 +..., we
get
\\hidi
Hence (6al.\
l)(x
(l
addition.
But
Ait.
The
Hence lim* w can be found. >ince the terms st.adily decrease. second series can be expressed as the difference between two series
!,
of the fust
ii.
I
kiFLEfi
3.
I'iv. that
tl
(20 +
1X30+2)
\xv*
4.
if
6>f>0
that
tin
and dmien
Ties
'
if
'..\.
'
+
l
1
I
3 5

irs.4.6
ulso that
3
+ \S74j
thrrwi. di\v:
'1
V2.4.6
if
f>>2,
that,
1
and
if
5.
I'l'vi
O<Y<!,
+
i'itiv
tliat
)3
~ +" +
.!
COOV!
.
>/3>l,
and
lint
that
tin
ratio
6.
..nsrcutivr tnn>
I'rnviI'
.i
i...illati
Between
10).
that
n
in
oonvi
+ i.
d<reaaee t
i,,
7.
Sliew that
..f
1
Kunn
</>(/0
is
nr i(Hi\.T^fn<.
\vt
,;IM
writt:
;.
/>
whfiv
is

an
in
arliitrary
jxxitivr
funti<.n
Imt
\>\
tli.'ir
no advantage
making
aft
this .liaiige.
in
convergent
if,
stage,
[Or
8.
ir

th
jii"tirnt
"f
two
1'"
[I'i
x.lyn..iuials in
degree
lii;hst
X,
whose
hiirlnt
b
div.i^.s
d
if
if
the
term
if
in
'/
POT
that
^>1,
us.]
rges
9.
1
10.
Kind limits fm
tli.
sum
^\'(
in
ttrins
of tin inr
'^
s
and drdiuf
Siniilarly
in<iva
in\
44
by means
[CH.
ndx _
[i
dt
2
t'
'
Jo
x2 + ri2 ~Jol +
cr,,
>
TT.
Prove that
if
and that
where
is
Euler's constant.
if
f(v)
l/v.
The desired
1
limit is that of
/"(I),
which
we can
must be
12.
More
n is
and
generally,
zero),
if
= an + bn
(where
bn
is less

never
and
If
lim
^2
~~
;J/~I+P
exists
)
and
is
finite.
[DIRICHLET.]
n,
and
then
l{
p+Q \
or =(1
or =0,
 l/o)/logc,
if
if
Mn+l /M +c>l,
n
J/N+1 /J/,,*oc.
37.]
Ex.
13.
= n*,
Utilise
Tlni.ivm
of Art.
if
(</)
convergence of
2w
/( ,
by writing
,,
= (#/")
/,.
that
"
= S, =
,
r/
l
,,,i
" 1
I
,.
" ";~
=
!,
6', (
_1
[CESA.:,..]
"n
If
of
w,,
14.
,o also is
2(a N 6 N ),iustratd
!">(/,
dmip and
:
\.t
+ + '
:: !
l.ut
iv
be seen
fnn
hand,
aft
if
<
implii
15.
[i'l::
Use
th.1
rhat
if
16.
If
that
')
=
N,
1
).
17.
tli",l
,,f
1
18.
S!H\V
l)]'
= 21og2l, 1
tln
n..tati..n
81).
that,
\\itli
:;
?
Deduce that
:,:'^l)=N
.
+;>
<j/,,//,.
'
__=:;
r,;
i>(
1905.]
19.
l'i"\r iniilarlv
that
"
1
and
20.
tliat
.'2v+l
1
tljat
j
~
Sluxv
21.
if
Kxamin
th.
OODV]

'i.tilar,
<M n )=l
jr<
22.
+ + + 2 3
prove
tliat
converges
if
Shrw
1
that
'
v
If
,i
'
'
4
;tlltl
l~2'
2/777
'
n!
\ 
CHAPTEK
III.
SERIES IN GENERAL.
test of convergence is simply a transformation of the condition for convergence of the sequence sn (Art. 3); namely, that we must be able to find m, so that
17.
\s n
sm
n>m.
n
,
If
:
we
express this
we
get
It
must
be possible to
e,
find m, corresponding
to the
arbitrary
positive fraction
so that
.
a m+1 + a m+z +
+ a m+p <
e,
no matter how
It is
large
p may
be.
+ a n+p = 0.
)
sufficient unless p is allowed to forms of variation with n; and so they are not practically useful. However, it is sometimes possible to
take
nonconvergence by using a special form for shewing that then the limit is not zero (as in Art. 7
infer
p and
(3)).
We
are
therefore
obliged
to
employ
special
tests,
which
are
suffice to
of interesting series
convergent.
*
It is clear
in
'liaptcr II.
Ua
it
does not
<
where lim
/,
= 0, iima n = l, and
\<t
In
tnms
tiinl
to /.cm.
17, 18
LB8OL1
II
OON1
El
17
18. A convergent series of positive terms remains convergent when each term an is multiplied by a factor vu whose numerical value does not exceed a constant can F..I since 1 chow nvergent, th indr.x
/.. ///
!
that
>/</,
Imw.v.T small
may
be,
M+ "+/>
But
1 ^.
.
UJ
Thua
and therefore
TV.
i
s*
fche
ia
<.
ooni
.d
th..,irin
,>>.
deserve
tl
series
a n

2a n

is cm\>>.r<i>
if
series
oj
values
is convergent.
1
' ;(
'<
/ ,
"
(l
=
.
1.
///,><,////,/_//
///.
series
/A*///
/'
/
////'
<<,,','<
i><>n<l'
,j
i'
positive
Tliinfinity
/.
'...uld
I
observe
K\.
that
we cannot apply
i
this
kn<.\\
imtlnxl
iii< li
i
An
cxanij.!.'
is
atl'
rdcd
l.y
L'
lu!..\v.
Ex.
it'
1.
1.
It'
\\<
tak
we
Kii"
b,
11
tlia'
.verges
f>
1
Th'
tliiMimi
tnai'
thf
'
'
_1+1_1 4 4P 5P
+
that tin1.
tir>t
.f
It
\\ill a:
:
Ait. 21,
thri i61
'i'g*
luit
EX.
tli
2.
".
!+**+'
tinfa.i
:t,'8
.
tO so
sum
'
x

that
 I.
Jl.'2
1 + '
'
+ ! '""
48
The sum
of the first
SERIES IN GENERAL.
2?z
[CH.
III.
terms
is
is that the original series contains an infinity of negative terms and that the series ceases to converge when these terms are made positive (Art. 11).
;
Thus, by Art. 11, Iims 2n =oo. But *2n]>2n, and so also Kms2 i = oo. Thus the new series is divergent. The reason for the failure of the theorem
It is
remains convergent if each a whose numerical value does multiplied by factor not exceed a constant k.
absolutely convergent series
An
term
is
19. It is often convenient, however, to infer the convergence of a series from one which is not absolutely convergent. For this the following theorem may be used
A
un
is
,
absolutely)
remains convergent if
terms are each multiplied by a factor the that provided sequence (un ) is monotonic, and that u n less than a constant k. (Abel's test.)
\
Under
vn = u
these conditions
is
u n when (un )
is
when (un )
decreasing.
Then
it is
never increases
and
Now
so that
it
2a n un
m+1
P V ni+\
where p
is
mni

'"
~~~H
'
j
01
Ai'.l
.1.
\M>
,
I'llMdll
m
fchtU
p=se
'\.
18]
^''
.
'
ll
!
f.
and
c..ns,.ijufiitly
1
thai
ill.
at
mgent
.
conditions as
lit
coiidil
Ex.
1.
If
uv takr
th.
MriM
\
'
+\ +
}
...
Oilnady used
ntors
and
rnij.li.y
oiiic
sequ
0,
w
ol.tain
tin
\\liich
niii>t
th.r.foi
.
ni.
'!"
\iify
that
this
tin
OM6,
hat
_/l_l\_/l_2\
""
,il
1
i'
'"
1_
3
Thus
li
in ,<,._!
F1
txits (liy
Ait.
1)
is,
(1)),
and
B61
sine.
.<...
=%,_i 
(/<+i
liin*. _,
= liin.N
,1
That
the
Ex.
In
2.
It is
series
it
Ex.
2,
Art.
in
a.
any
\s
important intViviicr is that it' tluu depend the conditinn of t'ori. ay on a varial >lr <suljrct
i
./
iinnntMiiic
sMjunc<).

tin
r.iiiaind.r
after in terms in
^',untly
tin/'///
less
than i>('\+
niak.s
r^ f
1
this
/^
and ): ivmaindrr
that
than
e.
is
o/OJj
so lon^ as
is tinit,.
This ].r.']Tty
!
may
In
>y
^ayin'
41.
below.)
whih
wul.
th.I'i
origin*]
ran
1y
takin.i:
".,
^1.
20.
//
lvm,\
1
D
minimwm
l.S.
50
SERIES IN GENERAL.
[CH.
III.
to zero
terms are multiplied by a decreasing sequence (v n ) which tends as a limit. (Dirichlet's test.) *
Abel's
lemma
m+p
I
^^ /
(K
1)
^^
nt)
771+ 1
where p
is
less
a m +i>
than each of the differences
>

S m+p
 Sm
.
\
Now,
find
if
finite,
we can
for
21.
some constant! I, such that sn is not greater than I, any value of n. Thus sn sm = 21, and we may take p = We can now choose so that vm+l e/Z, and then
\
<
m+p
2wJ<2e, m+1
proving that the series 2a ?l f n converges.
Ex.
Of
27T.
The
nB converge
if
is
not
or a multiple
For
l>;
m+l
[m + ^(p + 1)]<9.
cosec
m+p
and
so that
m+l
2 an0=sm(J0).8m[m+i(p+l)]0.eoeecJ0;
\
could here take p = cosec J0. the first series may be convergent or divergent according to but the second series, being 0+0 + + ..., converges to the the form of vn
we
When = 0,
0.
sum
special case of the last article is the result: terms of a series '2( I) n 1 v n are alternately positive If and negative, and never increase in numerical value, the series
21.
the
limit.
Abel knew of this test the history is sketched by Pringsheim .(Math. Annul ,n, I'.d. 25, p. 423, footnote). But to distinguish it clearly from the test of Art. 19, it seems better to use Dirichlet's name, following Jordan (Cours d' Analyse, t. 1, 299).
It is practically certain that
:
briefly
fThis constant I will be either_the greatest value of greatest value) the greater of Ilim,*,,! and lim.<*,,.
,
or
(if
there
is
no
20, 21
AI.I I;I;N
1
\n: 9ER]
1
.".I
'<>i
if
we take
la>t
til'
f
...
as the oscillat*
of
the
article,
\v need only
.suppose
that p
is
1;
and
<<Uently
<)n
account of the
frequent
it.
use of
It
this
theonm.
that
\v.
now
is
plain
%i(i^)K^4)+...f(^. 1 i
and each of
ths. l.iack.ts
i>
n<'
ive),
so that, as n increases,
th. s.Mjuciice
(
of terin
<>
>
never decreases.
Also
=
l
,1
...(t)
^K
..,,.;>
Qever increases.
=)
and
Hence, by Art. L the sequence (> v lias a limit not greater than >\ and (fi^+i) Has a limit not less tlian 0. But these two
)
.
limits
must be equal
since
lini
c.,
n ..^
=0, so that
Hence the
Ex.
1.
series
Mriis
and v r
The
Art.
1*,
K.\.
1,
is
n>\\
0<joll.
p=l we
get
tin
\\hirh
is
t<
l>^2.
F.i
'i
jo
+.r
.'
1 H
f1
.''"
,.
1! " 1
J,','i
,,,,1,,,
if*L(iJ+JJ+.
52
SERIES IN GENERAL.
[CH.
III.
The diagram indicates the first eight terms in the sequence (sn ) obtained from this series by addition the dotted lines indicate the monotonic convergence of the two sequences
;
5
9.
FIG.
It is obvious that if the sequence (v n ) never increases, but n ~ lv n approaches a limit I, not equal to zero, the series 2( l)
will oscillate between two values whose difference is equal to I; in fact we have by the previous argument lim s2n+1 = lim s 2n 1.
interest
If v n /v n+1
can
be expressed
in the form
J^l +
the series 2(
\)
0,
2+
FX>1
^5,
{j
n ~ lv
n is
convergent if p
>
we
0,
For
if /x
>
/m
= 0.
x~ n *^~ n*
>n
'
and further (by Art. 39, Ex. 3) limv n = 0. so that v w n+1 But, on the other hand, if /x = 0, it is clear (from Art. 39) that
>v
limt> n
/JL
is
oscillate.
And,
if
<
0,
we
shall
have vn
<v
n+l) so that
Take the
a.
ft
series
l.y
1.2.y( 7 fl)
1.2.3.7(7 + 1X7 + 2)
and
21,
22
1
\Ui:i;\
I.
9EB]
tin',,!/. 1
{>
1/
hmiM
i.
l>e
observed
that
if
>M<1
nag
THIN
in
ihr
nor
sequences
tli.
fcmej ami
ill
reason In supjMi^ that tin tlnnivm i till mr.ssarily fact r CODStrUCJ '\ani]>l<s nf tin failmv,
]
L>
snch as
+ i^ + j^i 4
:i:.
j^i
f
ily
Iiss
rooogDied
than
1111 l+
S
2
M divergent
(Art
tlie first
p
t6.
 +
the
5i
>
aii1
ii
lint
sum
tlll!
1/11 iK+5 +
ntly th.
first
its
1\
'
series tends
to
OD as
22.
limit.
A ruriou^ thc(,rcm,
i^
bo
some
Lxttnt
kin<l
of con
of th laM.
'In'
tn
'rsaro:
If a
<K,
farms
<> arranged
'/,.
ng order of
//<//////
n
tude,th(
n a
//
of P*
>r/,
ca/nnoi
owy
it
i/
"
jlixt
terms
<>/
fh<>
series.
mi
>f
th
fi n
jM.sitivf
tiTin
=
I
/'
'h..hy
..f
:''
fence th
sum
th
tirt
n
1
t<Tiii
(Pi9
Suppose now,
limit
/;
if
/,
^+(/',
it'
iv
i
ivj+dp,^
mis to a poiml<
p^sililr. that
tlun.
<
/,
\v.
can tinl an
n
;ch
that
>/,,
if
//
>
//'.
Hence
^i/
1
1
[n^
But,
sin.
>+'"'
given series
;
>
not
,C. + 'Wi +

+
^ont.
tlu
i>
alsolut<l\
ami
ntly
>'
+ >\
...
54
SEKIES IN GENERAL.
[CH.
III.
can be made greater that NJ^ by taking n greater .than (say) n n can be Hence, no matter how large is, a value t found so that
.
//;
if
?i>7i
hence
sn
must tend
if
limit; so that
lim (p n
if
value must be
value must be
0. 1.
Now
n=pn+qn, and so
This proof
Ex.
is
substantially the
The
series 1
+ ^ + i +  + ^ +  + ...
we
note that the
As
than
a verification,
is
divergent.
23.
Abel's
Lemma.
If
sum
2 anV
Hv and
l
hv : where H, h are
,
the
upper and
al = s 1
a 2 = sz
sl
Thus
Now
v 2 ), (v2
v s ),
...
(vp . l
vp ), vp are never
 v z> < H v  v 8*( V  vs) <H(v  vs V9 )<H(vp . ^V9 8f Vp <H> 8p . (v9
(
i
s).
),
)t
Hull.
4, p.
Sci.
\\\'.\.
Mnth.
(2),
t.
12,
p.
227:
Ces&ro,
Rom. Ace.
Lincei,
22, 23, 24
kBEL'fi
Ui.MM
Hence
or
In
likr
<
Xa
manner
l't
i
<//',.
[fl
lli
sum
I
ilian
",,'',,
<
//
where H'
lil
it
IB
the greater of
!
is,
//
i
the upper
"
is
.., *p.
limitfl
lo\v.r
.
It
for
se
mote
aiv
tl
th<
u]nT and
limits of 8mt
while
Th. n exactly
<
Mi
tin
ntli.r
hand,
whm
.!/
i^
an
iiuna^i
w.
find
24.
series.
Let us writ
r/
l(
=
,
and
aw +2olH l hh^=
.
tc.
Thru
(
i
\\v lia\r
and
whI.'
rous,',,urntly
^J",/"
="
lt
'/f
1
/
.
//
= .'(
we
+.'>
>n.
tind
<<
=o yKjRo )y+...4
l l
f.
56
It
SERIES IN GENERAL.
[CH.
III.
when
tends to zero as
positive.
increases to infinity, at
least
when x
is
Consequently,
The
when x = l, and
the terms a
Write then
,
a l =+v 1
and we have
a 2 =v 2
aB =+v 3
a= v,
...,
where we write
Dvl = vl
v2
L^v l = Dv l
Dv 2 = v l
2v 2 + 1> 3
etc.
We
if
can write down a simple expression for the remainder, is a function such that/* (as) has a fixed
positive
sign
values of
x,
For we have
so
Dv n =
l
Jo
l
f'(x l
Jo
dx l
Jo
( Xl
and generally
ri ri
J)Pv n
I)P
Jo
dx l
Jo
l
dx
Thus the
series
D pv
D pv + D pv
2
...
consists of a succession
Its sum is therefore of decreasing terms, of alternate signs. p in numerical less than value; and consequently v^
where
*For the
p. 188.
cose
x=l,
see L. D.
series
'2,
\.>1.
24
1
ION
This ivsult
,
lea
of th type
Here
d
tin
II
*>
n
ti,,
anl
tin ac
Teases as
\\nik, in
inn
r;i]riil;iti.ilis.
arithln.tiral
tii^t
tO
apply
th.
!';i
aay
at
and
s,<..inlly
at j
r ~^\\ i )
iv.Milts
may
U
\ve
I
be ^atili.d that
the \\orl
Ex.
1.
T;ikf
and
in
\\v shall
tal'lf
li\
get
',
tin
l).l.>\v
58
SERIES IN GENERAL.
[CH.
is
III.
Now
s'
certainly
contained between
But s = 0817465', so that $ = 0'6049 to four decimal places. If we used the original series, it would need over a hundred million terms to get this
result.
Ex. 2. Similarly we may sum the series lTo 6 decimals, the first 8 terms give 0'634524 and from the next terms we get the table
:
V.
24
1
l.i
l.i.l:
59
will
A
a
n.
I
reference
;i
t<
hew
that
we have
.ry
series of
terms v
?.,
for
\\hi.i
small
IPv*
We
ha\.
tin n
/>,',
+ ...).
iti.l
Now
if
Dh n
is
positive
we ha\\
/>/,
/>>,
/
lim
/>
o.
in tin
lia.l.t
^et
Dvj.
Similarly
tlu*
if
//'
.
have
ir,
series ca
degree of
'I'll.
above WBS
i>
.en
by K
Kuininer
the
and ami
tin tirst
proof of
lia\.
il
acniracy
oth.r
<lu.
to
Ponoelet
!'.,r
Mai'kotl'
i'<un.l
transl'nnnatioiis
th latt.r>
nnili<.l
\\
includes Kultr's aa a
an
t\ain]il
<i'
Mark.tf>.
may
2)1
Lnvr the
sum mnvrtly
to 20
<1
TM
ajj)ly Killer's
method
t> this
l
n<
'
\\\>\
;
V& U
r
1
4 3 *'")
:
trn
term>
..f
i
.].ly
Kulei's
m.th.d
the
next
>i.\.
\\
<f
^057 to six
1

'Iofi.
The >um
mrtli.nl ,,f
4 +
lira.k.;
j'
the
tiist
'1
teli
t.rms in the
reiiiaiii.
fr the
1
'
Thus
1'
l^v.
p. 178.
j..
i:u
/'
i./Jg,
1896),
F.ioth.:
.MiiMilt
l'rin::vli.ii!.
60
SERIES IN GENERAL.
[CH.
EXAMPLES.
1.
series
i_J_ J__L.
x
x+\
of the
denominators zero
1, x x+l
,
J__L_
1_
1
J_
+
1
1
__ ~~
^na n
is
are divergent.
2. 3.
Prove that
If
if
convergent, so also
is
n.
(J/,,)
the
series
co
increases to
with
2a w
n,
the
sequence
0.
steadily
Mn }IMn =
. . .
[KRONECKER.]
4.
series
a  a? + a?  a? + a*  a* +
oscillates,
its
two extreme
limits
by
is
inserting brackets.
On
the other
hand the
series
convergent.
5. is
still
the terms.
And shew
also that
sum
of the series
for
x=
sum
t\y>
the
7.
for
x=
*&
How many
1
fy to 3 decimals?
Shew
a 2 + a 3 a 4 + ...
diverges
if
an =
C_iy'i
j+
n 1 ] a=l/[x/w + (l) although the terms are alternately positive tend to zero as a limit. and and negative
or
if
8.
If
_2
.r+1
converges to the
9.
*2 +l
__L_ +
A*+l
if
sum
.
If
a,,
6,
verify that
the series
>S,
(01
 a 2 ) + 6 2 ('/ 2 
+ 6 3 (r 3 /
</
4)
f ...
converges to the
sum Sab.
111.
1
LMFLE8
1
10.
!
if
the
>...
.
ei j^ent
.so
al
+^(
\\
rt
+ ^3) + ^ (
(/
^
t
converse always
ise
that
is
ti
certainly tin.
hn
11.
Ni.sruss
cS
4...
_I_ + _L_ +
./Cj
C,
+_L_rl +
ijucinr
tending to
oo
12.
Verifv that
/
1
?)
ru'iiit
if
<
to
x and x
,
is
not equal
I the
i
vak
'
If
is
fixed,
verify that
al.olutely
convergent
that
if
r ia tin
/.
13.
She*
T
in
_!_ = _ A
'
inti'^er
and
th
1'
in.
in
th..'
>>e
frmii
the unnnatioM.
>UIM ran
'>
In

fad
tin
writtin
M\ +
*fl_,)

14.
With the
>anie notation as
\
~
i //<
if
)i<
Find an
62
15.
SERIES IN GENERAL.
Discuss the convergence of the series whose general term
[CH.
is
III.
and
[Art. 20.]
cos(w + !)
to
^^sin nd
are convergent
17.
if
cos
n2 0,
2v n
sin
nO
n2
[HARDY.]
vn steadily O.
if
Shew
that
way
that 2v n
is
r=D
converges
18.
if
(and only
(
if)
a l + a 2 + ...+ak = 0.
convergent, prove that liniw(aM+1
)
If the sequence
n) is
must
If
2an
0,
2?i(an an+ i) is
convergent.
in addition, aw
n 2 (a n  n+ i>>0.
20.
[HARDY.]
Apply
Euler's transformation to
shew that
21.
of the series
x
T
I
.v
~T~ T
'.
2
*j
x3
T
".
j
~T~
(if
<#<!), Dvn
i(^i
is
positive
1
4
the
sum
between ^v
=J and
+ ^i)= ^j
and deceases
thus.
"1
x
22.
nl
By taking ?> ;l = log( + H), shew, as on p. 56, that steadily decreases; deduce that
D p vn
is
negative
CHAITKK
IV.
I.
ABSOLUTE CONVERGENT
25.
Il
is
i'ainiliar
tin
fact
that
.'
a
tli,
Unit
BUID
ha the
value.
IK.
matter how
termfl
MUM
'
projnrty, series as
;
however,
is
ly no means uni\
.rally
an
which we know
i'itivf
this
is
con\ ci'vnt
(Ait.
Lt
K\.
L),
and has a
tin
value N
so
:
^rtattT
than
.1.
u^ arrange
is
tniis of
srrics
ii\
that
each
positive
tnii
i'ol]o\\
v trnns
t
. .'V 4^:;
1
1

J
i;
>_
K>
ij
Now we
liav
i_Ui_i 4 ^^ 2 ri;
'
J_
2
=
Thus
and
the
it
.,
is
easily
oi'
>een that
/
lim/.
..,
lim/.
..,
lim
sum
the series
i
64
ABSOLUTE CONVERGENCE.
[CH. IV.
sum
of the series.
In view of the foregoing example we naturally ask under what conditions may we derange the terms of a series without altering its value? It is to be observed that in the derangement we make a onetoone correspondence between the terms
of two series; so that every term in the first series occupies a perfectly definite place in the second series, and conversely.
Thus, corresponding to any number (n) of terms in the first series, we can find a number (n) in the second series, such that the n terms contain all the n terms (and some others); and
conversely.
For instance,
terms of
s
in
first
(2?
first
+ 1)
terms of
s.
t\
and the
3p terms of
26.
are
all
contained in the
first
4p terms of
series of positive terms, if convergent, has a sum independent of the order of its terms; but if divergent it
its
As above, denote the original series by s and the deranged series by t and suppose first that s converges to the sum S. Then we can choose n, so that the sum sn exceeds S e, however
small
Now, t contains all the terms of s (and if any term happens to be repeated in s, t contains it equally often); we can therefore find an index p such that tp contains all the terms sn Thus we have found p so that tp exceeds 8 e,
e
may
be.
the terms in ip s n are positive or zero. Now t contains no terms which are not present in s, so that however great r may be, t r cannot exceed 8} and, combining these two
because
all
conclusions,
we
get
S^t r >Se,
Consequently the series
Secondly,
if s is
t
if
r^p.
sum
;
converges to the
t t
S.
divergent,
if
cannot converge
s
converges,
is
divergent.
t<>
we attempt
the
two
series considered in
Art. 25,
..11+I.J+...,
terms
in
,,
1111 + 111+,..,
////<////<.
we
arc partly
of fact
Thus we cannot
frmn
Art.
:.'">
pi
that
>S
and as a matter
we
sec
that
this
25,
26
1
M:I; \\'.I.M
>iu.il;ul\,
til
65
argument ueed above ti h.ir>\.
I,,,.it"
fails
to
that
It
1
(r
(,,
is
now easy
its
prove that
is
if
a series
"
is
absolutely
convergent,
sum X
write
0Zaw
:j
n ].
'2aJ, ami th.n introduce the new contains no negative terms, The aeriea
;
ami
term
no
in
I.
TIM
in
i<
than
is
twic,.;
convergent,
th./;
\vl
.1
.
sum
of a;
and so
th.
B B = S+A.
;
now
that N.
(
are
three series
al'tir
any
H'
.l.rani;iimnt
siij.ns,.,l
tlie
saim
Tli.n
/'
= S'+A';
hut
and
N'=/;'.
tin
llA
}T..\ in'
Ex.
1.
iiiilr
thf
>.
1.
.trly
convergent
tla
l.y
An.
11;
after
;m.l
therefore
ih
series
same sum
any deran^fin.nt.
is
t<>
f
'
__L_JL. ^
1Q2
12
Ex.
betw<
2.
point
ot'
Hew, WQ observe
i
that
tlu iiujiiality
,.1.1
.^i+jj_^ + ...
.ulain.d
11).
l.y
th.
tact
that
o'
The
wriefl a,
these serifs are not absolutely OO1 li\.i^.iit, and ..f couise we havt
to infer thaTli.
last
nsult
should
U
c. .nt
rasttd
:
with
thf
tate
of
affairs
explained
article,
.it
we
lind
lini(r,//,
so that
)N,
lim
<
./
,
f
,'/
\A
.<
lim
(8+A
(.,'
;
).
limy 
8+A
.verges
).
^11
dill'!
>
>
to a
th
66
27.
ABSOLUTE CONVERGENCE.
[CH. IV.
Applications of absolute convergence. Consider first the multiplication of two absolutely convergent series A =2a n> B = ^b n Write the terms of the product so as to
.
/ t / t / t / a6 ajb^aj)} a b / / / t aj)^aj)^aj} a t / /
2 3
2
a^
afiz
aJ) 3
a^
4
...
...
3 4
Z>
...
...
4:
It is easy to
prove that
AB
is
the
sum
of the series
arrows in the
is
where the order of the terms is the same as is indicated by the table. For the sum to n terms of this series (1)
A nBn
if
Now A = 'Z
/
an and B' = ^
\
bn
are convergent
by hypothesis.
Thus the
(2)
series
obtained
(1),
sum
of the
absolute
number
of terms in (2) cannot exceed A'B'. Accordingly, (2) sum as the series (1). Since (2) is absolutely
AB
we can arrange
/>,
+ "/> + ...,
1
following the order of the diagonals indicated in the diagram. Hence we find, on inserting brackets in (3),
where
cl
= a b 1)
1
= c + c 2 +c8 +... to C2 = a2 6 + a 6 2 c3 = a 8 6
A.S
1 1 1
,
oc,
1
Ha2 6 2 +a 1 6 3
and
For other results on the multiplication of series thr should refer to Arts. 34, 35.
iv;ul<r
27
MM.!
us'ul
AI'I'LH
i<
application of
of
tin.
theorem of Alt. 26
in
19
to justify thf
step
arrang
in
./
:
lowers
\vliere
wh.iv
It
;/
is
polynomial
sutlii.nt
say
//
=
v
'>
f
>
r/:
...
f l*^.
is
hriv
to
have !<
,<=
and from
0.1,
Art.
w.
966 that
A,
if
this
1
iv.iiires
,;<
'I'ln
\
= liin
shall
1668
condition iv.juiivs that j8d <X, and that than BOOI6 ti\d value; and thm the n.ctssary
last
will
In
th
BOTJ
//
\=l. and
is
of th
1'orm
the condition
is
th.n
In particular,
if
.^__2.
it
is
to tak
<
/ x 2
1.
which
ainly

satisfied
,,
\vlnn
uri,
,,,,.,.
be
is
sutliiient
lut
iav ). t.mpt.',! t,. think th;it the coiulitiuii \y\<\ w..uUl tliis is m.t the case. K"i we have to ensure the
i>
and
V
\vhih
inaih
pusitivr
in
>f
/<>f/
form.
AB an
has ih.
ird
illustration
[1
tliis
1
j.oint, r..n>i.l'r
'.
>um
l.y
(ir.r')]
= (!.)
\V!MMI
1)
jurii'iilar liy
>f
i'.nt
if
th
in
i"
)
X*
68
ABSOLUTE CONVERGENCE.
;
[CH. IV.
This equation is true if both series converge although the proof does not follow from our present line of argument. It may be guessed that, in general, the condition found for f in the text is unnecessarily narrow
;
and
ever,
we we wish
is
of special applications. are not here concerned with finding the widest limits for x
number
Howwhat when x
;
to
shew
is
is
certainly legitimate
properly restricted.
In view of Riemann's theorem (Art. 28) it may seem surprising that the condition of absolute convergence gives an unnecessarily small value for f. However, a little consideration will shew that Riemann's theorem does not imply that any derangement of a non series
absolutely convergent
be made to have any value which may easily be of a far more n sweeping character than the derangement implied in arranging ^a^ according to powers of x.
;
sum
series can
by means
of a special derangement,
Riemann's Theorem. a // series converges, but not absolutely, its sum can be made to have any arbitrary value by a suitable derangement of the it can also be made divergent or oscillatory. series; Let xp denote the sum of the first p positive terms and yn
28.
the
sum
of the first
negative terms
= lim(a?p2/ n ) s,
where p,
lim (xp + y n ) =
tend to
oo
Hence
lim xp =
p
>oo
n >oo
lim y n =
oc
Suppose now that the sum of the series is to be made equal o; since xp *vo we can choose p l so that x er, and so that Pi p l is the smallest index which satisfies this condition. Similarly we can find n^ so that 2/ %1 2^ 0", and again suppose that 71 is the least index consistent with the inequality.
to
>
>
Then, in the deranged series, we place first a group of p l positive terms, second a group of n^ negative terms, keeping the terms in each group in their original order. Thus, if >S, is
the
sum
f
of
terms,
if
it
is
plain tint
<S
O,
v<p v
but
><r,
if
p^ v<p
;)
+ "r
pi)
//,^ho;
We now continue
positive terms,
where
the process, placing third a group of (p 2 p 2 is the least index such that r
>
n^) negative
terms, where
n8
ifl
>
,/,,.
<r.
27, 28]
IMKMANN
imthon!
BEORE14
evidently be carried
/*,
'!
Tin
of
it
construction
is
can
if
indefinitely,
is
and
d.ar that
/*,.+
/>,
>^=p
1
^ r
tin
on *
positive,
if
<!
I'M:
.
.>^
trm of
Imt
MC
these
\vhil.
i>,
,f
>' = />,.+
/', )ili
//,.
T
i'<.r
N,
is
jMiMtiv.,
does not
.it
tin
</',
t'riu:
N.T
tferiea
ehangefl sign
terms.
Thus, since
increases,
It
tin
tirm^ "f
th'
mut
t.nl to
zero as v
we ha\
limN
=&
easy to mo. lily tin t'oiv^oin^ m.thoil so as to get a <li\fiL;Tiit or o.scillat'ry 901166, by starting from a sequ<:
is
which
in
is
rithtr
<li\
.....
turn to be
tin
inlics
!
int'jualii
t
>^^i s>y
howe\ work and
;
<rii
> xP 
;ml so
on.
of fact,
As a matter
fur pra'tical
\vr
!iti..n.
increases
ami
\
Art. 21.
:
is
f<.ll.i\vrd
first
/
itiv.
ttnn
/
that, in
tla
dfraniTfd
tin
tnns i,ntain
r r
jiiliv,
and suppose to n
In
+ r = r).
of these r tern:
and
s..
lios
between
and
Suj.jiosr
first
r*r
that
//'(/')
1
tcnd>
intinity
with
n,
then
/'(")
''<>f
iMtw.iMi
and
/(*+?),
Tin;
llOOSe v to
be
inction
tin
hange
in
tlu
sum
th,
of th. rrult
:
/,
l.t.au.
thn
!ii>t
''
?'*
*M^/'
=/.
we
see
1 !
that v
v
may be
bi
integer neireet
i
.r
^,
may
integt
!ogn.
i.
JJ,
j..
1
to take
order
Hut
tl
70
Next,
value of
if
c,
ABSOLUTE CONVERGENCE.
lim nf(n)
is finite,
[CH.
however
small, a value
say equal to g, it follows that, for any positive nQ can be found such that
by an argument similar
i
i
dx
Hence the
alteration
is
(#c)log.
Thus, since
e is
arbitrarily small,
we must have
Hence, if lim nf(n) =g, and if k is the limit of the ratio of the number of positive to the number of negative terms, the alteration I is given by l=%glogk. In particular, since 1 * + ... log 2 (Art. 21), we see that when
=
;
this series is
arranged so that
is
Ten
terms
its
sum
log 2f
log
k=%
we
positive terms correspond to n negative and so, if there are two positive log 4
get
While,
if
we have
a result which has been proved already (Art. 25). Finally, if there are four negative terms to each positive term,
we
find
To save space, we refer to V. of Pringsheim's paper for the discussion of the rather more difficult case when liranf(n)=Q.
EXAMPLES.
1.
paradox
+ 1+*+*+*+*+...
2
+J
+ 1 + ...)
= 0.
2.
Ex.
1 is
1i+l.lo.I. 2* 3* 4 6
Hhew that
(if
p<\) we
obtain the paradoxical result that the sum of the 1, the result obtained is correct and rx presses
p>
terms.
iv.)
Tl
3.
If
t/W
")
[It
4.
is
+ ...H'!* 1 
proved
in
An.
71
that i
I'K.VC that
5.
Apply
tliat
of Ex.
to the series
ii+jH~,
ami piovr that
tini
suit iiiur
.
>!
ies is
which converges to
6.
um ItH
tlian
that of
th'
iven series.
absolutely coiiveru'ent
convergent series may be converted into an wriM ly tin insertion i.f brackets. [See Art. 5.] Any oscillating s.riis may W converted into a convergent sei and the bracket* may be arranged so that the in>.rti..n ..f l.ra.kits
Any
n>nalis..lutrly
la7.
sum
iual
to
any of the
.f
limits of
In
MiiKi
that
tin
valu.
n.nal>>"luttly
in
convergent series
tei
may
itmain
unaltered
afttr
a <.rtain chain:'
sutli'itnt
may tend
G
s
Il(lt
[Iiui:Ki..
30
V"tL
(2),
t.
14,
1890, p.
1*7.]
8.
Prove that
1
'
dfierminate numl>er,
luit
that
is
p.rfe.tly
definite.
//
Here
./
is
implies that
=0
lim
is
to le
>nii
Shew
that
wheie p and
9.
./
tend to x
in
siidi
way
sei
that lim
(</;<)
+...+K., and
10.
1..
+
,
'. ..+(1)
Shew
that
if
.<, 1
= ^ + (/,+a s +...la (1
then
.
CHAPTER
DOUBLE
V.
SERIES.
29. Suppose an infinite number of terms arranged so as to form a network (or lattice) which is bounded on the left and above, but extends .to infinity to the right and below, as
The first suffix refers to the row, the second suffix to the column in which the term stands. Suppose next that a rectangle is drawn across the network
so as to include the first in
first
n columns
.
of
the array of terms; and denote the sum of the terms contained within this rectangle by the symbol sm M If # /M>M s t a limit as n and tend to definite approaches infinity
<
<
the
same time
the double series represented by the array.* In more precise form, this statement requires that it shall be
possible
to
find
e,
an index
such that
!V
//,
corresponding to an arbitrary
if
positive fraction
*!<*>
>,n>p.
the last inequality is implied that m, n are subject to no other restriction than the condition of being greater than /z.
By
*ThiH definition
is
framed
in
l.y
1
101
UK
29]
Sl'.M
:
OF
DO1
I
BLE 3EBU
I
pn.p.rty
y
th e
\
iiati<
HIM
>
tinis
s
tii
_
=
ifl
s.
,r
lini
symhol
as to tlif
t.)
u.x,.
not MiMidiit
1
.iM.<
mode
nthei
of MI n
ia
i<
ii
.!
I'mi
it
eoii\ .ni.nt
method
tl>
:;1
whidi
i,
from
s
it
''
l+*m\,
that
\\IKH
t'..lln\v.s
o
that
n.
>
converges,
in
we can
//
;i
find
/z
so
tt w>H
iliis
<e,
of
pruvidid
doefl
//',
//
/"*///
(
and
ber
than
will
fi
eOUIM
n.t
arily
I
ini])ly
/"/'///.
that
tnd
tnd t"
filiations
lini
.sr
y:
or lim x iHi?J
nuinlHr
=
fr.
v:
jH.vitiv.
lio\v\
.r
l.i
8m,n>G,
and
It
it'
'"
'
>f*:
\V<
tin
d<>uM
Berieci 18
then Baid
/:
.
d. tint
similarly divergence to
is
aNi
jM.^il,!,.
that
in
tin
d(uM
Beriefl
m.
and
l'oi
th.r.'
is
littlf ditliculty
tli.
to
establish
i
any
d..ull<
sr.ju.
these
may
lii"
(m, w)
I).
d'Mot'd
l.y
8m
and lim
i
imply that
/<
tli
of
t.Tin
r.ctan^lfs
//'.
and
/*
;
/*.
'/
must be
than
m in
wh.iv of
dition
d.not,'
is
i
("iiis,
the value of
//
will
depend on
it
e.
Tl
i>
tli,
\alue of
>;;
,
when
if
,n
i>
replaced ly
<
limil
</>
>
At.
Heiue T
approaches
and so we can
if
^, such
"The
that
IS.^K^
in
full
l>y
lt>
1900,
rnniri
Wl,
74
DOUBLE
SERIES.
[CH. V.
Now
and
p,,
<r
<K
S
>
if
so, if
// 3
is
find
P, \<
If
if
^ 2>^satisfied.
Ex.
1. 2.
Convergence:
m>w =l/m+l/,
Ex. Ex.
30.
Divergence: If s w> M
Oscillation
:
3.
If *,,
=0 and /x^2/c. = m + w, the condition of divergence is = ( l) m+n the extreme limits are 1
,
and +1.
Repeated
series.
In addition to the mode of summation just defined it is often necessary to use the method of repeated summation; then we
first
obtain b m =
a miM
after
which we sum
n=l
2
1
6m
we
denote by
(JH)
(n)
this
is
called the
In like
sum by rows of the double series. manner we define the repeated sum
\ ^J n=i x m=l
j
^m
>
or
2 2
which is called the sum by columns of the double series. Each of these sums may also be defined as a repeated
limit, thus":
2 2a m M =
,
(m) (n)
s m>n ) or
lim s m<ll
(m)(n)
with a similar interpretation for the second repeated sum. In dealing with a finite number of terms it is obvious that
8
M / N \TM x^
\
\
N M VM v*
/
\
\
But
lias
it is
by no means
s in
a double series
the
sum
a)
s=i m/
indeed the single series formed by the rows and columns of the louble series need not converge <>//, I ml may oscilla
29, 30)
REPEA1 ED
th.
L
81
MM Mlhe example
That
hi.'h
.
10
lim
ii
lini
m
exists at
all.
Vn
f
I'liii^h.im
has
.//.
/Ae
rows
/;/' //'.
I
</,, >i/,/,
9eri& is conr*
quatiow
In
I'aet
<
o&ot*
we have
MI that
lim
^e,
if
//<>//;
since,
'
l>y
dim
n*>oo
>(/1
/t
= x.
<
In
like
not
).
g(fr*.)(!
i^
mt
n.Mr.^arily
valid
convergent
1
h.
= lim
(lim
v)
= !.
tin
we
tiiul
lim
(lim
x fllill
= n,
it
lim (lim
is
.<,
Knm
not
1'rin^shrim's theorem
clear that
.lnMe
oi
series
(mvr^e
lnin
^upposed con
'2
is
valid:
Init
[
the truth
the
tli
douMe
with
<
.....
= IHI<
(lim
Mi
(;/j
+ /o, we
find
lim
.,
,,)
= = lim
(lim V,
.
w,i =
FT
true,
is
nvrt'ul
to
know
th
thai
equation c2)
is
to
con^id.r
76
DOUBLE
SERIES.
[CH.
v.
convergence of the double series. In such cases, conditions may be used which will be found in the Proceedings of the
A
may
Thus
but
lira
m*x> n
(lim
s m>
=  J,
Other examples of points in the general theory will be found at the end
of the chapter.
9.)
31.
anticipate that
s
been proved in Art. 26, we may a series of positive terms converges to the sum in any way, it will have the same sum if summed in any
In view of what has
other
way which
includes
all
the terms.
For,
however many
terms are taken, we cannot get a larger sum than s, but we can get as near to s as we please, by taking a sufficient number of
terms.
shall now apply this general principle to the most useful special cases. (1) It is sufficient to consider squares only in testing a
We
double series of positive terms for convergence. = n; then Write for brevity s mn = on when
m
.
plainly
if
crn
<r n
must converge
to the limit
s,
if
sw
iH
does
so.
Further,
converges to a limit s, so also will s m<n so that <TM lies between s and s e; /j.
greater than
/z,
we have
so that
= ,>*
e.
Hence s m<n converges to the limit 8. The reader will find no difficulty in extending the argument
to cases of divergence.
Soc., seri
J,
\..l.
I.
I'.MH, p.
ITti
30,31]
SERIES
If
mem
for
puri
ion,
we
'>nd
iccession of curves*
plainly,
a
when
two
tin
mi therefore
th<'
it
jiiares)
sum
'
tained
to be con
aqua
p,
thus
is
the
sum
for
tti<
,ive,
in (1)
l'urtli.r.
^cr^a.
to
//
ttiid
can
makr
\vt
i>
greater than
1)V
rr
t
N
taking
,
>
it'
Thus, since
h
> <
x
fi
e,
>
two
!'
and SO
In
liknianii.i.
lint
N aft
;
ly cncloin'
that
if
s.juar.
lnt\vMn
the
cm".
tin
can
>lu\v
t
tin
cur
rect
boo, in
MU;UVN (and
h.iv!', ,r,.
tin
virtue of (1)
particular das
<>'
th,
curv.s
u^d
tin.
in
J
i
t'orimd
ly
drawing
<>t'
tin
10.
Tin
summation ly
t
i
>.Uars
is
indicated on the
ll't.
It
should
he noticed
Thus, hy sjuaivs.
we
r(.2l
+ ",, + ",, +
\vhlly IT
in
i
f
78
DOUBLE
SERIES.
[CH. V.
22
+a
13 ) f
. .
Of course the equality between these two series is now seen to be a consequence of Art. 26 but we could not, without further proof, infer theorem (1) from that article since Art. 26
;
refers only to single and not to double series. By combining Art. 26 with (1) above, it will be seen that
(3)
No derangement
can
alter the
important to note that: the terms of the double series are positive, its convergence implies the convergence of all the rows and columns, and its sum is equal to the sums of the two repeated series. For, when the double series has the sum s, it is clear that
It is also (4)
When
8 m> n
cannot exceed
of
any number
of terms in a single row cannot be greater than s. Also, for lims any fixed value of m, m>n exists and is not greater than s.
Now we
than
JUL.
(n)
can find
JUL
so that s mt n
>
e,
if
m, n are greater
Consequently
silimsTOW >se,
(n)
if
m>
//.
Hence
Km [lim sm
(HI)
= s, ]
(n)
In a similar way,
we
As a converse
(5)
series
and
and
the three
sums are
the same.
= *,
Art. 2 the sequence (am) converges to a limit then it follows from (4) above that x = rr. and that other repeated series has the s.mir sum.
;ui<l
Hence by
y.j
tin
31, 32]
PS
FOB
littlr
"N\ BRGEN4
ditlirnlty
in
79
'I'll.
ivnd'r will
find
ni'.difyi:
i
in
(4)
32.
and
(."o
terms.
It'
we compare An.
>
s
,
with
<
>
.f
we
see
<
If
t;
rms of a
///,;,
/,
<l<>i>/<
mother doub
Similarly for
Tinin.ist
;*
known
'
d;
with
greater
.r^'nt
in
plai
1
iiiipnrtaiil
series'
i^
amtH = (<
that
tliis
wlniv ^^',"
.inn!.],
is
convergenl singl
t
i\n by to
.
seriee
i>
.i'
convergent we note
sj.1.l
\\u\
ntainl in a
s.iiar:
n

i^
'
plainly r.jUa
+ ^o +
limit.
last
and therefore T
Converges, ly
(
(
ha)
r<>ii^.,u,iitly
articl..
i'<
tin
<l>ul..
of tin
>n
/
tin
tlirr

liand.
1
.
ly
=(y/>
aeries;
\vli<i.
,n
;/
,i
and
di
in^lf
t>
in
diagonals,
ill'
as
c2)
recognise of tin
tin
iliv.r^.ncf.
take
thi^
tin
Bum
last
artirlr.
In
way
Beriea
which
i
aeon
In
divcivnt.
.n
coin paring
it
with
'+..
Ex. Ex.
divei
1.
?.)n*nfi coir
l'(//j
a>l, /^>1.
2.
+ /)~
ft
di\
^v=rK
Ex.
3.
I
 A
,
opavergea
if
X>1,
thL:I>
divi

\\hiv
i>
uid
"t'
b\.
i
roiidit in>
dix'i
iiu.
.1.'
80
DOUBLE
SERIES.
[CH. V.
The reader will have no difficulty in seeing that the following generalisation of Cauchy's test (Art. 11) is correct: (2) If the function f(x, y) is positive and steadily decreases
to zero
increase to infinity* then the double series S/(m, n) converges or diverges with the double integral
\
\
as x
and y
f(x,y)dxdy.
test (2)
However, nearly all cases of interest which come under the can be as easily tested by the following method, which depends only on a single integral (3) // the positive function f(x, y) has a lower limit g() and an upper limit G() when y = x and x varies from to and if G(), g() tend steadily to zero as >x
:
then
//>
I
the
double
series
22/(m, n) converges
if
the
integral
&()$;
00
converges;
f
1
0()^
diverges^
For then the sum of the terms on the diagonal x{y = n lies between (nl)g(n) and (n l)6r(?i); thus the series con30
1) G(n), that
is,
f
I
G()d\
with the
that
is,
y ()(d(.
Ex. 4. A particular case of (3) which has some interest is given by double series f(am* + 2bmn+o*,*), where /(#) is a function which 2 steadily decreases as its argument increases, and am* + %bnin+cn is subject to the same conditions as in Ex. 3 above. If A is the greatest of a, 6, c, it is evident that
the
is
less
.r)
is
+( x)
2 ]
=A
</,
2
.
When
is
positive,
is
we
see in
the same
/?
2
.
way But if b
that
is
if
the least of
b, c,
the expression
uivutrr than
negative,
we can put
</tf)
[{(
if
4Jfl=ac&
Hence
*That
if
I
=(Ap)
is,
and
we suppose
f
Ml'
/(f,
i?)
'
=/(.''.
7
?
//).
=
II.
{
""''
=='!/
Tin us.
singlr int.'ral
lS7'i,
i.
',.r
s.rirs
srrniS to be
iat ion
s.cins
is
due to
Ciim.mii
(</.M.
H'oAr,
lVJi;
p.
an
s:ti.
'
all
I'liat
in\
tst
given by
I',. I.
Tin
.ilmv.
tonn
to lr imvi1.
32, 33]
/.
il.trlv
tl
seen to diverge
..
:i
al.o\e;
.'i
and
it
li.wa also
that
\\
'
t
>0)
tin
tin
>eries
converges;
..ii
181161
divergei
if
33.
lust
!
<>!'
sing
,,
,,
I,
w
call
the series
iit<l ;l
if
^
Ar
1
,n\ .r^nt.
Tlit
in. ill.
.,1
u^..l
in
m
in
be
applii.l
:il
!'.
,it
once to shew
that
all
tin
ivMilts
pn.v.il
still
Art.
r
l..uM.
I'..sitivr
il..nl.lc
ten
aeriea
tin
true
for
any
tlie
In
tliN
oonnezioD
of
tin.I/"'/'.
l.ycnd
.l.in.'iits
sul.j..t
slmuld
tmisult
p.
pajMr
by Hardy
(Proc, A'"/.
N''. c2)
voL
l.
I'.'o:;.
may
(1)
In
scn
first
liy
taking
siiupk
examples:
Consider
+ 1 + 1 + 1 + ... + 1111...
+1
\vli.Tc all
ll'i,I'
+0 + 0+ ...
\.\\
tli
tTiuif
?/J,
jit
in tin tirst
tin
rows and
has
tinit
c.lui.
^,, = 2
plheim'l
s.ri<
>um
:il
),
i\
a...
riling
tlie
(1:
get
too,
tip
convergence
f
tlii
Art. 31).
:
by Cesaro
1,1
j
1,1
7
2~
1
^8~16 + l6~7
1,1
+ 21,
:i
:i
L6
16
73
153
16*
+ r6'
15s
l.s,
82
Here the sums
of the
DOUBLE
rows
i
2'
SERIES.
[CH. V.
in order are
L I
22
'
I
'
23
24
'
*"
'
and so the sum of all the rows is 1. But the sums of the columns are
+ 1,
...,
proving that (5) of Art. 31 does not apply. This result is specially striking because each
(the
terms being
,
,
less
than
t+i+i+J+JK..)j and
rows
is
of the
a
*2i
+ 53
2i
~*~
>
which
absolutely.
But the justification for applying (5) of Art. 31 is that the double series still converges when all the terms are made positive, which is not the case here ; since the sum of the first n columns then becomes equal to n.
The
series
sum
may have different values according to the mode of summation has led Jordan* to frame a definition which admits Such restriction seems, however, only absolute convergence.
series is used,
unnecessary, provided that, when a nonabsolutely convergent we do not attempt to employ theorems (1) to (5)
For example
in
of
two
r*
m=iUt'i
is
if
m+n
used.t
(log2), and
it
with respect to m. However, Pringsheim's sum does not exist but oscillates between limits^ J(log2f) and (log2 + ); while the
we sum
oo
and
+ QO
A special example of deranging a double series is gi\vn rule for multiplying single series given in Art. 27 the by above.
Suppose we take the two single
construct from
*
series J.
= 2ttn 5 = 26n
,
.
and
series
P = 2a m bn
Contra cTAiiaJye,
1,
i>.
p.
;>!>_';
l>y
H..lrick), vol.
:r,7.
tK.lvin,
:.
/.'
/*///// >,f
;iiul
MiTfricn/
MM.
l.,i<l.
Bromvvich
9).
Hardy, /Vof.
Mnf/i.
So,.,
sri is
J,
>1.
'_',
l!Ol,
p.
lt!l
(see
33, 34]
MILTI1M.H \TI"\ OF
ii.it
I.I:
It
/'
eonvir;r,.s
i
in
lYini^h.im
use, provided
ha:
.1
/>
ponvi
*m.n
ire
lu
= ("i + ",+
J
I!.
+ ",></>,+/>,+ ... +
'
BO that
lint
liin
>,
*
f"i
to convert
praeiiral work in analysis it ilouhle aeriea /' into a single series, tli'i
usually ehoflen
hein;:
i^>
tin
sum
l>y
This
siii'l,.
senee
'. where
tVoin
It
follows
at
Once
Art.
>>
that
//'
//
ivo
serif*
t<>
their
^_
product
is
eqwil
,!},',,},
Jut,
tht's.
if
cnu>'<
,'!<' i'f.
und.r
al^olutily
cinMiinstanr.s
m,
tin
lciil)l:
<
'.(S^,,!);
<t'
of
tin
pi'oduct
If.
however,
/>.
one
;/>
or
both of
f<>
A,
B
=
l>i
should
not converge
f/lt ,f
absolutely,
we have
Abel's theorem:
Is
'i.
/V<',V,>,/
the aeries
^
if
8wn
l
/<ii
n
ti n
/>,<///</ A.B.*
For
\ve
tl
we
write
An =n +
}...^'i nt
'.>+.
..
+ !>,
tind
cl +ct +...+cn
Hence
Now
(App., Art.
r>4>.
when \\m(' n =
r.
,.
have also
lim
((',
+ (',+
i
...
'
and again
<AJ.I...
An.
1.1
./.'
L
t54
lim
*.!.//
II
'
"
r
4
...
+ 4 HI )=
A
,/y.
.1 />.
Hence
<'
= AH.
ha>
(For an
;i
alt.'inativ. 'ioof,
see
Art 54 be
pr.ivitl.
i.y
t>
siinil.u
nnth<Kl.
tin
oonvt
.onvTL.'.
provitlrtl
jual
thi?
sum
.!
diagonal series, v
\
that
ioluinii.
84
DOUBLE
SERIES.
[CH. V.
2an 26W
,
2c n
is
2c n cannot diverge (if are convergent), although it may oscillate. For, if = oo, and therefore also divergent, we should have lim Cn
IV
2c n oscillates, it is clear from the article quoted that AB lies between the extreme limits of 2c n that in some cases 2c n does oo and foe) oscillate (and that its extreme limits may be is evident from Ex. 3 below; but in all cases the oscillation is of such a character* that
;
by
Art.
154;
whereas
this
limit
must be equal
to
AB.
If
IV
Ex.
1.
Undoubtedly the
Thus,
if
of powerseries.
the
<r
product
is
0^ 02^ + ...,
bn
which
is
=a
cn
=a
the notation being slightly changed from that used in the text.
Ex.
2.
If
we apply
we have no
but we
Q +
is (
i
1
in
l)"" ;^,
where
so that
Ces&ro (to whom this result is due) calls such seriis xhnply ind>(> miniate the degree of Indeterminacy being measured l>\ the number of means \vhioh have to be taken before a definite value is obtained. (See Art. 122 below.
;
34,
35
1
li.nfu
9
liin "
lini
logn)='
wf
LI),
!>gn)
1
,,'i);r7T
theorem,
101
this
S('+4
agrees
with
l'i
in^lxini's
general
th.c.r.i:
[MEx.
3.
1900.]
Hut
if
w.
qnare the
s.
^iI^....,
"litain
l'(
1
)"
'". where
r[2(/l
if
'.at
[./'(
.r)]"
and
it'
">/''
/>
b, th<> .<'r/f.<
?J{
de for
iniilri
hand,
if
/'
>
A,
I'lin^h
ml.
35.
.! /;.
M.rt.n
lia^
.i..\,d
tliat
tit.
'h<it
\
one
t,
Suppose that
f>r In
.a,
/
r^^fr.f
,
,
In.
/.
4 />+...
...
/!,
it
/?=/
(/
/;
('.'nsr.juently
,f...
,(^r,)
.1
/;
//
#
so that
.i
f..fc
...,iH. ..4
,i
86
Now,
can find
since the aeries
DOUBLE
a limit
so that
it
,
SERIES.
>
[CH. v.
to zero as
B is convergent, the sequence p 1? p2 Pa* tends has therefore a finite upper limit H. Also we
/o
/o
m pm+ i,
m+2
...
are
all less
than
thus,
if
p=n
m,
we have
Take the
n tends to
oo
and we
find
because
so that
tends to
oo
with
n.
Now
is
arbitrarily small
and
is fixed,
we must have
HnTfln

= 0,
(see
Note
(6), p.
5),
that
is,
lim
lirn(A n
/f n
= 0.
)
Hence
or
It
must
not, however,
necessary for the convergence of 2cw ; in fact Pringsheim has established a large number of results on the multiplication of two series neither of
The simplest
n~ l l)
of these (including
most cases
If
7=2(
)**"%,
F=2(
of the conditions
their
product
is
given by 2(
!)""%,
}
where
1 l
,
wn = u v n + u2 vn _ + ...+ u nv
provided that the series 2(wn y n ) is convergent. Since lim^w = 0, we can write
2
7= Ul  (u 2  UJ + (u 3  u 2 )  (HI 
where
8l
=u
l ,
S2
,
= w2 ~ w n
6"
^3
= W3~ W25
all
Now, by
hypothesis, 8 2
83 ,
...
are
convergent, and therefore the series 8 1 8 2 + 8 3 B 4 + ... we can therefore Mertens' and theorem absolutely convergent apply obtain
Hence, 28
is
is
where
7i
= Vi = ^i
l
Th UH
2 U F= w  (w2 
 w2) ~ ( W4 ~
Wj
 w, +
<r
:,
^',,
= 0.
35,36]
M:I:
\v,
i.
Mi
(in
n..d
iir*ut
ii
virtu...,1\
..f
that
limy,,
<>,
M
i
that
\\'
vx
less
and
\M
>iiji.o
that
i>
:i".v
index
th:in/>; as
cause
in
:
7+1
ha\e
nv^r
1
ti.
lolll
to
,/,
\\e
have
,',.
+
Thus we
find
i
f,
"/!$)
If,
as
is
8iippc
tind 7 so
tl.
is
leas
than Ac; 7 having been fixed, take the limit of the last inequality as n tend. to infinity, and we find lini Thus, since t is ail'itraiily
"_.
1
small,
0, and it follows that lim "<. other nsults are due to Voss and C'ajoii, in addition to those found of 1'ringsheim's aiti'le in the K"i iirjsheim.
lini
'/
1
'i
Ikl.
I.;
/,
two
vol.
niire
2,
i..mt
j,j,.
]>;i])ers
J.)
will
l.e
found
in
IJHM,
and
4<l.
36.
ThU
,j
Substitution of a powerseries in another powerseries. operation ivr^ anotlicr txaniplc of deranging a double and r 4.. oaider tin aeries
.
t**f(
/._,//
l,
t}
l>
i'
/'.,./
4 ...:
if
./'
convergent
at
all.
thy
con\.
al.solut.ly for
//
<N.
<
thru
Beries
arises
in
tlif
\vlntluT
tir^l
if
:
tin
50)
i
Tin <Uti..n
nt n i
th
BeOOnd
gent,
and
from
thr
powers
of
//
ian
lr
calculat.d
usino;
ijual
tin
rule
///
for
tinl>;i
to
8WM
+ "/' + "A
4..
:;
"
:
fM
f...
4...
88
If this
DOUBLE
double series
it
SERIES.
[CH. V.
x,
is
we
are
if
summing
by columns
equal
made
still converges, after every term 31 positive (Art. (5) and Art. 33).
Write
a
= an
\b n
=/3 n
x\
= g,
series is
(2)
Now
this series,
summed by
rows, gives
which converges, provided that Take now any positive number less than r, say p, then the series 2/3 m /o m is convergent, and consequently the terms m have a finite Thus our condition is /3m p upper limit M.
satisfied if
or
if
Hence
if
/3
<s, and
g<( s p
)p
/(M+s/3o), the
series
2)
of positive terms will converge. Consequently the derangement of the series (1) will not alter its sum. Thus the trans
formation
is
(i)
<,
(ii)
*<(86
) /
,/(af+6
)
are satisfied (where p<^r, b n p n ^M). In particular, = 0, the conditions may be replaced by the one
>
if
n // the series converges for all values of y it is evident that the condition x is sufficient to justify fit r
y
derangement.
The
series,
case 6
is
not
itself
and generally,
if
n>
2,
cn will
36, 37
N"\ LBSOL1
!
Ti.
<
Ex.
.1
y=i"
iation
all
is
hyH
'>'',,
tlun
tin
verges for
a
vainin
z
//,
all'.waMf, pn.vid'd that #<1, since z con ! I/1. Tin i ult is .lvi..Ml\ ./;", where

polynomial
Lining that
;
sn<h
t>/
that
tin
term
of
hi_;li't
degree
ifl
"
= e* and
A ill
= /zlog(l
/x
+.r) (see
A
...,
vanish for
l.rf<.i'
= 0,
1,
2,
/'I, lans in
'
caeOfi
th
neiiefl
t.nninat.s
i.ahinj
II.
cH
=
/'
.
fj.(fj.
an.l
we
'il.tain
;
ami
37.
AliiK.st
tiv.ly
>.ri.^
t..
has
l..n
iriv.n.
.,,ni,aiM
r.mitly.
i:. L ".
(
Hardy;*
series
'
it
n.n,sji,,n,ls
tinf
'
t\i
discussed '<<
in
Art*
Th. th..nni
''
ia
th aztenrioD
(/<>
.<//;/i
niii.h..
^, n

m>
/"///"'/ '"^//
'
con>'^
"//
//// '/.<
/
^^*
.'.*!.,
In
;<
,.
<,
'
,,+i
'/*'//
'''"'^ ^o 2^0
as either
or n
i*:'.
ta.t.
just
tin
as in
Lrivt'ii
that
iiinhi
\vc
22<Vt>
win re
//
is
an upprr limit to
M
''"
''
11
it'
  fcifc*l*H'H
i
s..
that
rithiM
//
or
LB
I.
//
.
''.
1
and otherwise
A
i
//
./
.i/
.v
N'
S2Z 2 1111
(V
!.,
S
1
,
212
M
2f2
1
S
,
that
v V'v;
lM ad<
+, V(1 ),
//.
whit h .an
as small as w.;
>l,>as.
l.y
]IMJ.T
.h'i..
.f
r,
because
''ges.
and
th.'y
>..
th'
diMilil.
ivn
Iiy
wc/)),
<,..
\vhirr
o,
'.',
p
'.
an
.l/'/'/K
SOC., srri.s
_'.
vol.
1.
UNI:?.
},.
I.M
roL
J.
l'.U.
]..
I'.MI.
90
For then
DOUBLE
\s mttl
SERIES.
[CH.
and
.'
\<4\cosec$0cosec$<f>\
EXAMPLES.
1.
As examples
n
of double sequences
we
(1) *m
=
in
0.
I;
all
equal to
(2) s m n
,
m n =(l) +
(!+!); \m n)
limits
is
again
0,
but the
single
and repeated
do not
s m<n \
although we have
,
lim /lim
= =
m
(3) Sm,w (4) s m n
,
>oo
\n
5
ac
= wm/(w 3 + = m/(m + n)
here the double and repeated limits are again all 0. here the double limit does not exist, but we have <*,<!, and limsm n =0, lim *,. = !,
tt
because, however large p may be, we can find values of m, n greater than such that s m<n and other values of m, n for which * TO ,n>l e. But /x,
<
lim
>cr>
MO \n
s m> ,A J
=0,
lim
n
>oo
lim
>
s m<n \
= 1.
\n
(5) If
),
lim /limsw
(m)
\=0=lim /lims m
J
n\
/
(n)
()
\ (m)
,
bat yet
us
to
limsmtn =ao,
be seen by taking
lim sm n =
+ oc
may
m=
ri
2
.
Here
it
limit of the single sequence given by putting w = n exists and is equal. ; although the double limit does not exist. [PRINGSHEIM.]
2.
The double
series given
by
</.,
+ bn + (,  6 ) + 2 + f a4 f ... (a +!) )+(a !> )a 2 a3 a 4 ... b. +0 + 0+0+... 2 +0 + 0+0+... A,
(a
)
()
!>.,
/>.,
.^ives
the
sum
in Pringlheim'f sense,
.f
But the sum by rows is only convergent if 2a,, converges; and the sum by columns converges only if 17>,, is convergent. The sum by diagonal is lim (n + />), if this limit exists; and is otherwise oscillatory.
",
/>.
lt
v.
3.
IfFLES
In
tin(1.
.ul. I.
neriea
1+2+4+*i124iJ12I
j
l'i
ci.luiiin
converges
t<>
o,
:
Inn
row
tin
li\.
!_".
is
<
iii^.htiin's
sum cannot
txit
and
sum
l.v
diagonals
divergent.
4.
The
series
gran
l.v
0+1+0+0+0+...
1+0+1+0 + 0+..
+ 01+0+1 + + + 01+0+..
..
ha> the
tlu<>
sum
H<
l.v
rows; 1
l.v
doul>
'iiverge in
In
fact,
if
m
'I
and
i
is
1
if
m>n,
or
+1
m<n.
5.
given by
..
..
..
has
tin
sum 
Imth
scillates
lntwetn
2 and
if
1
6.
and th diagOIM] ly r.\\s and columns 0. There is no sum in I'rin^hfiin's m=/>, and is ..tlurwise 0.
;
The
dnul.l.
1+0+2+01 + ...
+ 01+0 + 2 + 0+.. 0+0 + 01+0 + 2 +
ha>
the
tin.
..
sum
l.v
l.v
K.US
sum
diaLTonals
tin
<>
= 2.
7.
l.y
fr
",/',.
+ 'ij>.*i+ ...
+...
+ </,'
first
liy
ru\\s
and
secoiully l>y
92
8.
DOUBLE
Discuss the following paradox
:
SERIES.
[CH.
If
1111
first
+ 1=5
or
[J.
1=0, where
BERNOULLI.]
If the double series 22a m>n is 9. convergent in Pringsheim's sense, it does not follow (in contract to the case of single series) that a constant C can be found such that sm C for all values of m, n this is seen by
 ,

<
and supposing 2a,,, 26 n to be divergent. In like manner we cannot infer s m> n < C from the convergence of the sum by columns or by rows (see for instance Ex. 3).
considering the series of Ex.
2,
\
m+n in which a min ( /mn does not converge l) sums by rows, columns and diagonals are equal to one another and to Pringsheim's sum. The common value is, in fact, (log 2) 2 m + nu v Exactly similar results apply to the series in which a mtn = (l) m n where the sequences (u m \ (vn ) steadily decrease to zero.
10.
The double
;
series
its
absolutely
but yet
11.
and
am
find
= 0.
Here we
<)
2 2 = 2< IS = + P(W.
[M^Pall
[HARDY.]
12.
Prove that
V V
m?, n?
tends to
/.<!'
.
when
v tends to oo
pnvilnl
tliat
If
mam
,
and
then
= 2~ m
/
=  2~",
If
= 0,
m=0 \i0
Yi *)
w=0
m=0
V.
14.
It
!.\ \.MTi
.u.
,(ir*"m/(>wm
1ml
tin
inn
i.
illatt>
/
,'rt
lirtwirn
/
x
e
and
'
and
sum
oscillates l.rt\\.rn
ti,,.
and
I!
+ jV
Iin.inwi.h
[F.i
M.I,
j,.
17.,.]
15.
<>f
the
two
series
.r
x
,il
x*
'
^
^
2 (3!) .6!
"
to
*
16.
It
<
,. V
)=i+ y (.,.+
1
.i/^) + ^

)4....
iy:<i,
r
i
and
th.n
J?)^*"*/(*/^^)25ffi
Axing).</)."('.
v=i,
.? ).5r(y ,9
2 2
2
),
17.
Verify that
1
L!(nl)!+J
!':</'
1
2).
:
./ 2
K*)!
+
4?+8
1.1
'
./
x(x 4
!)".'(.' +!)(.'
+ 2)
+< "
Lr
1!
.r+1
2! .rf2
3!
18.
8h6H
that
_.
_._
j
....
into
;i
dulle
.
Mrirs.
and transform
it
..
,
,
Taki /r
lit
and 8O
calcnlatt
I'l
/,
t> 7 d.rimal
places.
[STII.
19.
Ckm^
_. + _^
it
i>
c<jual
t<>
94
20.
DOUBLE
Shew
that
(if
SERIES.
series
[CH. V.
l+x
Hence evaluate Lambert's
series to five decimal places, for is also equal to
Shew
the coefficient of
21.
of divisors of
if

(1
and n
included).
From Ex.
x
T
prove that,
.
x <1,
.
3?
3?
&
+a
&
lj^^l^ 10
~\+x
22.
Shew
that, if
\x\<l]
3.r*
2x*
(l+xf
"*
between
the
series
in
Exs.
1922
and
elliptic
Fundamenta Nova,
40.]
where
that,
if
<^>
.is
the
sum
,
of the divisors of
n (including
and
n).
Deduce
<^_ 1
= 0=<#>
If \x
<1, prove
that
X/(rf)
*
for
all
'
In
[LAGUEHKK.
25.
]
Shew
<>f
(loulilil,
= <=7r, p = l, _ 3 + _ + ....
CHAPTER
VI.
INTIMTK PRODU(
38.
Weierstrass
and
leee
1
inequalities.
ej,
..
In
an suppn
])(>N]'ti\c
than
we
(!+",)(
Eeuoe
(
+0,
)(
+",>(
+" >[
S
+('/! +",)](
see
+";;>
>
+<"!
+ ",+
ami
(l)
((.ntiiiuin
this proc,
tliat
(1 40^(1
liU(
In
nianinT
1
ha\.1 1
h",,)
+ " ",>l
1
('/!
Thus, since
Oj
i^
<sitiv.
\\r
liave
ntrally,
>>\> +, +
l
,+
...
and
tip;
tin
/,
+</.,+
+
1
1.
\v
have,
>y
aid nf c2).
(
r.Milt
1
1+,/jH
1
.
siiu'i
it
_+Oj+...would tluMi
iiuU,ilit
96
Similarly,
(4)
INFINITE PRODUCTS.
[CH. VI.
we
1
find
1
.
(l_a )(la2 )...(lan )<[l+(a 1 + a 2 +... + a n )]By combining these four inequalities, we find the results
(l2a)(l+2a)all the letters
is less
1 1
(5) (6)
where
that
such
2a
than
,
39. If
a lt a z
a3
...
1,
the
convergence of the series 2a n is necessary and sufficient for the convergence of the products n Qn to positive limits
P,
as
n increases
to co,
where
For clearly
Pn
is
3.
increases as
increases,
and Q n decreases.
Now,
that
if
2an
convergent,
we can
find a
number
such
to oo
<L
we have
'
Then by the
...
+aB ) ^ P m
and
a
n
is
greater than m,
ra
we have
Pn <P
and
Thus, by Art. such that
2,
/(l<r),
.>Q.(l<r).
PH and Q H approach
we can
P^Pm /(l<r),
But,
if
QSQ.(l<r).
find in so that
Sa M
is
divergent,
N may be.
inequalities,
I
if
w >m,
should be observed that if a product tends to zero ^mi^, without any of its factors being zero, the product /*
38, 39
POSH
97
rallrlism
with
_'>,
tli.
tli. MI
Ex.
1.
ili'
I'i'xl
will
approach a
limit
because
thr .i"diut
I)(M
+ 1)
+l
so
tll.it
lllu '/
Similarly
+^
\(
+
<
It
)(
hough iU value
is
'ulaUil so iradily.
Ex.
2.
8
(i
+ *)(i 5
:i)(iS)0i)...
\\ill
(livtrirf
,,
M+l
liin
n+
'
1
^
= 0.
Kh that
/'==
f. ,
lim
MI
V'.
= 0.
f,
Ex.
3.
/
c
I.,
;
iiii(/,,
if. nil,
timl
an
l>,,>lb>0
have
if
n^tn.
and
:.:Mso that
Dlim
x,
lim
</
().
It
is
iiti,l
>rove that
<</' //
.
= (!+.,,
+,.(!+.
98
INFINITE PRODUCTS.
[CH. VI.
For if, in any new arrangement (represented by accents), we have to take p factors to include the first n factors of P and Q, then
Now n
to
Pn
and Q n as
close
and
we
please.
Consequently
In like manner,
diverges to
0,
lim
r >oo
P/ = P,
lim
r ><*>
Q r = Q.
'
if
diverges to
oo
so does P'
and
if
so does
Q'.
taking logarithms we can see at once that the present theorem is deducible from the theorem of Art. 26.
By
40.
Convergence of
infinite
products in general.
infinite
an
product
the numbers
loss of generality it
both signs.
But without
all
cally less
than
numeriof
number
(otherwise the product would certainly or and the corresponding factors can be oscillate), diverge omitted without affecting the convergence.
Now we
have*
log(l
<u
Thus,
if
+ u)< ?u
or
if
if
is positive,
<$u*/(l+u)
l
0>M>1.
...,
is
1+Ui,
+ u.
...,
l+u nt
we have
fu
,/..
For
log(l
)=Jo
"
Hence,
but,
if
if
is
positive
p~ < u  log
xdx < u
log
+ u) <
+ n)<
is
negative
\
.'ii
"f^l
1
JQ
+U
39,
40
1
TERMS
<f
99
Consequently,
can
mad'
teries
ujtaeo/
th di:
M1HWrK..+tf >log[(l+tWi)(l+*Wi)(l+*O]
!>
arhitrarily
is.
bet
how
large W
ij
1
i
/<*
to oo
if
:
2u w
!
diverges to
'/" i/ 2u,,
kites if
in*
\vi//
h;i\.
!"
4
//
>
>
in'
'
2
(
4
//
>
if
"
i^>
poeitn
/
..r
if
so
tliat
..+
...
//
>ln.i;
>
wluT'I
H...H4) A
1,
L
is
is
(1 +%),(!+
9O fl"lf
'
jrli
/'
"//'
not
+x)
vcd/UA
//////'
1"
/'>,
///'
dh^xi + ^jd + r
to
d"
o.
tl;
Tin
in
.itlnr
!'
divergee
(
f
or has
,i^
It
its inaxiiiiiiiii
limit (in
ias.
<.v
illatioii
).
is.
v
prrphxin^
t
at
tirM
si^lit
that
\vhn
Converge; hut
typ.\
pOSJ
is
)
Fr. Id
MI.
^',
th jnmlurt may n.\.rthl,this juit tasy to const rurt a pinluct s of a COnvei a li\
s.
.
>t'
and
i'nrni
the product
of
which
th<
Mth
and
J/'th
hy
,=!+/.,
//
(),
the piodiut
Ar;
:'.'.'
i.
f "
>
ll<
+Cm )
will
(by
)
Kurthir
1"
;
''/.l
J^'/
=
'
isdivergeni
and
us page.
M not
abso,
LOO
INFINITE PRODUCTS.
[CH. VI.
2unz must also diverge.* This condition can be satisfied in many ways; one simple method is to take c n = d^, and then we must suppose 2dn ^Zdn2 both divergent, and 2c n3 convergent; for instance, we may take d n = n~ p where %^.p>\. The u2n = nproduct is then given by u 2n . = n~i
,
Ex.
1.
1111
also.
In fact the
first is
obviously equal to
to}.
Ex.
2.
Since the series ^ +  + ^ + ^+... diverges in virtue of it follows that the infinite products
a+jxi+i)a}xi+ixi+#i..*^
are both divergent. In fact the first diverges to for they are equivalent to the products
oo
to
Ex.
3.
J__JL _,_!__!,
is
convergent,
v/4
is
V&
it is
divergent,
two
products
and
hoth diverge to the value In fact
<>.
1+
j_)[,
^31 ^^^[i^.j,
is
(la
w ).
is always less than 1, and can be put in the form Further lirn(waw ) = l, so that our two products diverge to by
Art. 39.
Ex.
4.
;
diverges
evident that
2?*,,
oscillates,
while
2?/,,
must diverge
*If
to 0,
which may be
verified
1>\
inspection.
Su n2 were
the product.
40, 41
&B8OL1 TE
<
"N
101
41.
y convert ! ui,
//// /'//
tl>
II*
,./>
f
/"
WMW
pendent of
i:
'>T8.
Writ.last
then "
articl..
\v can suppose a w
<
BO
that
"'<",.
II
tlso
"ii
verges; and
11(1
Zt/,,
MO
a tli!vni
i
proved
in tin
last arti<
Suij...v,. n.xt
that
tin
861166 Stt,
i
lranged SO as to b"
lrvity
IK!
writ. fur
...
(1414
'
'
r.a+v^a+tgO
>
'...0
'
Then suppase
(and multiplying out
l.Tiu in
I'
j)
chosen
(>
.4
//
B.(i+6i)a+^)...(i+W.
whole
it
Up/Vn
\.
made
n
p.
.sit:
H.nce
\Up/Vn l
^A p 'B
l,
and
s.i
Fn ^//
l^^l^.l,
:>!>.
that
/;
/^,,
lim
=P
lim
.!
=A
say.
Con
can
!>
t'..uinl
BO Tat that
t
A
ii'i
/y,,<
if if
//
>
:
and
Hut
E7^
\UV V <
//>
and
th.i
if
approaches a limit ^7 as y trnds t<> y //>//> /^ Wr ha\V 9 is the Thus, if greater .if n and /^,. \v.
UU
<
//
/,
li
Iffr.Ke,
that
is
&n>i
'hiite
Hn,
V=U.
product by
TIuluit
in ay
l>y
IllX'MIIH'nt
us.
'.I
I..
rt.tl)lish
Uii'lii;iMir
tie
..
little
nnal>solutely
\
averment
be
made
to converge to
f
any
to
jmdiverge, or to oscillate,
ititinit>
tin
fi.tors.
102
INFINITE PRODUCTS.
infinite
[CH. vi.
Suppose that the value of the product is P when the positive and negative terms occur when the limit of the ratio of the and let its value be alternately number of positive to the number of negative terms is k.
II[l+(l)
Perhaps the case of chief interest is that afforded by the n~1 is positive and a M ], where \im(na n )=g.
product
Then
where
2vi),
Now
article,
it
is
it is
2a M 2
is
can be made arbitrarily small by taking n large enough. Pringsheim's method (Art. 28), it is clear that
lim (
2w+1
Further, by
+ a2n+3 +
+ ai) = \g log k,
k9
.
and therefore
or
42.
It
X/P=Jk
The Gammaproduct.
is
evident from the foregoing articles (39, 40) that the product
is
But we have
increases with n.
Also,
as.
in Art. 40,
we have
[Art11
where A
Art.
2,
is
(1)] >
either
1, if
is
positive, or
Sn approaches
(Art. 11)
a definite limit
is
Hence, by
Now
l+4...+logJi
(7,
and therefore
x log n log n log (n*IPn \ Now so that n*IPn has also a definite limit; this limit Gauss's notation.
THUS
P =
is
denoted by II (.r)
in
n *"
= e cx  s =e cx
lim e~ Sn = e
H
*ao
U
r=l
When x
is
II (.r) =.<!,
because
(l+)(2 +
)..
.(*+)
n/\
41, 42]
G IMMAPEODl OT,
convenient
\
Although we have
"t necetiftai
rentrict (1
f .f)
to be positive,
nvergeme
Converge
liy
if
.>
prod an intrjjer.*
It i
Mill
and
it
is
rasy to
\.rifv
Kuler's integral
rd
has the property
,.f
1,,in^
tin
,.
j,,
t<
./
when x
is
an integer; and we
mtiiipatr
(uati.!i
r(i+./)^n.
\\lii.h
It
will
be proved to be correct
f
1
in
Art
<>f
I7fi
of
bhe
tind
\\i
ebl
in
IK
definition
!!(.'),
'
wr
w*"^
"
+
",!'
4l)
It
= (.r+l)II
f,,ll,,ws
that
(1+*X* +*)...(*+*) H(
+*)/!!(*),
and
or
It is
1=
,. hni
last
iMjuation in the
form
I'.y
we
see that
tfo function
I'.
hi/
(I"
II
4l)
= (r4l)Il(.')
<
II(w+./)ru/<'i;
AMPLES.
1.
/"(/()
is
a polynomial
II
1
in
/*.
2.
Piovt that
~
of
/
.r,
[(
(w
= l,
2, 3, ...)
absolutely
f,.i
any valur
provided th;r
r
integer
ami that
r
if
\ii
^"VfTflJ
j convermnt
./
<
1.
values of
(set
104
*
if
INFINITE PEODUCTS.
Wn ~
diverges to
if
[CH.
_
;
then
if
Hwn
m>1
if
to
oo
if
m<l.
to
oo
if
If 7n
= l, Hwn
!
a = c.
4.
diverges to
a<c, and
a>c; and
,
converges
[STIRLING.]
If
(),
M 2 = 0,
2
,
= P>k
where
n>l
and
+u n )
is
convergent.
if
?i~ 2p
+ w 3^,
(n
>1
).
~~ .,of
6.
~~
.
Shew that as n tends to infinity, the product x except 0, but the series converges, provided
Prove that (1+^)(1+^ 2 )(1+^4 )(1+^8 )..
n
all
values
= !/(! x\
^,
\x\<\.
it
7.
Verify that
i
.*.*,
cos 
x
.
cos ^
cos
x 3
...
= sn x
...
and that
8.
tan
+i
tan
J + gi tan^ +
= icot^?.
[EULER.]
in terms of the
9.
Gamma
functions
Shew
that
j
.
frm. The
product
is
10.
Prove
that, if
is
an integer,
lim
verify that
and that
(w
l)
wa M (w + l)a ll+ i = to + (< l)a,, +1 w6 M _, 7ia ( + l)6 n = < 2 [(2 l)a,, +1 f n6J.
ll
Shew
if
that
6,,
= 2 ('It  1 )
or,,
3/*.
vi.
I
LMPLE8
I
L05
hree hyperge>i
'
12.
tin
^eneral
'
erief
fry,
111
i),
i'>
/'<
l,Ar.
that
'fty +
i
\vlii.h
y>u +
/;f.
Then prove
(y
)/.,
(/m,,)=0.

Deduceth.u
and that
/;( y
J= (y)(yK\.
13.
Kr.in
1)
_
:)
(X
r(ya/J)
'/^7 +
i
and
slu\v
that
tin
last
as H*o(
'
duce
.14.
if
,/= IK IK.
,/>,
?1
y;i
+v),
9ctf s
=n
!!^F=n(i+ n
? \
(i
,/if
<
1.
= II(l
and
Thu>
15.
.
=l:t
[<1 7 )(1
i>
)....
[K
.lately
It
1"
al>s<liitfly
;u ,y
tht>
it
]i<>duct
!
11(14.in
f,,,.
vain. of
and
can
expanded
r,
an
al>s<>lutel\
c..nvei.;,. Ml
.,
+ r ./+r^+...,
1
ui.c,,.
Shew
aU,, that
11(1 +.*//)(! +/'
r)=
'+
r i(''+
K.16.
I.
iiavc at
.nee (!/
and
l.y
the
...
la>t
example
Thus we find
</+:
,
which give
=
<if)<iy',
and
u'enerally
/'
('
/
^)(i/'
.
106
17.
INFINITE PRODUCTS.
If
[CH.
we
see,
from Ex.
15, that
we can write
so
we
find
F2 = V^, F3 =
Thus
To determine we find
F" =
2
Thus
because
pn 7 l<
<Io
+
<Io
+...,
where g
r
= U(l Q

I<?I<1 and
Hence
so that
Pn V
1
"),
lim(Pn F ) = l, or
16,
= l/?owe have
Ch. V.,
From
Ex. 17
/(I,
we
find,
,
= <M 22 ?)
/(I, ?)=<M 3
2
,
/(?, y)
we have
n(n+l).
+<?/#) as
17,
we get
so that
tfo/?!
= 1  2? 2 4 2? 8
2?i 2 .
.
Also
so that
f(Jq,
n Jq) = 2H(lq )
11(1
W?3
[GAUSS.]
l
/(<?*,
^)=n(i ?
").
2
or
M3 = l(? + 9 )+(7
12 16 +9 )(9 + 9 )+>
7
tt(3?il).
[EULEK.]
vi.]
20.
LMFLEa
Writ*
107
.
ml
b
\
>'it
'.
N 'y
iii
j.la
in
tli.
Thru
x s
ire
x
s
!!
D
N
*),
2 :i(i9 ',
that
Thus.
<>n
niultiplirati.'ii,
we
tind
/>]'
<.//
Wi*
ami
si
i
In
particular.
if
we
\\in.
I.
\v
7i
t<
the identity
(l+iy +
the
an
V + *V+)
ivtn
(l 2y
+ 2y 4
,,1,,
:.'</'
4
,
K..)
"+..)
\\!iiT
sei'ir>
tin
in
\]\.
!s
[.TACOBI.]
21.
..ii
,,,,..
if
if
.<.
l\/
:;;;>U,e
\\"lin
product,,
8ati>ti..l,
= / and
in
tin
i!/>.
.\
form
In
parliiular.
prove thai
(/t+a + 6)
= r(l+a)r(l46)
*?(+)(.
22.
I'lovr that
in
pairs
last
example.]
(>,
23.
.lnntes
,.ij
r(#)/T.'),
( '
can write
,,_,V
Thru wr
24.
It
\
tind
_e.
n]
of
infinite
01
..
f
is
easy to drdiur
11.
dir
hi),
fi.m
I'./
th
thr..iy
I
product* Abel's
diverge togct
:
that
and
!<
OODVWge
Il.<
.
In
if
.
the pr.diK't
..n
II
..
..nst
also di\rii:r
Otlirr o\ani]tlr>
found
at
CHAPTER
VII.
It
n>ao
defines a certain function of x, say F(x), in the interval (a, b). The condition of convergence (Art. 1) implies that, given an
arbitrarily small positive
such that

number
e,
integer
_F
<
m
e>
> m.
we can
is
make
in
it
precise
by
agreeing to
always
the prescribed inequality. When this is done, it is natural to expect that the value of in will depend on x, and so we are led to consider a new function ra(#), which
which
satisfies
depends on
We
is
e and on the nature of the sequence. note incidentally that, regarded as a function of e, in(x) monotonic since (for any assigned value of x) it cannot
e
decrease as
Ex.
1.
diminishes.
If
so that
m(.r)
or
*+*>!/> = the integral part of (l/c).r, when .<!/, m(x) = 0, when xzZlfc.
43
1
[FORM
Ex.
2.
It
>.
<
'
>
'
< 
v*
1.
MI
kb
i
all
values
,,f
R,
\v,
nmt
tak
Ex.
3.
It
uli.re
r^O, we have
n
;
ami
It
is
part
"I
(>,
and
Ex.
4.
'=0.
[f
d+n** 1
),
j?
bti
>'
.'
ted,
ire
!..<
/'(./)
liui
0.
to Exs.
Tin .i.nditiMii
..f
.
n,
tinltlu'ii.
if<i
intrial
part of
[1
+(1  4
)*]/2
x\
if
j?>0,
= 0.
It
will
tluin
U
1
stcii
that
in 
Kx. 1
the functi'in

///(
./
>
i^
1
alway
e:
lut in K\.
/:
as .f*l
ami
in
lining
tfl
that
,!'
<
>.
Thix
consideratioD
i'urth.r
sul<li\ ision
cnn\.
Bquenoes, which
will pr
inqmrtaiKM' in
distinction.
the
s.ijUcl.
and
it
n luces a
UK. iv
snl.tl.
\V ^hall
flu
vay that
(/.
/').
J
'
uniformly in
I
ink
/'<"/
//"'/
'
98
tl>
i>
//; l.nt
lni
me
ami
/>).
iii\
,
e.
nni^t
1..
Thus, alixtil
6,
u].j.r limit
si.
canmH tml
in
x
it
sin
:i"t
ni
tak
/<(e)=l
all
}>tin
nnil'nrm in an interval
in
tin
aching
o)t
u]>
/x
uniform
th.n
t,
interval
(0.
it'
'><'<!.
we can
110
[CH. VII.
Hence in Ex. 2, x = l cannot be included in any interval of uniform convergence such a point will be called a point <>f
:
nonuniform convergence. Similarly in Exs. 3, 4 the point x= must be excluded to ensure uniform convergence. This distinction may be made more tangible by means of a graphical method suggested by Osgood.* The curves y = Sn(x) are drawn for a succession of values of n in the same diagram
;
this is
if
done in Figs. 1114 for the sequences of Exs. 14. Then, Sn(x)*F(x) uniformly in the interval (a, 6), the whole of
F(f)=f
Ffo)=o
FIG. 13.
FIG. 14.
?,>//()
bounded
glance at Fig. 11 will shew that this does occur in Ex. 1. But in Ex. 2, as we see from Fig. 12, every curve y = Sn (x) finally rises above 2/ = e; and the larger n is I thus x taken, the nearer to x = 1 is the point of crossing
;
by y = F(x) + e.
is
In the same way, a point of nonuniform convergence. = () is of nonuniform cona 14 shew # that Ki^s. 13, point
3,
4.
'.tin
(_>),
vol.
:\,
1S'.)7,
p.
:,!).
43
1
\ll'o;M
a
OOin
..i'
Ki:
In
ordei
in>t
d.linition
l.t.
uniform G
of
that
/
niiinatic.il
due.C0ll\
,
tin
to
of
An
>rm con
/respond n>>!
number
e.
tile
fiil am
>n<!ex
m, which
is
independent of x,
and
/>
#mh
//"'/
')
,///
<,
and for
')
vafa
/A"//
///.
all
points
tl
It
will l>e
jx
..ii<litinn
.i'
that
,/,
id.nt, for
1
if
N,(r) t.nU
to
F(x\
>'
''//
^ can
>
\\iit.j
///
IJL(
:.e).
so that
\Sn
II. nc.
<H
uniform

''
n>ml.
<r^vnc
the
ioiMliti.ui
for
c >n\
leads to
tin
The condition
must
an<1
is
t,,
al
///
for
if
it
is
satMi.d.
convrrv
some
limit.
\\
in
virtue of
****

lim
N (.0=/
/(

we bave
llenc.
F(. ON,,U)
^e,
if
[Art.
>
//'.
to
'i^tied.
closed:
if
*/<.</'. that .r =
l#,
it
>>
will R!BO
converge uniformly
discontinuities oi
unifnnly ^aason
f.r
<i.
are not
found so that
,(^)<
a
je.
if
<<6 and
tf
>
A U.i.
tind
o
si]
continuous function
90 that
l^'
1
and
<J
%
a<4
J
1!
where
may defend
on
\\.
112
[CH. vn.
Hence
so that
Sn (a)Sm (a)\<e,
Sn (a)
Sn (x)=x"(l Sn (x)<.l/n,
#),
O^rr^l, converges
unifor/it!//,
since the
maximum
of
S n (x)
in the
with
of n.
Ex.
given by # = w/(w + l). The reader should contrast this result should draw the curves y = S n (x] for a few values 2, and
44.
Uniform convergence of a
series.
If, in Art. 43, we suppose the sequence to be derived from a series of variable terms
by writing
we
obtain the
an
x,
interval
a number
independent of
\fn+i(x)+f+*(x)+...+fm+P (x)\<e,
at all points of the interval (a,
b).
where p =
l,
2, 3, ...
Each
series
of
by writing
is
the following
* Here we
so that
find
H^ + (TT^
\
x2
x"
S n (x) =
F(x]
and
There
will see
is
/X0) = 0.
a point of nonuniform convergence at
.r
= 0,
as
the reader
test
for
convergence
III.)
is
(compare Chap.
practice,
\\hicli
usually ,nv
more
tests
:
convenient
the
test
in
ordinary
so
here
we
usually
replace
above
by
one
of
the
three
following
43,
44
1
NVI
ND
M'.KI. 
I:>TS.
i:t
(1)
The majontv
proved
Ifl8
861166 imt
with
in
\>y
to
<
uniformly
derrih"d
l.rietly
means
.!/
and
flu if
,)
as the
'
/Hist
for nil
/"
i>r<>/>''rty
,
fa
has
'!
.!/
re
Mn
,,,/,,
?>
'irf constant,
independent of x:
Tin n
vn
f/
<///'/
XH/>]HM
is
tin
series
~M
vergent.
fl"'
series
2/n (a;)
Art.
'
and
the
Tlie
to
ahsolute
interval (a
at
once
from
18;
to
realisr
uniform
niher that
if
^r^ if
IS
('nsfijiintly,
in
if
\\v
e.
choos,f
///
90
is
Jis
to
make
th'
e:
rt'inainder
1M/,,
lss than
[g
'(./)
also
Less
tlian
and
this
cli"i.
nlivinllsly
\\\(
IcjiriK lent
of X, 80 that the
of
uniform
Phys.
ionvrr^.nci!'>/
ii.
satistinl.
],.
[CoiMpan Stokes,
and
(2)
rst
\>l.
2sl.]
moiv
due.
in Art.
in
and has
2
1.,.,n
l!:
and
>;,i
,!

tlif
//////
'
fined
'//
fl"
vnti /''//.
K"i.
in
virtue of
tli
COBV<
,
we can
f
find
in.
8O
tliat,
whatc\r
+!
]>ositi\v intevr
..
may
.
l>e,
", .!+",
!!
B H2f
"+.
of
all
nunieiicallx
6
Then,
that
in
\irtue
lemma
iy
hyjM.tht11
<AT.
L8.
114
.
[CH. VII.
Further, since a n and K are independent of x, the choice of is independent of x also and therefore 2a n v n (x) converges uniformly in the interval.
m
of
terms a n
may
be themselves functions
tl
j
provided
that
2a n
is
uniformly convergent in
interval.
(3) Dirichlet's test for
uniform convergence.
This
1,
is
also
more
(Compare Exs.
4 below.)
The
(a,
b),
provided that 2a n
for
any particular value of x in the interval vn (x) is positive and never increases with n ; and that, as n tends to oo vn (x)
,
tends uniformly to zero for all values of x in the interval. For then the expressions
+ am+2
,
..,
number
K\
such that
for all values of
v m (x)</K
x in the
interval.
lemma
as before,
we
see that
Again, the terms a n may be changed to functions of x, provided that the maximum limit of 2a w remains less than a

fixed
Ex.
interval.
Weierstrass's Mtest.
Consider
2 ^7^ 2
OOHW
np
~=i
and
i
(fl);
.r,
because then
Sinn* ., 1 np np
Ex.
2.
<
np
(1/ ,(P) is
con
nt
yl&eJ'*
^^.
case
Consider
the
vn (.r)=l/7i x
(0,
(O^I./'^l);
~c,,
then
^(ajn*)
converges
1)
if
converges.
[DlRIOHLKT.]
Ex.
If
3. is
Abel's
test.
2an
convergent,
converge uniformly
in
the interval
(0,
1).
[HARDY.]
44,
45
1
Ml\l MY
4
.
i:,
Ex.
'
nf
2r,
(p> 0)
in
then WTii
we
see
that
lioth
\
series
i\
i
converge
anirlr.
nnit'orinlv
an
in
~a
\vhc:
posit
45.
series.
\\ith the
/'(.'')
exception of Abel)
1>.
deduced
immediately from K
that
a
,ples
discontinuity in
imj.li.s
point
of
nondis
uniform convergence; although K\. l. An. 4:1. indicai DOnUnifomi convergence does not nee, ssarily invohe the
continuity of
\i;ain,
if
/';
w wish
to integrate
/'(./).
the
rlini
is
"N,ir,,/./'
,tf
n..t
n.ci'ssarily
1
on
}.
US Ixlow.
In
liscivry of
tin
distinction
Intw..n
uniform
in
'ivm (1)
Beriefl
iv.junvd
is
due to
(xcpt
in
int.
until
1^7<>
//
fl,r
(,t.
/,).
'Hivergei'
\f
tl,>
',
,,t, ,,,,/
amd
each
of
''
th>
cinifiniiiin.fi
in
tin
iiif'Tcnf,
90
'/"
//"
9Wm
c<
/'
Kr.
nuiiilur
in
///
can
chosen
such
a
independently
of
mver^ence. X (provided
tln
>nlv
that
ti^Lx
= ln,
in
way
that
ilixcivrry \\as
\\.t
made
IK
alsu
and
s,
,,),
],, lt
xtoljgg'g
paper
pulilislird
yrar
i^
auarr
(see
of
tin
distinction
pulilished. pp.
i>7
riu>
si
,
some the years at I'.it bd ''s's paper WAS dear from paper in tin tiit \olunieof \V ci erst Pass's \\
ivinaiiifd
iui])ul>lisiuHl
\vljiLh
for
aU.ut
.Vi
\ears.
116
[CH. VII.
may
be.
Now
write
and
it is
where
of x.
it'
(a^x^b),
e are quite
independent
Thus
so that
if
interval,
we have
Now
being
fixed,
\cco;
(a, b).
;
Hence
\F(c)F(x)\<e,
if
and
it is
not unusual for beginners to miss the point of the foregoing proof therefore advisable to show how the argument fails when applied
to such a series as
(Ex.
2,
Art. 43)
when we take
Here
and
= l.
to
co
/m(#)+/m+i (#)+...
=xm
=0.
if
0<.r<],
/(l)+/+i(l)+
to oo
Thus, if we wish to make both these remainders less than choose m, if we can, so that vm <i e
e,
we must
(.1)
but to make
we must
or
take
^ m >]^,
inequalities (A)
................................. (B)
patible here
inequality (A) does not lead to a determination of when x can approach as near to 1 as we please.
independent of
The assumption
that
the series converges uniformly enables us to avoid the difficulty involved in such a condition as (A).
(2)
//
the series
i#
interval
in
the
fl/f fu mtitm* /(./) (a, b), and if each of we write interval, may
45
1
ENTEOBATK
K<r,
117
in
id
///
virtu.
ol'
tin
uniform
c>n\ .r^nce
of 2/n(#),
we
can
til
BO that
if
p>m
<>f
mall
at
may
!>
ami
tin
value
will
be
of x, as before.
li
Hence We
ami since
that
this
is
true,
/>
may
be,
we
see
OOnV<
:il
that
i m
At
th.
=e'
J'i
).L();
ami oonaeqnently
l
I
J
i^
c, e,
m (a>)da> F()da>\"s J
c, Cl
last
two
ine.U;.lities,
we
find
\vhTf
Since
inent
fc
may
is
In
l>y
]irinT choice
>ile, the
"!'
//.
///
no l<mvr juvsmt
in
the let'thaml
i\en
N,
"
p,
:,.
shews that
Jc
This
o].el;iti..ll
ix
.t'tell
lrsf'il
'
as
/,/',/,/,///,///
\vill
,,f
,i,,l,;il,ly
.
tin.l
!.>> Ml
ilitVuMlty
!
here
in
rea!
.!"
./'.
tilt
onditioi)
tlial
>houl(l
indrprlldrlil
.f
It
n>(,
hnwrviT.
r;isy
in
to
ionvirirtnt
>erirs
n<>Muir.:
!
l.ul>
nroneous
nsults.
Tin f'llMUini:.
ahh
\<A
as good as any.
118
Let
so that
[CH. VII.
if
x > 0,
and obviously
S n (0)=0,
so that F(0) = 0.
Hence
But on the other hand
so that
2^
(1 <?')
which
is
F(x)dx.
= and gives some figure shews the nonuniform convergence at .iindication as to the reason why the area under y = Sn (x) does not tend
The
to zero.
FIG. 15.
Of course the argument above assumes that the range of the conditions under which an infinite is finite to oo say, belong more properly series can be integrated from to the Integral Calculus; but some special cases are given in
integration
; ,
an
infinite series.
If
we
we
see that
z>0
zj
Thus
lim
n>co
*Sf
M'(0)== oo,
although F () =
/
J
''
[lim
/(
,(*)] lim
i
Sn'W
*.
45,46]
I'll!
II!)
ulnii y tru.!'.
!!<>niinii'<.rin
,,
nee pres
i:
Hut
it
hniiM
the
IM
untie. <1
that
it
is
,im
n.n.
i'ailurr.
of
\\hirh
t'n.in
is
the era*
as will
he apparent
tin
^n.
tin
h,
..
Th<
rradcr
may
nuisidir similarly
:.H
,/./..
Pi
hri
Bfl
fi,,
unitnrmK
,
\/(#) oscillates.
\
I/
sert<
,,t
rential
<///
'
r*mly
I
,
///'////'//
(,/.
/,
,y//,//
/,,
F'(x),
/"'
of
/
/''
///////
//^'
/'//
f/
',
,,t,
ri<if*
Write
">.
\v.
have
i
'I'hus.
ly
tin
t'uii.lani'ntal
/
ju'ujnrly
<t'
an
iiit_;ral.
\\
hav
F'(x)=G(x)
'
("
.'i
jirnoi'
ol'
tin
l'(prr(.in^
ihcoiciii
BOme usr
i1
nf
hut
easier
than
which
on,
depend
ivsult
<.n
is
tin
)itlrnntial
_:!alitu.
in
IM
Calculus.
an<l
only
Ml,taind
ly
chosen so as to
make
()
Thus
>r..\id.d
I
<,
U^X;
\^
i
K(x)d*
fco
<((
th.
that
<.,
,.,
hrl,,,,
int.rval
(.
/>
>.
This
^
and
sn
\^
i/i
iufrr the
this
wou.
An
al(Hti<>nal
assumption
\\lurli
\\
.).
n..t
I]
120
[CH. VI L
we have

?x {/ to

^1
/(*)}
'^e,
(a, 6).
Now we
^
have
4
=x,.
t
+ Fro, say.
that
We
have
proved
=^
and
in
virtue
of
our
original choice of m,
But we have
h
identically
_
and so we
^(05
J J
find
+ ^^(05)
77i
Q(x)
/ij
Since
we can allow
the righthand side of the last inequality then approaches the limit 2e, because each term under the summation sign tends to zero. Consequently,
the
m;
maximum
;
is
not greater
limit
than 2e
and since e is arbitrarily small, must be zero (see Note (6), p. 5).
maximum
Thus we have
Jim
F(x+h)F(x)
G(x) = 0,
or
which
47.
in
important to bear in mind that the condition of is merely Niijlirirnf for the truth of tlu theorems in Arts. 45, 46 but it is by no means a necessary condition. In other words, this condition is too narrow but in spite of this, no other condition of equal simplieity has been
It is
uniform
com rr^vnr.
46,47,48]
PRODUCTS,
ami
ra
\\v
discover
Mii
:
shall
not
t'urtlnr
into
tin
That
tilt\Vii
unit''.
mi
,.\;i,.
not
D6CC
following
(i)
hat
<lis.,,iitinuity.
Donuniform convergence
do*
imply
f
,'
.,+...
,1
+ .r),
(0
<.<!).
:ind
\<^2
is
it+JJ+found hy integrating tennKyt'mi. Nevertheless r=l is a point of nonuniform ...UMT^IHO of the series
in
./
;
l>eauf
to a
is
tin
ivmaindi!
of
/,,
:.l
wlii.li
l.M.ls
1
(Itt.nnination
in
tin
OO**Oi
ind.jx.nd.nt
(v.
indudnl
inttrval
48.
Uniform convergence of an
l'tinition
oi'
infinite product.
at
tin
Tinone.'
I.,
unii'orm
])rnlucl
:
an
infinit.
,M])]lic;itins
jrimijl.}>r<
occur
Irss I'rtMjuriitly in
tin
purpos.
sntlicient
If far
>)
"//
im
'!>'
has th /"/>< rty \fn (x)\^M,,. slant (independent <>f x), tl >/ *!>
flu
isapoeMix
>
aeries
M
i
is
convenj
i>r<xl
art
/v)=fi +./;,(y)][i + /;(.')]! 1+u.i)]... continuous fumctio^ of x im th* >l. continuous in the fun
/
l" lf
' !
For writ
I
[
K, (,0][
1+ /,(./)]. ..[H/
I
Ml
..,(r)]
LI
+/(')][
'
i
]...
=P tooo<
B1
then
ii:
<
><n
t
I/
where
/' (I/to
'
/,'
...
Thus

Q.(x)l< RJ(lR m ).
I..HMI
P.I
; :
in.ulr U>
s.1iis
'J.
bg
_
:
tin..
:
author (JVofc
'
/. ..... /.
.V'C
vol.
1.
!'.(! I.
..
IS7]
;.
tnnl>yt*Tin
i
int.uiation
in
li.i\,
l...n
jivBO
IT''.
bj
tt,
122
[CH. VII.
,
Now
where
all
to oo
Hence ?/i can be are independent of #. chosen (independently of x) to make 72 TO <Je, for all values of # within the interval (a, b).
the
JJ/'s
Hence, assuming
e to
be
less
than
we have
ifa^o^fc,
\Q m (x)l
<e/(4e)<ie,
where
of x.
is
any value
of
x within the
we have
and
ii^Q^
Q(x) ^e l+^eQ
m (c)
Or
1fr P..(aO^P(s)
'
Now,
since
is
x,
so also
is
the product
/',(,'):
thus
we can
find 3 so that
i
.,
*
,
provided that \x
c\<^8.
T
T
*IMM
71
\9
'
and so*
provided that
a?
c<[<5.
Hence
b).
//
P()
is
a continuous function
///*
derivate, snch
In
it
\
fn '(x)
< M,,,
<md
if
*For
(l
so that
(l)(HiO<(liO s
48,
49
1
\\.\l.
l;\
>
III
///,/,
,i
//'
d
Pi
tieee

i"iiditi<iis
1
ire
''
<
'
!+./
v,,
ihai
An.
h;
ran
!..
a.].li.,l;
and
\v.
tin<l.
ac ,,i.linly.
(
1
49.
i.s.
tin
theory of unit'iTn,
.jiuiit
theorem 4 whirl
"
u in sob
OpO84
ilnit
mi
in
and
/
tlntt
we wcwt
7
to
fond
./;/_//
fl limit
/,,
lim
it
j
l\,<\.
ii
/////
iiijin
with
/*.
'/'A',
limvr(n)wf
////
(r luin^ fixed),
//////
lini
/*//
/'(//)=
*/
to 00
a= IT.
vided
///r
//"'/
',(/')
.I/,.
independent of
th.nnm
\\'.
00TM8 l.U,
reader
will
At
note
that
;
'rh.
for
.l/tst
th<
is
Milistantially
(Art.
th
sainis
bhe
due
sain..
t>
H
i.
).
'I'll''
irMl'. tOO,
alnmst thr
Kirst
<!'
//
choose a nuinlnT
Mich that
'/
(which
.f
DOOT86
is
iii.l.]inl,nt
M
and
ht
,i
+ ...
to
he taken
.
lari;.
r rm.u_u h to
then
+ 'Vfif .. +
'.
=^/ + J/,
1/
+ ...
to
x<e
e ot
in tlu
tot of Art,
1.
124
Also
[CH. VII,
= M + Mq+l +...
q oo)
1
to
oo
<
Thus
\F(n)(wQ + w l + w 2 +...
to
+w
+...
+ wqi)\ + 2e
>
to be remembered that so far n has only been by the condition p^>q. Now, since q is fixed and independent of n, we can allow n to tend to infinity in the last inequality, and then we find
and
it
is
restricted
because
= wr
Hence, since
e is arbitrarily small,
we
find, as
on
p. 120,
or
HmFn=W=W+w
+ w+...
to oo
The following example will serve to shew the danger of trying to use the foregoing theorem when the J/test does not apply. Consider the sum
so that
= tv()=logf 1 + ^J and p n.
wr = }imv r (n) =
n
*oo
t
Then obviously
and
so the
sum
of the series
w + 20+w + ...
is 0.
But
so that
vr (n) lies
2> =
and hence
lim F(n) = \.
in
this
connexion
is
the
where
and
if
\vr
(n)\^Mr where
we have
...
is
independent of
n and I,Mr
is convergent,
the
.
equation
to oo
49]
MI'LES.
iv.ul.r
<>f
Tin
sl,,,uM
liavr
littl<li:
ditlicnlt
ii
proof
ill.
this tln.TiMii
(,!'
on
tin
be
limits
l
foregoing,
I'm
'inj.!'.;
ivsnlts
Art.
I
bo
timl
tin]
tV<l4
I
Mini
in
+"V< +
"'.,.,)...
(
to 00
terms Of
b6W the
tin
nni;mil.r
Die
J/
+ J/,. + ...
to oo
condition >n<h as
tin .l/t
tllf
X.MMjilr
in
which
that
I'.Ml
j,
= /, = ... = !/,
...=0.
tllf
,,,M;itinl
IJui
)'
=1
<.f
niMissarily
/<),
true.
In
fa<t
tin
valm
the limit
value of liiu(yy
because
<
1
.,
/'
I.X \M!'I.I>.
1.
Shiw
that
if
^.(i) = .i"
it>
(\
+.'"),
1
>
r=l
1
is
j)int
of
noiiu;
OOnvei
2.
limit.
raw graphs
is
t
of
&(.) and
lim >
Sh\v that
tlir
,)=^.'ii
uniformly o.iivrn:.
i
all
Ity
t.inil.yt.
in
.,
iii
th interval
interval,
(",
/o.
and

if
r in tin
same
shew
w.
that tin
uniformly
i
in
th int.r\al.

iMxi.]
Lfl
any
jM.int
of the
int,ival.
can timl
//?
siuh
0^
l'uithd.
:
(C)<j.
continuous,
>.,(.r)5
we can
find &
\K
pividcd that
rc <8.
Senoe
at
= F(.r)Sm (.r)<
.f
all
]>>ints
12()
[CIL
Now,
Thus
Sn (x)
^Sm
(.r),
if if
F(x)S
n (.v)<,
n>m. n>m,
;
at all points of the interval (c8, c + S). Consequently there can be no point of nonuniform convergence in the neighbourhood of c and therefore
there
no such point in the whole interval (a, b). The reader should observe that this argument fails in cases such as those illustrated in Figs. 14, 15, because then Sn (x) may be further from F(x) than Sm(x) is. In the cases considered here, no two of the approximation
is
Shew
is
continuous for
all
values of
.i\
and deduce from Ex. 3 that it converges uniformly. = is the only possible point of discontinuity, [It is easy to prove that ^ by means of the J/test. Now if we take v as equal to the greatest integer
contained in
since
2
l/.#
we have
r
<.r(l +log
filld
f),
2<l/#v,
v +i
if
0<#<1. Hence
=< r'
Shew
that f(x) = 2^ L
;
we
is
~p
//"
j
continuous at #=0.]
all
values
of
differentiation.
6.
Shew
that
21
n\
for
l+x*a 2n
all
_^_
converge uniformly
values of
and that
if
<1
and
and
[PRINGSHEIM.]
If
/(*)=*''(! .r);
then
we have
but
8.
if
Shew
it
2 l/(w + ^)
J/,,
converges uniformly
.
if
.v^O; but
[OsoooD.]
I'.l/,,
that
9.
to oc
is
;i
where
if
then,
a>0,
Apply
to Ex.
8.
2 !/(+#)*
it
[OsaooD.]
L27
10.
If
1'",,
oscillates
fmit.U
!!
is
[IMKK MLKT.]
11.
.,,,..., ,,
.J.
I
Km
.'"
12.
It'
Itely
00]
;u id
illts.
>ll
11(1+
erges absolutely
t
uniformly
in
1
'
intr\al.
1
i
fcbsolntely)
;md
uniformly
13.
(l>ut
my
tin
tinili
intei val.
Shew
that
produ.ts
D".'/'J,
II[l+(OOQVerge unifmmly
II.l+(l.
linitc
)] t
II...>.
in
any
int.rval,
and
tliat
tin
tliinl
f"ii\erges
1
o
'han a
\
lix.tl
nuinlMr
at
;ill
j).in;
1
and
for
all
iin
001
it'
s at
;ill
poin
int.rval
(./.
/),
it
[For, divide
tli
interval
[HKMIX>N.]
,sich
>f
Imu'th
win re
6<^,
'hat
at
tip.
lriii'4
jM.sitivc
nunilr.
Nxt
tinJ
tnds of
suitinterval
<t>(>>'r)="'fn('r\
,,,tl
(^1,
2,
^ ...)
fl).
is
numerically
less
than
o.
./////
Thi//';/
i
possil.le
le.;m>e th
h of thrM points,
Now
if

any point
end of
a sul>inttrval
not
hem.
\<P(*)\<
and so the
15.
te>t
'led.]
Apply li'ndi\*Mifs
^
tist
to th.
16.
It
'
tin
OODVergM M
'
hi.h
t.nls steadily to
with
their
n,
it,
//
,
OOHYergM
:
<
unit'..rni!y
if
'.^0.
Deduce
that the
.'
;
'
in
.!!, Tal,
>(*
is
and
do,s
not
OODVergQ
<>f
.
OOOFM
it
M>ssil>le
l.i
nil
val
values of

exai.
n.
[CA
17.
Shew
that
CHAPTER
POWER
50.
VIII.
SERIES.
is
types
uniformly convergent
series.
We
proved in Art.
Inn >w
when x
<
!
I /I
but the
cannot converge
if
x
\
>
I /I, for
then lim an
xn
>
and
so there will be an infinity of terms in the series whose absolute values are greater than 1.
Thus any powerseries has an interval ( 1/, +!/) within which it converges absolutely, and outside which convergence is impossible. By writing x in place of Ix, we can reduce this interval to the special one ( 1, +1): and we shall suppose this done in what follows (we exclude for the moment the
cases
I
or
oo
).
Thus suppose that we have a powerseries which is absolutely 1 and + 1 so that if convergent for values of x between n / is 1 number between and the series any ^^,,& is con:
vergent.
series
Then, by Weierstrass's
Jftest,
it
is
clear
(
that the
k,
in
 
the interval
.
+/>),
a nxn
a power
series
an kn
which falls entirely within its interval of absolute converge It sometimes happens lint further tests (such as those given in Art. 11) shew that the scries is .il>solm<ly convergent for = l; and then the interval of uniform <<>n\ ir^viice extends oj
50]
:
vi
it
U)
f
:npare
\\
tin
ith
ami apply
,in.
tli,;'
.
But
\rt.
may
al>
happ.n
nt:
in
not
this
ca 
m
variahle
r
11),
lerau*e
tli.
leqUi
U
is
than
(if
O^u
1
I
i.
Conn
2a,,a;
1
rmly
neitl
IP
i
in
an interval which
1
includes
it'
./
^
\
(hut
as far as ./=
).
Similarly
~(
nt ili interval nf
uniform C0nv<
;
1.
Ex.
1.
The
<>
ft
uniformly
l"t\vcii
in
thetlit
intrval
1,
(,
41
+/)? where
.1,,
is
any
niunl.i
and
lnit
jH.ints
n,,t
uniform
Ex.
2.
Tinin
+...
i.ifi's
uniformly
Ex.
3.
The
ft
8
<"ii\erL. es
f
i
uniformly
1
in
the interval
1
(,
li.tv.
luit
the p'int 
\\V
HM\\
kt'l
ivturn
.n
to
th.
cases
It'
()
or
oo
which wv havr
hitherto
one
side.
it
happen^ that
O,
tin
"=0
seriea
1"
SB"
will
>i'
and
(.1.
the
interval
f^1).
Where
.1
arhitraiily
la:
Tims the
sii
1f
.y foi1,
any value
of
* ami
is
uniformly omver^ent
ii
+.1
).
On
lini
\
a n " =
the
Sei
"
eannot
tha.
An example
led 1y
i:
130
POWEE
is
SERIES.
[CH. VIII.
There
absolute and of uniform convergence; the interval of uniform convergence must include its endpoints, but the interval of
Or,
is
to
use
convenient
latter
closed',
the
may
be unclosed.
That the interval of absolute convergence of a powerseries is evident from Ex. 1 above, in which the series is absolutely convergent for any value of x numerically less than 1, but the series diverges for x = \ and oscillates for 1 x= On the other hand, Ex. 2 gives an illustration of a
need not be closed
.
closed interval of absolute convergence. But we proved (at the end of Art. 43) that the interval of
Sn(x) is a continuous function of x. Now for 2aw # n we have Sn (x) = a + a :x + a^x? + f anxn
,
. .
a powerseries
which is obviously continuous for all values of x. Consequently the interval of uniform convergence of a powerseries is certainly
closed.
p.
This fact
top,
is
129,
or Art.
not deducible from Abel's theorem (see 51), for it does not appear impossible
at
x=l
<
and yet
51. Abel's
theorem
is
Km
provided that 2a n is convergent; this of course follows from the fact (pointed out in Art. 50) that x = l belongs to the
region of uniform convergence and from the theorem (1) in
Art. 45.
Abel
also
to + oo then 2a n # w also This theorem cannot be proved by any but the following method applies to both
,
Write
A =a
since
1,
A^ciQ+a^
,
...,
J,,
rt
+ a 2 +... +
'
Then
x,
#2
...
is
a decreasing sequence,
we have by
the second
form of Abel's
Lemma
(Art. 23)
50, 51
ABEL'fl THfiOBl
//,
//
\\hnr
//
,
'
ar
tin
IIJIJMT
ami
1" wtr
.
limit
.1,,,
.1,
are those
ill,,
Sin...
limit an:
indMnIint
<!'
y,
we have
i
'
(1)
//,,*".
*MWI
I
*,
then
we can
h:il
however small
may
be.
ami
the
indix
oi
///
di
]..
ntls
2# n and
is
therefore
independent
Thus
\vt
Me frin
(1),
that
Hut
is
arbitrarily small,
valu.
and so
(see
Note
(6), p.
5) both th.lal
maximum
to
s.
Hence
lim (l'/,,r M ) =
x*l
.
=we
can
timl
>//
say
to
oo,
s<>
that
//. n
h" \\.v.r
lar.u't
.V
may !.
Thus
lim
x
*!
I'./,, ./"
_:
.V.
Thus,
l.y
ustd
alx.ve,
we prove
that
/'////,
// So,, otcillatesi
we can
see
that
lim
c.uin.Mtrd
J n fjniafrr n
tin
ly
with
f..icur
inur
results
is
parison for
two divergent
that
I'./,,,
I'/,
series.
Suppose
ility
are
t\\"
ilmr^m
seiief,
ive
an
similar t>
(1),
\\hnv
/,
A'
ami
/..
from
Z?,,
=^
i^i
+ " + ^.
IM(>
way
as
//
and
//,
/>,
//v
yc<
tind
".
v=
it
.")+*
"
is
In
is
always
132
.
POWEK
lim
Xfl
</>
SERIES.
X>I
3> (x)
[CH. VIII.
Obviously
(# ) = km jHm ,
and lim
= Km/h m
I
as
n increases
it
is
however small
Then we have
at once
<I?
(.r)
^l
if
and lim
X l
(#)
Hence from
(2)
we
have,
/(^)
X+1
X+\
if
Bn /A n*&,
Bn IA n
oscillates,
f(x)
may
.
oscillate
be wider than those of B n /A n Thus we have the theorem, due to Cesaro + b n ) / ( + !+...+ a M ) approaches a If BJA n = (6 + 6 X +
:
. . .
definite
limit,
Jmite or
infinite,
then
lira [(26 B ay)/(2o H ac^l
)]
= lim Bn /A n
>oc
a result which can be obtained also from Art. 153 of the Appendix. It should be noticed that if b n /a n approaches a limit, Bn/A n approaches the same limit (Appendix, Art. 152) thus a particular case of the theorem is
;
:
If b n /a n approaches
lim (bn /a n ).
Ex.
1.
It
is
form
of Abel's
theorem from
Ex.
2.
Similarly,
by comparing the
.J
2
series
4;r +
we
see that
if
lim (A
then
lim(2,,.r
w
)
=
is
Z.
[FROBENIUS.]
not definite,
we may
consider
n
the series
tlien
we can compare
y
+ (2^ + ^
)^+(3/l
+^J
lim
i.l
i)^f...
and
[C'ompare Art. 123.]
(!'</,.../")
=
2,
tliat eacli
of tin <.\ainik's
1,
51, 52]
CONTIM
4.
ITY.
Ex.
AH
tin
na<ler
in,.
'hat
<'
+ *'+...) =
(ii)
'.r
+ 3'V+...)=I
.
*!
'
'Kr' .!>
+ ...)=
In rase
(i),
the
sei
14.
^4.... gi vtZfH
= 3.
\\hile
tin
1)
2
<)...2.
cx>logtt/log,
tli;c
log(lx)
f 1).
M0
(iii)
\ve
DM
th fat
!'
we
li:ive
liav.
J,,+
.!,
+ ... f
.l
rl
roA.
great generality on quote th fll.v.
1'rin.u'slHMui*
pi..\,l
the,, reins of
ire
\vhieh diverge at
It'
r=l.
of
A> an
A(./) .*]
examj.],
A(
i.
a
r,
funetiin
sl,,wly
than
that
(1
liin
[
<.
<>f
th.n
./
2A'(n)
1.
approximately ly A[l
52.
'I'ln
neaf t<
Properties of a powerseries.
LT'ii'i'al
thcoiviii^
proved
\v.
in Arts. 43,
40 of course apply
i'ullnwin
to a ptwvrsrrii^.
iiunts
:
BO
that
state
(1)
,
powerseries
'/
2an#* is u
/'/>
<;,,ili
n>iu.< fu
<>
any
,,f,
rval
"/////'//
region
/
f/
<
<Val ii'itliin
r>
!'",>
<>f
\

*(Saj> xfc2
+1
')"
(<;
'r
+t+I
).
//'
is
any
!/,
uithin
fl
reg
:
noe
\\'r
nutf
that
tin
interval
alt.'ivd
i'act
<t'
altsolut,
convei
>
>f
p^
80 that
nit
I'rnin
l,y
;
ditrcrcntiatiun
lini
//
1
thr
that
1,
lit,
,Mf
i(
"
M,
will he found.
f:
linn.
p.
i.
\vi,,:i
full
references
>r
lim(n +!)/!=
1.
so that liui/c
1y
Art.
l.Vt in
.i\.
134
POWER
SERIES.
[CH. VIII.
Abel's theorem (Art. 51) to the integrated series (2) the point c z may be taken at the boundary
interval
of absolute
convergence, provided
that
the
no matter whether
the original
An
(4)
example of
If a powerseries f(x) =
(
^a x
n
o
t
converges
within
an
interval
k,
f/c),
there is
an
the
first coefficient in
a continuous function of x, in virtue of (1) above, and fm (x) = Q for #=0. find c, so that \fm (x} is less than ^ a m if x c k consequently in the interval ( c, c),
Thus we can
< <
Hence /(#) =
and
if
(
c)
is
c,
different
c).
from
= 0),
/(#)
interval
(5) It is
series f(x)
(4) that:
If two power
= ^anxn
g(x)
interval ( k, +/c), and if, however small 8 find a nonzero value x l in the interval ( 8,
may
S),
be,
we can
satisfies
which
then
a =b
the
= &!,
and
f(x) that
two
In practice,
is

we hardly
ever need this theorem except wlu.n be to equal to g(x} for all values of x, such
have hitherto discussed the continuity of the po\\< Tfrom the point of view of the variable x\ but it sometimes happens that we wish to discuss a series 2/n (y) xn
53.
We
series
regarded
as
function of
the variable
y.
The following
1006, p.
Further results have been established by Haitn^s (Math. Annalen, 9), Using more elalmiatr aiiaK
K<1.
CrJ,
52, 53)
PEINGSHEIM'e THEOREM,
\'
caTi be
found
8u</< ////
trl,f>re
A,
are fixed
and
'//'/
?i /ias
',
any value.
interval
(
Then
<
2/,<
th.it
>ntlnuou8 fuiirfiun
la
./
if
,i
f/tc
<
A'.
To prov
with /l?i
;>
tli
theorem,
,
we
t
in..l
<.nly
compare the
ami
i>
series
(pJJ
which
is ino!
p.ii<l.nt
of y
OQQVefg
when 05<A': tlms the s.rics ^/' (^).a5* (by cm vir^s uniformly with iv^unl to // in
(1
i
Weierstrass's
thof
//
int.rval
'),
ainl
is
tlur.1'ore
a continuous
function
in
that
Interval.
It
li\l>)
Aln1
that
1/
'/
A'
in
tin
continuity
tinuous).
of
was
./
sullicint
< <A
But
rriii^shrini
is
lias cotistruct<
con
Example
The
follnwitiLT
>
\\itli
(1) Tlu
+ ,<\c" + ...
(\jc
<1)
ffiiny+i
MtiiiMini.
+ ...
tinstrits
\vliin
\,
it
<1
Imt altlnuirh
2?r,
still
COnvergea
it"
i
ili>
.
ntiiiu.us at
v=0,
4;r, ...
miniums
fniHti.>ii
<.f
>i
if
X\<\\ and
+
'
thus
liin
/'(y)
= U.
Hut
if
'
the 9eries
+
/
+
."'
(see
Art
u)
from
tiian
tlutii>t
"''
tan"
//
t.nn y(lf//).
Thus
it
th.it
(,
I)
Thr
...nv.TLrtiuc
of tlu
sn
Spim
136
POWER
SERIES.
w
[CH. VIII.
2/M (#)#
y
y>0.
Thus the
Bin2y
sin2y
n2^
y
1
y
converges
diverges
if
if
the series
x>\.
J/'n+1 /J/ B
(5) Pringsheim's
Let Jfn tend steadily to oo with n in such a way that Km and let J/ = 0. [For example J/" = 0, J/ =wn .] Then write
7l
and
of
it
is
y and
any value*
real
,y
of x.
2/n (y)#2n converges for all real values Further, the functions / /j, ... are con,
tinuous for
all
values of
?/.
But
if
#^1,
the
series
2/n (y)^r2n
is
discontinuous at
For
and
so
if
y>0,
o
Now
the terms
rt
^i
From
these facts
if
it is
if
^1
is
Of course
\x
continuous at
applies.
of Art. 34
/,
* Because
ami
^x2n /M n
Of course converges for any value of x, since lim Afn+1 / J/ M = ao to be zero; if y = 0, all the terms of the series are zero,
.
S/M (0).x2 = 0.
two
/'
f If the
///'///
series
this
iuUTval
\\ill
be
of tin two.
53,54]
MUI/ni'l.K \M\
al.olut<ly
Co
ill
.\Nh I.IVI>ION.
int.r\al.
\\
:
which OOnTflVgei
the same
H'/V
~>\)
If
\v
to the equate
**(So,
we can deduce
pn>\ idd that
ditr.ivnt
</;/;>;<;,/,
at
oner
tin"
hiBeriefi
tlnnivin
(Art.
:{!
that
CAE,
term
1.
i>
all
convei
tirst
we
assuni,
that
tin
constant
it
\v tak.
08
Thus
>nsilrr
where
//
Now
and
liy
Art.
.')U.
th
may
1..
arranv,l in
pw.rs
<>:
pii>vill
that
Inill^',,.'",
any and
nuiiilnr
th.
Irss
than
th.
radius of coir.
h.'iv
16
of
upper
>=!.
\\'
ohtain
<!+//)
1=1^., + ,^ :_/,
,.,:
_,/,,.:_ O/^/,^.
This
in
./:,
seriefl
may
th.n
l>e
multiplird

by any other
j.
and we
ol.tain
p
:
..v
.f
th,.
initial
l.c
trim
in tin ilriicminat
tli.
.lu.'tinit
may
( ,
still
found as
tliat
powei
n..t
Th
= 0,
l^=(l
1'iit
/_,
is
BWO)
th.n
w
h.,
wben
/
/>',
Tlun, as
al,.
:u l
'',
Thus
138
In practice
it is
POWER
coefficients
SERIES.
[CH. vin.
method
of undeter
mined
thus
we
should write
(5),
'
2'
* ' '
'
A
is
Reversion of a powerseries.
series
y = a^x + a 2x
required to express x, Let us try to solve
powerseries
If
if
+a x
B
i ...
k,
+ k),
and that
it is
possible, as a powerseries in y.
2b n y n
is
(by Art. 36), the resulting series may certainly be rearranged in powers of y without altering its value, at any rate for some values of y leaving the question of what these values are
;
we
2
y=(
or
A) y + 0,^ = 1,
A+
V)2/
a 1 6 2 4a 2 6 1 2
and so Thus
we can
6X
determine,
stepbystep,
the
succession
of
coefficients,
= l/a v
0,
b.
= a
z /<**,
bs
= 2a22/a 6  aja^,
1
....
It is evident
different
from
case
*For the
K.xs.
when
and a a
is
may
refer
to
54, 55]
\\'e
REVERSION OF
then
1
9E1
loss of generality,
may
Q
without
for the
and
BO,
with a slight
//
= + ",.''' + 'V
.,
:1
+....
i'or
l>
{
where
given
])l'o\
id.d
that
the (Mjuations
l.y
Now
ol)taine(l
for
the
,J's
are
those
which
wouM
l.e
in
the equation
Hut
any positive nuniher less than /. the aeriefl 1 ivervnt, and BO we can timl* a nuiuher .17 such that
it'
ft
is
/'
fol all
values of
//.
_,_
/.'/
this equation
'i
Of
iiiii.itic.n
i.f
M.
Mfl
below.
140
POWEE
SERIES.
[CH. VIII.
the negative sign being taken for the squareroot, because and tj vanish together.
But
where
(p
Thus we have
and
can be expanded* in a thus, since X>yu, the value of convergent series of powers of rj, provided that 0<i;</x. But
this series is clearly the
if
same
verges absolutely convergent in the interval ( /x, +/x). Consequently the formal solution proves to be a real one, in the sense that
it
0<>7</u.
Now
is
It is perhaps advisable to point out that the interval ( /*, +//) has not been proved to be the extreme range of convergence of the series 26,,y we only know that the region of convergence is not less than the interval
;
For
we
This
is
found to give
X=
and
so
(_^
the method above gives an interval only slightly greater than +). But actually (see Arts. 58, 62 below)
series for
and the
56.
1,
+1).
Lagrange's Series. In books on the Differential Calculus, an investigationt is commonly given for the expansion of x in powers of y, when an equation holds of tin. form
We
fSee
= anticipate here the binomial expansion of Art. 61, for the case v lt. ntinl 7: Khvanl>, for instance \Villiain.on, ('d/nt/it*, />//// chap.
55, 56)
I.
LOB
anal
\\'i
process 'gives an
ratioo
1
th<
it
gives no
inf.i
hih
tinl'd
tli.ii
an
\.i:
t
expansi>:
'ally u.
jH.^il.K
m
,,
in a
""
""
''"""
MIC "it
tin
dt..
i
n>w seen
^a,^,
i.il
to be,
in
in
ivality,
t<iiivalrnt
tli
iw.i >i<.n
the powerseries
)i,\\>
ti
the
I^agrange's
iii\r>ti^aii"ii
to the
'
M
in
tin
nf
[/'(')]"
"!',
ng
r\aii.
\v.
cstalilislj
iiidr<l
tin
inert
ur 'nral
form
i.f
00
Lagrange's series in
"

\vhirh ;H
p'\\\\'.
in
^_
t
is
another
i
knew
in fa.
.y,
(lV"in
Art.
\\
''><>
and
."."))
that
ntly
we can
wlunintirval
/,<,
..f
f,
anil
tlie
otlnr
c..iHi.'iints
have
still
to be found.
The
convergence cannot In f.iuinl. ly flrnitntary ni'tli"ls, until the coftli.ifiits havr IMMII (l.trnniiifd.
Mtiaic tin
.'1
we
find
(*.;
hividc in.w
liv
r
i/
,
\\1,
and wr get
Suppose both
:
thifl
riu'lit.
iiiatiin
is
t<>
IK
\pandid in asniulin^
tlnii.
on the
thriv
containing *
'
and
this
= r.
It
is
n,\v
,1,ar
tli
th.
r,,Mi.iut
..f
./
in
the rxpansion of
'.lie
\cept for
7i
= r,
1.,
= Jo*"' +
hut
in
this
t\i
sen
if
is
loss
than
;
'
>
r,
,.f
term
in
because x
nt
any powr
On
tlu
othfcr h:inl.
if
r, \vr
1,
g+^
= + J5,^
J
142
r
POWER
in ascending
;
SERIES.
[CH. VIII.
g'(x}jy
It
formula, although
is
first
and this is equivalent to Lagrange's powers of x put in the above form by Jacobi.*
if
to be observed that
the equation in #,
is
solved by some algebraic (or other) process, there will additional solutions as well as the series found by reversion.
usually
be
This series
Ex.
of
1.
If
to
find the
coefficient
x~ l
in the expansion of
=x r (\axY r
Thus we get
and
so
if

rdr =
x =y + a# 2 + 2a 2y 3 + 5a3?/ 4 +
ay
\
. . .
< J.
namely
Ex.
2.
In like manner,
if
y=xaxm+l we
,
Ex.
3.
The reader
if
y=.r(l+#)
y
4
,
n
,
then
37i37i+l
+ ~
method of expanding g(x\ we take the followbx ax e in powers of y = xe To expand ing example r (a ~ rb)x r and so the coefficient of x~ is easily seen to be Here g'(x)ly =ax~ e
Ex.
4.
To
:
illustrate the
a(arbyThus we have
S* = l
f(r~l)l.
2
+ ay+ a(a26) 2
,
a(a36) V+y +
,
. s
.,
which converges if y<l/e6. In particular, with a = l, 6=l, ^ = e*, we obtain Eisenstein's solution of the equation log=,y (see Ex. 11, p. 18), in the form of the series
Qes.
Werke, Bd.
6, p.
37.
56, 57
KXroNKNTI
SPECIAL
limit.*
\.
SKHIER
CI:I;TAI.\
57.
i'<>\\ 1:1;
SERE
The exponential
win!.
05
= liliH.
*<>
Consider
first
tin sinrial
//.
6886 wh.n
intrTal values
and
writ.
n*=*X.
"
Thru we
tiiiil.'
>n .xpaiKlii
i
3(iJ)...(i^
Now.
can
u^i
this
ni'
Art. 4!>:
as
tin roinj.arisoiiseries,
,,...
.,..
where
F<
>r
A',,
is
ol
we have
r
wlnn
A',,
is
(,!'
coarse iinl<'enlem
Hill
>'
Also
=J
Finallv the
infinity.
ini
n
i
use
lini
n>.\
iial t<> n.
)=
and
liinA'=.'.
and so of com
Thus
"Tinfurther.
iml+*l+s+.l_^+..
Mitik'ndnl
;i\
to
x.
II.
before proo
tFor
tht
L'<
iitTiil tirni
in the liiiunnial
H expansion of (1+^)
is
That
tluTitht
is
;i
jjiiati.st
val
;,iit.
livcause it
is
supposed
lus
limit
x,
us
in.n
,ists
t<>
intinity.
144
If
[CH. vill.
v will,
v tends to infinity in any other way, be contained between the two integers stage, say; and of course n will tend to infinity as
now
at
any
n and
v
)
(n + I)
(!
)"
vg will
does. n+1
;
Thus and
n>x(ng)
lim
= Km (n+l)=x.
n >oo
we
see that
and
)" is
contained between (1
2
+
s
M
)
and
(l
n+1 it
,
If
we
(*+)"it
r=0
2/r(*,*),
will
n) =
r=0
)].
That is, we have replaced a single limit by a double (repeated) limit and of course such a step needs justification (see the examples in Art. 49).
;
Special cases.
If
= l/i/, we
+ d! i,+ + l+i z!
27182....
...
tooo=&
and proved to be
The value
If
=l(i/l), we have
lim (1
v>ao
v
so that
l/v)~
e.
may
where X approaches
*It
is
from either
side.
of course
On
tin ihtinitioii
understood that the positive value of (!+)" is taken; and H+1 if " is obviously fnntaiiud between (!+{)" and (l+f) a is if is the statement other h.md, the irrational, consequence of <>f un irrational ]>o\ver.
is
>
57,
58
58.
\V.
CES,
/'<
B)
ill.
xjMuiential series
x*
a*
a*
'I'd
ii
(1
tliat
X,
K(x)
is
a contin
i^
t'uneti..n
..f
and that
its
ditl.ivntial
coefficient
i\)i
by
term
ditl'ivntiation, go
that
i)i++lJ+jP+...jrM
.
.=
rl
(/I).
">7
TT .
we
see
!'r.ni
Art.
that
"x
This rrsult
I'A
>
ian
also
tin
prn\r(l
dir.ctly
I'rmn
r
tin
>
rios
I
for
rule
(An
.lut.ly
..uati.iis
(in
(
;/
'I'
valu nf
t\.r
i'
rational valu. of
inatinnal
B,
Hut
j
tl..it'
>r
values
l'
ot'
i'or
Sequence
iati"iial
nuinlxi^
wli..x,.
limit
is
./,
we
h;.
lim //(/ i=
A'.
the
]:ist
step In
alid IMMMU^w,
'
i>n
(Art 46)
E(x)\
it
I'utuiv.
shall
pnerally
in
l.
write
,
instra
hut
when
the
e\]M.iiiit
mplicate
is
!'
sometimes clearer
to use
ezpx, as
K
the chapt.T.
146
SPECIAL
will
POWER
SERIES.
[CH. VIII.
The reader
find
in the
Appendix
As
(Art. 162).
Ex.
may shew
that
e^=
and hence that
[Reference
results
may be made to the example of Art. 59 for some of the needed in the calculation.]
sine
59.
The
[3 Hn+gr"*and
that
Sn (x), Cn (x)
are
both continuous
as
may
be seen by differentiation.
(x)
;
Now C
is
= cosx
but
1 is negative,
and consequently
}
i
negative
(x) vanishes
is
SQ (x)
is
negative when x
positive.*
(x) is positive
when x
C^x)
is
is
positive; but
positive
when x
and
Hence
T[Sl (x)]
=C
x,
(x) is positive
when x
is
positive;
so that
S^x) must be
is
positive
when x
That
is,
r[C2 (x)]=
S^xy
negative
when x
x,
is is
positive;
and
therefore, since
is
C2 (x)
vanishes with
C2 (x)
negative
when x
positive.
use throughout
this
article
*We
make
of
the
(if
if
is
x=Q, then y
58, 59]
SINK AM'
t
us INK SKKIKS.
.
17
his ai'innmnt
and
l.y
doing SO
j
W6
find that
\\
(7 (ar),
are negativ.
h n
(aj), J Dispositive, while the expressions with odd Mitlix. are positive, This .sh.ws that sin,/' lirs between th tw<.
...
+
,.,,1
'
.v
+(

+ i>:
1
...+<
I
32/1+3
' ,
(2iT~
Hence, since
=
t
we u have
In like
sin2
manner we
1
to
ao,
find
...
i
>.4
7.6
i
These results have been established only for positive values of x; but it is evident that since and its series both change sign while cos./' and its series do not change sign, so that with
./',
the results are valid for negative values of x also. The figure lelw will s.rve to sli'W the relation between
sin./
and the
first
in
Ku:.
If,.
Ex.
\\Y
= ^7r=r.")7<s
vci v
'
This
0
&**=
07W,
,
= 00003.
tlu
=
LS546
0209,
ij:>;
0,
wror
1oing less
leea
than 00003.
Also
IKMH.I:
than 00003.
148
60.
[CH. VIII.
powerseries.
(1)
is
to
Probably the most rapid method of recalling the series to memory assume that sin x and cos x may be represented by powerseries.
if
Thus
sinx=
cos x
j
we have
and
so
(sin x)
+ 3a 3# 2 +
. . .
4.
Further, a
= 0,
because sin.r
1
.
is
and
=0,
COS.T is
1,
for
#=0.
Hence we get
2 a2 =
.
2. 3. o 3 =
!=],
a2 = 0,
3,
or
=
3.4.a4 =
4.5.<x 5
=a
or && =
and
so on.
But of course we have no a priori reason for supposing that sin x and cos# can be expressed as powerseries and therefore this method is not
;
logically complete.
(2)
We may
start
from the
series,
and
call
them,
'say,
S(x\
C(x).
Then
C(x) C(y)
Hence
and
in particular
[C
C(Zx) = \C(xff\S(xff.
S(*c) = ZS(x)C(x\
these formulae
From
we
it
much
is
negative,
so
and
2.
But
and S(x)
is
and
2.
Thus
and
2,
because
it
steadily decreases
liccaiiHt
\\i'
[ES
~
(
'all
this r,,ot
thru
and ao
l>e
positive.
Hence
ami
<
W
MI
>
C(X+T)C
can be based.
the
these facts
[t
tin \vh..lr
ditliciilt
is
nut
to piove,
liy
imliKtioii
or
l.y
methods given
in
<
'hap.
IX.
l>rlo\v,
that
n(nl)
2!
\vhrre
= t&n0, and
both
+ l)
<>r
i(/>
# = .r,
n>
To theae azpnemona
u>inu as
r
i:
an
apply the
the.:
tin
coinjtarisonseries
...
;!
=tano:^f .
\\itli
that rinpl..yed
f..r
the
exponential
limit
in
Ait.
/
.~7
ami
\ve
get
r+
1\/
1
1
2\^*
iLM
"*)!
*\
1
f
]= COS , ^
we have
that
lim n /=0,
li,n
an.l
thus
eoe*
lim
(H
M=l
150
(4)
[CH. VIII.
is
by
sin# =
If
c
/
cos(xt)dt,
co.s#l=/
we obtain
rx
s\u(xt)dt.
Jo
Jo
we
integrate twice
by
parts,
2
~\
c
/
x 2
t
(xt)2jsin(xt)\
co$(xt)
r
and
cos#=l
sin(#) +
f2
fx
cos(#)J
fi
^m(x
Hence we
find
and
61. The binomial series. Let us examine the series
l)j
+ K^l)(^2)+...
to oo.
from elementary algebra that if v is a positive now this series terminates and represents (l+x) v integer for values to examine the theorem other proceed corresponding
.
We know
We
of
v.
By
by
x

Art.

12,
;
the
region
of
absolute
convergence
is
<
and so
vergent in
any
f( a; ) =
(Art. interval (
50)
A:,
the
/.,),
series
is
where
< <
/
Now
^l +
( l/
l)a;4.( l;l)(^2)^+... to
x]
v.
= vg(x)
where g(x)
differs
say,
(v
1
)
in place of
60, 61 J
BINOMIAL
(1
f
Also
1)(.
x 2)jj+...
BO that
Hence we
or
see that
/(aj)=.l(l
+
x.
where
But/(0)=l: and
>lue
for (l+x)",
have
.1
that
18,
This result has, of course, been proved only for the im '.\trnll t. inrhnl.(/, + /.); K't u now see if it can
!
th.
series
points ly the
1,
(
+1.
Th.>th
(??
<jU<'ti.nt
<>t'
the
/>th
term
in
th
,/
is
i^
//
1).?:,
if
/>>i' +
l,
and so the
an.l
1 if v is positive (Art.
).
for
./=+!
(Art.
(r+1)
tile
is
thenlelll
i
sillll
Thus by Abel's
iC
1
is
18
0,
if
is
positive: and
for
.r=+l
f,,r
the
sum
is
'2'
if
i'fl
positive.
l'hB
ni">t
rapitl
nictliul
r.calling
the series to m
th ditlrivntial
Muatinii
(1
iy
assuming a
sei
f(.r)=\
\vr
+a r v + <i.,.r+
1
On
sul.stitMti..ii.
lind that
'
'..,
+ </i =
etc.
..nUi
t..
tliis
mu>t
l>e
supplemented as abov. in
o>ni)>lt
tin
i"..t".
in
r,
multijilv l'_:!li.[
\<
:
t\\,,
)
writ
\vitli
ami
r.)
r
and
\it. \rt.
L'T
that
1
tluir
j.l.xlu.t
whiih
s;i.
.iiimt
as was
lu
must
tlu
rth
H,
\\n
,,f
its
valur
f.i
= l.
152
[CH. vin.
(3)
We
have
last line
by integrating by
parts.
Continuing thus,
we
get
Now,
if
is
positive,
(l+xt)
lies
between
and (l+#),
so that
provided that
> v  1.
if
On
is
negative,
x}
IJ
,
if
r>vl.
x=
1 it is
,
series to a finite
interesting to note that we can sum the binomial number of terms. Thus we have
to (rfl) terms
is
Therefore
is positive,
it is
clear
this
sum tends
to
if v
to infinity
negative.*
62.
The logarithmic
series.
II.) of
We
the natural
+i+ +
...
to GO
is
divergent.
81, 62]
v
I'
GABITHM*
'i
\vlnii
./'
<
\\
wriit
mlt+t
tin(
...tOQO,
l.y
Art.
from
4
to
=/.
log(l
llo\\.v.r.
it
+ .!) = ./not
861160
A./+^./ J.i
+.
of
tinunit''.
i^
(oiivrr^rnrc
"1
tin
in
ry <>nlr
i"
make use
to
mi
;
inltjial.
t.imlyi Tin
Can
\\rib
Thus
in
if.')
= ,^,^f!.' ...H(l
;
oF+
It'
*
i*
is
cl.arly
l.ss
than
P<
J
/'
+1
i>n.vMMl even for
that
which
)n
tends
1.
to
/,ro
//M
<s=
(
Thus
x\.
when
./
is
,111
jf;
98
than
1
tl.
+#
Ssion
'
Jo
it
anl from
woull
!.
cxi..ctil that
./=
be 'xrlnd..l iVoin
9;
of
tin
th<
loirarili
96li6fl
been
'ro\
.<!
to
li\
2
..
tin
i.l
(1f JX = tf
i
Tli.it
is,
.re
be
ext
of
unitnim
OCH
154
[CH. vni.
It is now necessary to consider whether the first of these series can be rearranged in powers of y without changing its value. By Art. 26, this derangement will be permissible if the series
is
if
convergent, where f = # , ^ = \y\. But the last series is the expanded form of (1 )~ T!, which is convergent <1 that is, if #<1. Thus the derangement will not alter the sum.
;
coefficients of
...
?/
to oo,
^(l + HHi)+..
Similar (but less
of log (1+0?).
to oo.
simple) series
may
be deduced for
higher powers
9.]
63.
is
it
x which can be found from the previous series by writing 2 x ). for x and then subtracting; or directly, by integrating 1/(1
In either than
way
terms
is
seen to be less
iX.
I
* ~T~
~*
J
~1
The
may
be arranged as follows 00 00 00
I 5
= 20 00
00 00
20
^3=
J3=
800000 +3
2666
67
32000 +5
12 80
51
6400
1
^r=
+7
83
+9
2
06
20 27 32 56
= 40 log f
Tin
54 65
l.cvoiul
tln>
error involvrd
in
m^lict in^
terms
tifth
is
loss
than
i4L_.
result
is
rff))
which cannot
<lt<imal.
Hence the
LBH
>l\
\M
AJEf
get
again
lss
th;ui
;i
unit in
tin
ri^hth
!.
Also
log}
th.><
= :.'[imilll+OOCn.=a'2L'.'Ji
1
'KXXXKX)3]
t" ix
tlnil
decim
the natural logarithms of all integer7,
ivMilts \\
t..
whi.h .an
1..
t'iind
simOarlj
r'i"in
l"g).
In
particular,
\vi
havr
Iog2=
log:.
:
698147,
Iog3
= 109861:.'.
\vlii.h
<
= log 10 ^:
tin
han
on verge
more
:
rapitlly,
nmiilMr
l"ic
placrs.
in
T<.
..f
illu>t iat<.
log 2, log^i.
1
terms
31,
lt;
'"
+ ir* + ...).
and
,n
64.
II'
and
BO,
l>y
tlit
principle of
reversion of
bast
Beriefl
(Art
~>~>),
r
we
value of
<!'
as a
_ ent
tin
first
t\v>
t.nn*
\\bicb arc
\\f\rr.
it
i^
ii"'
iasy
tx>
obtain
\v<
tin
^'iirral
la\\"
<!'
tlic
coetlici.nts in this
manner: hut
can
me
th>
ditliculty
^c^il^r
wlr
i!
+ :r +
.:;
(
,g
'
:>. 4''
^.l.,;
to
lie
between
positive
B6VJ
The
writing
r
i^
nhtain.d
:
lV..in
the
binomial
Beri
I'mit will th. f.r: ^. ami unil'nrmly in any interval (/,. +/,) if ()</,<!. We may int. urrat. fcennhyterm and so obtiin
i
./
arcrina
= , + ,
i
i.
156
[CH. VIIL
which
(
1,
+1), as
l,
may
absolutely and uniformly in the interval be seen from the test of Art. 12 (5). Thus,
we have a series for TT. Although we have not found* a series for tana?, we can we have For, writing x = tan easily find one for arc tan x.
<j>,
writing x =
dx
or
d>
'o
where
</>
is
supposed to
lie
between
TT
and
+ JTT.
The
2n+l
/2n,7/__!
;
lo
to cc
provided that x

= 1.
...
to
'oo
where
==+!,
we have
jTr^
In particular
Of course this series converges very slowly, but by the aid method given in Art. 24, the reader will find no great difficulty in calculating JTT to five decimals, from the first 13 or 14 terms. The result is JTT = '78540.
of the
*
We
by dividing
sin.c
by cos a (compare
Art.
54),
but there
is
coefficients.
The
first
in
more coefficients are given in Chrystal's Alyebra, vol. II., p. 344. The method used in Art. 54 shews that this series will certainly be convergent XZ yA y& < 1 &"il a short calculation will shew any interval for which ol + T, + ^j +
that this is satisfied in the interval (1*3, f I'.'i); but by means of a tluornn given in Art. 84, we can shew that the region of convergence is ( ^ir, + ^TT). fOf course the termbyterm integration could also have been justified by
making use
of the
uniform
coimriMini
<>f
the series
x'2
+ x*
...
64,
65
1
ntlGONOMETRK
rfoai
\i.
t"
kii'.un
Tl.
I
,'\,
tan
[en
7r )
= 2.H
\
I*.
1
.tli. r
m
iVi'in
1
1.
65.
Il
clear
Art.
'21
that
tin
BZpCU
i
l2rco80+r*) =l+(2rco80r )+ without may In arraiivd in ]M\V.I^ mvi<lrl that* <r^.
i
f+... to
altriiii:
its
oo
..!'
\alu\
is.
h..\v\
er,
tli.
fraction
(lrcoa0)
(12
.1
.1
.1
....
<>i'
H.
rooed Lh^r
+J
:i
4
l
:;
/
+...
^00802^^00802
ami
h.ncr
80+...
we
get,
uinI
Art.
52
01
.1
,
39,
ha\.
tli.
r_
It'
to
\\v
and
ilivi.lt
l.y
r,
\\
;f9f ...
tn
Jr+^ = f<l.
158
SPECIAL
these,
POWER
SERIES.
[CH. VIII.
Combining
1
we
get also
...
r2
to
oo
.
An
By
led to
inspection
we
see
that or
all
when
r + r 2 + r3 +...
the interval
converges, enquire whether the equations are not also true for
(0,
1).
when
0<r<l.
Thus we are
Now we
find, identically,
Hence, as for the geometrical progression (Art. 6), we see that lim.R n = 0, if and accordingly the first equation holds for the interval (0, 1). And the other equations can be
0<r<l,
.)
we have
2(r cos
+ Jr
cos 20
(*'
dt
7
==
$7\
~1
5 ^ r^ ^ an
Thus we
find
sin
.
<ft
Jo
may
Termbyterni integration is purinissihU hrcause, if 0^r^fc< 1, tlie series be compared with 1 + k + k + k?+ ..., ami Wtierstrass's J^test can be u]])lied.
65
TBIGONOMETRK
\\
,
\i.
SEED
tin1,
li.iv.
only
.stal.lMi.d
ill
,,
nations above on
</<!:
hut
ih
two
series
rin0+j MB
lepi
tin
!ir>t
20+in30+= or i'or
~>i
>.
we have
I"'*
1
C080+
and similarly,
''+..
Mm "J
lVn.sfl + r2 )
!Tjlog(4Bin
cos04cos20+Jcos:W...=
a
in
in
li
r2 )
1'iv^li
lit
tioo
iV.iiu
tin
i^
unnecessary,
1,\
the lat
clianiiiL:l'r
:
driluoil
]>ivcc(lin
In
likf
inaniiir
\v.
have
v
hisin30...=limarctaD
^I
\ii\\
is
tli.
t'roin
tinr/>,
ti^un
it
is
vi<liit
that
to
J.
tin
an^l. in
drtinitioii
ijii
anu.lc
wliich
(acc..nlin^
lit
the
TT
of
th
tan
runctioii)
must
l>t\\v<'ii
and +J7r; so
that
17.
Thu>
I
Jut
if
(>
0<d<
lrcau'
t.Tiii
in
it
vanishes: thu^
tin
.>ntinu':
and
If
lies
Ix'Uveen
aegatiye,
'2L
wli.iv
/,
is
an
iir
w.
= j[series (A:
N].
of n.n un.
160
It
is
SPECIAL
POWER
SERIES.
[CH.
by a
/(0),
direct method.
In
fact, if
Sn (0)
is
the
sum
we
have,
by
differentiating,
Thus
n(#)
Now, by
is
TT,
provided that ^0
between
and
TT
and consequently
/(0) = i(7T0),
if
0<0<27T.
But
/(0) = 0=/(27r).
Thus the curve y=f(6) consists of a line making an angle arc tan ^ with the horizontal and two points on the horizontal axis. glance at Figs. 12 and 13 of Art. 43 suggests the conjecture that the limiting form of the curve y = Sn (0) consists of the slanting line and
two
below).
vertical lines, joining the slanting line to the axis (see the figure But as a matter of 'fact this is not quite correct, and the vertical
clearly the point
For
line.
belongs to the curve y = Sn (B), whatever the positive number Now, as tt*oo, this point approaches the limiting position
/i
A may
be.
f J
A sin
t
in virtue of Ex.
3,
Art. 174.
u = Sir.
y=
/"*
\
sin
t
dt,
Jo
Now
the integral
(sin t/t) dt
to its
maximum
TTX (11790), which occurs for A = TT so that in the limiting form of the curve y = Sn (B), the two vertical lines have lengths T85194, instead
1'851 94 =
;
.'o
of
^7r=r57080, as conjectured.
85

J7T
185
FIG. 18.
Some
of
,sv/vV, etc., p.
/'////.
49
is
Mag.
(5),
vol.
XII., Fig.
vin.
I
A.
161
Differentiation
1.
and Integration.
.Jutify
tin
iiju.itinii
'
<a>
4>0
>
be found
~
in
Unit.
..nal.
[GAUSS.]
"""
+ =
1
1111
that
ll^'sba+= Jl
[Math. Trip. 1896.]
.'\v
if
and
i
3.
Utilise
1
x*
and
find a
fonnula
fr
the
sum
of the
111
i:
the logarithmic
se:
2r44rr6 + 6TY78=i('r
5.
 3 )
.i''
Shew
that
with
rrt:iin
restritions
on
a,
j8,
y,
and dedu
Ft
\:>,.
rh.
r (y)r(yq)
7)r<y!sy
*In
a
number
is
used aa equiva
me
are implied.
I.s.
x
^
162
6.
POWER
The complete
SERIES.
[CH.
7.
Prove that
8.
From Ex.
13,
r(2)
4
,2.4.6.8
[Write
9.
a=
J,
/3=, 7 = !.]
integration that
[Compare Art.
10.
62.]
If
11.
Prove that
differential coefficient
(l^)
12.
Prove that
[Use
the equation
similarly that
Shew
13.
Prove
that,
if
\x\<\,
x=\
vin.
I
LMPLE8
Slnw that,
if
A.
14.
\jc.
< 1,
i
.
:j
:>,
log[i{lW(l*)}]=15.
Prove that
K^,,^.,^.'^,
[It
is
easy to see
th.it
(1
,(.
+ J* + J** + ...)
j/=(seco:ftanar)
.
m=
2a^,
prove that
,
[Hen
17.
I6C,
[.V
.1896.]
Verify that
J(arctan.r).log(l
where
and dciluoe that
J log 2
[Here
(1
=
.1
"
!>....
[Math.T
+)$<
= S...
fi
.S)^+(*6
]>art,
Derangement of Expansions.
18.
/
I'lufli.iiiit
f .;"
in th.
i\ji:uiin
>
iy .w(m
+ l)...(iM+Ml)
'
71
!
,.r
><(w
]
+ /0
/>
//(/<!)(/
4!
,
2!
whei
Sh.w that
7
it
is
inultiplr
.f
in
the expansion of
7V
(1+.
  i+qt
j
3;;
(1
(1
164
19.
POWER
Expand exp (arc tan .r) up
SERIES.
term which contains
x>.
[CH.
to the
so
we
find that
if
/nl ) then
^ = 1,
=l,
This gives
=1,
=7,
....
The
20.
from Art.
36.]
Shew
that,
if
#<1,
>. 1902.]
[This
21.
is
#=2y+# 2
first
If
y=a
>
obtain the
1
*
powerseries for

y22.
and
I Ids 
a^x
ya
x dy
=.
Apply the
last
if
1
,
/"(a)
= lim/(.r),
x
^a
[
j [/(a)]
 lim/(#) =  sec 3 a y
n
A sec
a.
23.
coefficient of
in the expansion of (1
1
n\
the
r L
7i(7il)
^1)^2)^3)
"*"
22711 2(2711)
2.42wl2rc3
"'J'
number
24.
Determine the
2 2 1 25. If [(l#3/)(ltf,y )(l#/.y)(l tf/^ )]" is expanded in powers of x, the part of the expansion which is independent of y is equal to s  *2 2 (1 +s )/(l ^)(1 ) [Math. Trip, 1903.]
.
[If
we expand {(\xy)(l
x/y)},
we
obtain
It
is
26.
Expand
first
(l+.r)* = exp(l
in x*.
up
to
[The
J^ + JJ^
2 )
;
VIM.]
27.
165
th.
1.3
1.3.5
3!
(1
.."
x*
(T^?
in
powers of
*,
th ooefl
ia
that
tlu
iii>t
MI
,ial
to
N '(
./'),
28.
\\li
HARDY.]
i
29.
""rr?
<*<!.
in
ami extend to any nunil>r
30.
f
!p'tin.
indices of 8iiiuniati"n.
[.I/"'
:K)3.]
Shf\v
that
(inverg/nt,
and by
summing with
SB
tliat
T
J
tlu
are as
gh
=
,.
M7
^TT

r.r
X X i
_j_
E
[STERN.*]
Special Series.
itsii*
slnw that
also
[If
'(1
i
l.^T^'^y+1
i
th
t..>itivi:

and
is
if
that
tli.
xii.s
i>
njual to
l,\
1).
\~>
V>0,
tyjt
;
wt'
ran
j.iov,.
Art.
that
'(
/,
y)
equal to
and
this .an
I..
extended
ise
0>y> 1,
by
the
32.
If
\aiial.lr
from
to
\f
l
in
irit
th
~'ilt.]
(1r
.+ ftr +
s
(i^o+^y1900.]
*See
Dirichlet's
.,te
InttgraU
(c
( i
166
33,
POWER
Shew
that the
is
SERIES.
[CH.
sum
powerseries
>*
[Math. Trip,
13,
Prove that
x=\.
Shew
its
times
that at r per cent., compound interest, a capital will increase to original value in n years, approximately, where
approximation
n=
69.3
r
h'35.
36.
If
prove that/,(#)
is
a polynomial of degree
in
x which
satisfies
the equation
l
x ~tt
**
/2 =(.r + a) 2 +#, /3 = (# + a) 3 + 3#(. + )+#, and that if a is positive all the roots of /,(#) = are real and negative, and that they are = [HARDY and Math. Trip. 1902.] separated by the roots of /,_i(#) 0.
Shew
that /j =x + a,
;
37.
If
that
n
n...
2.]
Trigonometrical Series.
38.
By
writing
r=#sin0
r cos
#)},
shew that
arc tan (a f x)
0) sin
6
(.r
20 + $(x sin
3 0) sin
36
...
,
where
39.
=cot#.
[EULER.]
eerie s
is
convergent and is equal to $ir6, when 6 lies between eot0 in lv\. :is or [Put r = cos0 in Art. (;:
:
. 
and
TT.
vin.
I
167
Sh\\
that
li.iiiflrr
<
40.
qual to
le
equal
tin
i,.i_lit
41.
If
tan./'

A
42.
d.li
rals
Iog(l2rcos0 + r').
'(i
Vl rc<
z)*'
~>
oosne
^
1
/"'
sin>^si
Jo
ItiOD
1
1
l2rcosi
i
'.
'f'<;.')
in
an
intt_'
45).
43.
Pv int"jratinu thr
Mati'ii
*...
= (Awe can
infer the results
2
,
and
1
.
./
lies
between
<>
and
1,
C080 + ;,
:J0+...
')7T
nn
r3
cos^f^cos
[\.t that
tin
30+...=
[!'.
I.M.]
.iixtrmts of
\aiiiil.
intrifiati..!!
i>
can
!<
dl.i inin.d
.
thus:
:
The
unifcim
'
anil thei
tinnuus.
f,,i
all
values of
0.
Th>;
+
r et u
f ...
J,
= ATT*, we
tind th.
JA**,
whi,
I
168
44.
POWER
Shew
that,
if
SERIES.
[CH.
r<l,
arc tan
45.
Prove that
cos
sin
6+ cos 3(9 + 1 cos 50+ ... = J log cot 2 J0, 0+sin30 + sin50+...= +7r, (0<0<7r)  1 sin 30 + ^ sin 50  ... = log (sec 0+tan 0) 2 sin
series
;
The second
these values of
= 7r, STT, ..., and changes sign at while the fourth changes sign and
is is
discontinuous for
discontinuous at
0=^5
46.
IT*
cos
cos
sin
0cosacos20cos2af ^cos30cos3acos a +
...
. . .
= Jlog[4(cos + cosa)2],
cos
=/(0),
. . .
=g(0\
where, assuming
<a<
TT,
i(ira),
ifO<0<a,
ifa<0<7r.
^a,
47.
Prove
that,
if
0^0^7r,
and
find the
sums
of
sin
?i
48.
Series for
TT.
Sin ce
2 2
,2.4/2\
3F
,2.4/1
vni.
LMPLEfi
'.sit
\
i;
169
'1
which leads to
6 fli* 1+
Hn
l
4"fi>L
i
3 io
2 4
2
:
/'
a.
'
/ l Vj. 5(100;
+}
also
7r
l
:<
'$
11=5,
\\lii.ll
TT
^^
lead
lu'lilv
COB
**

7r,*4f.
l++
1
2.4/144V
below
'in
+l>e
n..ti
that
..
2,
put
f'rni
r,
2

\
1
J
EXAMPLES
1.
1',
Euler s Transformation.
Sl,.'\\
hy the
saint
nirtli.xl as
...
in
'hat
...1
N'(
!+//)[
01
il
/r,.
^
.r'+...^
x
s
N
>'/
+...],
If
[KrLKR.]
1.
2.
By takin_
',
= J,
'
cr
=l,
...
in
K\.
ihew that
if
:/
< 1,
logty
K\
Dedu*c that
V3 log V~7r/~~
J\J*\_
,2.41
2.4.6
v:
h"
=1
3.
in the first
if
Ml
[Ei
Shr\\
ftlM that
'
V:
4...=
vV)(Mr,,),^ + (/>,,)^
,
^;'
170
4.
POWER
In particular,
if
,,
SERIES.
[CH.
=w
3
,
we
/
find
a =0,
DaQ =l,
3,
^^
2 ^ #" = (a? f 7#2 + 6r3 + .z4 ) e*.
oo
Similarly,
,,r
5.
If
*=2L,
e,
is
an integral multiple of
and
in particular
[WOLSTENHOLME.]
6.
By
if
y<l,
24 l+:
2 w4 2 y4 2 4
.
valid for
y = l?
if
[J/a^A.
From Ex.
oo
n
i
:
xn n
I
4
n l
and that
^(l)
1
Sn
71
!
= 0.
Shew
similarly that
series
and the
Apply
Euler's
method
to prove that
m m+l m + 2 f+3
"*"+ UHW
9.
__(_*\+
~
f
'
2
/"
"(7tt
+ l)(m + 2)\l+#/
Vi
"
Apply
Euler's
method
to
prove that
a
.
F(a, ft 7, ^) =
(T^a^(
!
7 A
7'^)
x* +
...
.
where
/(,
= ft 7 ,)
,
x+
[GAUSS.]
\MI'I. l>
I',
171
Miscellaneous.
10.
If
//
(!+.')
ail.
l...th
less
tha:
that
[#=;
11.
If
',_'!'
'
Also
1.4
12.
From
in
the fxpani.n
.f
(1^.,)"
tintiiln
ihti niin.
tli
drrinial ilans.
(>l>tain
[Til
Uirr.ilL'.JTS.]
\\iv
the
saint
root
of
from
tin
.\]>ansi.>!
:
KK l
With
!>.
sh\v
tliat
tf
14.
If
n.i
if
then
OUL]
that
< 1
ivea
apply AWl's
15.
If
tlit..
iii.
]
PJ
if
ITS and
I'/
lin,
^.'iil
liui t
51 to
pr'\c (hat
oi
di\
.1
L.
'nt
I
that
if
/''
.1
tenda to
lim{2
X *1
Hi;.'
J^,
ntiv
and
that
.1
tendl to
172
,
POWER
SEEIES.
[CH,
16. If the coefficients b n satisfy the conditions of Ex. 15, and fn (x) n decreases as n increases (but is always positive), prove that ^b n fn (x) will converge provided that 2a,,/n (.r) does, if lim A n fn = Q. Deduce that when
/n (l)=0,
and lim
2, ^(.r) = rr>0,
then
\i
of Art. 153.]
:
If
lim(?iv n )
= 0,
shew that
Writing
fn(x) = &?vn A 2v
in
Ex.
16,
shew that
if
y n is positive,
and
if
f
2 A 2 ?> 2 + 3A 2 y 4 +
. .
v
1
2,v l
+ 3v 2  4y 3 +
x tends
to
. .
as
1,
x tends
to
1.
of Ex.
17 to
x *!
shew that
if
&2 v n
is
positive,
and
if
rt
= l,
then lim(i'
3,
^4 y 2 y 3 +...) = .
Art. 24.]
From Ex.
lim
x+i
i
15,
prove that
1
= 1 log 2 = lim ( 1 IXl) ^^u f>. )^^ 1.^' *_i n(l+x ) 2
i
20.
~1
i
[The difference between the two sides of the \x and use Ex. 18.]
first is
less
than
in
On
the lines
:
of
Exs.
Tf
'~4irp
where
is
Euler's constant.
[CEsXno.]
Lagrange's Series.
22.
(t
Shew
t
that,
if
+ a) n = n + wi(t +
is
nb)"
where w r
the ordinary
binomial coefficient
[ABEL.]
vni.
I
B.
.". ;ind
multiply
i.il
I'.v
equate
coetl
i.f
tin
A1...I.
4(t + a)=<t>(t) +
h.ii
i.
<i>'((
+ b) + a(a
IMM.
\\'.
* b)
<!>"((+.
M.iy
ults raniK't
if
I..
..'iviii
</>(f)
i
is
Ini:
1:<1.
recent
28,
tin
").]
23.
is
(
iotHiri,
in \\
[
'
BZpl
<.f
1)]"
'f.,"
in tin <\j>ansi<.n
2 " 1
(l+.r)
(2
+
[Mtl,.
Trij..
1906.]
(1) for
y = e*
and
(L
j/), wli
y
24.
']
l>u
r
Kxjtaml
t*
and
>
in
)"
tf*t
= (a1
and
drtriiiiint
tin
interval
[Write
25.
J.a^ran.u'*
'
e.]
\v
If /'(.')
pc \vtrstrics
in
in
./,
wh.
/('')]", in a>.,nding
that the
of
:e to
the r.\jiaii.in <>f [1 the '"tli. itlit ..f .'" in th Sip
.'
powers
iiiiin.
tlie
coefficient
f>
n.r;
n,
(3) log(l
[\\'<
MK.]
[The ivsnlts
:
0)'"" ^
<4)
;;':;
(8)0or(l^
Oor(l
(3)1/( W 1):
(6)0
\
on.
Tin values
26.
occur
\vh
.n.]
that
.i
N
27.
Lagrange's
s.
Use Lagrange's
where
174
28.
POWER
Prove that
4
SERIES.
[CH.
6.7# 5
and
1
8.9.10*7
2
1
where
29.
t=x(\
+x2)
u3
,
< fa.
.
Shew
that
,
onl
nt *nS
tt(M+l)
,
*(*+ 1)
,
(2tt
 2)
=
n
^
TVzp. 1903.]
[M^A.
is
\,v(l
z)\
(l
Zx)\ and
2o^" =
Hence
TT
log(l
2.9?),
where y = x{ 1  .r).
or a n = 4" 1 /??.]
first
2a ny n =  J log (1  4;y),
An alternative way of stating the result is to say that the sum of the terms in the binomial series for (1 )~ M is equal to the remainder.
30.
of Art. 55 to
4
prove that
,r
if
y = a*>x*'+ a$y? +
there are two expansions for
. . .
of the
form
Shew
where
31.
also that
if
W
As
<7Oi
n is
the coefficient of
l/.r
in the expansion of
if
then
32.
.?!
. . .
If
y^x^+x},
we
# + ff2 = 2a,y,
1
where
a 1 = m, a 2 = wl (2^l)(2m2)/3
!,
33.
l)
 2) (3m  3) (3m  4) (3 w
etc.
It
is
easy to write
:
down
Differential Equations.
34. If
P
,/,,
are two powerseries which converge for .rj</i', prove that the differential
equation
has solutions of the type y A + Ai. + J.y+... \x\<R. Here A and A\ are arbitnuy, while conil>iri;itions of J and J,.
(
.1..,
^J 4
,...
are linear
vni.
LMPLES
r,
17
.'e
the
coii
,,t
f ...
+ .!,'/.
.1,
.
itJ,//
we
i,/;
that
/;
.i,,j,
if
#,=
/;
.!:
and
*B
..v+c*;
that
/;,,<J//",
//,,
J^
where
\\,
r<R
ti,,.,,
and
tind
u mob
lin:
r.
Thn
tmvergM
if
.
</; and
\v.
lind that
1.
.verges
35.
th'
Witli
til
differential
<juati(n
tli.
type
...),
ie
t(tl) = tpQ + q
A
.
and
J,,
is
arlitiaiy,
the
other
erti'int8
being
inultiilr ot
[If
/'
is
..f'
th.
<ua<lrati<,
we
lind
.
may
!*
imnjiai d
with
Kl+T)^+...+(lfT)^},
re S
If
= \tt'\,
tak./>
r = \t\,
\p,,
u>8.
shall
we
= ^ol
o.
Bp =
A,
l.nr
;us
J0^8, we
have
Fur
that
6
:
lin,
=r.
that
1'.!
.
COnV<
nicditicai
<
/,',
as in
il
intli..i
;
with
tip
tht
"(uadiat
\\i!l
].
MI
\\
fund
36.
Supiose (hat
'hat
y=y,,+
= 1.
176
Then y n approaches
satisfies
POWER
dv
SERIES.
[CH. VIII.]
77,
which
dx=f(x
>
^
x
for sufficiently small values of \xx \. [It is assumed that for these values of x,
[PICARD.]
y
is
\f\<M,
where
function of y.
a continuous
Then
values of
and so, if c is the smaller of a and b/M, the \, within the prescribed limits, provided that XXQ <c. Suppose now, for brevity of statement, that x>x& then
y < M\x xQ
fall
yn
and
I
#1
 .yo
find
Thus, by integration
we
and generally
yn
yn ^ \<^MA
n~l
(x
 x^ n <
(
MA n ~ cn
1
and (similarly)
^
converge uniformly to
dx
Also,
g = lim^
is
because f(x, y)
continuous as regards
yJ]
CHAPTBB
Tl;I<;<>N<>.MKTl;irAL IN
66.
IX.
VKSTH IATK
tf>
)XS.
Expressions for
and
as polynomials
in c
+ } r^cos 20 + ^cos 30 +
2
/>2
'
Bui
f/ .) = _[(
wlnn.
y _r)+^/y
<
,<'
7^)3 +...]
may
be
re
y = 2cos0; ami,
j.o\virs
t'urtlur.
r,
arr.invd in
that
of
is
tin
without alteration of
valu.. jnovided
is
()</:^.
/'
It
in
J
therefore
r\j session
the
coefficient of
1
(/y''
/ /
)"
+ 7;^T 7(
n />2
+ +<''yr*.
becan^'
"/.
"
,
i"
+2
,
...
contain no terms in
Thus
//
//I
(f/
(718).
*!
innnlxT of ttnns
1
lciiiLT
ritlur
i(//
Of
<
/'
1.
= y"
4f
2
/?
y""
2
*
+
l.s.
..
178
Similarly,
TRIGONOMETRICAL INVESTIGATIONS.
we have
rsinO
seen that
[CH. IX,
1ZrcosO+r2
= rsin#+r sin
2

sin $
7r
is
the coefficient of rn
2 3
.
~l
in the
Thus
of terms
is
either
$n
or $(n
+ l). We
note
by
differentiation.
both cosnO and sin7i$/sin$ are in of cos$, polynomials degrees n and (n 1) respectively. But
for
some purposes
it
is
0.
more useful
This
of
nO
in terms of sin
we
shall
article.
we
Before leaving the formulae above, it is worth while to notice that if write y = t + Ift, instead of 2cos0, then 1 ry + r2 = (l rt)(l r/t).
Hence
and
so,
log (1
ry + r
2 )
rn (t n
+ t~ n \
+ t~ n = y n ny n z + ...
as above.
Similai ., y ,
and
so
we
find
~r. =
n~ l
(n2
cosTifl
n 3
+ ...
as above.
67.
and
to (J^r
0)
;
then
2 "'
+... to
=
in case
(m + 1 )
terms,
is
66,67]
BINES
\\<;i,E8.
I7:
Bir
(
M.l.l aii1
2n> f
1
<
iNm<2,,,+l)0 = y
+ <:>/,<
(l)
M(2m + 1 )d
c<
asy
(2ml)y
>
+... to
(m+1)
terms.
llo\vr\.r.
tli.sr
f.
nnul;u' take a
arm
it
wording
not
sji.Mially
lnit
it
i
litlicult
rearrange
ilnill.
l.i.iically.
is
way,
in
//rt
or cos
//H,
\v
ha\
\vrit
.'
sin H.
anl w have
it'
\\.
<(
n^ilT
//
tin
fxjirisvioii
'
2m6,
966
that
/'//*
//
M
//
polynomial of degree
in \vritr
in X,
cos
tin
?>
=1+J
I.
,.''
1
* 4 4
4
A nx n
ronxtaiit t.Tin
\\.'
l.'iii;_;
h.caiisc
Il'
vul.stitutr this
expression
4.
equation,
ire
tin.l
.2.
.l..f:{.
/'+.
..+<,/
and
so
.1,
L__
r
__ZV
42 )
H
\\htn
ii!!<.
oo6ft0>l~
i
+
'
k
. t
//
Siinilarl;.
tin<l
tliat
sin
nO
.r
is
:
a polynomial
tl.
of degree
/'.
180
the
TRIGONOMETRICAL INVESTIGATIONS.
first coefficient
[CH. IX.
= 0,
dx
d
find
.
Hence, on substitution,
.
we
.
A x+5
3 3
x*
+n
Thus
giving
(nx + A 3x
+A
x5 +
+ A nxn ) = 0.
3.2.^ 3 +
l)?i = 0,
5.4.^ 5
to J(7i
?i
+ l) terms,
being
oc?<i.
To verify the algebraic identity between these results and those of Art. 66, consider the case n = Q. Then Art. 66 gives
or
cos
1.
Change from 9
cos
to (TT
0),
and we get
^
in
=l
we
or
+ 56cos 3 0 7 cos d.
0,
3
we have
6'
7(7
l
)(7
3 2 )
By
sinnO and
to A(?i
+ l) terms,
when n
is odd',
and
67,68]
BID
SINES
is
AND 008INE8 OF
Ml
I.Tll'l.i:
AVLE8.
11
3T
to JTI term.
that
when n
Til'
f
in;iy
>1. \V
iv;ulrl
co70/coB0^
an.lth.it
i(>0/co80
//T:^>in 5 ^f
\\ith
til",
,,f
An
68.
'I'd'
tone obtained in
ly
c.itain
conditions on
tin
tonn of
in
L.t
us no\v
ste
il'
these
ran
J,
. (
i,.ino\<i
any
\vuy.
.iniplr
the &

is
\\
,.
/'
ifl
au odd integer, or
It
is
ninatc.
,
is
natural
to investigate its >inn. The test (5) of Art. 12 ahewa at once that the seri .Tges X =1; and so, as we have explained in al>solut'ly when
it'
and
so,
Art.
")(),
the
series
converges
is
,i1,..,/
nt>
! >/
and
U/nifan
It
l'llnws that
j>.
continuous for
all real
values of
6,
and
as on
17!,
it
satisfies
it
?j2
# = 0form
From
this equation
is
of the
J.cos
\
6+
7>
sin
= 0.
,')(
cos
for
nO=l
**+%!^s*...to
.juiitiiMi
:
oo
any valu
This
ol)\
;m.l
since
l>e
tin
:ul)itr;uy
no other
solution
can
found
(Forsyth,
Differential
182
TRIGONOMETRICAL INVESTIGATIONS.
[CH. IX.
Similarly, we find that all the other formulae of Art. 67 are valid for any value of n, provided that x 1 and that the series are continued to infinity.
\
<
however be noticed that the third and fourth series are not convergent when x = 1 but they converge absolutely for x x ^k 1. 1, and uniformly for
It should
 \
<
<
69.
67.
We know
sin
we can
write
nO _
sin0
r
(n odd)
sin" 0,
2
sinflcos
(n even)
where the
coefficients
Now
0=Tr/n, + 27T/71,
37i>,
...
so that the righthand side (regarded as a polynomial in sin 0) must have roots
sin
=
is
sin
(TT/TI),
When n
are
.
odd, there
all different;
~
sm0=+sin,
,
TT
m.
27T
,...
But
if
is
.
(?i
2) different roots,
namely
^ sm0=sm,
TT
2?r
,...,
=
=
sin 2
sinVV
sin 2 0\/
sin 2 2a/
'" [
X^
sin 2
(n even)
sin 710
~n/
sin 2
2
sinVV
sin 2a/
"' [
68, 69]
It
SINKS
\\,
<>siNi:>
.r
\I
I.TITI.
\ve
explicit
I'TIM*
<'>7,
we can
^T
6
In
a
Ja
+
_
8ini(n2)a'
tin
8m.
imilar
way w pn.v
identities
,,v
cos nfl
^y
4n<
where
= /. 1
l
sin
0\/ ~ sin 2 \
1
f
I
ii.'
I
"si,^A
.
",iii(n^in 2
f^
...
sm/3/\
an*3/8/
<"/'/
l^o7 sm(/'L
/8
P = w/2n and
multiples of
7,
appear.
fonn>

we
see that
^
Again,
if
=
iI^8
^3^ +
ri
+
sinV2))8'
'
f
;
+
8in"(l)^
Art.
()(i,
I'mmuKu of
it
is
that (cos 710 c.s ,,\ may x]>r^sed as a polynomial of degree ;/ in cos^, tin term of hi^hrst tindegree bein^i \ cos iv if zero (cos ?i0
!
,,
2//\, 47T/'\,....
in
tin<lit}r.'iit
factors of
the polynomial
(jurstion
will
be
of theXprefisiODfl
v
,.,
form
H_,.,, S
i
(\2a), C080
f<>r
cos(X4a
1>
.....
wli.rr
It
as befon.
s..n
u^.l
is
.asily
takn as
ooe(X+2a
because ooe (X 2 H.ii,. \v, ha\ the
cos/If
>.<'
''
cosOcos(\f 2,
(A+2(n
i'l.ntity
nl
.:
r=0
\\r
\\iitf
x(X+2
in
this
2
'.
184
or,
TRIGONOMETRICAL INVESTIGATIONS.
with a change of notation,
sin
[CH. IX
nO=
2^11
ro
,
sin (0
+ TV*).
But the sign must be a, all the factors; because, if are positive, and it is easily seen that both sides change sign together (as passes through any multiple of a).
70.
< <
We
as an infinite product. Expression of sin have seen in the last article that, if n is an odd integer,
sin
71
\
/
where
a = 7r/n.
Thus
if
we
write
= 6 we n<j)
have
T<7
r=l
To
this equation
we apply
we
have, in fact,*
sin 2 (0/7i) sin 2 (r7r/7i)
^4r
2
_02_
2
'
because rTr/n
is
less
than
series
JTT.
00
Now
2
r=l
^0
/4<r
is
convergent; consequently
r hm
'
.
= r hm
=
,
sin
Consequently,
The
special value
^O = %TT
II (I
Theorem t
7T
TT
224466
sin
We
see,
from
to ^ TT
thus
1
2/Tr,
if
if
Consequently,
<x< < i n.
Also sin0/n< 0/w, for any value of 6; and so the inequality follows.
THE SINE
thl'"nnula
PRO]
i'.r
I'.y
combining
;
MM
fJ
witb
the results of
Art.
ee that
''""'
,
:,.ijis
\v..itli
\\hile
to
ifffr
Kinfly to
an
>ii\
in
ompl.tf
M
]
i
given in Bonn
for
'
0=nr,
*0
1,
it
is
ur^d that
fj
m
thi
the
i\v
s.r
v
th
'
number,
so that
* /
/M \
{jossibly
11
(l^rJ may
pi>
//
we
separate
iian
l^j
nL
r
i

more
is (say f>
is
ry
q negative factors),
41,
^
\\
the
th.
pr..(bi,t
~i
fsee L
Art.
an.l
0^=.]
j.i.M.f
i
A sat
_u">"il
i. it
some knowledge
M<>il.y
>
of fin.
pp'iif
is
Lri\i!
I
by Haiku. and
..ut
1^).
when
.>)
tin
J/t<.t
'f
jipplyinj;
the thiMiem of
h>kl ^ood.
An
additional
his risk
may be m
it
I
= sin</>,
ti.
'/'f1)
1
t:
t<
A(/<l),
but
in
'r
h'
pa
and
if
SL^a
:.
\\
sin^^y
\v
appeal to get
nsiilt
'
..btaimd
before.
is
<
x
'_,
that
thf i!if<uality
;
__"
i.
<
n,,
lon^.r
ible t"
true,
since
nr/n
may
be greater than A
and
it
in fact,
imp.
<>nstnHt a n divergent
oomp
71.
cotfl.
in I'xjT.^ing
thi'
cosO as an
plodlK't,
tb<'
lillis
nl'
p!fCC(li]i_
\\'r
hive
in
fed
Art.
cos
*= "ill. .T
i^ "'/'/.
wb.
ami
186
TRIGONOMETRICAL INVESTIGATIONS
is
[CH. IX.
is
20 2 /r2 and
,
the result
0=
S1 "
/~S~?
in that product
and
To express
cot$,
we know
n~
i
.
that
0^ sm = n sin II r, 1 n r=
i
1_
\\, sm 2 (r7r/^)J'
.
sin 2 (0/7i)]
.,,
,
(n being odd)
and
so
if
we take

we have
the identity
1 4.0 =cot
^ V
1}
2
.
n smo, r7rn /
2
sin(0/n)cos6n
.
si
assuming that
is
not a multiple of
TT.
this identity we apply the theorem of Art. 49, first step is to obtain a r comparisonseries
To
and our
^M
Now
.also
provided that r
< \n
2
sin (0/7i)
<
/7i
Thus,
sin 2 (r7r/%)
(4r
)/
>
and consequently
if
Since 6 is fixed, there may be a fixed number of terms (i.e. a number independent of n) at the beginning of the expression for cot 6 for which the last inequality is not valid. But for
the rest of the terms
we can
which
is
To
these terms
for
the fixed
number
of terms preceding
them no
special test is
necessary.*
*No test of this character is requisite for any fixed number of terms; the object of Art. 49 is to enable us to handle a sum the numher of whose terms tends to oo with n.
71]
in:
<'T\v.i:vr SEB1
"
'
187
'
li,,,
ocri
I!,,
'/tan J)J n/ 9 n\
i
.
8in(0/7i)co8(0/n)
e
*
sinVir/n)8m*(0/
1
'I'
0i
This ivsult can also
>in(>.
l.e
derived
at
product for
the operation.
way th
identitir (p.
1*3),
^IJ'S"^^^
and
.11
Cod
(r
dd> n
w*
I'.',
the
two
s<:
a~TrV
or
r
f
l_y_l_
2~7'
'
4.
and
uis tlinc
i
f+:
is
>..=
the second of thc
fr'iii tlu
no
dilliciilty in dlucin.i;
use
+ ... =
(
j
p+
J)(i'
th.
4*
l.v
traiisf.,nnati.ns
being
ju<tili.il
Ait.
i'h.
IV.)
r];il,oat<,,r
1'urtluT
dflails
of
(altliouMh
greal
interest)
w.ull
ch.
ati.ll.
<
\\'.
content
('liry.stal's
oursi'lvi'S
2.
with making
in
to
Algebra,
ol'
vol.
XXX..
which
ident;
will
l.c
i'ouml
lar^c minihcr
us.l'ul
and interesting
188
TRIGONOMETEICAL INVESTIGATIONS.
[CH,
EXAMPLES.
1.
From
sin(mO)=msin 9
obtain a powerseries for (arc sin xf
ai
:
sin 3
+ ...
to
oo
namely
o2 /
==
6T
2.
'
2^\l
2.4. 6
From
I
n9
given at the
end
cosec 2 6 + cosec 2 (0 + a) +
If
. . .
+ cosec 2
+ (n  1) a = n 2 cosec 2 nO.
}
is
2
l
4.
If
is
'^cosec^nr/Ti) = J(%
 1).
If
If
n = abc...k, where
to
extended only
a, 6, c, ..., & are primes, shew that the above sum, values of r which are prime to n, is equal to
(a l)(6 l)(c
5.
l)...(Fl).
Shew
#2 + if =
2 sin
by
AV7 = 2sin(^r),
l) To distinguish between the two
7(3/
2sin(f7r),
(fir).
70.
Then we get
that 2 sin (f TT),
0.]
/=
or
^=^7(^1).
lies
1,
while 2sinf;r
between 1 and
Shew
are
2cos(y7r),
2cos(f?r),
(fir).
f  bf + 6y y=x+Z
if
= 0.
The
substitution
7.
Shew
that,
\x\ <
and deduce
that, if
y=2
cos 20,
IX.]
.in
iMl'LKS.
the series
;i
,'
all
terra* for
\vhih
is
multiplr
.f
fn.iii
tin
series
Shew
that
if
0<*<*,
the greatest
int.
_'
r
IN
tl
to
').
9.
RISKS.
Sum
the series
i(
)+^( Kin
'
!si
[~'l!u
MUD
is
tin
smalKi
>f
anl
~'^
if
<>__.,<
7T.J
in
it
"'( + /',)(/Mtl
II. li..
,
sin
'~sin(/>J 7r)8in(^7r)...8in(
It'
S62a^
>h\v that,
tin
;iornt
iinj.lirs
that
:
.
= li m
II
/,,
/'.
:lur, if
lim(// r)
= /\
\\ hav.
wh.r.
i>
rxcliuled
and KM
n. ,.,..
hl ,t
_x
C
**
~i
J
8 " iL =1 
8 fi?^
[K
fa
I
,
'
Why
12.
l.r
Sh.w that
(l.r)(l
tin
fr)...
in
j.air
= co8(MX. Jl.
(
terms
ami
1
aj]>l\
'h.
VI.. ..Staining
r()
4.1
\viit.'
OU<
tin
i>r..lmt
f.rm
(
.r)}
l
:
sin(7r).]
13.
Prove that
_r
n fi L
** 1= (nTT+jr^J
[Ki
190
14.
TRIGONOMETRICAL INVESTIGATIONS.
Determine the limit
of the product
[CH,
where
15.
/x,
tend to
oo
in such a
way
that
Km (/x/v) = k.
sin
Shew
directly
sin (x
= cos x, TT)
cos (x + ^TT) =
of the sine
Deduce the
infinite
ran (&)*=* 2#
oos(2f)c&
by means
17.
powers of
.
sin
(Art. 68).
Shew
that
sin (TTX)
" irx II _ QQ
F/  #\  )e*/ n H 1
( L\
%/
= + 2' =2
n an

7T
cot
(TTJ?)
cosec 2 (7r^) =
oo
2
co
j
(.1?
W)
ri 3
cosec ^^)  ? o
(TT^)"] _l
=2
oo^^'
^.4y
is
[EULER.]
excluded,
In the
18.
first
example that
n=V X
7
(a?
ll
lim
I/>ao
and
where
19.
v _^o
limf 2 2 L m= _v =  ^
summation
 m)(x  n),1=^ J
,
in the double
all
values
m = n are
excluded.
Shew
that
and
sec ^
[EULER.]
[We
 cot #.
first)
The second series can be derived from the series (equivalent to the
by writing x+\ir
for
differently.]
i\.
I
iMFLES
Shew
that
20.
I
Deduce the value
of
lfc+A+A+.~
l)'
tin
n=0
21.
Miiimiation.
[J/.
1896.]
?("
22.
If
the general
in
tlic
term
<
form
1\1=0,
tli. 11
B
\\li.ic
2"
1.1'>t(</7r),
,i
all
the ntunbers
a are supposed
sci
ditl.rni
from
xero.
23.
0
[\ H< L
24.
being 57i2
iv\
'hided.
1\
6^^57?00
"m/+
2
i
.
.
Find
tlu
vain
w ;tnd dfttnniiif 5,
A
I)
3
1A_
(271)3
C so
that
(i'/'
may be
if
quadratic
i:
25.
We
V!..
=
J{L
=
if^>A.
l.v
Now
^l=

Ait. 71,
We
lind
^ = ^(^9), ^
^fcW+fcW^S
CHAPTER
X.
72
The algebra
We
If
x = g\irj, x + x' =
x
x'
x'
= g' +
irj',
then
+' +
i(>i
*)'),
(addition)
(subtraction)
xx
(multiplication)
En
'ti
laws include those of real numbers and that these four operations can be carried out without exception (excluding division by zero). Further, these laws are consistent with the relations with which we
It is easily seen that these
;
as a special case
= (xy)z.
Thus any of the ordinary algebraic identities, which are established in the first instance for real numbers, are still true if the letters are supposed to represent complex numbers.
It
is
natural to ask whether other assumptions might not be made Thus the analogy for addition might
##' = {f' + i7;i/'.
But
this
is
inconsistent
with
tin
relation
x+x = 2x,
since #' = 2
would
then give
2.r=2
+ i(0) = 2f,
t'
whereas
x+ x= + +
[72, 73
H.sXUIIIpl
MI
Mill
tin
tive
laws an
to fix the
Uw of ranlttp
by
It
iuulti>li<Hti'.ii,
tliil'
a8iii:
rail
'
MIlllllMT*.
(t*
r.l.
be shewn
II..
\>\>.
*\2) that
we
jitjons
mad*
ilse
we
are forced
'he produ\\
ithout
tit
htr
./,
73.
Argand s diagram.
is
Tin reader
tati"ii d' tin
douhti*
I'amiliar
;nt
wit):
(^,
O
r.ut
it
f
19.
may
!>
innviniiit
t<
inv.
lni.t'
^uinmary of
can
writ.
th.
tod
If
we intnxlucf polar
./
coordin.,
/((.< J
i
\v./'
^f
si:
<>l'
\\.
shall call r
>/
33
(it
is
someshall
mo
\x\.
'I'his.
.
</*w of a*):
i
and wo
denote
it
l,y tli.
symbol
n^,,!
./.
(juitc ccn^i^tcnt
+./
or
H the
wrgwneni
it
is
snm times
:
called
the
From
tlu
:.
ident.
194
If
[CH. X.
then B,
OA
x +x
= x'+ x
is
represented
parallel to
A'B
is
equal and
OA
or
\
(Euclid
I.
33).
Since
OB<OA + AB
the relation

OB < OA + OA,
x

\
we have
and
x +x' x
x'
similarly,
< <
or
x
 \
+ +
x'
1
,
x'
1
\
Again, supposing
OA < OA,
# 4^
r

we have
OB + AB>OA
Thus,
OB>OAOA'.
x

>
x'
\ \
and so
also

x'
^>\x
x'
It is easy to
2x
1 \
<E
/2
x

.
\
first
inequality
R = \x + af\,
J
so that IP = (f +
/
f ) + (^ + T?') 2
2
Then we have
Hence
and
this
is
certainly positive
if
^' + t]tj'
is
zero
or negative.
But
if
s positive,
we have
so that
if
Thus
or
in all cases
and + >;>/> r represented geometrically by supposing that 0^1' falls along OA.
of equality can only appear
if
>?''?7
'
If
we
x = r (cos
the product
is
+ i sin 0),
x'
found to be
+ sin
cos 0')
= rr
73, 74]
Dl KOIVBE'S THEOREM,
tlio
195
Thus
absolute valu of
/'
N
i.
/T';
or
II*M*'
and
tli
ai'innmnt
of
././'
is
O + tf,
tli
sum
f)
of
the arguments
/
In pariicular,
to
if
/'=!,
tin
product ,/<>>
4
in H
is
equal
r[oo
h* sin (0+0')],
o
It
is
if
=cas0 + isin 0,
/ l
1
\^
pial
t<>
20+ % six
ami so
on, as indicat.d
in
hisin30;
th
to
cos(0)+z sin(0);
22.
if
i^
any
\vli<.l.
nuinl>T. ]M>siti\)"
<
r n. Dative. \\v
have
(cos 6
+
.
''
si
= T = cos
///
>?0
sin
/?
0.
To
intrrj.r.t
\vh.iv
and
(f
//
arm
f
wliol,still
nun
true.
indi<.>
")"
is
Qenoe
if
./<^''sin</>),
wr
p (cos ??<+/
I.
sin
,><;>
thus,
and ty
//<t)42/"7r.
whciv
'rh;i
/',
is
any whole
cos

nunil>.T.
j(m0+2fcr)l
+ifflu
[^(m0+l
l.y
thus
I.
has
/,
litlrnnt
/
Th'
casr
()
taking fc0,
I.
196
[CH. X.
number
of
Morley, some
to the
1.
which
of elegant geometrical applications have been given by will be found in Harkness and Morley's Introduction
II.
We
The
and
x', y',
z'
x', y',
z'
1,
1,
1
1
If the triangles x, y, z and x', y', z are directly similar, any three points dividing xx', yy', zz in the same ratio form a third similar triangle.
2.
3.
The conditions
=
a,
1, 1,
and
i
zx\yw,
7
1
.
1,1
y
x, y, z
(where
a, ft,
y are
real
Sn = X n +iYnt we say that the sequence (Sn ) converges, when both (Xn ) and (Fn ) are convergent; and if Xn *X, and Fn HF, we write Sn *X + iY. The necessary and sufficient test for the convergence of the
If
sequence (Sn )
e,
is that,
however
small,
we can
#nm<e,
To prove
so that
this statement,
if
>m.
we observe
that
Xm
and
\,
\.
Now,
find
(Sn ) converges,
we can
to satisfy
and consequently
so that the condition
is
Sn  S,n
<
e,
if
>m
necessary.
On
when
we have
also
Xn Xm \<,
;
if
n>m,
sufficient.
and therefore the sequences (Xn ), ( F,,) are convergent. Thus (S) converges and therefore the condition is
application of this principle we consider the interpretai sin 6 and a is irrational. note tion of t* where t = cos
As an
We
as a preliminary that

(cos
$ + i sin
$)
(cos
tjs
4 i sin
\js)
=2
sin
(0
74,
75
<
i:
OF
<
OMPL1
numl.i^ which
lias
can lind
in
so
.
,,,<e/tf
'I'llUS
11
>m.

{cos(an 0)f
>
//<
9)jisini
1
<on;
gent
IN
thT
rfiii.nilMi.l
'iiral
to delin.<///
/"
as lini/'
but
of course to be
that
*)
tin
limits*
limlcosajtf +
l.'
+ :>/,)]
(/.'=+!,
2,
/
3,
a
.
to
Thus equally well In regarded a> incIulMl in tin symbol tak.n I th.m.anincr must be be attach. care to to ^{..cit'y special
may
it
i>
>utlici'iit
h;it
which
\vlnii
t)
tin
valur ^i\'n
l>y
"n
iti n
w' bave
....
+
.,
Th. u
il'
fj
f
to
* and
s,
t
//
/y 2
4
...
to
are separately
nt
tn tin
sums
+ '/.,+
Z// (1
to oo
OOIH
tli
sum
N(/V.
"/
we say
that
It
^L"
is
<li\
t
o^illates).
easy
and
tin
l'>n^i.in_
COSfflOI] l'r
BtMjurncrs that
inn
e,
\vt
ji.mdin^
tin nal
no mattci lm\v
In
like
i^r.at
j>
may
be.
th.
manner
]>r<><i
\\v
..Main
<lrtiniti.>n
.
.!'
n\
<
rgence of
an
\\e
infinite
n...l
l,
in
in
*
Art.
77.
All
:ui
iitt<
makes la equal to
t
;h
198
76.
[CH. X.
Absolute convergence of a series of complex terms. a n = gn \iri n and if 2a n is convergent, we shall say that 2an is absolutely convergent. It is evident in this case, from Art. 18, that the separate series 2 n 2^ are both absolutely
If

convergent, because
fi.^
It follows therefore that

and Ifcl^KI.
is
2an
definition (Art. 75); and by Art. 26 the sums 2 n 2^/ n are independent of the order of the terms. Hence also, the sum of
an
arrangement.
It
is
2a n from
Let
= a + a 2 +. ovHail +
sn
1
in Argand's diagram, as
below
O
By
definition
ff,
0*
ff
a <7f
O
FIG. 23.
we have
Os 1 = 0(T li
S 1 S2
= <T (T2
1
S2S3
= 02 03,
etc
Thus
But we have
where
<r
*n*p
<r H <rp
= =
0"n<7>
o no,
by elementary geometry.
if
p>n,
.

represents the sum 2 an = lima w Now, by the definition of convergence, we can choose n to correspond to so that <r Mor = cr<r w <e.
,
**,<,
or, geometrically, all the points 8P
if
p>n
centre is s n
Since
can
!<
within a circle of radiiis irJnw taken as small as we please, the last result
lie
,
must
shews
tintin
ptints
*,,
s.unc
it.
limiting
\\hili
may
In
<>
ciivlc
riivlis
(li;r_iT;un
indicates the
ffiii
>f
with centres
lias
2,
3,
..,.
An
altirnaiivr
diagram
\.,1.
:.,
been proposed by G. H.
A.*ndU nf Mathematics
(2),
76.77
It
AlisoLI
ni'
II.
(X)NVJD
199
is
CMIUS,
obviMiis nMiu
alisMluh
of ival
hut
series whirl
although
M<
*+.
For both
s.ries
ival
of absolute values
which
div.rjres
by
Art.
<
K\. >)
I\'.
W
l.y
Ait.
11.
M!'
that
the
sum
a nonabsolut.ly
oonvergeni series
77.
may
altrr.d
derangement.
factors.
Thr
at
11(1 f"
i
"ail
i
th.
j.rMluct
11(1+
oncf

that
'v
convergent,
so
so
also
is
lid
t\\M
F.r
\\.
know
have
that
by
Art. 39
th..
piMlucts
Jl(l4a n )
still
<
Hut
\\v
to
and
piMiiu.ts)
wmpU
^
am
if
deck
tonv*
\\\
</,<!. we have
"
1and SO
m+p
II
^11 + a.l
i
'
(lII(lf a
>
II
IRfl
(1+rO
it
since
that
converges,
follows
1
:
and thnvfoiv
thus we can tind
//>.
No
1( I
from Art. 39 a n \)

gent
s. that
H
\
<
"
>>le
be.
i
and
"ll'\l
",
)<l+e,
m+l
ei Mnall
may
11.
MII tind
11
,,41
hat
L+a
>
<
1+6,
/'
mall
may
le.
may
be.
200
[CH. X.
That
II(lfan )
satisfies
vergence; and so the product is convergent. It is easy to modify the proof of Art. 41 to shew that if *an is absolutely convergent the value o/II(lHan ) is unaltered
plex series.*
of chap. II. can be applied at once but since to the series of positive terms 2 a n
1 \
)..
if
On = fn + ^n,
Of course the
evident that the square root complicates some of the tests. tests of Art. 9 can be at once changed to
lim
(7n
2
2
,\a n
.
<
oo,
(convergence)
(divergence);
rule,
limDn
an
2

>0,
be applied to
n+l
by no means sufficient to ensure the convergence of 2 an ; because whenever lim Dn oo (which is usually the case), the above condition does not exclude the possibility
is
1 \
n+l
series.
Dn = n
(n>2),
we have
because
Thus,
but yet
*
2a
diverges.
[See Art. 11
(2).]
Archivfiir Math.
u.
Phys.
(3),
Bd.
4,
1902, pp.
119.
77,78,79]
It
TESTS FOB
LB8OL1
can be
therefor*
li.ul />
ii/
tin
conditions
,.ee)
\\ni\D
\\\i\
uliMantially <<juival.nt
if
t<i
tin
conditions
lind
/i
..l'
Art.
"2.
the
first
condition
is
s;it
:nid
/"
*!;!'
"
.
i
%
/;
"
"'
s;
it
Now
limit to
is
possible to assign an
2s
th.u
l) n
J?S
//
and so the
;(!.
But
if
the
sfc..n<l
...nditinn
hld>. we
C0
tind
si.
that
if
that
tli
lirt
fa'l.r
must
nrm iv.
79.
It
Applications.
i^
easy
/'
)
t<>
UMii^l'orii!
\2
riiii^ii.iin'.s
rnnlitinns ly writing
tind
/'
/(
in Ail.
'
(3),
and
th.n
\vc
lim/v,,>
win re
only
fash point
to
notice
i
that
p.
in
*'
>!'
jr*
\irtur
o.
L'l I 
j.ital's
nili.
(Art.
l.">2):
no\v
w
that
and
/<
us take
In particular, In
n,
ailiuitx slightly
(8)/(n)nlog
itions.
m.n
202
[CH. X.
We
few
transformations,
the
following
conditions:*
(1)
lim
[
'n+l
(2)
lim
an
7i
2,
2,
(convergence)
(divergence).
> 2, ' 2,
(3)
''n+i
(convergence)
(divergence).
The most interesting case in practice (5) of Art. 12, where we can write
(4)
^n+l
is
one corresponding to
'""
(I
w
in
(4),
^=a
(5)
n+l
from (2) we see that the series 2a n converges if and diverges if a in case a = l, we apply (3), and 1 find divergence. Thus we have the rule:t
and
so
.
>1
<
When
a.
n
real part
the series
than
1,
of
jm
is
greater
On
holds,
2an 03 M when
(4)
some further results. An shews that the series converges if absolutely os<l, diverges if \x >1; and we have just examined the case when \x =1 and a> 1, proving that then 2an # w is absolutely convergent. But we do not know yet whether the series may converge
(although not absolutely) even when a^l. will increase with n, negative, the sequence \a n ut least after a certain sta^v, in virtue of (o) above; and
for
fl5
we
=l
is
If
*The
inequalities
HmP>l, HtnP<l.
185.
p.
79]
consequent
termfl
i
nee
of
2(t n x*
/<
is
impassible,
sin,,
th.
M
if
ineivases.
Kurth.r.
0,
it
i
OftSJ
bo
see (by an
a
argument ^imilar
1
to
linite
limit,
BO
that
On
or.
\\'e
if
0>0,
it
follows lY"m
;
Kx.
:;.
Ar
that a n
to /..TO as a
limit
so that convergence
may
and
< a =1,
h
In the
vali;
place
ii
is
evident
rt n

that
(at
least
//
after a ceitain
jiience
decreases as
istfl
imnases:
the
finally
.f
uly.
(5),
and
it
is
obviously convergent
J0n_
I'.
Kurth.r.
we bave, from
qa,.
(<
n
i
1_I^ +
"A
J
^n
*n+l
!/lk +
/'a. n+l
^IkH,
Thus
I
and
it
follows, as
in
Art.
IN.
that
the series 2
a w+1
is

convergent
v,
\\v
have identically.
ami
ami eone.juently,
00
if
a?=
ami X
'
\^
litlennt
t'n
m
1.
the
fl
1
o
"
= 0.
This result
\\'e
may aU
(
.leri\e.l
t'rm
<
it.
Lilt
the
proof
is
little
tedious,
ami we simply
limit
li
i
to
r
unless
= 0;
:lty
should
in
proving
tlr.~
204
[CH. X.
refer to Pringsheim for the details.* Of course we have already proved that the series diverges in the corresponding case when
an
is
The
Tf
_^n_
aH+1
= l_l_/
^_ VS*
.
>!) (\\<A)
(
absolutely for x cannot converge for as 1. a + i^, there are three cases: If \x\ = \ and


>
<
1,
and
fji
(i)
(ii)
when
>
1,
when when
As
0<a =
except for x =
(iii)
(Weierstrass, Lc.)
Ex.
a special example
hypergeometric series
(Art. 12), in
which
an a n+l
so that
u
see that, for
Then we
(i) if
x

\
=1
(yafi)
;
is
positive,
the hypergeometric
if
between 
and
0,
(iii) if
is
or less than
 1, the
and
21.
Further tests for convergence. will find no difficulty of Art. 18 to establish the theorem:
80.
The reader
// 2a n

in
(1)
2anvn provided
,
that

number
k.
L.c. pp.
1317; the proof shews that (except for /&=!, when the series is the same as that of
is
1A*
"I"
And
the
(1AQ(2/Q 1.2
(1 M )(2/0(8AO
1.2.3
is
sum
of
?i
L^\
1.2. 3. ,.(7il)
2
?i,
)'"\
L + (i
Lz/A nl)
It can easily be seen that the absolute value of this expression tends to oo with and that its argument has no definite limit.
79, 80]
IBEL'8 TES1
is,
<>i;
<
It
ho\\,
that
in
Ai
'.ill
*
need a
\\
little
alt trat
ion
ti,
to include cases
which
i
complex.
shall
prove
9,
/////
nsider the
Writfor
i.re\
;
modilied form of
note
Ahel'fl
I.ii.
the
1
um
to
of
tl
vn
vn+l
f
t' n
+j
i',j+ 2
f
>at
V 
l'n+i.
\Vc
1,
;
i
>+...+([T;
it'
v
SO thai
Vw+1
is
1
<
:,
/'
//
>
//<.
Til) tli'
series ('..
2vn
SO that
And
>}...4('\
'
'
,)='','
:
lias
<lctiiiit'
limit
//
;/
MS
RQC
.
and
ht
n
\vrit.
G:n.
\v
=Hmt; n
'
.
iiat
if
we take
ine.jiialit
[.[
.
\v tind
Q
Thus,
if
\' \^ we write }' = (!+!' It i aNo obi lOOfl that the se.jUriir, injual to Beqne&Oe, and that !' I'
al\\
i
than
.
I'
'..+i
:>:>.
if
"j' !f
''.,)+
".,''.,+
^
+",''
that
Zn
Thus,
=
if
l(>\
)+...+
than the upper limit of
^
,
S,VW
*t
,
// is not
Ie86
...
w,
we
v
tind
ITRFjF^f
is
which
the form of
if
//
A.bel'fl
//r
:
term.
Similarly,
1
is
tin
ti
/,/
1,
ami
i/
than
.
tin
from
:iul
i_
,;( I",
r,,,)f
>/
206
If
[CH. X.
G = \imv n
(#)
,
and
Vn = vn
is real, positive and decreasing, we find that so that these inequalities are almost the same as
Now
It
is
apply the
Lemma
to the
sum
in
is
less,
Now
m
e
however small
. . .
a m+l v m+1 +
+ a m+p vm+p
2a Bv n
series
is
may
for
a function of #, Abel's test also enables us to ensure the uniform convergence of 2a M v n at all points x within an area for which 1^1 and C/i remain less than a fixed value. For
If vn is
F = +*7
1
arid
0<
vj
tfi.
Similarly,
(3)
we can
vn
0, then Ztt n t> n will Vn+i\ converges and limi> n limits. between oscillates 2a n finite converge if In fact is here zero, and (just as in Art. 20) we can find
If 2
a constant
(independent of
m+l
m)
so that
H'
< 2.
of
Thus
less
than
by proper choice
because
in Art. 79. special case of this test has been already used
Uniform convergence. After what has been explained in Art. 43, there will be nouniform convergence for difficulty in appreciating the idea of a series 2/n (se), when x is complex the only essential point of
81.
;
novelty being that the region of uniform convergence now = +irj) q) plane (if x usually consists of an area in the ( It is also instead of an interval (or segment) of the real axis.
sometimes convenient to use the idea of uniform, convergence along a line, which should present no fresh difficulty to the
reader.
80,81]
Weierstrass's
\inl;M
<
ONI
l.i
'
ret;i
almost
unaltered,
f+o
)
irifliin
t/nif
>'
oerttwn
wren
.1,
'/"
/,,
is
//
/</"/"
/'///
when
M
.1.
<><'/"
Constant,
''.^nltitiln
///'/
ift)
^.M
'
co
i*
a/nd uniformly
com
plex
are <>htained at
of Art.
4~>
Once from
tin
last
art;
iiioliti.d
n'ithlii
tin
to sh.\v that
f}
,'
IWU8 fnixt'"!'
I
"/
fluif
./
9epa/ra&
><ma
contfawHU
Tli.
vn
f/
lis<MiwiiiM
<.f
(liU'.ivntiatiun
and
tn tin
\arial)l<is
lnt
it
ini'iital
not
out
<>i'
imutiou
tliat
remain
It
unchanged.
Art.
1^
i
is
evident a No that
variahle.
i
till
correct,
when X N
c<.mj.le\ Tliere
lit
no ditliculty
valid,
in
remain
wlien
to
It
is
often important
rasped to a real variahle: in particular it i usrful to consider the mean value of a continuous function /(./) along a circle .r = p,
which
is
where
of a definite
'
.
' ,
The existence
fr'in
mean value
i
inferred at
:
and
the o.ntinuity of /( JUM afl in Art. lti"> of the Appendix the following condu>i n^ are immediate consequences of
:
the definition
i
\\r i<>
ti.
if
.iitant,
.1.
(iii
<
'+
.
if
f(
(>.
<J
/
on the
eircle.
/.ero),
(iiii
\Vi'
if
i.
an int.vr (not
because
'
sin /HI
and
!
Jo
00,
=(.
208
[CH. X.
Further, from Art. (45 2), we deduce that if converges uniformly on the circle \x\ = p, then
We can define the mean value without using the Integral Calculus, by supposing the circumference divided into v equal parts at #t #2 ...av, and writing
, ,
Cauchy's inequalities
82. Circle of
This method leads to the same results as those just proved and thus can be established without the Calculus. (p. 209)
;
n convergence of a powerseries ^a nx
From
vergent
Art. 10
if
it is
is
absolutely con
ni
I
.xi
and the
series certainly
cannot converge
if
because then a nx n cannot tend to zero as a limit. Hence, if we write (as in Art. 50)
(where, of course,
verges absolutely
is
real
if
<
>
To interpret this geometrically, let a circle of radius \jl be drawn in Argand's diagram then the series is absolutely con;
vergent at
circle,
Fio. 24.
convergence
any point outside the circle. The circle is called the and it will be seen that, if a n is real, the
;
circle
of
interval
circle.
is
a diameter of the
81, 82
<
U;i
.
Of
<
MI
<!!<
'h
in
wh
we can
[nation b
in
\\VI.TM
raae'e
mlthat
diacu
tin
Art. 7!.
It
nniM
OO
nut.
li
npjx.s.il
ilitifs
B
three
tli.
circle;
in<l<c<.
I'rui^h'iin*

has
circle.
<
*in
n hidi convei
<>n
th.
l.ut
not ahsolutcly.
Tinan.
I
ice,

\\
hen  "
rgent
the ciro\
i.
jx ti H
,//,,,/,'
\
of
th. cirrlinoiii
x =1
.17
i.l.nt
th.
6 c;in
at
.IVS,MI
"//
h
only
;i\
ti
iinii'onnly within
and
any
cirri.
=/,,
\vhn'int
between
iiinr.
<
ami
Art.
I.
\\V hall,
in
lit
1.
difficulty in
of
Art
h<
>!'
for
cninplcx
><
>\Vfrseries,
Mnall
\.ilal
;iltrati(inx
h.in^
made.

uniformly
crm.
<>n
every
ciivlr
,,,
!'..i
which'
j>
<
/.
we ran
t
ivnlily ohtain
>yt
its
meanvalue
de hy
.
intc'iatiiiL:
.ijn1
if
\^
\,
,
60
tli.i!
kl = /.i/0
tto2 /" '/x >;ihi
nf
//..
Similarlv.
wis
lind
8[/<
Thus,
if
.!/
u.;
nn the
circle
./
=/>.
we
lia\.
<
.ii.l
.V.
"
<M
ergence,
\!l
belongs
t<>
we may
of
>
La
210
[CH. X.
03
1
1
= p, we
find
w^'
a/
Similarly,
we
find
shall now consider the question Can a powerseries be determined so as to have given values along a definite circle, say \x\\ 1 Let us write the coefficients a n in the form a n + ifi n where a n /3 H are real;
:
We
then write 2o n # n =/1 (#), ^iftn xn =f2 (x\ so that f(x) = 2an xn =fl (x)+f2 (x). Now suppose that when x = coa0 + i sin 6, we have f^x) = u l \ iv lt f2(x) =u2 + iv2 = u + w where u lt v^ etc., are all functions of 6 such that U = U I + H.,, a,TLdf(x)
t
v = v l + v2
if c<l, we find as above (assuming the uniform conn = vergence of 2a n # on the circle #j l)
.
Then,
and
this will
c
change u l + iv 1 to
u^
iv^
= ^1
27T/0
(u l
w CX de.
) l/ 1
If
we
/i(c),
we
obtain
/ ( C)=J^ STT^'O
t
Similarly,
by addition we get
/2 (c)
in
terms of
.*
w.2 ,
v2
the
1
changed to .', u 2 + iv 2 becomes u 2 + iv 2 This, however, does not alter the final formulae /v.sand so by addition we see that these formulae remain true when the x are omitted throughout. Thus /(c) is completely determined (save for a constant) by a knowledge of either u or v. But, given an arbitrary continuous function for u (or v\ we do not yet know that it is actually possible to determine /(c) so that its real (or imaginary) part does assume the given values on the circle; this problem will be discussed in Art. 83.
is
;
/////'.
83. Abel's
theorem and
allied theorems.
Sa,,o;" ant
I
=1
is
2a
rt
is
known
to converge, altli<>uli
absolutely.
82,831
It'
ABKl.s
in
THEOREM
tind that
'/

'2\\
we take vn = j n
hat
An
= limv n = 0, and
Thus,
sine.in
'it,
unit'nniily
any an
for
which we
I'
wh.
MlM),
1,
and of course
be NM
\x\<
'I',
(See &beJ
ted OB
p.
observe thai
it
may
i
p<\d/>
where
1
or
(Xp)^g>
(see
(
./
=

/* (CMS 0f
Thus
__)\ /J
__
/
32>X
n
In
this minlitinn.
.;,
i)/,
li.s
2(X
(l2/,'( s,/>h f
oo8^t
between
,;>X),
~,
l)p8
Bfl
(^7T<0<i
(witli
tinr.
innrr
.u'hly
arc
in
of
;i
liuiunni
'2~>
n>(l
at
/>
ti^un
I'm
tin
case X
i.
It
is
nt'
tintin
lima;.m
lai
ajpn);ii'lu'v
thr
nearly
1,
taken.
1
Thus
//>/,
/A
Il'any rc^ulai curvc i> drawn fmin a point inside the circle 1, then, provided the curve ruts the circle at a tc tlie ]>'im
./
/'unbioncnthtori
i
use a
wliiih
in
our
n<>i.itii>n
212
finite angle,
[CH. X.
curve
curve.
that
a lima^on to enclose the whole of the the series will converge uniformly along the
,
Hence lim 2a n xn = 2a n where x approaches 1 along any regular curve which cuts the circle at a finite angle*
This
is
The theorems
so
the extension of Abel's theorem to complex variables. in Art. 51 relating to the divergence of 2an
cannot be extended so as to hold for complex variables quite easily, because the lemma of Art. 80 gives less precise
and it is necessary to assume that the possesses some further property in addition to the divergence of 2aw For as a matter of fact, even if an is real and positive, Pringsheim has shewn that the
information than the
of Art. 23,
.
lemma n series 2a nx
divergence of
2an
lim

2anxn = oo

is
that of
uniform
where an
and the point x lies within the limacon. from Art. 51 that lim *La n xn = oo The reader will find no great difficulty in modifying the
It is then obvious
.

>
proofs given in Art. 51 so as to apply for complex variables when Pringsheim 's condition is satisfied.
end of Art. 82. For example, suppose that v is an arbitrary real continuous function then the second formula gives a value for /(c) which can be expanded as
;
a powerseries in c, convergent if c<l. We shall now prove that if this function is denoted by U+i V, then V tends to v as c moves up to any point on the circle so that we have determined a powerseries whose imaginary
;
= l. part has an assigned continuous value v along the circle c Clearly it is sufficient to establish the result for any point on the circle
so
*
we
as c
moves up
to
1.
t.
2,
p.
73.
t For consider
Af
7
= A'P^ (cos 20 
sin 20)
J,
where E(x) =
*.
There
is
no
when this series is put in the form 2a n diverges. However, if $* <0 <
,
^ir,
20
is
negative,
L(l #)
J=0.
83]
It
POI
will
UL
be seen that
j
where now
.r=co8<o + t sin
'
and
,'
>+
and we note further
value of the
ti
:
K'HHi,
is
int.jrati..n
positive,
less
the
1.
x//<.
>
////
ran^e must be
find
.
than
f>r
>
<>,
we
(,'I
and sinee
is
a eontinii"u
Min<tiou of
we can determine a
so that
Th*
.I
27T\Jo
Iff*.
j

= 2a to w = 2rr2a; here, next to consider the integral from // that is not i.>) greater than cos a, and so
1
>)
while
;
+ / ^1  iV e, ,s LfJ <2(lr>
1
f
/'
2 jT sin a
we have
(vv )(ll2rcos(0I
'juently
1
^ftrfc 27rj2a
It
i>
.^[(1r
1
in*a
t<
'
th.i it".
p(.iMe
find
if
a,
<..
so that
1
VP <,
that
is
tf'<u, and
r<8j
'0
to sa\
moves up towards
tegral
tO and
still
;i\rs
id
tlie
preceding
\\
did as c
1,
T> deal with appioahe, any point on the eiivle exOSpl 1. <> ha> the limit /. when that tlii''iiirh p.iti\e \a!
.*
suppose
limit
tin
ne^al
i\
e
I in ^.
1
\
.
it"
We
\\
V=V
it
iit
evident fioin
the
\
becomes continuous at
.=0.
I"
o>
= 0,
if
we
assign
to
Furthr.
is
wluMe
<:>
rej.ieent the
same angle as
:M1.
214
[CH. X.
Now
case considered
we have
lim V'
(r, e)
limv' (w )
7T
<f>
so that
lim
(r, 6)
</>
V
as
(r,
Tito,
where
In have m=l,
6) approaches 1. the particular case when v is given in the form 2an sin and then the result is sin
is
we
shall
nO=
;
2a n cannot be convergent were convergent we should have lim 2 nrw (cos n + i sin n 0) = 2an (M) in virtue of the extension of Abel's theorem (at the beginning of this
It will be noted that in this case the series
if it
for
article);
that
is,
lim
(r, 0)
2a^sin*0 = 0,
which
84.
is
Taylor's theorem for a powerseries. have seen that a powerseries ^a nx represents a continuous function of x, say f(x\ within its circle of convergence
We

11
x

=R
let
us
in h.
Draw
now attempt to express f(x + h) as a powerseries the circle of convergence, and mark a point x
FIG. 26.
inside
such that oj = r; draw a second circle (of radius with centre x, to touch the first, and mark a point x + h r\ within the second circle. We shall now see that f(x + h) can be expressed as a powerit,
series in h.
In fact f(x + h)
is
the sum,
l
by columns,
2
+a x+ a^ + + aj
ag? +..,
83, 84]
TAYLOR'S THEOREM.
is
215
lnraus..
ii'
term by
its
r.pla<<
tl.
\vh.iv
liv
v
tli.
mnstructinii
Tliat
ami
\vr
ti
'Intin
<loull< series
converges
l.y
lately.
i,
can SIMM
(
loiible
series
rows,
willmut
H.'licr
altri
\alu
Art.
/(/
+ /,)=/!
')
\\h
ft
l
+ '*i.,.rh3.4a4 o^+.,
f...,
may
t<
be obtained
inmi
/<
l.y
applying
tin
LOU, will
any
Series
It
may
t..
rallfl
'/''//''
>^8.
in.
iy
ln>
usrful
.ir.N/,'
;
..f
h
.iivl.
./
\v kiinw
it
f\idcii.f
.
that
*
may
it
is
<a>y
t
that
it'
\\
writ.
...,
th,n
M
mgea
it'
J
A<1
\/t\<

series
in tini
_.!!<..
w. !M\.'
tli;
i<
rh
II
\M>
iln
I'liohl
CTS.
M
.
inn.
ii.
.n
i
/(
<
I..\MIM
I.
I.
he area of
111
nri^inn.1
dnfinil
"I
i
niM.il.il
.i.r
WrmiMtMWl'H
!!M
../
.
Ilifiv
I
KlIlirMnllM,
l"il
1.
in
IM
.l.l.i
IM
.Mil
.nil
/,,
province
(Ii,'
(If
MI
mil
nil
I'M
(ill
IP
I
.'Hid
Morlry'H
,nt
..
I
Illtrixilli'd'nii
'/'//<,<///
.\inlliiti,'
l'niK'tioii*
(In
\\V rnn
I
now
ol.t.nin .in
rxlrndrd
Mir
..
1'nnn
<>f
'nnrli\
n'
':.
Ait.
i
S'J).
i.s
nnt
Suppose known,
ill'
,>'
Mint,
but.
id
l.ldill',
r. ,n
i.,
..I'
Mint
aj
r
h
in
Known
Mint
I'ol'
to
nil
be witlmi
pninln
I
Mir riirlr
tlir
rin\ crirnrr
I
.Hid
I'tlillirl
)
nil
cirrlc
I
/',
tlir
/!/
//
srric
/(.'
roiix rn;r;,
/(,/

inn
>t
in
<n
/(.BBM.
Hiicli
Tlirii, if
is
t.ln'
inn xiiiiiini nf
It)
for nil
points
in
that u3"r,
AM
wi^
lui.\'(^
by applying Oaucliy
r.n.dity
to tlir /^series
,M_ M
H
HnN
srrirs for
,
\ppl\in
"'
ll
.
:
Mir
\
,;imr
I
inr<iiiilit
;/
y I" Mi"
I
.'
/;,<
.,
(m
n)(m
!)...(///
I),
I/
,17
'/'////
mi
<>/'
"
(r
fN)'
(^
<(
/(

or///
term
ia
lew
Until
,!,,<{
Un'i'ifon*
(r
It
N)
,/.
< (/ ,
,.
n
<>/'
I/.
I'olloU',
tli.it
UK r,l</ills of
,;>i,r, I</<IK<
i]/,,."'
tO
'I'll!
(ff>
.
lr;ld
.it
to tlir Mn'OVHl
cii'i'lr
MlJlt
////'/r
ix
(if
Intxt
r
;,
<K'
n,
s
.
liifiilur
is,
[mini on UK'
point
in
of
<on i',T</f
i,f
lift
oj'n
fioir,
which
NIC\\
t'H
Taylor'', Minirrin
' i
li.i
ftlsO
/
ir.rd
this
'
rcMiilt.
(i
(,(>
Ili.ii
/In'
<ir</<
</
con
tin
i'i
i'</<
iifi
../'
of UK
///.
of
is
i<
/<>
Is ritlirr
/>
/,
UK
siinir
"/'
Unit
oiK/tiKil
irliirli
UK
:<T<>
,/,,,
In
l.i'
I I
Iffifl
IM
iH'itrrxt
'I
il
UK' orK/iii.
I
.n
......
Mill
..I
Ii. \\
Ii
il
il
i,
I..
m.
/.'
in.
HIM
.HI.
I
iiiiinmmii

\.ih
'
Inn
i
mid
oil
if
.in\
n.
I.
A',
tin n
In//
/
\\
ill
,,u\ t'l'^c
I
( ,
Mild
ll.n.l
.....
,
//,'
(/
I.
II
I.
M.
.111.1
M,.
II
'
.
\l
i
H
'
'
/'..
Lond M">
IK
III
I
oL
M
I
.....
.
i
186
IM
to
l.Mil.
.1
I
II.
\\
M
,,
.Ml
..
,lll\
II
Mill
I..
84, 85
r,
IK
'
rf //
<
,
//
O6M,
ill
i.nlniH in NIMMI
I"
I"
IK.
ill. 111
\slnM
/<
86.
'I'lp

in
MiMilir\ in"
In

.1
In.. (I
)'
X
!
I
J?
^iin.
I
i
l'.\
iniill
ijilir.it
i.
.11
o
liii'l
th.M
Oi
An
In
IT
A in.
ii
hiii'i.nii. ni
.1
equal
.1
Li
A kind of
li
pM
irith
//
the
"""
1,'iiuly
ln.i
tin
'"lulu KII
in
1
require
1 1
in'.
equal
ion
bo
ho
i!
.'I"'
1.
<
/,
\*
ll
IM.,
I,,
,,,//(,
218
then
or
[CH. X.
Hence a n = l, and
Again,
and
if
we take
we
= a f(x).
l
we have
and
must hold
in the
interval
a 2 = a:2
a3 = a 1 a 2
a4 = a 1 a3
a
....
See Art. 52
. . .
(5).
That and so
is,
a2 = ax2
f(x) = 1
a3
af,
= a^
.
a n = a^\
+o
this
;
xz
X3
satisfies all
We
do not
know from
it
the
but
we
power series,
E(alx).
Now
E(a^x) does
E(a,x) x
for
E(a1 y) = E [^ (x + y)]
any real or complex values of x, y. Consequently our problem has been solved;* and
is
where a l
the coefficient of x in the powerseries for f(x). and in many respects convenient, to write e* for even when x is complex. But it must be remembered E(x) that this is merely a convention and that in such an equation
It is usual,
;
as
e^ = i
ordinary power.
*
relation f(x)
no other function can satisfy the xf(y)=f(x + y), because we have assumed f(x) to be a powerseries. we assume that f'(x) is continuous, there is no difficulty in shewing that
85,86]
86.
SINK
Connexion
tin
\M'
<
219
the
between
./'
exponential
and
circular
functions.
in tinntial B6f n.mplex \arial>le variable on a mil /, we may differentiate termby trm depends \\ itli respect to /, and obtain the same formula as if x w<
1
1'
i
that
"rr>jM. mlin^ in a
.lian.u'*'
''
in
',
<
hangea
A.,,1
..],
ls.
r,
.<laoit
foil..
;,
!jA',,
t!
In paiticular.
/'//.
.siip.ns,.
:
wli.n
//
is
ival
thru \\c
or,
if
/:<
w;)r(oo80f
'i
we have
euj
*L
tn
.,1'
//
;
ind.j.endent
l.ut
t'.r
//
r=
1.
;/,
and SO which
j
'sin
;y.
is
continued
l.y tlu
ivinark that
;;/)
/
' /
A'"V
Another
>l.scr\in^ that
J
)=^(0)=1.
r.sult
i
m.tlidd
of establishing
the
last
^iven ly
sin
;;
= (cos^>/
lim
it'
N"\v write
cos^f isin#=
f
and we
see that
mra ;/,
220
because
[CH. X.
and
lim n(l
cos
r\
 cos 0) =
Hence
+ i sin
r\
/c
by
Art. 85.
another method, analogous to that of Art. 59, can be used.
Still
In
fact,
write
Then
But,
if
^
y = r(cos
{yn _^
an d Ji
we have
or
^ =
Hence
Lrii
+ r'(^)
^ ~
drj
'
drj
and
3/0,
#1,
...
77
= 0.
Hence we
find, if
77
is
positive, the
sequence of equations
<
Thus
If
<
lim
71
?/
M =0.
><K
we
we
find
and
so
and
we may
write
+ i sin = e
r\
rj,
we
find
r\
i sin q
= e~
r\
ll>
;
thus
cos
f]
= (e^+e~ '*),
sin
.
(e^
e~ ^\
86, 87]
\\'e
WX3 MMTIIMir
have
at
I'l
VI
'221
pivsriit
IK.
dfiniti
;l
<O80;
<,,n\ .nieiil
1
and
real.
in
'
wh'n
and
to detin, tli.m
is
by
the
tin
JM.V.
already
I
when X
i
Then
e.juai
COS
''
('"
.,
are
It
tni.
I'm
i.al
inll(,\\s
any
ri<
un nnt rical
i'<iiiiiul;n
which
Arts.
r.inain
tin.
unalt<ril
formula*
of
main vmte x
in
tru.
:
///.
it
will
/
Ix
seen that
COS X = COS
,'
cosh
;/
sin
^sinh
,h
;y.
in
fcoah
;y
f
;y.
wh\\'
cosh/; = A(^4r
l),
sinh
//
=
<!'
\(<
",
inl
cosh
functions:
th.
results can
V instance,
C'lirystal's
is
to be noticed that
sin

>
//"/
/////// '.<<
as
<
1,
cosic<l
are no longer
vulii/.
= x
and
so, if
#<
1,
we have
rfn<
Similarly,
we have
^ eoab r;
and.
if
\x\
<
1,
we
find
87.
\\'.'
The logarithm.
have already seen that
/.'i
if
//
is
a real
s i"
; /
ai
'/
y
008 If f
(
'
Henee
if
is
any
inte^.r
j.o.sit
i\
..]
n.^ative),
AVJ, ;>=!,
222
[CH. X.
and
other than
It follows
=0,
that
ri
are no solutions of
if
we wish
E(y) = x,
so as to obtain the function inverse to the exponential function, the value obtained is not single valued, but is of the form
y=y
where y
is
+ 2mri,
(n = 0,
1,
2,...),
Q*
If
O
FIG. 28.
we
we have
x = r (cos
+ i sin 0) = rE(i6).
logr is the logarithm of the real number r, defined as in Art. 157 of the Appendix, we have r = E(log r), x = E(logr+iO). and consequently Thus we can take y = logr+ i0, and then the general solution is 2,...). (n = 0, + 1, y = \ogx = \ogr+i(0 + 2n7r),
But
if
We
and we can specify a exponential function onevalued branch of the logarithm by supposing a cut made
inverses of the
along the negative part of the real axis, and regarding x as prevented from crossing the cut. Then we shall have
where
TT
<C Q^TT
this determination,
logx
is real
when x
is real,
which
should
generally the most convenient assumption. be observed that then such formulae as
\og(xx')
Hut
it
can only be employed with caution, since it may easily happen that (0 + 9') is greater than TT, in which case we ought to write = log x f log x' 2?ri. log (.''./'')
The reader
in the
in
the negative
half
i 1 1
(log x p
log X Q )
= 2Tri.
87, 88]
at
LOG \UTH.Mh
repi
the
rut.
ill'
I.
ranch
sejrcted
for
log X IB
oh\
jollsly
continuous over
tlir
whole
plillie
of X.
88.
\\'r
if
is
real
and
\X
<
(1)
//
= .i
A.i'+'.r'...
function
In other words.
(
if
we substitute
;icc. .I'dint
tin
*J
must le
and. as such,
powers of X, the result* Hut thi ranfonnation is merely al^el>r;i equally true whether X \^ real or complex.
to
.
i.solutely
f >r
all
values of y.
the d'ran^eimnt implied in this transformation is legitimate (see is Art. :>ii). provided that the series al>olute]y COB
(
Hence,
ipiat
i
if
'ii
<
value of
real
>/
satisiyinu
./
ami
the
furthei'.
from
the
(1).
//
i
when
in
is
real.
Thus, usine
artic!.
hranrh
of
In^arithm
defined
the
we have
,
+.,)
= .,_
^+., .:;_...
p>
(if
a.
<
i).
1
From
Wh
the tiure.
it
is
evident
that
this equation
j\es
at
^ tM
'
Al
l,y
reference t>
Ar
where we proved
that
< <
)'
' J
'2tf+
Jr'cosSH:;>
arctan
j
^'
^=
r(oOfl Hf
,sin
Hf))
}.
If
we
\\
me
X
:;
sin
in
the poi
^
./
...,
f
+ rcos:{H...
up
to,
/v/'sin^^. /sin
l^+^sin.Stf.
iDiuputation
Ml
is
a gooii
e\>
say, a*.
224
[OH. X.
and obviously
Thus our
except that
results
we now
\K
and
+ JTT (because r < 1) instead of TT and We shall obtain an independent proof of (if log(I+x) = xx + x*...
2
the equation
a?<l)
The
and
1
arc tan
a?.
Again, by
y =x +2
,
xs
+ 2T4y + 3"
, ,
3 x5
is
1. for real values of x, y, such that x for all values of absolutely convergent y,

<
and the
aj<l, the algebraic relation between these series to persist for complex values of x, and we can
now
seen
accordingly
write
1
xs
3 x5
..
since the series (4) is taken as defining the sine for complex values of the variable (Art. 86). Similarly the pair of functions
(5)
y=x
x,
such that x
 \
<
for
b
complex values of x
...
a?
\x*
+ \x
(if
#<1).
In these equations the values of the inverse functions are determined by the conditions
88, 89]
BINOMIAL SERIES.
The binomial powerseries.
225
89.
/(, x).
\vheiv hoth
.lit
j
+ ,* + ,< ,
C+
.11
1
.,
,.
2)+
is
;nil
in.'iy
r,
>1*
j
Th rieS
hav,tin
absolr/
il.ntity
r>x/<.',*)=/(, + ,>)
tin
(*<
in
i!'
we
pick nut
meHiri.nt
of
&
th product
/<**)x/(,',a>>
it
is
of degree r in
lth
and
,X)f(+l
o a
polynomial
,.
j
of the
same de^
because
,.
Hut.
when
are
.
(my two
(
int..^
and
is
cniis ..ju,.ntly ~\
must be identically
.V,.
'2.
M186,
wh.'ii
j'
any a^inr<l
values of
i
int^r.
I.
is
zero for an
to oo
).
infinity of <liti'<Mvnt
(namely.
8,...
Thus, identically,
x)xf(v',x) =/(r+i
'..'),
(
*<1).
in
From
til
this
the
method indicated
c2) to
prove that
,.<)
= (!
ho'
when
I'.ut
i/
is
a rational number.
complex values
place /(v,
a;)
somewhat
as a
1y
In the
for
lirst
columns
powereeriee .f the
t'd.
doul.l,
961166
1f.
fj
''
f
...
11
<
f ....
ua
226
[CH. X.
i/
Now this double series is absolutely convergent because, if = and a; = the sum of the absolute values of the terms
/
a;
in the (p
+ l)th
column
is
~~x/,
which
is
/(i/
a?
);
and
/(i/
o?
by converges The double series being absolutely convergent its sum is not altered (see Art. 33) by changing the mode of summation to
rows, which gives
f(v, x)
x <^
Art. 12.
where
= l + vX = x ^x
x),
we can apply
Art. 85
= E( vX
\
i/
In order to determine
lt
let
us write
= l,
which gives
Thus
x
is
is real,
it is
is
real
when
We
have thus a
new
(see
Hence
fig.
X = log p +
l
i(f>
sn
where
a result which
v = a + i/3,
is due to Abel. The investigation above is based Goursat the on (Cours d' Analyse Mathtfmatique, proof given by
275).
indices
The method given in the example of Art. 36 (p. 89) applies and the following method was suggested in 1903 by
;
:
to
complex
Prof. A. C.
JDixon
The
relation
f(v,
/(i>, .r)
x/(i/, x) =f(v + v, x)
gives at once
*?[/(i
*)J0 +f )"
of that article
Sa7
where n
*
is
a positive integer.
v
Of course
corresponds here to
jc
and
A'j
corresponds to a^
89]
BIKOM1
\i.
('
>(a(*)*
=)('
]
its
terms
less, in
absolute
tllf
'.nt^)Mlili^
tf
+
;i
convergent
series,
to oo can be
independent of n and consequently th limit found ly taking tin limit of each term
;
Hence
)v(*
But
(Art. 86)
lim(l
+ f)" = /;(./'),
if
.r'
= lim ().
[
Thus,
/(is #)
= lim(l +)" =
log(l
+.i)].
= l.
can
>t'
To
i.i'.r
exaniiiif
tin
ire
back to
tinimportance of the binomial an indtpciHhnt treatment of case (ii). give \\\ have at once
tint
i
shall
<
^*
i
i
.
i
"I
\vhere
i<
I~
T~~9
[(*o?+/fi
= u4;
;
and
o)
<
.1.
Thus the
a
is positive
aeries
converges absolutely
the circumi
and SO 2a
'Ilm.
up
ff[vlog(l+flj)]
to
i
imference.
nt
aince
that
C)
,if
>0)
at
th ciicuinl'crrnce a;=l. points (>n th.thT hand, ii' a+l=0, after a certain stago the absolute \alues of the terms of the series never decrease, and
till
///
so
fd
1
;
Lverge \vhen
liut
tlur.is
a;
= l.
tli.U
(it
:
no
ilitliculty in MTJIIJ;
liin
A'[
of this exponential is
p*~^, where
228
Again,
n>*>
if
[CH. X.
1
also
< a^
liman =0;
3,
Art.
39,
that
that
x).
we
we
see that
'
first
(n+I) terms
in f(v, x)
and so
the real part of j/H1 is a + 1, and is accordingly positive ' follows from the previous argument that Sn tends to a definite limit as n increases to oo
it
.
Now
And
since
lim
n\
n
=
is
lim a n
= 0,
it
follows
;
that lim(l+oj)
%>oo
definite
thus, unless
x=
1,
we have
and the series converges on the circle, except at x For points on the circumference, it is evident that
,0
= 200810,
= ^0,
(7T<0<7r)
and so we have
f(v,
a?)
>
1,
we have
p.
152)
It follows, as in Arts.
but that
90.
Koo,
ifa<0,
Differentiation of Trigonometrical Series. In some cases of interest, it is found that although the series
f(x) = 2tt ne
is
inx
If this occurs, it is often possible to obtain ceases to converge. the value oif'(x) by differentiating the series
89,90]
MITI:I;I:M
\Tiov
This gives
the
s.ries
^/H/
n(o
")'
+8(a ^ uniformly
interval
1'rnin
...],
c.,iver
linly
fc
any
is
\vhirh
= 0, 27T
are excluded
if
/,.
>
a r.al positive
,
Lence, or in
any
int.rval
ii'
l/<
"
an
is

Arts,
It'
n
\ve substitute
seri
re liml
th,
eqaation
,,!<
In
i
1.%^
it
(",!
'.>'
...].
6
].iactic.
will usually
first,
found best to
litl
the
for f(x)
(Mjuatinii
which
and 4 l>y (1 as if the differentiated of JMW.I^ rrangemeni accinlin^ This rule will be seen in ('haj.ter XI. Be were convergent
is
to
int.Tj.irtcd
t
l>y
multiplication
.
>
to'
md
UO(2)J
is
if
necessary, to .staMidi a similar rule to interpret the 91 oiwhere + +' ly IIMH the 1'artoi>
i.
is
;iu
integ
Another process, which in practice U almost the xiine as the L 1, foregoing, is due to Stok.x <.!/.////. i///// /'////>. /'"
pp.
t
D);
the
tirst
may
1>
rcdue,d
the form
where
.1
i
Constant
determined
liy
the
e<iidition
that
i e,,i,
writt.n
i.
B]<
/>'
liy t.uivalnt
.
tliis
:>:.!
luive
Item
dt,
(S),
t.
!_'.
lv:.. p.
t
i
,m.l r.nnk
,,g
<
8,
I'.'M;.
p,
^7).
H, lt
in
}u:icti.c
;unl
in
principle.
230
if
[CH. X.
a constant which makes the series on the right convergent. These results of course depend on the fact that
1,
below).
Consider
f(x) = e +
ix
/()t'(*
which leads to the
real equation
(\<&)f(x) = i(**
or
/(#)=(*+ cot
Thus
f(x)
for X=TT,
#),
0<.r<27r.
But
so that in
we
find
/(7r)=log2,
sin J#)
f(x) =
 log (2
65.
+ %i(irx\
that
Similarly
ix
we can prove
. . .
+ ^tx + fypx +
if
==
< <
^P
TT,
and
ete
These give,
cos
sin
. . .
=TT
 j log(tan
Jo?),
# + J5
sin
5# +
sin
9^ +
. . .
oo
Ex.
3.
Again consider
2i f( x ) = _,t
7i
real equation
[/(^)i(/(.r)](l6^) = 0.
Thus
f(x) = Ae
#,
to
2?r.
or
^e
ip
=a
__. + _._..
Art.
!:>).
90,91, 92]
BINE
:
\M>
"',
'
06IKE PBQ01
<
Th
\ilim:
ly
we get
'

'
/
i 
n(tn)x
91.
The
infinite
products for
Art.
in
a;
/
and rosa.
complex values of
05,
(i!
Art. 70,
sin
?i
.^'i
KT
sin 2 (a/n) 1
sn
Now.
BU
to t.ml
an
always
tnsuiv tliat
greater than
\x\ t
and, since
<
sin
sin(r7r/?i)> 2r/n
Hence
^ ^ N
Q
'
~
2.")
L r2
l/r */ I*
'
in
tin
thronin
.1'
Art.
P.'.
Hence, as
in
Art. 70,
we
h'ml
r =i
In
tli.
^anif
way
C( )S
\\
find
./'
11
Br=
/
,
92.
The
tan
for
./
,
cosec
'.
)>
i"
Art.
71
real
angles, can
to a
the
t'nl
lowing nnditicati"!
e,
\Ve ha\
x
lie
n)
identity
is
.\liieh
ai
\vhether the
232
[CH. X.
Now
we have
\
> 2r/n,
.
sin (x/ri)
\<%\x\/n,
assuming that
Also
n> x

we have
(Art. 86)
Hence
2n sin
1
and
ri
2
1
sin 2 (r7r/ri)
 siu

(x/ri)
< > 4r
\
"\
f
>3
\,
we have
30a?
Consequently
we can
^
and so the theorem
further,
(
'
30*
X T hm /n sin  \
\
n/
= x,
X V 1 lim / cos \ = 1, \ n/
(
exactly as
if a;
Hence
Vn
 cot  = n/
)
and
lim
*(/n)<x*(x/n)
sin 2 (rTr/n)
sin 2 (x/ri)
%x
rV
'
x2
complex (except
Thus we have,
multiples of
TT),
cot
# =  + Zv Q X X2
,
^ T
2x
ri 7T
o 2 2
/ 1 =+ ^v 7 ~
,
1
TlTT
IN
)>
VaJ
7?7r/
r.
where
TI,
is
now
Now
tan x = cot x
cosec x = cot J#
*
2 cot 2#,
cot x.
for the sine
and
cosine.
fThe
when
.i
is
92, 93J
ill.
OTANQENT
8KB]
Hence we
find,
on
su)itra<ii..n.
&c
^2nl)
_*
.
^o^'
41
2x
811
'
= cos* =
.
.e
<
to
.
+e
r
'
j ,'"
=,
1
ly writing
y2i0,
'
5^"i
93.
^tl.iVii v
for x
j
The powerseries
Beri<
The exponential
th< iv<iprocal
function x
.*


''
>
ir'vidid
that
<
p,
\\\.
2!"*"3!
+ "*= 1
'
This last
con<liti<'ii is
certainly satistil
l>y
taking
OK
l.y tai
p=
can
\\
i
Thus
\\v
,./'+...,
1
if
<1L>.
'
ii'.
At
'
n'nd
It
\vr
bom
the aa
we
s<
obtain
idmtity r=
^3=
l.
(>
234
[CH. X.
*where
JBj,
""
?J_7?^_ +
J
_L R ^2+J
7?
5 5
2,
3,
...
It is easy to verify
by
A=
i>
= *V>
= A,
#4 =
#>=F
but the higher numbers become very complicated.* Again, from the last Article we see that
Now
x,
if
x <C
27T,
giving
ZnW
And
the resulting double series
is
is
convergent series
2laj
It
is
powers
e*
of
L
is
which
now
<
2jr.J
By
11
J
we
see that
1 1
V~>
T
Q J X~>
1 A
T
J,^ *"
K^>
and generally
*The numbers
<;i;ii.sher
(as decimals) and tluir logarithms have been tabulated by to fiw are givin (Trans. Camb. Phil. Soc., vol. 12, p. 384); and l
by
Adams
(Scientific
0.) Qhryitel'i .\/,,<bra, tThat 'lir is the radius of conver^riirf may be smi tVoiu Kaker's theorem x (Art. 84); for the zeros of e \ are y = 2niri, and the least distance of any of
1,
pp. 453
and
455).
is
L'TT.
93, 94]
l:l
I:\MII.I.I 
\i
MI;.;RS.
Wo
Si
Alt
6
It
(l)
,
\^
^ v V
\\
'
Z^^c
hen x
^ V i
is real,
1 
^~9450*
liav
is
we
any
value of
**
2
'
^+
(2.2 4nVJ o
.
l.y
ail.litiMH.
we
tintli
see that
srrirs
i
c^ ~~
n].ivsnt.l
is
\>y
th
(r
tin
+ 3)
terms of
tirin
lss
than
following
of
For instance,
for
any
,/\
W6
h..
720'
an.l so on.
Ex.
By HUM
identity
1
WO
ca
liat
md
94.
Bernoullian functions.
r.'inonllian
function of
in
the
th
D of
'',",'
whicli.
/
lv the
in
powers of
<
236
[CH. X.
Thus we have
so that
.
<p n (x)
rn
~2
l
^Ql) D T n2 _
~2~!
x
*** x
~n4
From
the
this formula, or
by
:
direct multiplication,
we
find that
first six
polynomials are
= yz,
where
Again,
n (o?
y = x(x
\)
\.T'
+ l)
(j>
n (x)
is
the
coefficient
of
/n\
in
the
expansion of
so that
If
^ n (33 + 1 )
n (x)
= nx n ~ 1
results,
= 1,
2,
3, ...
if x is
any positive
n
which gives one application of the polynomials. Further, by differentiation we see that n'(x)
(j>
is
the coefficient
of
Hence we
find
94]
BERNO1
0',m(z)
LI.
\\
II
\< TI<
and generally
1
1
= 2m^,,
ami
/
I.
+ <l
1..
Change x
to
a;
to /.
hat
$*aThna
Sim.' 0,
i
i
='*,':;
i
<//>u
njuatinn that B
1
,> = <!
t'nllnws 1'p.ni tin last
ia
.
<i
)=<>.
it
i
root of
tin
'
(/>
>and thai
,
root of
<j,
and
a glance at
ti\ i'uncti"!
f/
v lraK to
lias
tin
ronj.innv that
^,n (^)
J.
1'.
no root
"x
that
tliis
""///
'/"'
^oo<
Suppose
valu
rouj.cturr
IM.M
isialilislil
up
to.
then
since
<c),
:(#)
is
<>
innnriically
at
./=A,
and cannot
ran
I
\a:
en
and
1.
Consequently ^
('2/jL
:\
d
i
between havr no xrro lMt\v'n X <> and '..and thcr.1'mv non< l>etween
/
Imn ^
,.
Mid
I.
Thus
and
it
tinll
tlu'onni
has
IMMII
rxtin<hd
tru.
to tin
\alu
afl:
iin^ly
'
always
Tin
diagram and so
ar^p.n
^j''
It
will
1).
lr
s.Mn
<f>
,
thai
)'
(in
>
l'";in#e
m (.'')=
,
<.
/
"/"/ t/tt
tin'
/x
// M/
O y
i).
238
95. Euler's
[CH. X.
We
x and
li
the polynomial containing 1(71 + 2) or J(ti + 3) terms. It is obvious that if f(x) is a polynomial in x, we can obtain the value of the sum
/(l)+/(2)+. ..+/(*!)
by
multiples of the Bernoullian functions of proper degrees. But to obtain a single formula, we must utilise the Calculus and so we observe that we
the
addition
of
suitable
is
/(l)+/(2)+. ..+/(*!)
where there is no term on the righthand side (in its final form) which is not divisible by x. However, the most interesting applications of this formula
arise
when
f(x)
is
rational,
algebraic,
or
transcendental
function, and then of course the foregoing method of proof cannot be used; and the righthand side becomes an infinite series which may not converge.
by
parts.*
in these cases, we shall apply the method of Consider in fact the integral
where
<
KViniMiilmriiig
<)
and
/I,
\vi
tincl
that
this integral
equal to
*Seliwanoff, J}i/ereuzenrechnun</,
38, 39.
'
95
1
M.MATH'N
,,;MI
. \
Int..natiiix
ly parts again, w
mil.uly
+0[^a(0 + (l)"^Hence
if
we
v,
.V
we have the
i=(l)'
')],
(:
we have
,//.
tli n
Thus, rinoa
<MO = '*'> we
have
l
Th.r
:r'
Thus
*f
r'(.r)
//(o^4.;L/'oHi)r
!)/].
and
fl
uke
a succepi:itii.u>.
Tlifii
\\i
/*!,
A'_.
liavr.
if
\\
M>J. at
f>r instance,
1 )
+/(&)  ( /(')<ft +
* L'X'O +/"(")]
240
[CH.
And obviously we can introduce as many terras as we please on the righthand side. For a further discussion of Euler's formula, see Chapter XI. Art. 131.
Ex.
1.
prove that
and
if
is
a positive integer,
 ^n(O)
Deduce that
if
. . .
f(x)
is
/(I)
^Ex.
2.
...
+ const.
As
1,
we
find
is
a positive integer,
or
and
so on.
In the
is
first
and third
according as x
even or odd.
Ex.
3.
It
is
From
Shew
Ex.
4.
also that
(x%)
if
is
x(x\)
Prove that
is
odd and k
is
an integer,
r=0
result
when n
is
even.
x.
LMPLBfi
A.
\.
Complex Numbers.
1.
It
th.
inn
an
l".tli
ii.
'mpl.x,
li,
>hw
;m
tl.
;.ints
tli.v
I,
..ii
riiii;u
od n"i
d cases
when x
is
al.
if
and
;liat
!>=a',
I/M..
_rer.
2.
'
that
pivt
thi^
uati>n
!'
in
Aiiranil's ilia^raiii.
'hat
l*+yl +
3.
It'
[HAKKXKS.S and
I,
/!
in
.
.m
whirh represei.
'=0,
t.
tlif
uid
"<
.1
sluw
that
tin
.iindittMii
.Nnt
condi
o.i
OA ./:.
..f
.:
OA
0.]
.\<>i:.
[.!/<
mid point
Ml.
1901.]
[TianfT
4.
if
It'
t"
.1
"I'iirin,
\\hi.l,
Q08J
I.
wh(
:i
inh //=
sin
and that
we write
in
^
'
\\li.i
0=
sii
mi the roots of
tliat
6.
th.
.
nation \\, :
(*+l
)\
and prove
tln\
It"
the
iiati"ii
ha(t \s<'
liinrj
real
and
t \\
"ni>l. s ,as = 0.
7.
If
/]
a,
t!
tin
point
't.
5+y
M
8.
t
a rouii m straight
lim.
\vlnn
takes
all
nal
\a!
[STU./ und
Miplrx
iinniUtM
u.
<
ti
IW
tliat
as
"
1.
at + h
tc when it
,'ht
lin..
LB,
242
9.
[CH.
varies so that j
= l,
+ 6 and
a
6,
and
whose
line
foci are
If o
= 6,
is
t
which
If
given by x = ab. prove that the point x traces out the portion of a straight terminated by the two points x2 =ab.
2
10.
varies so that
"
= 1,
in general describes a limagon, whose focus is c b 2/a. Find the node ; b , shew that the limagon reduces to a cardioid. and if a [MORLEY.]
11.
If
varies so that
tf
= l, shew
a
*iZI + *Fl+
in general describes a hyperbola,
conditions
is
and find its asymptotes. Under what the origin (1) the centre, (2) a focus of the curve ?
x=
,
Prove
t
3
(t
z^ H
*
^
=
^
+c
describes a parabola.
12.
If
the determination of ga
is
of the equation in
= a.
To
effect
1
1
the circle
this geometrically we use the intersections of a conic with I the form of the conic is largely arbitrary, but we shall
give three typical constructions, the first and second of which, at any rate, were known to the later Greek geometers (e.g. Pappus).
(1)
rectangular hyperbola.
in the
If
form
t that the points trisecting the + irj, 2 are + r/ 2 =l of given by three of the intersections with the circle angle the two rectangular hyperbolas
?/
(cosa + 77sin
a)
= 0, 2^^sina + ?/cosa = 0.
of the hyperbolas
is
not on the
circle.
the
easier to construct; its asymptotes are parallel to the axes (tin one axis being an arm of the angle to be trisected), its centre is the point
it passes through the centre of the circle (that is, the vertex of the angle to be trisected). Since a hyperbola is determined by its asymptotes and a point on the curve, we can now construct the
hyperbola.
(2)
The
first
fr/
=l
in
a)+ 10.
\.
LMPLE8
li\
\.
Tin
pei
I,,,
la
baa
tin
ecr.
>
),
and
ITM.M.
oth.r
I.
the
tin
vertex on the
ran. h
,,f
pres.n;
(1
;
hut the
I'.v
that a*
tin
iirt
(1) cute
the circle
2 *+/ = l
in
tin
same point
,/sin
n 
1=0.
through the points
irallel
to ?;=0, passes
ami touches
13.
If
tin
line
u f
//
sin u 
)
at
tin
point (sec./.
and
(i)
/
.V
l'.'
shew
\

ti
= = 11
:
x /7,
...
,11.
V
:
(iii)
1
13
at
s
1
'i:'..
kin^
Oftfll
A'
s f '
N \ li'
./OK''v
easily
.i.,v,,l
that
,Vf.S"=l,
.)=n.

and
=2.
_
Thus
.v
is
a root of
,S'
+ + = o,
.S'
:J
\\hi.h
X*
It is
:.
or
.V
easily
proved
niiit
,.
;.
\\\^
tor
tli >t
7)
un(&r
ease
7)
sini
..
irr
7)
the >in
Le
oompa
,th
(ii).
188,
In
In
like inann.'i
CM6
(iii)
now
s=.,
*
+ 3* + J>
::
1
II.
ig
1.
l,,,t
13.
i>
That
.s
(and the!
.mst
l.e
.
iilivimis
ly
the
first
eonsid.i iu^
;.
4cos(67r
in
\\hi.h
,,
term
vain
i>
jh
,nd
thai
lew
than the
14.
(in
nunnrieal
n
With
tin
same
in
the
last

example, she\\
that
a 18
...
[In the
In
tlu
case
).]
244
The value
to a, can
[CH.
15.
of the
bn y=^x =o
~,
where
b is
an integer
prime
now be
We
find, in fact,
if
if
if
if if
if
= 1, 6 = 3, 6 = 1, 6 = 2, 6 = 1,
6
2, 5,
4,
6.
3,
6,
4,
7,
5, 9,
8, 9,
7,
10, 10,
8,
3, 4,
5, 6,
12,
(l+;)2v/2,
if
if
= 2, = i, 6 = 3,
6
fc
11.
(lz)2 v/2,
(11)2^2,
16.
6 6
if
= 5, = 7.
from a consideration of the special cases discussed ar n * may, or may not, be equivalent n set x In a is of the form 4/ + 1, where k is an to the the former case, and the of k sum consists 8 integer pairs of terms, whose indices are complementary (that is, of the form v, a v). On multiplying SS' out, it is easily seen to be the same as k(S+S'). or JT 2 = 4& + l=a. Thus we find S'2 + S  k = Similarly, if a is of the form 4& + 3, we find that the terms x~ belong
It will be seen
in Exs. 13, 14, that the set of values
*.
;
n<1
to
',
and then
Thus
we find 88' = (2k+\) + k(S+S') = k+\. S'2 + S+k + I=0 or X 2 = (4 + 3)= a.
[Mnth. Trip. 1895.] (and indeed a complete general determination of the sign of discussion of the distribution of indices between S and *S") belongs to the problem of quadratic residues in the Theory of Numbers.*
17.
When a
a=
is
is
odd,
we note
that
affi+W^aF*, so that
When
18.
complete proof
identically zero. 4&, the results of Ex. 14 suggest that JT=(l+) N /, but of this requires some further discussion. t
is
r 1895.]
[In fact,
since
#" = !.
13,
tan
= SS'2(A
*For example, see Gauss, Disq. Arithm., Art. 356; Wcrke, Bd. 1, p. 441; G. B. Mathews, Theory of Numbers, pt. 1, pp. 200 iil_>: Werke, Bd. 2, p. 11 111117. H. Weber, Algebra, Bd. 1, 179 Dirichlet, Zahlenlheorie,
; ;
2, pp. IM
15,
x.
19.
tin
l.\
LMFLE8
to
.in
Tin? ivsnli
in lead
:
easy geometrical
.;
r.Mjular
heptagon
:io
gee at ODCe
'
roots of th
s7 + l)l
s<
tint
),
,
2
.i
x4 are
root
If
\\>
\\nt
'
+ //. l/<"4
,
>
/N '7l=0,
tlirni^i,
tintin'
:
\\hirh
represents
tliir
ular
r
IIVJHIIM:
ticea
insnil.nl in
f..!i>truti..n
:{
bj rith.r
".
i
/r
.c
/N 7
20.
If
that
.
(r=0,
1.
_.
an.l
l.liici
l.y
.litl.iriitiati.'ii
that
1
'
duce
t
that,
if
58
^ f rw)
'
osec^^.
...
5a
to
i>
.Mjiuil
[J/
is
1901.]
/,,
21.
If
/'
an
...1.1
r,. r int u an ,l ^
an y
intt'irn
jirinn t.
shew that
fll
2ain(S
wlure
^) i^A,
inniMr
\\hfii
6 = irqlp, ami A
MiiiM
is
any
fr.ni
t.
(l...th
/.
inch:.;
sum
than
[K:
I
:^)7.]
partial
fra.ti.ns
..f
;,
8
K4
and
\v
tin*
limit
f
In.th
sides as J>l,
get
A2<
1
1
;.]
se
A</>,
A
22.
I'ri'vi'
tin
same notation
v
(a + H#)
f,
\vhnv
is
mid and
n.i
1,
l>ut
netd
not be odd.
[\Yriu
A=
i(X
+ ]),
.r
= e' '*
2
in
tin
Kx. ^l.J
246
[CH.
23.
limit,
and
if
a sequence of complex numbers, which converges to a as a b is another complex number, shew that values of b n can
is
one of
If
is real,
finitely
both as x
tends to
and
to co.
drawn
])
complex variable
#,
^^2!
line.
*(*!)(* 2).
3!
;
converges to
on one side
of the line
and
its
modulus tends to
infinity
least
is
If an infinite set of points is taken within a square, the set has at one limiting point (that is, a point in whose neighbourhood there
set).
[For if the square is subdivided into four by bisecting the sides, at least one of the four contains an repeating infinity of points of the set this argument, there is an infinity within at least one square whose side is a/2 n where a is the side of the original square, and n is any integer. It is then not difficult to see that we can select a sequence of squares,
; ,
each within the preceding, and each containing an infinity of points of the set the centres of these squares then define a sequence of points which can be proved to have a limiting point. Finally, we can shew that within any square whose centre is at this limiting point, there is an
;
of
Sn (x)=f (x)+fl (x) + f2 (.v) + ...+fn (x), and let the roots be marked in Argand's diagram for all values of n if these roots have x = a as a limiting point, the series
27.
Suppose that
(#)
has # = a as a zero, provided that the series converges uniformly within an area including ,v = a. [HURWITZ.]
EXAMPLES
1.
B.
Powerseries.
If H,
:
K are
is
^/,,.r"
and
!>.<" respectively,
then
(1) HI!'
but
if
the radius of convergence of ^Jt .'". n is tin radius of /.' /.' convergence of 2(a n + bn )x ; 11= It' the radius is at least equal to A' and may l>e greater.
.
of
Art. 82.]
If a powerseries is /.en. at all points of a set \\hirli lias the origin Art. .">_'. .as a limiting point, then the series is < '<>in>aie identically /.en.
x.
\ powerseries cannot within
IMPLEfi
!
a
ary) at
'in.
purely real
all
jM.ints
tin
lat
example.)
in
4.
many
ra.s
ill.
radiu
.f
Convergence of
2ar*
can be determined
lun(o
a
/
,
and
that
Kal'iv
if
ha
pr..\ed
is
(te
t..
lal:tni;irl.
pp.
!:
this
limit
e.iial
A.
th<n
{.WIT >.i
t
!.
Si.nirtiin.s
=A
nluti.>n
such as
\\lni.
'
ml
t.i
drtinit'
limits
/>,
>/
as 7i*oo.
t
ThiMi
tin
radi
3
tin
of
Vl..k.
1.
1<>00, p.
293.]
5.
An
example
is
afforded
by the
series for
log[(H
in
**+i*K..>
(;j
which
tin
4^)'/,,+j=
1
and
IMOCiatod
iiadrati.
is
f^ + ^+5.r+...
oUaincd from
l<.u (l
(/
r 
.')
+ ar<i
tan r,
,
we + (/
get
f l)// M +
+3K,
ciil.
=0,
and
l.it
tht
associated
if

=0.
:ally.
.litl'ennt
:IH
rgence be expected
6.
If
"
'
'
converges within
value
>>'
i
tin
circle
.r
= fl(>0), shew
that
Com
all
and 1
value of
l'a,,r"
(
7.
If.
'/
is
the
maximum
ilian
,n
a circle
.<
/,
is
also
any
the radiu> of
p.int
within
th
com
within
ti,
[Use
8.
auchy's ine<ualit
ie
"i".
]
I'
/.'.
tlien (>e,
:
"JV ",
wh.
>educe Caudiy's
ineijiialit;
248
[For we have
[CH.
= ant
to /(#).
and
if
an
'
is
the conjugate to
n n '2a n'r* /x
1
Thus and
(Art. 82)
9.
If /(a?)
= 2a H#n
converges for #

< R,
then
where
D is
the
maximum
.a l
of !/(#)/(
#) on the
l
circle
\x\=r<R.
2a l =m[xi{f(x)f(x)}~},
that
n the series the radius of convergence of 2an# ^dnX"* will converge absolutely, provided that the argument of x is greater
Shew
if
is
series, or otherwise,
the equation
where
v is real
1.
What
to the value of 61
Shew
12.
i>
= 7r, and
explain why.
and
of
[Apply Art.
13.
89,
putting
v=J,
xe
i9
.'\
If
is
positive,
shew that
of the result of
when
w = l/10.
(l+#)
m
.J
of the powerseries
[Apply Weierstraas's
15.
[In
Lin
third,
tin
...rllirim!
,,f ./"
2,
Art.
.]
16.
d of
f/017.
Determine
tip
expan>i..n of
*
*
s
it)
in po\\er
;,,/
Jo
[I'u;
in
1
Jo
18.
Shew
tliat
(compare
17)

*
\\here there are
(/<
...},
!)
b(n
+ 2)
teims in
Q
/./.
the luackets.
Determine
19.
a siini!
if
Sh.w that
cos
0<l/e,
1
0=1 6
22
3s
'/*
Bin 6* 33
_!
cos
40
3!
[JA/M.
r//
1891.]
[Write
<t
=b=i
in
the formula
.f
K.\.
I.
Ait. 56.
lie
The
intr.nlneti,.;
complex numlters in the place of ieal oii.s may of the same type as that used in Art. 88.]
20.
It'
'
'
justified
hy an
ariju:
'.
sheii
that
Lagrang*
H+^l
ay
I

< 2.
shew
that
....
It"
OM^H
1
,
0<r<l.
/'**
(1
+ ft)"t
and
SF/
ted
;
^H
lie
,i.?i*nf'
c,,etlicieiits
iii
fiom
.\IMI,
theorem
that,
if
>o,
+3><
.neiMr).
[Note that the ai'mimen; 1) when ril
tirst
and
summation
is
valid
if
>
lj
lut
th
me
\\
'ive.]
'250
[CH.
22. If is convergent, prove n *0 and 2an a n+1 Dirichlet's test (Art. 80) that 2a,Xl is convergent if 0<0<2?r. If 26,Xl is convergent, under similar conditions, then shew that
by
cn
=a
bn
+ ^ &_, + ...+
\
provided that
Bn = \b n 

b n+l
6 M+1
6 n+2
+ ...
[Note that the sequences (A n \ (B n ) are decreasing sequences and that A n \bn On Then apply the method given in Art. 35 n (as in Art. 80). for establishing Pringsheim's theorem on the multiplication of series.]
<
<B
23.
If
the series
convergent, but not absolutely, while 2 v n v n+ i\ is convergent. that the signs of v n are the same in groups of 1, 2, 4, 8, ... terms.
is
Note
[For we have /5</4<4/2 or /4+/5</2 and /7</6<i/s or /6+/7</3Thus /2+/3</4+/6 +/o+/7 and so on for each group of 2* terms with the same sign. The convergence then follows from Art. 21. 2 v n  v n+l = + Again, 2) + )+
:
1 \
(t\
+/
(/2 +/4
(/4 +/8 )
. . .
converges.]
series
[PRINGSHEIM.]
It follows
=
converges, but not absolutely, at every point of the circle
.r
= l.
[The convergence of 2y n v,l+I , combined with limv n = 0, establishes the n and the last example convergence of ^v nx at all points except x=\
;
As regards
divergent]
,
we note
2tn
*
l
2t>1
,2/n
l
is
[PRINGSHEIM.]
are the upper limits of 1.5,, as it follows from
If H,
= b + b + ... + b n and
to ?>il,
if
A", A',,,
n rant^s from
Arts. 81, 83 that
is
and from
to GO, respectively,
'J'li
us,
if
*2,a n
we
h;ivr
0,
if
li
In
llrii'<:
path of approach lying within the lima^on of Art. 83. ^ciMrallv, for such path,
e.\i>t.
[PRINGSHKIM.]
x.
LMPLEfi
:
K
>
r\ten<i
to tin coinpN.x.
variaMe
tO
;in<l
in
part
inl.i
theorem
lyinu'
:
M
It'
to
apply
\\
,
h
\\ithin
tin
In
note Blao
_
tin
foil..
ilt
IMH. ;is
.rl,
\
t'i!ili.i
'xtelision
is
quoted on
.
I:'!',
al"
27.
If
ial
t<
;i
finite
nuinl'tr
fui'tlitr
tlii>
[\
i
.1.
it
\\itlmut
't
i't
iotj
.n
liiri.iit^.
In
two
siiiijilr
c
:
in
all
JM.^
ni.'ikr
(1)
<>,
and
.>
aj.pr.a.li.
l.y
tin
Ol
Ar
[Sincr in ras
of
(I)./lini !'</. /"
[T.\
l>y
IM! valurs.
;
can
infir
fi.m
tin
livrr^.is
cann.i
l>y
^if,,
convives, and
,f
r[
thenfore eijual to J,
find
Abel's
theorem.
In
<
;
it,,
i,
,. then we
1(1
r)
= l+^ +
.',.
.
.
>
./
+...+.r"U)
f.
.
^
1.
to
;.
...
We
then
./
as a
in
ha\e
th.n.
<m
tin
iriven
\\
lj:<A
1
on th
and 80
T^
x,'a<'h of the
1
liirht
//,.
tirnis
t<nd t>
<Mt)
lt
\\
i,,
and SO
lini
,
,i
^<i n
o
\\
lim
1
e
.1.]
28.
In
I'lom
th.
ii"
d'fmite limit.
lini z
can infer
h
th.
nee of
of
and from
tlie
Condition
lini
(i
'2'i.
i
4
&
/
;:
f
Thoe
[Tau
coiiditinns are
2^,
and,
!'.d.
^.
i;d.
:n,
UMI.
252
29.
[CH.
it
is
84,
and so
on.
Thus,
we
The two

1
series
is
satisfied for
line
from x to xn
I,...,
is
drawn
so that
= 0, (r
n1).
so that
where
if we take a broken line passing below the real axis, we find /(2) = e^ 7r [cos(a7r) <'sin(a7r)] we thus obtain two different values for/(~2) by approaching 2 along different jf>aths. This
;
indicates (what
(3
we know
wimilai
=
30.
is
manyvfelued
unit's
and a
is
an integer.
to the last
method
for
which we
find
and
tl
<
same
Hiints
.1,
.r,,
./'
.1.,,
.r
us in the
last
example, we get
ival
<(2) = Z7r.
And
with
lnkni
lim
axis,
\\<
x
I
31.
If
tin
OCX
aiv
<_'.,
tini
i
all
positivr
ai.d
if
(fl
\i>*
has a
BJ
ioint
iln
radr.
l:..d
,,f
VIVANTI
pi
Su,,(^.,
possible,
on
that
(t'..i
0<r</0
than
A'
/
the
;
HIT;
\v
can
l!
1111111!..
f>
that
tli.
84)
M
it
a d<>ul>;
kin
will
thm
X
It
OOnvergen(
>in^iilai
\\lnn
>iimiiiMl
!" tin
as
.i
I'//.,
{/
That
\\
ill
000
In
iinal hyjM.tli
and
si
nint
point.]
32.
thr
1
anall
.)
and
nnlli.'i
OOnvergenl
f.i
A',
that th
OODY<
(1) thr
'/////// a
90
i
1>
in
L:
r\.ry circle
fin
\\1.
ss
than
A',
'i
r\.ry
valur
..f
1
tn=0
I
<lt.
n=0
i
tin
\..w on this
uniformly
r.jual
!
imi\ rru'nit.
and
so
th
t
be
ti!ivri'_u'nt
and
//
in,
if
is
f '.,
\\.
ha\r similarly
/;
. .
,.d
/;
if
M^
is
thr niaxinnini
ii
ol
=r,.
Eenoe,
N=0
and
1.
LIT.
Q(
<M^
so that
r.
li.l.
11..
p.
206.
254
[CH.
F(x)G(x) =
n=0
2 (^
#,)'"
number
L
we
find
we
n=0
(/z)
of series: am'
 r),
if

*

= r.
please
/x,
independent of
71
n ^A nx =
EXAMPLES
C.
Miscellaneous Series.
the series
*La n
is
where f
of
all
F(x, n) converges absolutely, provided that 2 a n \n ^does so r n the real part of x. Thus, in particular, if ^a nx has a radius
convergence greater than 1, "Za n F(x, n) is absolutely convergent for But if the radius of values of x (other than real negative integers). convergence is less than 1, ^La n F(x,ri) cannot converge.
Finally,
if
is
equal to
1,
suppose that
where A >
a.
and

a> n
<A
then
F(x, n)
x
is
absolutely convergent if
[KLUYVER,
Gammafunktion,
1)3, J.)4.]
[Note that
2.
F(.r,
n)cuT(x)n~
.']
Shew that, with the notation of the 2 a n F(x, n) converge for the same
/
last
values of x.
;
[Apply Art. 80
l/vn
3.
= n*F(x, n) (2), taking v n then are n easily proved to be convergent.] \jv fi\
that in the notation of Ex.
/'(.''I,
1,
Shew
n)F(x\, n + l) = F(*, n), and deduce that S/'Xr, n) converges only when f >1 that is, F(.i; Shew also that 2( l) n /X#, n) convi can only converge absolutely.
;
u)
if
^>0;
4.
to
deduce
the
corresponding results
for
The
Ex.
19,
Ch.
1.)
''
]
*
represents the function
5.
#
if
1_^41_.^
.r/(l .r),
.r<l, and
1 /(I
.<), if
.r>l.
[J.
TANNKUV.]
are botli convergent for all values of ./, except Kor applications, sec N IKI.SKN,

0,
ti'iiniii<ifnnktion<
x.
6.
LMPLE8
1
:ie
of
comph\
nuiiilMrs
n.h
th.it
iily
to
>0, >lnu
that
ho series
erge* abftolut.ly
f..r all
uniformly
within
I
within
'
th.p
illt
dly
Cw

l.y
the circle
isilly tin.it
.\
liy
/,',
= r,
\\liich
an:ll
muni"!
enough to
any
vrlappmu'
"f
t
7.
'I
.vampi.
>M.h
iionur a .traiu'ht
lin.
and ancirciii!
that
 CH
^.k>
'
a constant
\Vltll
undtr thrsr
to
Tx,,.t
nfi v
distril.ut.d
8.
Ajain.
if
tin
pointin*
v,
although not
tli. in
alon a
linr.
tliat
t\\n
of
lilar statfini'iits
can
mad. with
.
i
n(iA
fuii'
t
iin)l.
set
of thi \\.
tl,
bheory
n<t\\i'ik of
JM.;I
>f
elliptic
ions, the
joints
r,
Inill'.;
jiaia!.
fall
notr
that
imt
witliin
<ir.r.
niol'i
than
^,,t
]n>int^
.all
li
liMv
)/,
(ni
;
.
Eence 2
ron\fl\
a stijiuncr of
is
9.
I'
i.al
numli.rs
\vhich
i>
'
and
if
conijihx
numl"
part
jto^itiM,
tin
B81
lit.
.:/
+''>! an<l
<.!/
.)/+,/
=A
(I ,
tin
ratio
,,f
th,.
,n.ral
t
'" /f
)/(l
A
.
if
and BO
<>n
if
MC
othrr hand,
if
that
//
^3.
i
tin
A
A,,)1
.
,
/,'
s
!
'i
use
2
'
'
+
i>
'
tinit.
up).r
limit
//
.nt.]
256
10.
[CH.
if
2a M
is
7* is n 3/f
convergent
of
is Thus, in general the region of convergence of *2a n positive. bounded by a line parallel to the imaginary axis. Further, in case 2a n is convergent, the series converges uniformly in a
M^
bounded by the
lines rj=
i
K, where
is
any assigned
number.
[CAHEN.] [For then we can use Abel's theorem (Arts. 80, 81), merely noting that we may write Vn = HM~_ in virtue of the last example.]
11.
It
is
the same type as in the last example) by any path between the two lines ?;= K (where K is an assigned number), the series has a limit /I, and if lim {a n f(n)/f'(n)} = Q, then 2a w converges to the sum A.
is
:
not hard to modify the result of Ex. 27 (p. 251) so as to apply where f(n} is a positive function which
to
x tends
u. Phys.,
Bd.
Prove that
if
O<#<^TT,
*
cosx
13.
cos 3^ cos 5x + ) ^ o
\
...
)=cos.r +
if
cos 3.r
o3
cos
5x
R2O
+ ...
From Ex.
2,
O^^^TT,
sin
_ sin x X(TTX)TT
,
v
sin
I
3#
bx
+...,
^p
if
^3
[EULER.]
From Ex.
13,
shew that
2
^=v=%Tr,
siii3#
sin 5^7
7r.r/7r
#2 \_
~ar
~5*~
1536
15.
v/2
2,
if
\TT^X^.
t
1
3x
cos
cos
*ix
1. 3.
5~3. 5.75.7.9"
_TT = CC
8
~3
and
find the
sum
that
16.
Shew
0<y<l.
[Put
= 0/27Ti,
^=27r//
iii
Ivx.
:i.
Art.
!>n.
x.
17.
r'n.i.1
:
i:\
\\n
it'
iduce that
li
between th
two even
integt
f
aild rXHUlillf the
r.i
[Writ, *
18.
(A
that
8r)r,
f
.]
Shrw
and divide
19.
\\li.r
this r<iiati>n
int..
ival
and imaginary
_.;<' 0'r
.
Sh.w that
_.
//
rintar
9
is
.'
tli,
ditr.ivn.T
r
between
tineerifl
and
tin
int^!
90,
to
v.
d
is
L'>/)
iii
20.
If
"
an intgrr and
1
'
<
><./<!, we
4n*
th<<>
V'
,~i
\vhri'

m*  ri*
ixdudtd from
.,
00
I
~~n
[Kx.
tlic
if
if if
</,,( / /)
'
summation.
3.
Art. 90.]
r
21.
If
1"'th
y an
lirt
\vrn
and
j.,
w ha\
following
7r(./i),
r>v,
.'
or
('
.{),
or
i'.v)
= 7r[</>,(,) +
T'[</,,(,)
+ // 
J],
if
.r>y, .r<y,
2.
or
<.V,o>
,'.,
+ </>,(,/) 4 .iH,
if
+J
is
22.
By writing
sllll:
Sllll;

!i)
t.
0<<>r.
of
MI
Use
Stok<s'>
mil (Art.
dcduc> cadi
the otlnr
'/'
l>y
ditlrivntiatin.i:.
[JVM.
it
23.
rxainjilf.
2

that
77
>
7T
'
_sini
.
1
1 I)"" '**"
<..<...,
Slllll
c=
and obtain
l.v
a
.
+(!)"
258
24.
[CH.
when x
is
!,
lim(iAi) *
a positive integer.
Evaluate
#2 [(H.r>4) and
i i
7,
p.
23.]
26.
From Ex.
10,
27.
Prove that
where
log H c
of logc being taken.
any determination
28.
[HARDY.]
[GRAM.]
Shew
i
that
so that
t
n^l= +
2
*i
</J
[If
= J(l+iV3),
= l, we
Now
write
that
29.
Shew
that
"1
_^
w^r
TT
[We
L
have
^
= 4
where
$f4?\i+to
J_Y_1 i),
/
is
1.
and
30.
Apply a method
x.
31.
\MILIProve
ti
259
that
til.
lr;it
Vtlllf
/j_v '
[.I//'/.
7 rip. 1892.]
*)+/
and so the
32.
%U+(* + i>)~n+<*iy)r
sun.
Shew
that
l
4/1
1
,
..
7J\/3
,7T V
^ech^.
[M,,
1898.]
+ ,T^ 2^^"2M^rV'
\\li.iv
<,>
= ^(l4'x
easily reduced
tliat
ii
tli*
.irivn
seriei
A7r{cosec(i7rto)
t<
whirh
33.
is
tin
jivin
fmni.]
Sh.w
aivtan,
1
.,
arc tan.,
.\
tan
...
......
=arc tan
L
1891.]
[.!/
[It
is
<>asy
t<>
prove that
aivtan5 "
.'
 an tan f
*
N
X
x
..I,
\ 3/
and
it
follows that
th.
^ivtn
il
to
\,
\vhi.
:;.
.\i'pl_\
iil
34.
Sluw that
'=
"
L
In partiiulai \ve
tintl
\\
\n + .r/
ith
H3
v/ 1
l<s
i
01=
T 
+ are
tan
rsinh(Tr.r)~l
.
.')
260
[CH. X.]
[We have
and
log
tan(^)
In each of these, change x tox + iy, and equate the imaginary parts on
the two sides.]
35. The points P, Q have coordinates (p, q\ ( the point with coordinates (na, 0). Shew that
 p,
if
q) respectively
is
then
[If
Verify that,
if
is
a positive integer,
= B BP+ = Q
l
after expansion.
Shew
that
fcotf1^fjB^.B.f;...,
and that
x
g 2 sin
(Jar)""
in
the coefficients
En
Prove that
=1385,
111 l3^
1
# = 1, ^ = 5,
2
^ = 61,
XXX.,
+ 5^7^+... = 2^,
TT''"
+I
^ )f
.'"
3.]
37 that
cos x
cosh x
iog^40.
^ n+lcos
,<,_
,,
Bn
^)^(2^r
[Math. Trip. 1890.]
Assuming
is large.
Stirling's
when n
CHAPTER
\
XI.
SKIM
96.
Short bibliography.
follow in
Tin
are
th:
principal
BOOTOeS
l'r<.ni
which this
is,
1901.
2,
1896, p. 103.
1899, p.
]>.
!.
Normal
<
10,
1.
n. ISDO,
;.
IN.
H',
II.
H.MM'Y,
'///
'.<> i.
ij'.iT
'am
,,.
(published 1902).
^ //,///.////
I:.
./" '/>////
nf
M,iti.
01.36,1908,1).!
LI.
BtoT,
I'.HH.
II.
I'.
I
I
p.
317.
1
l^"'
1
..
I'.
..
\
/
\.\\
Yolk.
l!n;.,
j..
<
i'/.ig,
1906.
97.
Historical introduction.
tiniiu'tlii..ls
<!'
r.rfniv
Analysis
before
tin(
had
IM.II
put
on
sinv
footing,
and
in jiarticular
l>y
tlnory of
convergence had
little
t
Alirl
and
in uin in iir
ntical
and
which
tin
art
n..w rallc.l
lnin
If
s<
trnii.s
to decrease,
tak. the
and
r.ach
minimum, afterwards
incr
we
sum
*T
listi;
rs
trgtnt aa including
in
viotis
quotations.
a<i
262
SERIES. [CH.
XI.
we may hope to obtain an approximation with a degree of accuracy represented by the last term retained; and it can be proved that this is the case with many series which are convenient for numerical calculations (see Art. 130 for examples).
are sufficiently small,
An
by astronomers to calculate the planetary positions it has been proved by Poincare * that these series do not converge, but yet the results of the calculations are confirmed by observation. The explanation of this "fact may be inferred from
Poincare's theory of asymptotic series (Art. 133). But mathematicians have often been led to employ series of a
different character, in
decrease,
and
:
may
increase to infinity.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
12! +3! 4! +5! 6! + .... " sum " of a nonconvergent
series as the
numerical value of the arithmetical expression from the expansion of which the series was derived. Thus he defined
the
"
sums
"
~1 + 1~2'
and
of Art. 98 (see
p.
J__l.
^_
_1.
(1 + 1)24'
,^_
1 + 23'
_L
In principle, Kuler's definition depends on the inversion of two limits, which, taken in one order, give a definite value, and taken in the reverse order give a nonconvergent series. Thus series
(!) is
as x tends to 1
by
2/w (c) is not convergent, Euler defines the 2/n (#), when this limit is definite a definition
if
;
L'ormuluti'd
.it
!M).
13,
1890; in particular
i:t.
97
'I'
fflSTOR*
tlii
\i.
[KTEODUi
<
i<
definition
IM
('all.t
raided the
in;.;
>ljcti>n
in
t
tliat
the series
can
aUo
ohtained
l,y writ
he series
(5)
,
+*+...,
istead of $.
n,,i
I
whereas the lefthand side th.n This ol.j.ct ion ..!' 'all.t 's \\as
(
,\
ti
h.ul<l
rk of Lagrange's, written as
ami
that th.n
tin <lri\..l
..tiM
!>
1+01+1+01+1401+.
Tin la;
I
imfl
....
to
!.<>.
(i
BO
.
that
,
tin "
',
which
th
i
value
aeriee
<
^i\,. n
1
},y
1(
.ft
1.
hand
<>.
^\>\<
.f
.">
In
nri^inal
).
i,
o.
i,
o, ...,
of which the
Kulci's
sum.
lla\inu rc'ard
KulT and
Miii^
may
ftgrOe
with
Dnnl
in
usin^ the
statement
that
the
ollcr
n:athMiiaticians
that
had
in
sutlicient ly
if
^(.o<l
vil
COrrecl
themselves
i]l.1
,/,/////,/////.
.f
rxumplr
1>\
tli
is
atl"nl.il
i.
paau
'
in
1.
p.
rier
is
ol)t;iiniiiu
\vliat
'
\v<
should
}
IK>\V
call
K"iui.
la
inctk>O
f\
ih
and
*Thi
tluMMvm
of
in
more satisfactory
l;,l.
x'.i,
basis
_'.,
Fiolxnius c'
Ait.
."!
ls>u,
],.
iiat
liln
*!
:iu
'
sum
,(
f
1)
lim
J.
with a few
al.
MB
>t
264
Tims the
SERIES. [CH. XL
and may therefore
coefficient of sin x appears as 11+11 + be expected to be if we adopt Euler's principle. As a matter of fact this is correct, since
,
sinh
so that
f(x)*v&xdx=^.
Abel and Cauchy, however, pointed out that the use of nontheir anxiety to
convergent series had sometimes led to gross errors; and, in place mathematical analysis on the firmest
foundations, they felt obliged to banish nonconvergent series from their work. But this was not done without hesitation
;
thus
Abel
writes
to .his
former
teacher
Holmboe
in
1826
(Oeuvres d'Abel, 2me. ed. t. 2, p. 256): "Les series divergentes sont, en general, quelque chose de bien fatal, et c'est une honte qu'on ose y fonder aucune demonstration ... la partie la plus
Pour la des Mathematiques est sans fondement. il est vrai, mais les resultats sont justes, plus grande partie, c'est la une chose bien etrange. Je m'occupe a en chercher
essentielle
la raison,
And Cauchy,
the
preface
of
his
Analyse Algebrique
par exemple, qu'une
un peu dures
"
the asymptotic property of Stirling's 132 below), by means of a method which can be applied to a large class of powerseries. But the possibility of obtaining other useful asymptotic series was generally over
Cauchy
established
in
looked by later analysts and after the time of Cauchy, workers the regions of analysis for the most part abandoned all
;
In England, attempts at utilising nonconvergent series. however, Stokes published three remarkable papers! (dated 1850, 1857, 1868), in which Cauchy's method for dealing with
Stirling's series was applied to a number of other problems, such as the calculation of Bessel's functions for large values
of the variable.
Ixlow.
97, 98
M.I:
\l.
ON8IDBB
Hut
no
eii.ral
tin
.1
ISM!,
<Uotd
In
in
Ait
in articles
tin
the
t'oll.\\
t
we
i)l'
^hall
r.
.r
mod
par!
e..ntine
1
theory
non
al
)i
1'nuvl
in
MMI. although
we
<!> not
98.
In
of
th'
r.sults
ol.taiiKd
ins
in
th
]>ast
l.y
th
use of
a
non
I'.rlVrtly
j.ivcis,
prnhaM. that
juirpo.^
\ve
can attach
niranii
sud
uiilir M
may
cnal'i'
1
MI
!'<
.r
ivergenl of formal
calculation.
jtrictioDB,
Tim we attempt
to formui.i'
which
n a
tvergenl
a
call
not).
t<
asociatf
f
\\ith
it
dclinitc
function
....
It
i:
i
of course
nl
olvins
hut
tliat
it
the
(letinition cho.n
to a
l;i
arl.itrary;
>lnull
he such that
lie,
(
calciilatioii
M'
COUT
aeriea
i'leiit
BUBD
'i
with
a noii
convergenl
i
not
conf'unded
.
in the sense of \rt.iii: hut it will Convergent confusion if the deiinit i<ui is such that tin same operation,
when
applied
.'In
i..
I..
Qvergenl
t.il
yields thtliat
sum
rate,
in
tli.
ordin
i..ii,
..in
hi.,
Kuiir.
"
't'
;it
;.n\
wai perfectly
lnt \\tf
"
sum
lu
nmi
.nvcr'_:ii;
Of I
hat tin
Tliu>
says
(jj<
losl
i
U
1
d.\
ii>u.ly raiiiu't
1;
I:
doesS.
mi
1
.'.
in tin/
>nlin:r
i>,
th larpi
tin iinira
ith tlu
lull
account of this
IM.T;.
rory see
Ar
w).
266
SERIES. [CH.
XI.
And he adds, after referring to various difficulties, that contradictions can be avoided by attributing a somewhat different meaning to the word sum. "Let
us say, therefore, that the sum of any infinite series
the expansion of which the series
infinite series 1
is
is
generated.
x+x
x* + ...
will be

the expansion of the fraction, whatever number is put in place of x. If this is agreed, the new definition of the word sum coincides with the ordinary meaning when a series converges and since divergent series have no
;
sum,
proper sense of the word, no inconvenience can arise from this new terminology. Finally, by means of this definition, we can preserve the utility of divergent series and defend their use from all objections."
in the
In writing to N. Bernoulli (L. Euleri Opera Posthuma, t. 1, p. 536), Euler adds that he had had grave doubts as to the use of divergent series, but that he had never been led into error by using his definition of "sum." To this
Bernoulli replies that the saine series might arise from the expansion of " if so, the sum " would not be definite
;
to which Euler rejoins that he does not believe that any example of this
However, Pringsheim (Encyklopddie, Bd. I., A. 3, 39) has examples to shew that Euler fell into error here but in his definition almost exclusively in the form Euler used practice
given a
number
of
and
if
which do not bottom, from those held by modern workers on this subject although of course his attempted definition leaves something to be desired,
It will be seen
differ greatly, at
;
restricted to this case, Euler's statement is correct. from these passages that Euler had views
in the light of
modern
analysis.
It is to be carefully
of nonconvergent series
merely
always symbolic the operations being convenient abbreviations of more complicated transin
" shorthand Naturally this background. labour us to the of not enable avoid representation" does justifying the various steps employed but when general rules
formations
the
have been
It
laid
down and
in
firmly
established
we may apply
may
work
the
particular case. that we might just as well writr be urged very likely in full, and so avoid all risk of misinterpretation.
any
But experience shews that the use of the series frequently suggests profitable transformations which otherwise might never
be thought
of.
An
c.\ainj)k;
of
this
(//.
KuKr's
t.
ronvspmuli'iu.' with
;
Nicholas JWimiilli
1,
p. f>47)
uhrir
ilu> ivul
98,99]
olij.
BBL'fl
WTBORA1
Caning
ti
ll.
prOTM
lirt
that
th M
'!'
which
In
nlitain
tin
intrirral
if
;h''
"
(l
in
tin
"th.T hand,
liv
which
In
li:nl
olitaind
fr tin
transformation
j?
x
ih
2.r
&r
3.r
3oit
1+
aiid
it
1:
1+
rr
l.v
I.
TT~ r+~
.r..v.(l
"~Ldt = 1 1+AY 1+
N"\v this nlatiun
\v..rk
l.t.>
____
1+
1
1+
1+
1
1f
ill
n.it
iUggi
i
naturally \vithut
is
tlie
alitady
nnai kid,
it
r\ idnit
tli..'
1>\
Writing
Kultr cltains
th< c'.ntinu.d
fia.tion tlic
nuivfrgente
1>
and
value
Ity
usini;
tli
l'Uh
and
1lth
In
int"i
tin
numerical
Hr then
and
f
tin
summable
<>!'
series.
la>t
general considerations
th.
mticl.
lta\.t
n\\ to be
In
aome
mivrntinnal imjmin^
tak.n
Hardy,
in
tli:
[.MJMIS
//'
iii"ti.i
rniulatt'd
tlu
inllowin jnincijilr
definib ordt
vdku
A'.
Imt.
268
SERIES. [CH.
XI.
meaningless expression
we may agree
to interpret
as
meaning
X.
~=o
f(x,
n)dx =
[lim/(#, n)]
n><x>
dx
JO
But true under certain restrictions* on the function f(x, n). definite may happen that the righthand side is perfectly
be
while the lefthand oscillates between certain values (which may oo and + x ). In such cases, Hardy's principle is that we
may
limit.
sum
to
n+1
terms
and that
<&(x)dx
Jco o
is
con
vergent,
when
is
not
if
so,
we have an
of a non
integral ivhich
may
"
sum "
convergent
series.
<j>
The
n (x)
n (x)
= e*un x n/nl,
x.
where
un
is
independent of
too o
n (a?)
dx = un
arid
let
= e~ x u(x)
un
us say. We must assume t that the coefficients that the seriefl u(x) converges for all values of x.
are such
*A
fAt
few simple cases will be found in the Appendix, Art. 172. least for the present; but see Art. 130 below.
99, 100J
I'll
>\
>l
Then provided
//</
//
integral
conve,
we may
tl>
agree to associ
/':
<
///'/A
/A*
*grie*
^
e
i*
series
this int.^ral
i;ty
ma\
IK rall'd
called
tin
MMIMIU1
Tin
sum may
!>
d.n,t,d
l.y
tin
syml)ol
This definition
tlir
Borel, who deduced it. 1, definition uivni hrlnNV ill Al' III: liUt BUICe the
is
due to
i'r..m
lias
].ro\..i
more serviceable
rd
tlii>
in
tin
suls.jurni
in\<stijati<Hi.
it
as
i'uinlaiinMital
d.tinit
.n.
100.
It
Condition of consistency.
oltvinus that
tin
is
<lfinit
in ^ivm
in tin
last
artirl'
will
^U
a^r.s with
tin
sum
shall
"
imw pm\
that
if
oditiOD
i'l'
consistency
is
satistinl.
Fr.
<
Then
and consequently
all
e,
fi.
St.
tins.
',
/j,
rics
\J
.,
//
r
''
e~ x
;
\alucs
df
1,r
,/
within an interval
\\lniv
may
be
arliitrarily
f\ o
by A
rx
(
S^
u

*A
''~ z
,c?a;
Jo
fA
where
,\
.+...toa
New,
Alul's
since
,\
is
jm.siti\r.
tin
aence; ami
r..nM.inntIy \vc
L':!
Icimna (Ait.
t> tin
um
\,,.
A(\,\
;
'
<//(\,
,\,
)f //
270
SERIES.
[CH.
XL
where H, h are the upper and lower limits of UQ+U^ ... + ur as r varies from 1 and to m hm are the limits as r varies
from in to
oo
Now
hm = s
to oo
,
if
,
^un
Hm =
s,
we can
choose
so that
[h(\ Q \ m + h m \ m = h m ^se
]
and
lim [#(X
A* oo
 X m ) + H m \ m = Hm ^
]
00
Hence we
see that
A>oo
But
to
s,
is
lim
A^co
2u
o
n\i
=8
>
or,
what
But
if
is
_ ^v
2un
we can
find in so that
however great
Thus, since
may
be.
lim [h(\
X>co
 \ m ) + h m \ m = h m > N,
]
00
we
see that
lim
A>>3
^ un^n = ^
o
r

Since
is
arbitrarily
great,
this
X.
inequality
is,
implies
that
tends to infinity
n
o
with
That
is
divergent,
it
v when 2*** ^
o
;
divergent.
Of course
this
is
only as
should be
inconsistencies arising.
*For
=leA,
Xm = l 
+ i\2 +
...
m
;X
)e*>
and each
of
these
1.
100,101]
ADDITION 0V TERMS TO
/
SI
MMAHLE SEWER
00
101.
It
Relation between
'/
//
and
>
i
.loes
tliat
the
suma
are related
tin
8= <*UH and
,
<J/
i
in
such a
<>f
way
thai
tin
existence
definition
>!'
either
ini]
existence
relation
the
ther.
The
tin
9l Jo
1186
r'y/t. /)'/.',
////
'
.s'= e*u'(i''i Jo
a;
2
,
/.''
+";:.).+
are mh that u(x)
<
the coefficient
I'oi
any valniii'4"
of
./
anl
o MISC. jn.nt ly
for
8*
Art.
")0
can be
tin.:
)n
int.'iat
tin
expression
r
ny
\>
tind
relation
x'^
gw(a;)
I
+x.
exist, tlie limit
>,
>'
l>oth
r
//
lini

(./)]
><*>
also:
this
limit
must
he
zero,
Miiri
cnld
not conver^..
(S.c
Art
Appendix.)
Heini.
/,,,,,.
i>i<,
>>,/></
:
flnif
Jx>t/i
integrals st
aeriei
s'=/i u
in
j)i'nierti'>.
Beiiea
<
M'
bere would
"
li
ly
sel<
reduce the
r
the
sum
of
utility "
of
sunuuahl'
I'.nt
it
must be rememhnvd
Jo 'o
I
that
the oonv<
l>y
no mean enSUTQfi
ti;
delinit value
lini
X >ao
as
is
cliai
fn>m Art.
Dili
!'
the
Apii.nilix.
It follows that
<>/ ./////
definite
valw
272
SERIES. [CH.
XI.
An
paper),
(p.
30 of his second
Then
but the integral for
s'
=
is
does converge.
The reader
u(x) tends to a
that
we can infer
lim e~ x u(x) = 0,
when
the
integral
Jo
r
e~ x ii(x)dx is convergent;
also.
and consequently
e~*u(x)dx converges
For, write
y= Jo
/
e~ xu(x)da
,,
Then
and consequently
*
d?y _ _ x
The
last expression
?,
as
increases to
oc
so write
and then
(TJ
T;')
0.
A",
so that
If
YI
;
these
has an unlimited number of extreme values, //' vanishes at each of Thus hence at any extreme value beyond A', we have rj <
.
 \
T?<
or
if
r;
Iini7;
= 0, and
must be
say a; thus
r)'
must approach a definite 77 approaches the limit a. Now, from Art.
and so
101, 102
that
if
ADDITION OF
:ij,,r..:i.li.
si
\]
\ i.
/
tin
limit
o,
",
tli.n
//
'.r
limit.
Tim* Wl
hav
liiu
if
Inn
(,/ .r)
a,
be zero.
l.ut
ii
and
,,
hu\v
tli
h
?)
= 0,
lim
X^oo
;/'
= 0.
X>oo
or
Jo
"ttto+l e*u'(x)dx t Jo
and
Mm
x>>
that
tin
''//(. /')
= 0,
vergent.
]>r<\ idcd
integral
tin
Jo
nsult
:
Accordingly W6 have
//' f/te
series
vmmdbUj
//"
//
00 "/>"
the series
..
:
//'
r' I
1.
?////>
mode
of stating these
i.sults
/>c
is
the following:
///<"/
,
prefixed to
remain swwmdbl* //" .sums will be related as if (/' tm> series were convery Hut fhi removal of even 6 singl* term from /// tin' of tl ////// destroy j>n>/r(;/ of swmrm
v.
/
and
/"
oortefl
"'iff
102.
It
if
(*u n
and
oo
/
o
are also
suniiuahl..
and
Kurthtr.
ii'
''
is
any
1'act.u
independent <f
o
/'.
l.s.
274
SERIES. [CH. XL
We
sum
are
all
to
k,
Thus
o
although, as we have just proved (Art. 101), is not necessarily summable when + u^ + u^ + us +
103.
is
so.
Examples of summable
u(x) = \x +
/oo
series.
Ex.l.
Here
^^+
dx = L
=e~ x
foo o
e~ x u(x)dx=
e~ 2x
Jo
[Compare
Art. 97.1
Assuming
this series to be
s,
we can
at the beginning
so that
= J.
,
Ex.2.
get
Here again, assuming the series summable, we obtain 1 at the beginning of ts, giving value s by prefixing
}
its
or
Ex.3.
Here
and so
Jo
Jo
iJ = J.
102, 103]
LMPLES OF 9U1CB LT
tli.
Assuming
siimiiialiilit y.
!!
us write
!UI ,1
so
til,
9.12+84+564 0+00+12+84+J
corresponding
i.rm.
MI. 102).
Adding
11411411 + ...}
<
(by Kx. l)
T
Ex.
4.
J.
)=1+^,
Of
Hijir,.
pi.
,\
;
+...=t'X 1 )(^)
e
.)
= er(co+i8in)
that
1)
id.d
is
not zero or a
inulti}
tind
thi
Mini
Jn
6U= T
1
COSO
S1110
n
= s(H2\
tin
Of coon
In
iiiin^
the
of
suimuablr property,
sann drvici as
in
MHH can
'2.
nlitaiiud
l>y
nnaiis
tin
Kx.
which
[nation
e(('+;N)+l=
and there!
Henl
(7fifl
l/(l<
fmind.
with
tli
rrsnlt just
Thus wr
and
In
havt.
nianinr
w'+
find
t!
'
')(
+

,__
0+ sin 26
t
>+...Jc
H.
rhan^in^ I'nnu
re
l'tain
.
,
.=
rin0am20+ain30...
..)
276
SERIES. [CH.
XI.
Ex.5. If
and
we have
using Ex.
(l
+e +e
4ie
+...) = "/(!
e
<')>
Hence
It
will
6 (7=0, TT). (0 =Jcosec0 be noticed that these two values are the same as
< <
by summing
and
but there
is
sin
equating these
G and
0,
S.
JTT
we
obtain
cos30 + cos50
...=
^a^\
if
sm30 + sin50...=.
Ex.
to
6.
It is easy to
is
not equal
+ 0, we
cos
sin
have
cos
sin
sin
cos
104.
+ cos 20 cos 20+.. = + sin 20 sin 20+ =0, + cos 20 sin 20 + = ^sin 0/(cos
g,
...
cos 0).
is absolutely
summable
Joo o
if the integrals
/
e~ x u(x)dx
and
Jo
\
e~ x u^(x)dx
all abso
. . .
is
absolutely summable, so also is the series obtained by removing any number of terms from the beginning of the series for the integral function associated with the series
:
by hypothesis
Jn
103, 104
It
OL1
in
I
MM .Mill.
follows
\irtu
of
in
Art.
1"1
lim
X>!
liine*wA (a;) = 0.
nimbly.
'/
*
f...
is
90 also art
"/ ;
/A
series
<//,i/
their
sums
<n>
And, conversely,
Bumrndble, BO also
'I'h.it
'/
is
//"' th<>
M'rii'*
'
series
formed by prefixing u
<>!'
is,
\vt
can
ini'.i
th convergence
[
tli.
e*\u(x)\dx
Jo '0
IV.
.111
that of
I
i
"
o'cte.
Jn '0
T.
irvr
this,
h/t
us writ,'
Jn
Thus
BO
li
')^
\U(.'
Id nc.Jo
'' ,
//(./)
J./'
urrtainly OOD
.!.
Jo
I'.ut
&(x)d&
is
(Miivrr^vnt.
the r..n\
i
nee of tin/ /.
last
iiit'_Ljral
can be
l>y
1..
HM
Jo
above.
in
\'irtue
For we
liave tin
identity
fJT o
/>(
and
ive,
\
o
.1
Jo
I
Jo
278
SERIES. [CH.
XI.
is positive,
the integral
is
Art. 166 of the Appendix. It will be noted that this argument cannot be reversed
convergent,
by
and
e~ x
(j>'(x)dx is
Jo
Jao o
e x $(x)dx.
e*<$>(x)dx
is
exist,
may
be obtained by taking
so that
It follows
to
is
3,
Art. 166).
in a powerseries for
any
not simple.
absolutely summable series, we may refer to those given already in Art. 103. Thus, for instance, take Ex. 2; here it will be seen that
As examples
of
and
so that
dx*
the
dx
is
>
0.
Similarly
other
are
proved
to
be
absolutely
summable.
105.
For we have
so that

u(x)
^ v(x),
5> n
Jo
is
if
vn =
un
\.
Now,
e~*v(x)dx
e*u(x)dx
{oo
is
absolutely convergent.
104, 105
Mill.!
279
Further.
tli.'I
m
.same
I
...
is
absolutely conthis
tin
argument applied
\dx
to
series
shews
that
tin
int.
Jo
That
is,
an absolutely n.h

suiiiinable.
in. lit.
is
that
any
lias
<<>n\
utely
Minmiablr,
const
not correct. as
llar.ly
(in
h
b..n
I
proved by an example
.a
]
n id.
.1
l.y
is
per.
pp.
~>
2&).
This
fxaiiijil.
^ivrn hy
takin.u'
in
\\liiih
K,
I/'
i
\\li.n
/
r,
and
ill.
i
"
\\ li'ii
i
lid
M]
;
that
'lie
lai<>t
saint
.id.i
s
t
\\hich
:
i
and
that
'*
<
\
u(x)\>
L.inu'
K r,
\\lni. K
r
intn \
any intu
i.
that
^'nt.
It
is
easy to construct simple series which aiv suiimial>l<\ an example is ^i\n by the series
For here
and so
I
')=
x ['
(c.s./+
sin
./)
!],
v , f*cosic (j)<Lr=\
c'f/sinaj 
_ ^ ==
,
fl
But
SO
i
ucc
"i
*\
,.*
Jo
U(x)\dx^\ Jo
.
lit.
{
In iVLranl
t
this srriis.
\v
m>t<
that
O/^
\vhirli
'
tends
t<
B6TO, a
i
in
thu>. as
in
Art.
1"1,
we
B66 that
"'
I
ges.
280
SERIES. [CH.
XI.
\er
u'(x)\^j2lx2la?,
is
if
Thus the
integral
JQ
e~ x u'(x)
\
dx

divergent.
Vac
I
Similarly,
we
e~xv>(x)dx,
/oo
I
A.
being any
e~ x \u x (x)\dx.
all
Thus
the
series
^A +
%+ + %+
i
+ "
summable for
values of
A.,
If the
summable
series.
if
wn = u
then the series
is
also absolutely
summable, and
W = UV;
For then we have
I
Jo
e x u(x)clx\
 (x+v)
e~
Jo
= lim
where the
square of side X.
\\ A>oo J J
u(x)v(y)dxdy,
taken over the area of a
Now, in case u(x) and v(y) are both positive, the integral taken over a triangle such as OA'C' lies between the integrals taken over the squares OABC and OA'B'C'] so that, since the
latter integrals both approach the limit uv when OA tends to oo, the integral over OA'C' will also approach the limit uv. 15nt if u(x) and v(y) are not always positive, the difference
105, 106
Mi I.TIN. h
tinini
\TIN
n.\ /;'
I.
between
tin
OA BO and
'
integral
"'WaOI.
1
'"
.I//'
''//.!
an<l
this
is
the
dil
A

C
'
A
"
'(
'i)\dy
Jo
'
and
Jo
'tt(j")
tLc
\
e"V\v(
which teniU
to
r
I
ii,
e~*
and
r
<
'
Jo
Jo
lim
A
'
>/:Jj
<lxdy,
t.
!
when
tin
integral
is
now
takn
i
"\.r
th aiea of
wl.^
sil77
_\.
us write
tli
= .,+,/
Ixconif
= ^,
and thn
intrTal
Jn

liy.].
Jo
.(
Owinotd the
^I'.'nt
I'.)
fact
l'>r
\\
//
./
).
(//)
aiv
al>s,.
lately
any \ah
fti)]*(dr)
hy
the
rule
t'or
inultijdicat
i.
.11
of
Beriefi
(Ari
uid
the
productSeriee
will
iliat
obvi
be
uniformly
convergent
with
resped
we may then
in
integrate terinhyterni.
the
>r
and
['
,,
tl.al
I
282
SERIES. [CH.
XI.
Thus the
where
and accordingly
we have
the equation
uv =
'0
the
sum
and
is
summable.
It
we can
because
TP()
if
=
Jo
u {(l
*i)} I
v (&)\ d>j.
Hence,
we
we
find
e~%
JA o
e~ W(g)\dg<\ Jo
\u(x)\dx.
Jo
e~y\v(y)\dy
Joo o
e*\u(x)\dx.\ e~y\v(y)\dy.
Jo
is
To complete the demonstration of the theorem, the two absolutely summable series
Their product
is
us multiply
where
106
'I'll.'!'
Ml UII'LK
\TI<
)="',,+
",V
...,/'
"
anil
so
ah

JO
'Itrtf)
ami therefore
ix
<
Jo
ahsnint.iy
W((
gent
:
No*
i^
HT()
i*()
,4^;
r
<<>...
tin
t'unction assuiatrl
w=
whicli
is
4 /r t 4 /'._>+...
its
sum
is
rual to that of
0+ "'+"'!+ "',4...
If
(Art
101).
we multiply
Mimmable
'+'"'
ser;
//
;{
+"
+...
'
,
'i
we can
<
'out
inning the
].r..cess.
VT6
can
pn\v
that
Jo

e.n
for
any
int.
ue
.,f
\;
an1
aceuplin^ly
the
!'<)hltely
slJininahle.
By
nn the addition
t'nllnwili.
//'
/'
.
suniinali
the
''
p
Ill
IIKllll'
ng
fl
/
si
'/'//
i4
un#
6c
284
107.
series.
SERIES. [CH.
XI.
Ex.
Of course these
Ex.2. Write
(7=l+cos
'
then
C7+i#=l+e + e K * + e s ''+....
+ 4e ^ +
3
By
C and S
it is
easy
to deduce that
+ cos 0+2 cos 20 + 3 cos 30+ = + sin 0+2 sin 20 + 3 sin 30+.. = 0,
.
cosec 2 (0),
is
given by squaring
C and S
this yields
above. These 2 We can also find C + S* by multiplying (C+iS)x(CiS); and we can find CS directly.
108. Multiplication of nonabsolutely summable series. Hardy (p. 43 of his second paper) has given two theorems, \vhirh are the extensions to summable series of the theorems of Mertens (Art. 35) and
= Jcosec0(sin0+ sin20+ sin 30+...) + JO + 2 cos + 3 cos 20 + ...), = S + sin 20+ sin 30 + .)  cosec 0(siri 1(1 +2 cos + 8 cos 20+...). 2 S 2 found obviously agree with the value of C
2
. .
The second of these extensions will be found in Art. 111. theorem is that it is sufficient to suppose one of the series u v then w will be summable and its sum will be equal absolutely summable We suppose that u is absolutely summable, while v is summabK' to uv.
Abel (Art.
34).
The
first
On
(luubl
it
is
plain
tin
OA<\ <>M>C
107, 108
Mi LTIPLU
\i
i"V
writ,
ami
th. MI
/'
'
tin
integral
limit
c~ y
<(>/}
<(>/
is
roppoted
<.f
tt
<
.n
vergent,
^(
finite
;
upper
//
f<T all
values
* ami A
hat
if
Xjrg
from
in
Now
exceed
may
t\v.
parts,
to
],v
A// and
fim
\fji to A;
//.
in
tin
t'oimei
>>(
i
is
lxs
.
than
t,
the
Tims, simo
</>(./)
we
timl
\D\<
.'0
,(
Now
i<
/"*
/
<:
so
if
we take
the limit
last
\v.
timl
lim
l>
A>
Hut
!
i
arl'itrarily small,
/>
ami
i>
M
tin
p.
.")
tin lal
in.Mjuality
Thus lim
A+OO
0; and
tin
intr^ral OTef
I
<>.(!',<'
may again
II'
'.!
'
.
lim
/

A*
the integral l.ein taken over the triangle
OAO.
the same lines
\.i.lly
"', f
tlint
It
one
can
)>e
shewn
that
any
s
+ ...
is
summahh' umler
H.'I
is
that
"a
4
"'.,,
i
"a
.
...
may
l.i
summal>le
286
SERIES. [CH.
XI.
mable
so that
we may
a\ =
write
( a \?L_.
u (x
^u
o
oo
word uniform,
we
Tlie series
Q^un (a)
o
is
uniformly summable
with respect
e~ u(x,
x
a in
an
interval
(/3,
y),
Thus, in particular (Art. 171, Appendix), the series is certainly uniformly summable, if we can find a positive function M(x} >
independent of
a,
such that
\u(x,a)\<M(x\
while
j.90
I
(/3^a^y)
e~ x M(x)dx is convergent.
are true
If
all
the
terms
un (a)
are
n (a) is
o
uni
finite value of x,
00
when
a lies in
y), the
is
a continuous function
of a in the same interval. For then, if a is any particular value of a in the interval
oo
r
1
e~ x u(x,
a >a Jo
a)dx= ^ e^'lim
<
[u(x, a)]dx,
>o
this transformation being justified by the of the integral (Appendix, Art. 172).
00
uniform convergence
n
Next lim
a^oo
[u(x, a)]
is
= lim
a^oo
~ =u x 2 ^() x = 2 <(o) x
U
*
o
71
IT,
>
o).
because
u n (a)
a continuous function of
45).
r JO
is
a,
and the
series
Thus
a>a
a continuous function of u
.it
any
(/3,
y).
109, iio
hii ii.
IMA n
TI\ \M>
i\
raoB
di
/',/./, r
tht
9am
T[
Jft
<* in
(i
"
\
Jft
itHi
be cor/
f..ll..ws l,y
This
tiii)
an ar^uinenl
conditions
of
similar to that of
"/"'/'/////'///
*/////''
(i).
//
//"
saint
'*
^
easy deductiOD from A
00
This thenivm
110.
is
also
aii
\~~2.
Ex.
1.
If
we consider
tl.
where x
o
is
& complex
that
number
less
f
than
j
1.
we
find
Jn
135*
;
where
It
.
me
that
may be observed
and
e.'nse.jurntly.
lesa
ft
than
i.
f
,
wlieiv
...
\\i:
fi
inti^ial
:
for
.'
will
:
conv'i^f
unifoi
oo
t..
./,
thus
P6gi
tin
tl,.
sum
:
^xn
1,\
a
1
r..ntiniion.s
<i,
fuinti..n
.f
x within
tin
ti.l
as
If
is
nhvinus
(
I
f,,m
thr valu of
lind
Ex.
2.
in
we
writ.
that
and 80
Thus, the integral functi..n
00
bed
,/;,
with
288
because
SERIES. [CH.
XI.
7^ = 7i(?i l)...(?i_p + l)+^l 1 ?iO I)... (np + ty + ^. + Ap^n, where A 1} A 2 ... A p . are certain coefficients which depend on p but not on n (compare Exs. 4, 5, p. 170).
,
,
Hence
\up (xt)\^e*
(t*
+ \A
t
\tP
+...
+ \A p _
1 \t),
integral
re~
.
up (xt)dt
a.
converges uniformly
if
cos
=1
Thus we may
00 00
,
often as
we
not a multiple of
2?r.
Hence we
J?VS+1 sin n6 = 0.
i
first
= 0,
 3* +1 + 5 2s+1 
= 0.
is
TT.
we
find
_ <>>+i)
92+2
I
5].
Thus
in particular*
l_2 + 3. =
..
(Art. 103),
*The
second and third of these may also be obtained by means of devices See also Art. 126, Exs. 24.
110] In
lik.
Di;
NATION
sn
\\i,
289
manmT
COB
ih,
sec
l.a.U
to
tli.'
niilt
where E
Buler'fl
[Ci
Hinee in particular
._:;
+ ;,_...= _
.
Ex.3.
As examples
m we may tak
the series
n
whi<li (as
in
2)
s fi &
Now
f^flqMC* 6
Ji i
2n+l
scries
and
iherel'on' tin
mi th ri^ht
J,
is
convergent;
,;),
also,
4, p.
1'
(see Ex.
2
290)
ami
<..ii
28inc2/<
verges uniformly
l.y
l)c)
(2//
+ 1)
\V.i.rstraas's test.
"
',,+rami therefore
o
./ft. 
,,
<')'
1
In like
manner we
f J
pr.ve that
dOOtdcW=2
^f *Hsin
i
ami
hei
I *fl,.
(
,t
d,/rt=9 is
V/ _1 V82<i
T
g :;io 2
2.
290
Ex.
4.
SERIES. [CH.
XI.
integrate the
cos
Ex. 3 from
. . .
(0
< <
is
TT)
series converges.
This series
summed
2, and Ex. A, 43, Ch. VIII. series the from Similarly cos0 + cos20 + cos30+... = J,
sin
...
=J
we
find,
by
integration from
TT,
. .
the results
sin
= JO  0)
(0<0<27r)
to the simpler
= log sin 1 0.
These form
series converge,
cos
+ i cos 20 + J cos 30 +
we can
All these series agree with the results of Art. 65. establish the results
sin
= ilog(sec + tan 0)
=i?r
(0
and
Ex.
sin
.
...
< <
TT).
5.
T If
^=
we
get
Thus
The values
Ch. X.
(p.
of
for
cc
= 0,
it
cc
=2
follows that
.
u=T
6
1 /
(
 
For other
some
interest
ing definite integrals, and for the investigation of conditions under which the equation
refer to the latter part of the references given in Art. 96). paper (see
is
true,
we must
Hardy's
first
110, ill
111.
<*Un
//,/
,
is
possihilitv
of
summing
/
o
\v
i.
ami
lies
between
ami
1.
l,y
litinit
<&u n =\ e*u(xt)dx, Jo
t
ami
(
BO,
ehaninn^
fold
tin
iml']>'mlnt
variable
from
to
xt
=//, sa\
Thus,
it'
17 = 1+0,
su that
is
nal
ami \>
ire
have
Jo
Now, by
eJo

Y.\.
~2.
>t
e9< l +*>u(y)dy
6,
in
any interval
(0
oo
Ihnce
^*u o
(
t"
can le
1).
resp.
the interval
<>,
Thus
in
partieiilar
w
')='
Further,
piMvi.lr.l
that
the series
ummaMe
(^u n
o
n
t
is
1
positi\.
\aluesof
less
than
)]
= 0,
(X^O).
292
SERIES. [CH.
XI.
Thus we can
Now
so that
[*e*^[u(xt)]dx
= P
\e
is
taken up
must converge
(Art.
166);
by the
series
o
*
:
summable, then
t
o^un n is
t o
uniformly summable
1);
in the interval
(0,
and
if,
further,
is
o
oo
summable for
(^un n
t o
is absolutely
between
and
1.
An
Hardy's second
the
// neither
u nor
is
absolutely
summable
equation
uv = w
that
is still correct is
provided
summable.
series
Q7*u n t
o
n
,
<^vntn
o
Q^wn n
t
are
000
t
(0
< <
t
1).
approaches
/TV
1,
we have
*Due
Hardy
(p.
Rendw,
t.
132,
1901, p.
1396)
and
to
111,112]
112.
!'<>V,
An important
class of
summable powerseries.

Suppose that
where /()
int.Tal
I'm
i.s
sueh
is
tliat
j'
f(g)\dg
<
i
convergent, so that
//
aUo absolutely
A. Art.
>n\ ,r^ent.
Then, appl\
17").
\ve
have
beam.'
tli.
aeri
'/;
and
H^I
Jo
convergent
I'm
Thus
r.oivl's
int.ral
'
P
[
"..//
it
c'cfl
P
Jo
Jo
Fr<.in
Jo
t'>ll>ws
**/()<*
be inverted
i^
imt
order of integration can integral, provided that the real part oi !'<>r then the than a fixed nuniher / i<l); ^reatir is seen to be absolutely C(n\ rr^vnt ly coniparini: it
Art.
177.
that
tin*
in
this
with
tht
"
o
Jo
Thus
IJiiril's
integral
I'
J
reduces to
C
(

/
1
V'/^
.''(
(real
part of
will
x^k <
It
is
vident
t
that
the
last
integral
all
values of x
last
except
real
thus the
gives a larger region nl' suiiinialility \\V cnuld, of COUTSe, have adopted this than IJmvl'.x integral. " as a definition nl' the sum 1" making another l.y
,'
,
int'rai
\rt. 99 above); but it applicatinn of Hardy's prineip. would not have been evident to what extent the new definition
Could he deduce.
L.
tVoin
Corel's.
in
.!' applicati< ms ni' this integral the paper ijunted above (Art. !ti). and the method has 1" nded )>y Hardy.^ ly th. aid of contourintegrals,
*/'/
.oi.
;?,
ini:,.
p.
294
Ex.
1.
SERIES. [CH. XL
1
Jo
(p>0),
series
1
+ 2* + 3* + 4P+
is
>
3,
^2
can be
summed
and
its
sum
L
lo/dt =
r1
\
rff
[HADAMARD.]
Ex.
2.
Again,
ji ^ +
=
1
r
/
00
e * sin t
n~ l
d,
JQ
'o
I_ll2
is
J.1.92'
**%'
i_
summed by means
of the integral
Ex.
3.
can be
summed by
the integral
dft*' ^.
In particular,
if
[HADAMARD.]
which gives
If
is
x is complex the last transformation requires a beyond our range, as it depends on the theory
4.
little justification,
which
of contour integration.
Ex.
where
(m + l)
contained between two integers and m + 1 then, if w^O, we ..f Ex. 3 to the series obtained by omitting the first terms, and so pn>\r th.it tla original series is summable by applying
is
;
Art. 101.
112, 113
H
of
!'"\N
113.
Application
a
first
Borels
process
to
powerseries
in
general.
1+r + .r + .r +
;
\\'e
Jind
by Bond's
m.
i
hod
so that
<
^x
?
!'
=\
Jo
t'~
('<(((=:I
'
and
is
this
integral convei.^.
1.
less
than
we
find
tin
HI.
'
Cc
h
'
a?
a;
<
.,
j.in\
id..l
that
tin,,r
are
all less
than
1.
Tin
i.^ioiis
thrv,
t\v
of
th<
powerseries.
snmmahle
I'ln
Similarly, the jMcial 861168 e\amind in the in the region imlicated in liairr
3
last
article are
1,ad
to
the
r.njeeture
t!
Tin
m/mabili
,<></
i
i
from
th<
origin
to
of
i/
il'>"M ;iny
jMMut
/' tak.ii
in tln> rr_i:i"ii
tlui.
drawn on
n
iniMil.ii 'it;.
\m within or
le
.,11iti..
tlu
iivunr
hi.
}i
It
i> tli.j.
of radius
endooee
".
/'
and
>till
296
Let
is
SERIES. [CH.
XI.
if
= 2an#n
is
it follows from Art. 82 that any point within the second circle,
is
circle

k\
= r.
an
where the interchange of summation and integration is permissible because the series converges uniformly at all points on the circle since
Hence the
part of
integral
I
f
\
on the circle; now positive at all points at P, because OP subtends an acute angle 6 at all points of the circle, and so (f #)/*= pe**, where p is real and positive. Thus the series is absolutely summable at any point within the polygon
(*)/
x/(
is
this is satisfied
when x
is
specified.
By the aid of complex integrals and a slight modification of the method of Art. Ill, it may be proved that if a powerseries is absolutely summable at P, it can have no singularity within the circle described on as diameter.* This is the converse of the last theorem.
OP
It will be evident that, whenever the number of singular points is finite, the method of summation enables the value of the powerseries to be found at points belonging to certain and we have thus regions outside the circle of convergence
;
from Art. Ill that the powerseries is uniformly the polygon of suinmdbility. This property completes the analogy with the circle of conIt follows
vergence^ Borel has also proved in a later paper t that if F(xt) is the integral function associated with the given powerseries, then
the straight lines (drawn as above) determine on each radius through 0, the limit of the points x for which
Borel, Le$om p. 108. t Borel, Math. Annaltn, Bd. 55, 1902, p. 74.
t
113,_114]
B0i:i:i.>
OWI
ii.i
IMTIMV
OTHKi: MI:TIIOI
114.
OF BUMMATK
series.
Writ.
= "+"! +
6X]
<
".,+ ..+U,,
.
tin
*u^=eu'(X

<
).
Hence
(1)
^
inte^nul
''//</),/./
is
Jo
we
see that
if
the
s.ris
<^Un
i
is
limit

;
:
)
ami
is
eijuul
t" tin
sum
if
(*U
I
(^u
(see Art.
fl
KM
):
and since
when
wnmable,
i<><ition
limfx^xL
rue; andccn
<> ,'
VV
'/
=
'"'.)] ./ /*
when
;
^s
i
^u
i
i
and &s
o
bath
www nw
existence
<>f
^
th
quati&n
limit
l.adth.l.y
For
o
tin
{and
l>y IJoivl:*
.'iirsr
tliis
;it
implies
thr
e(.n\r.nce
_
of
this a^iin
t> t.juatin
was
,,ut
<iiinal d.tinitinn
BOggeeted
d.tin:
hut, as pointed
inctlioil
11.
'
Hardy,
to
tin
integral
r.m
!,
]<>iliril
nuni.noal
calctllni
ii*
the
least
54
1
s
.i
has
ialiMilju.
^

that
this
expression gives
to thrrc
.li.iinals
it
is
pr.uvss to ol.tain
iiiiiuiri.al
loddenbl
j.
1896,
p,
119
iJi.
298
SERIES. [CH.
XI.
(deduced by Borel from this limit) can be applied to cases in which the limiting process gives no definite value (see for
instance the example of Art. 101). It is almost evident from Art. 100 that the limit
is
the sum,
if
is
convergent;
but
s,
equal to a direct
proof
<jhoose
is
easy.
For
if
converges to a
sum
we can
so that
S
>
Hence we
find
and
therefore
ml
where
is
\s n
s as
ranges from
to
and
so
we
see that
lim
But
is
maximum
(6), p.
5) this
It is
when
un
is
lim
Ex.
If
 =00.
we have
Thus
and
giving
The reader
will
find
it
103.
i.i:
BO1
DBJ
IM
'
299
definition.
115.
I.
integral
by
modifying
tin
seri.s
in
tin
form
n
Mini
is
un and un+l
tin
thtn
where
'I'll.
W =l
ol.j.et
nt'
id
IlonI's int
asrs in wliich
Beriee
tli.
()
nul.l
oever coimr^:
such
by
Of course
tinth<
iimditird
is equal t<> that of nsiii nlivinusly condition of consist. ncy (in virtu. of Art. 100).
if
!>/,
is
convergent,
1
its
value
s.ri.s.
and BO L
116.
'I'll.
Le Roy
independent
h.r....
definition.
for
tlir
expression
taken
is
sum
of
an
oscillatory
Beriee
"+// +
*/.,+
the limit
Nn\v.
assuming
that
the
series
u^d
in
this
definition
is
bsolutely
T(nt + l)
('
rt^nj
Jo
v
',':
rh^lan.
I
:,':
thrirt'..!.
tin
1'
Jo
iivrr^nit. 
that
tin
n.
300
SERIES. [CH.
XI.
This integral
the same as
00
Jo
e~ x u(x t )dx
and so Le Roy's
definition
becomes
limt>i
t
1 f
I
x )u(x)dx
ll/t
____ Jo o
same value
x a Qxp(x
x l+a )
decreases* as x increases, if x 1 and a 0, and is equal to 1 for x = 1 and we can therefore apply Abel's test for uniform
;
>
>
r*
x a exp(x
i
Ji
e~ x u(x)dx,
a^OJO
# a exp(#
x l+a ). e~ x u(x)dx =
is
e~ x u(x)dx,
JQ
finite.
Hence Le Roy's
is
definition coincides
the latter
convergent.
method.
differs
This method of
summing
from the
first
method
in
the fact that the terms are arranged in groups of k before applying the method. It is however of less importance than
the other methods, at any rate from the arithmetical point
of view.
CO
^un
x
the integral
Ie~ o
Because the logarithmic derivate
a
uk (x)dx,
is
\vliih
is
plainly
AN
Of
HI.
Ml IMI
[<
here
')
0
If
its
<
2u n
sun,,
is convcr^ nt, tliis ],r. .cuss of grouping eann.t alter and e.>ns,',U<nt ly (Art. M'l) this integral will also
"ii
verge to the sum. Hut in vii.ial tin \aluc obtained dep.inls on / for example,  4  f ... ivs <) + <) + <)+...(=<)) if / is 2 or any
;
number, lut
f
...(
if
is
odd.
\\lii.li
2 + 34
,
H...
has
tl
y
the
\\
hi.h
divir^s tu
+...) = !
 r.
while
k=3
2 + 3 4 + .)(!! + 11
~i = twhich steadily
that
all
118.
A
s
method of summation.

is
a
t<
pnsiti\30,
function,
as
tends
in
such a
way
tin
integrals
''=
ar.
po
1
V'
Jo
convergent
f Jo
Then
if
we
consid.r th
#(*)(S; N o cn
to be
=
'
it
is
easily
nt.
s..n
correct
when
absolutely
K'r
then
f Ui
un
\,
because
</>(/)
and
./"
an jm>itiv.t
and
,i.,,,nliiii:ly
..f
the test
tlu
onKr
.f
sunnn
^).'/
.
1
u
\ o
')**'dx) cn I
=
(
if
1"
is
1.
f1),
we ha\
ag
\.,
302
SERIES. [CH. XL
as
Now, because <t>(x/t) steadily decreases we have, by applying Abel's theorem for
(Appendix, Art. 171),
increases,
definite
integrals
provided that the latter integral converges. Thus, provided that ^un t n converges absolutely within the interval ( 1, +1), we have
Km 2
provided that the
Jo
f <j>{x)( V^ x n] dx, c
\
latter integral is convergent. Thus, if for two different functions 0, \}s we can prove that the corresponding integrals are convergent, we can infer that their values are equal. In particular, if we can shew that BoreUs
integral is convergent, we can obtain its value (when convenient} by means of any integral of the form
n
more
,0
^~^
3,
rn
)
rlv
'
We know
real part of
is
summable by means
so to find its value
of Borel's integral,
if
the
is less
than
we
could take
Then
119. Euler's
method
for
summing
oscillatory series.
Euler (Inst. Gale. Diff., Pars II. cap. I.) employed his transformation (already given in Art. 24) for summing oscillaThis method is in many cases the most rapid tory series.
in practice ; and Art. 103, before
we
118,119,120)
Ex.
1.
i:i
u:i;>
\
TRANSFORMATION.
I,
l.
l.
I,...
we
0, 0, 0,
simply
L.
Ex.
2.
in tin<...
[Kxs.
,
4,
Art
12+34
1,
2,
3,
4,
5,
...
...
we
and
0,
the
ran>f<.i mati"ii
gj
iJ = i
Ex.
3.
[Ex.
."3.J
l2 2 +3 2 4 2 + 5 2 the
il
11. l.
i.mYint8 are
1,
4,
9,
16,
'
ami
tin
are
3,
0, 0,
9,
...
is
i + i=0.
prati..:
2.
Ait.
lio.J
Ex
\v
may
l2 4 + 3 4 4 + 5 ...=
4 4
O/
L [Ex.
2,
Art.
It
fmnul
integral
with
those
obtained by
tint
usino
Ku
that
transformation.
ral
This
can
!
fact
suu.sts
ivlation
shall
ohtaincil
lMt\v n
th t\vn
methods;
and we
120.
integral.
\^
~^,<.t
1.
wh'Tt a
i^
real
and
'24
positive, whih\\<
than
Tlnn. as in Art.
introduc.
= ".,
I'
h
''
::
rr 
/^''M.
etc.
304
SERIES. [CH.
XI.
From
we
find at once
a3 = 6 36 1 + 36 2 63 = D3 6
Thus, in Borel's integral
etc.
we have
or, expressed in
terms of 6
b lt 6 2
...,
u(x)=
bjxt
can obtain the value of u(x) by summing this series according to columns, provided that the series converges
absolutely.
We
converges,
we
is
 t)
e x(l
Jo
\
[b
b
Jo
(xt)+...]dx.
If
we
we
obtain Euler's
series
(lO4
a43
still
equivalent to Borel's integral although of course to consider the validity of the transformations.
;
we have
120]
il'
i.i
EUE8
f
\M BOREU6
IN
BOB
\i.
series oonvei
;i
can repeat
tip
argument
tl
ivioufl
bpt+l
is
ahsnlut.dy
til
C0nv<
;
.'
ttd
that
i
BoreTfl
intend
is
to
MUM
have obtain'l
xeries
\
th
//
Kiders
series is cow<
;/'
t
'!
2ant*
1.
is
l/
BorePs
///////
is
real
//////
"il*
It
is
natural
.
t.
it
iKjuiiv
<1<>^
tin
it'
th
lls
for
complex
\ah;
iii.th<><l.
i
lut
not
S.MHI
\vin_n'
to
fact
that
to a
litliculty
here.
h.ive
t
Thus we should
tl
~
(
irb>t
(T=Tr^
^=r
lY M A
fl
and
t..
as
A^oc.
and
.
>f ^/,,
)f
^; A,,A n + ij; no
we
ll
.,
hy
diif't
if
integration.
t
Now
thus
= r + is,
cA(i0
8l< (!/)

Kat
A.
I
\\hcn
.<
i
nut wro,
1 A,, A M + 1
continuity
j*\
\vitli
lenini,.
the
On
We
the other
hand,
if
\\
sei
convergent,
<an
\vh.ie
p = \t\/(l
I',
IKHILT
tin
apply
;,
te>t
it
of Art.
Appendix.
t'nllows that
2(
*
D
is
It
'
should
uile.
i
l>e
m>t.
.I
th.it
if
on
ita
s.
306
SERIES. [CH.
XI.
converges absolutely and uniformly with respect to x in any finite interval. We can now infer from our test that
sum
as
bn t n
2(
1)"
(l
.v
n+1
t)
We
have in fact
n\
Jo
Jo
n\
and the
Thus the
is
series
o
Jo
From
p<^l,
\t\<^l(l
is
Art. 50,
we
is
2
1
bn
n
\
converges
are
if
say
thus
that
Borel's
and
Euler's
r),
I,
eccentricity
whose focus
sums
and whose
directrix
the line
rl.
bounded by the
circle
the auxiliary circle of the conic; if I 1, , tf the area is within the circle because t = is inside the circle
1
is

which
<
if
If
outside
is
the
circle
because
=
;
is
so.
to the left
a straight line (V = J) and the area is of the line in the ordinary form of diagram and then a parabola.
By appealing to the Theory of Functions, we can now see that Borel' 8 integral and Euler's series must be equal of allpoints where both converge. But there is no obvious means
of determining the region of convergence of one from that of the other, as will appear from the two simple examples
given below.
* In case/>l, the conic is a hyperbola, and uc must take only points within one branch; that is, the branch for which r< 1, and this is tin /ifflnim/ brunch to the right of the origin). 1 in the ordinary way of drawing tin diagram (with
/
120
1
KM
1.
Ex.
Tfckeo,
a N a H + 1
M/ =J, ZPoo^t,
t
etc.,
dor's series is
I
*
tli.it
r _ oa if
*<2lf;
i>,
in
tin
tw.i p..int
lint
ami
tin int.^ral
wh.n
tli
n.il
I..*
tli;m 2.
In
tin
diagram,
tin
if_ri"ii
<>f
"t
convergence of
I'.nnl's
Killer's series
is
\\.
integral
is
the space
i.
t<
the left of
}>y
Ml.
^ivcii
Tli.al..iv.
aia
i
in
tin
\\liidi
].
t.jnal
the
intli.(l
ara
t
tin
hyj,.;
r).
(Tea in
ly
oual
In
is
the the
l'ft
if
All and
i
..ntidr
;
this case
one or
'
in>

1"
applied
=
_'.
'2.
thin the
\\hi.li
drawn. Ex.
2.
Consider
n.\t
tli
case
hl
a*L>X
:
Th.n
:.
Thus
I
_L. \r(\
which
Hut
...
**
ihat
in
A k ,
nver^es
is
if
,'
i
whose
diameter
tin
liir
the points
1.
intcuMa;
and
si.
>
than
J.
308
SERIES. [CH.
XI.
In the diagram, the interior of the circle represents the area of conand Borel's integral converges in the space vergence for Euler's series to the left of AB. The two expressions have been proved to be equal in
;
FIG. 36.
(\t\
<(! r))
The
Ex.
not drawn.
where k
t
In particular,
:
a positive constant. if a n = I or n, Euler's series terminates for any value of Borel's integral converges only if the real part of t is less than 1.
121.
Euler's
very
naturally to
the
series.
As an example
* 2
let
(* +
+ ^ 3 +...)
.
.
[which
24 +
equal to log(l),
if
*<1]
We obtain
the form
2 2 f J 2 3 ;
. . .
and we
the
thus we sum already made in Art. 24 which give  19*314286, to six decimals.
first
where 6 6 n b 2l ... are the differences given in Ex. 2, Art. 24. But we can obtain a general formula for these differences, and so establish
,
For
D an =Dan Da n
z
1.2
.
and so on
leading to
120, 121)
<
M
tin.
Mi:i:i<
\l.
I.
\ \\IIM.I
less
LEB
than

'I.
aily
expct
,
ft
1,
series certain
1\
Mince tf/l
v
= .
liiul
With
tin
ditl.i'ne.s
f.iiin.!
\\e
7407
898
81
7
_
II
1
.'
It
\\e
;i)ly
tli
foinmla given
2
lies
between J4 and
7
,
of the last
t<
i
r>
t
.un..l,
that
we can take
4.
..
= 119607.
should be
Now
i;nllL'!>,
L129
I'.Kil
:i
10986,
Ex.
.*
2.
As a second example,
US
!
for
comp;iri"ii
\\itli
Borel's
numerical
1ft
'i'o'
ami
au'ain
nrl'lo^
tin..
if
IKII
shall
write
nf
2.
Tin
HIM
tin
lirst
^iiiis
i>
1*5
and we
apply the
transformation to
\\ '.
tin
following itmis.
liave
1
3)
2.4.
and
priM'frdini: thus
we
,
find
1
2.4.6...(2wH2jD)
Thus, jnitting
= 3,
.10...(2;^
:.iws that
/
.
decreases
asp
erges;
and fonsdjiunt ly the integral of \\\ ' niftli mention because Boivl himself does not
\
\Mant
s..m
this
to
have succeeded
\Ve have,
1
d ready established
the convergence
An.
2,
i),
2,
ivn;.
p,
ll'i.
310
In our
SERIES. [CH.
XI.
we have
and
so on.
.
Then the series is l'5 + 2 3 (c + C! + c2 + ...). The numerical values given by these formulae have been checked by we have then direct calculation of 3 a 4 6 ... and their differences
,
c 7 = 000192 96 c8 = 50 c9 = 26 c 10 = 14 cu =
000378
rough estimate
of the
remainder gives
.
c n , so
that
we get
= '087021,
the approximation being probably in excess of the true value. Thus we find for the sum of the original series
15
Now
it is closer than Borel's, so that our approximation is a very good one although he works to 7 figures and uses 34 terms of the series.
Ex.
3.
Euler calculates in this way the value of the series 3 + log 10 4  ... 210
Iog 10
Iog
,
He
!
!
obtains 0'0980601.
(Compare
Ex. 10, p. 351.) Euler also attempts to evaluate 1  2 + 3  4 + by this method, and he obtains '4008..., but although the first and second figures agree with those found in Arts. 98 and 132 (1), yet it does not appear that his method rests on a satisfactory basis here.
!
122. Cesaro's
It
method
of summation.
has been proved (Art. 34) that when two convergent series are multiplied together, the productseries is at most simphi
indeterminate.
the limit
(1)
That
is, if
denotes the
sum
to
(?i
+ l) terms,
Km
121,122]
is
\.\\.
mi
that
and
in
is
Unit..
\\'<
have alo
.!'
^.,11
(
thU nnanvalue
the theorem
l'rohenius
lt
or,
more
generally, he defines
tin
^\\m as
P
Hi"
n>oo
{.S.
'M.
W },
wh<
8
an.l
<
.!
>i
is
tin
special
is
liy
putting
= !.
it
With
tlns.
drtinitions,
is
cvid.nt
that*
V,
an.l
:=(\X):
1^
(1
NMW
and hy
'
juatin^ Cddlic:
that
Thus
in
tlu
drnoniinator
is
equal to the
,,'
;
sum
in
of the coeffic
if
the ininicrat.r of N,
and
.
. .
BO,

particular,
=
">',,
=
>'j
>'.,
'
/(
we
see that
i
they are
'"'
all
e<jual
to
Sn /A n
(r)
(r}
.
Furtlu
= (l+'.+
x) (r+11 <:
we
and
h;
c<.nstMU.ntlv
.+(H
J" +l
(l,)'=l + r, +
iiiiiltipliiil
l.\
^"
:
the
coeffit
tion.
312
SERIES. [CH.
XI.
it is evident that the effect of r is to more increasing give weight to the comparatively early terms of the series 2uw it is therefore obvious that by increasing r we may hope to counteract the oscillatory character of the
;
From
series
2un and
,
by a convergent
limit.
Now,
since
we have
and
similarly,
2Sn(r+1}xn = (l+x+x
By
n equating coefficients of x
we have
if
Consequently, from Stolz's theorem (Appendix, Art. 152, II.), lim [Sn(r) /A n(r)] exists, so also does lim [Sn(r+l]/A n(r+1) ] and
;
n >oo
jj,_^.oo
for
any
is
is equal to the first. Thus if the limit (2) value of r, it exists also for any higher value
of
r.
If
Cesaro
123.
calls
the least value of r for which the limit (2) exists, the series "Zu n kply indeterminate.
Extension of Frobenius's theorem. We have tacitly assumed that the powerseries used in the last article would converge This is, however, absolutely. (r) tends to a finite capable of easy proof whenever 8n /A n limit I', for then we can fix an upper limit C to the absolute value of this quotient. Thus 2$n(r) #n will converge absolutely when 2M n(r) #n = (l x)~ (r+1) does so; that is to say, for values of x such that \x 1. Since 2u n x n and 2sn #n can be derived from 2Sn(r) xn by multiplying this series by (1 x) r+l and r n n x) respectively, we infer that I,u n x and 2sn x are also (1 1. convergent for x
(r]
<
<
Ml.
1
AN
Al.
818
in,
ly Art.
"'I
\\
B66 that
25;
11111
=shm
=
so that
liia
.
'
=/
pl
\\hirh
is
tin
<
'tension of Frobe //' //>'* //,//,/, .r thi> theorem are air<>r.l,.<i i,\ M\.
t.
!
:;
i.sult
aj]).;us
iK.vrl
lnt a closely
ivhit..l
th .....
h;i.s
been
=:
( J b+'i
+ +)  5
!
ro
;
=71 f 1
7'
'"
= r [7
~
"'4ri '^f...
7'
tlun
if
/.
II.'ld.T has
<
,i..vr,l
that
lin: x
:.
It
stains
1;
that
!"
tin
in. ans
found ly
.tlmd and ly
t..
/
tli,
>aiii.,
and
ti'<.
J.
t
Kn'])p* has
It
m hod
tlian
method
a given series on
124.
It'
it>
_
riatr >implirity.
definition.
^LH
it
,
/'ply
iiil<'trniiinat'
ami
lias
tlic
sum
/,
ii,
.l.'tinition
that
Thus
\v
can
writ,
SflJ
^.i
h
\\hri
that
(1)
lim
tli.
=0.
i.l.ntiti
Benoe, remembering
tin
of Art.
rjj.
we have
n>\v
identity
(2)
i,
,10
/
'(ix
314
SERIES. [CH.
XI.
where the
&bove.
coefficients in p(x) are subject to condition (1) given And, conversely, if (2) holds, the series n is at 'most
Su
sum
I.
where
For we have
<r n =
/o n
lim{o n /d^~
1)
p n _i and A

*~ l}
= 0. = A *  A^,
(

and
so
if

/_!
< eljjtj

and
/>
< *A ^\
(
we can
or
er n
(
<e{
}
A^ + A^}
}.
*~*
cr n
/A
)<{!+ (2n/r)
Thus, owing to the presence of n in the factor multiplying r ~ l) be inferred that limJ IA^ \=Q
if
e,
it
cannot
is
satisfied.
simple example
is
given by taking
<r
r=2 and
. .
Then
so that (Tn/A^ oscillates
(x)
=I2
between
and +2.
identity
In particular,
(3)
if
(r+l)
we have an
(lx)
2unx n = l
series
where P(x) is a polynomial not divisible by 1 x, the 2un is at most rply indeterminate, and has the sum I.
For
if
there are
r
p terms
than
in
is the greatest of the absolute P(x\ and if P(x\ it is clear that the coefficient of .v" in
P(x)(\x)
is less
MpA
by A n
(
(r
~ l)
and
is
Mpr/(r + n\
which tends
to zero as
n tends
to GO
In practice the most common form of identity  x) (r + ^unxn = 1(1 x)~ (r+l} + P^x) (1 (1 (4)
l
is
2 r
)
(3).
series.
IfZu n
upper
2t> n
are
wo
series
(
limit, while v n /A n
such that \u n \/A ? has a finite tends to zero, then the quotient
( . . .
(u v n + u.Vn^ +
tends to zero.
It
may
?,
may
be zero here.
124, 125
!.l
ll'l.h
[(
we can
\
find
II
aini

Um
Viilu.s
ami
l^l
>m.
;.:,*"
Then
ami
2*,.,*<r
2*l<tt
rl
A',,
.ayH)
Now
ami
10
'x(l
= (l
/;
equal bo
Hence
vK^l'
",
Consequent lv,
and, since
lira)
*^
2u
,
v \/A (r+*+"~
it
can
1>
tak
follows that
==0.
i
\\'e
..~
" +1>
proceed
HoW
Suppose
that 1"..
^''
i:
iliate
we can write
^ /)
.1
wliei.
' +1)
+
=
o(
p
liin
I
= ^/r,,.'[ft
.cli
that
f=0,
HIM
[o,,/^!^}
Ti,
,1
>x(2
i
S
,.,}...
wl"
e
(l)
=
rn
in
in
/,'</>
/"(
l
where R(x)
r<
.c)
(r+
V'')+ I'd.'')
\\
,
'
To each
n alo\.i>
/
of
:
the
i',
terms
can
apply the
lemma
.r
instance,
if
BO
/'(1r)"
SI
(
we have
Similarly for the
lin. ;A',,
A ?'
Ri
+l}
}=().
in
;,
two
..th,r
termJ
.1
we have
lin. ;/,'
=0.
316
SERIES. [CH.
XI.
Thus we
and that
its
from
is
(1)
and
degree of indeterminacy of
sum
equal to
2wn is UV*
:
1),
The product of a series (whose degree of indeterminacy by a series (whose degree is s) can be formed as if the series were convergent. The degree of indeterminacy of the resulting series cannot exceed (r
This leads to the theorem
is r)
126.
2.
The
series
.
..
is
has the
sum
For here we
=1
>
we
and
(n+ 1)50 + 715! = 1, (il)*2 + (ii2)*3 = 2, = Thus, when n is even ( 2m), we have
Now
etc.
+ ns + ...+= 1 + 2 + 3 + ... +m + (in + l) = $(m + I)(m + 2). When n is odd ( = 2m + l), we have again (n + I)8 + ns + ...+*=! + 2 + 3 +
(n + I)s
l
.
..
Thus the
 1 + 1  1 + ...) 2 and, according to Cesaro's theorem of the last article, (1 should be at most trebly indeterminate ; and this of course is verified here.
Ex.
3.
The
series 1
2 2 + 32
4 2 +...
is trebly
indeterminate, for
we have
Hence
(1
x}~*(\
which obviously
Ex.
4.
satisfies
Now flz^L
i
for
# = 1,
so that
we have
_
:
3.
where P(x)
is
a polynomial of degree
* The reader will probably find it instructive to use this method to establish the theorem for r = 0, = 0, already established in Art. 34. Cesaro's treatment of the general case is on the same lines as the proof given in Art. 34.
EXAMPLES OF
Efi
\l:
Ml
BOD,
we
find
... + i)=/'(.r)(l*V, r...= J,
t*
t
(11
I
.d<
ries
being q
i
minate.
il
Ex.
5.
diili'nlt
t<>
MM thai
the series
1ir
i'ly
*...
indeterminate, because
:;
we
find
<"+[(l_,
..)']=
WOO'
is
ftGI
0,
if
/
i*
//(A/.
Bei
lie >MIII
of th Beriei
i
>'
ARO.]
Ex.
6.
The reader
(11
will
have
little
dihVulty
in
vnifyin 4 K
:
inultij.licati'.n.
F.r intan.
we
lind
+11
;'
or
+...)(! i + 3 4 + ...)= 13 + 6 10+... 13 + 610 + .. + ...i(l 3 + 010+.. .)(! 2 + 3 4 + ...),
.
and so
Ex.
7.
=0.
The
follou
!+
sin
(y
''
+ sin 2^+sin3^+...
3^ + cos
~>0
+ ...=J, ^oot^,
. . .
cos ^ + cos
= 0,
.
I'uirl's
ni.th..d
(Ait. 103).
evaluated
l.y
1.
ml
MI
iiin
tin
ni'an
valu jn
'
>'o.>).
tputcula
127.
Tlu iiiranvulu.'
6
li;i>
ratlnr
,iinc
narrow limits of
type of
ha
,
01
sc;
this,
tli.
which can
l.r
Miiiiinc.1
in
this
way.
\\".
that
^^
so that
aI
(i
,n
which givee
3
+l>N:,"
+ "'t
'terms.
318
SERIES. [CH. XL
Now
value
approaches a definite limit /, we can find a such that when i/>> r, all the terms /A ? lie
S^VdiT
between
(l
e)
and
(l
+ e).
Thus
The
coefficient of
in this expression
is
so that
Thus
\
U
un
That
is,
< e.2
^;
r+1
A
(
(n >p),
().
and
so
limuA =
p
But
so that
Iim4 n
ilD
/7i
=]/r!.
Thus,
we have
the result
the series
2^n
??ia2/
te
indeterminate.
There are many series surnmable by the former methods which do not satisfy this condition in fact the simplest of all,
;
it,
and
is
therefore not
summable
in Cesaro's
We may
s
,
s v 82
...
by
HO;I:I.>
BUM \M
i
V
tin
wh<
never
sei
*w
are
<
II.
I.
we may
'itlnr
<h
<>\
\\\
every
r all,
or
(iii
function
\ariall!'..
./
which
made to
limit.
nil.
may
h<
Dili
and

ad
Cesaro's thM ami second mean dou Mr indeterminacy come ondei
i
of
BU
i)
by taki
it'
i<
xn ^
or
wliiiv
ii'
O.
0,
#,
= ./+ 1
1'.
ii
if
/'
> >
i
is
al't.r\\aiU
tin
m;i.
t.
t.n.l
mvMi^h
'
valuo.
Ami
(
<thcr imans are given 1'V imilar, lut In these rases thr osoilla t'oriiiulju.
1
Mill.nre
>'
>
^
th.
rnMVerteil
into
.
,y
th'n.l
rharartrr of
that
little
wei
inilirrs.
ms that
'
are of importancr in studying tin Beriea To meet this <litlicu!ty. IJorel chooses the factors
increase
,n
/(
so as to
\\itl:
<1'
firsi
maximnm (whose
steadily
./
pi
sit
ion \ari
ami
ai'trrwanls
to
The
part
in
K.itin
the
maximum
recedefl as
increases,
tin
terms
determii:
ilitions
i'yin^
afl
t!
/'<''. and
tinally
deCP This
givefl
:+..
r/
2TT^r
;.
n+>
M 4.
which
129.
is
the definition
tliat
i:
limit
/.
thru
liiii1
/.
320
SERIES. [CH.
XI.
Further,
lim (&u,nt*) =
Jo
e~ x u(x)
doc,
provided that the latter converges. Thus, when Cesaro's mean exists, it gives the value of BoreUs integral, provided that the latter is convergent; the integral may, however, oscillate
between extreme limits which include Cesaro's mean.* Obviously the same result is true for any mode of summation given
by the
Hardy has proved in his second paper (see also the small type below) that if r=l, and if a further condition is satisfied,
the
for
convergence
of
r,
of
Borel's
integral
will
follow
from
the
In general, with higher values Cesaro's mean. seems likely that the same condition will suffice to deduce the convergence of the integral from the existence of the mean. However, the algebraical difficulties involved
existence
it
it
worth while to
l.
We
implies the existence of Borel's integral, and that the two expressions are equal and we shall prove now that if
;
lim
n
*oo
(*
+s +
l
. . .
+ s n )l(n + 1 ) =
=
l,
Z,
then
subject to Hardy's
Borel's integral
\\n\e* L V ^oo
condition.
It
must
also be equal to L
Now
as
suppose that
//,
= (*0 + *1 +
while //,,
+ *)/( W + ] )
/<,
n ranges from
to
oo
are those of
<r
<rm+1
cr m+1
...
we
see that
It
is
>
mean
exists.
If
we
series
in general,
127).
the
mean may
oscillate
Art.
129)
LN,
Letween
//
in(1
,<//
rr
//
)//!..
+ (//.*....
f.im.
whentii^
./'/:
'
and
<,
:
i
tin
maximum
.n
H
oo,
t
be equal
!%,
to
mi.
Lrral
',
and
making n tend to
+ *, + ... +
baa
th.
limit
and so we get
(/.
and
No\\
>*...[(////
any
valiu of
///.
+ (//,/
].
M.inlinx t"
we ran write
're.,
i>
*>/..
wh.r <,.,>0 as
//
increases.
And
tluiv
a constant
.1
>urh that
/,,/,.!,
////
tlm>
\\c
find
k
.
^+''D'(7,;^
Stirlin.:

}
we
see that
if
we use
formula
'
''
l'Mr'
(/'
wlnn
/'
tt
nds to
/ Klo g ^
as
Now
\vhii
<
log [ e
1.
'
"(7^):]
A"
d'int.
liuiiil'.i
1..
n..;
lnit
ahvay>
<.,ntaind
rily tin saint in all ini'iua! itain ti\<l limits, such as "0001 and 10000.
I
Similarly,
wo can
juovr that
if
!"
^p,
^W<
!'
ll>
i
th integral
j.ait
^
s
n
lilll <e
322
SERIES,
[en. XI.
Hardy remarks
wN/m) =
is
the
sum
and
is
Let
*,,
= Ji,
a
)/(
i
and then
n+ l)
Thus by Art
11,
we
see that
so that
lim
nx/w)
= oo
although lime n = 0.
(I.e.
p.
41) that
if
the condition
;
=
is
is
may
not be summable
so that the
condition
argument.
ASYMPTOTIC
130. Euler's
SERIES.
use of asymptotic series. most instructive examples of the application of nonconvergent series was given by Euler in using his formula
One
of the
of
summation
(Art.
95)
of
certain
finite
sums.*
l,
n, Euler finds
+v+ +
..
^ti
A
7?
Now
because
we have
(Art. 92)
2r(2r
1)
^n?''
~'
and 2
Z
but,
if
r>3,
2_<llBr
Llliit
B,^
150
hence the terms in the series steadily increase in numerical value after a certain value of r (depending on n). It does not appear whether Euler realised that the series could never converge
*
;
it
does not
129, 130
6
r:i
L8YMPTO]
the
i
for
tli.
/<
1.
He
rinploy<i
series
~1<
to
ralnilatr
\\
liidi
h.
Hoarded m
th get
V
The reason why
hat
///.
ih
ran
In
used, although
u.,t
con
MaAntd
is
/'//
thorn
t>
6ft
Tin trutli
thiM.r.iu
<>f
ti
UKHI
h,l<,\v
follows at
Art.
S
in once from
>
tip
U''HTal
ir<vi
(see
1M1)
'
thai
This
fact
inalilN
all
of Kulr'>
making
Kul<!'>
f.w
uuimpoitaut changes.
Ex.
1.
i
...
/'
.17.
324
Ex.
4.
SERIES. [CH.
XI.
00=
o
0951663357,
^ = 16449340668. 6
similarly that
Shew
l+^s
+ Js + p+... = 12020569032.
Euler obtained in this manner the numerical values of 2l/wr from r = 2 to 16, each calculated to 18 decimals (I.e. p. 456); Stieltjes has carried on the
calculations to 32 decimals
The values
from r 2 to 70 (Acta Math., Bd. 10, p. 299). to 10 decimals (for r = 2 to 9) are given in Chrystal's Algebra, vol. 2, p. 367.
Ex.
6.
If /(.r)=l/(
+ .r 2
),
prove that
sin 2(9
2U
P + ri2 /
Z(e
^l)
2 + r 4
sin 4 0sin4#
:
^.
where tan0=/w; the constant is determined by allowing n and using the series found at the end of Art. 92.
Ex.
7.
to tend to GO
In particular, by writing
=n
(in
l
Ex.
^
6),
'
we
find
, =4
.(,l T+
_L
4
By
Ex.
TT
to 15 decimals.
If /(#)
= log x, we
which
131.
is
found differently
in Art.
132 below.
The remainder
in Euler's formula.
<
''
>
*
where
130.131,132]
i:\A\l!
/,
R
:
in virtu./,'
..!'
tin
and
re
in th U
he
pol\ nomials
'>"th
of comst
u
(/,.>'
th.ii
i
Thus if we 088"
"/<
'/..
urne
awl
////
>/
.///
i;i/n,
thr
/;.,
<u
vm
//"
//*./:/
Thus
(I)
//M
u wwerricatty
ii.it
!<*
///"//
is,
.
til
s'ries
lea
<>!'
so
ol)tain.il
the
same
prop
as a conv'i
ilfci..^iiiL:
trnn> which
conv.rvnt
luivt alttrnate
Theoretically,
]ushr.l
IM
tin
seriea
can be
as
of
appnxiin.itioii, (1)
while <l>
[iiitc
cannot:
Init
pranio
tin'
i
s.rirs
usuallx
good an approximation as
132.
(
necessary for
ordinary cakulati
series.
Th, intrral*
oftrll
<U
t
dfllot.Ml
l.y
thr M'lllhol
it
li(
In
many
u
proUKms.
for
/i
ini.'ral
///
<if
<
'H/
i
(1
'
<if
<
dt
/J,,

57J,
i
i
\vh.i,.
Baler's constani
.
(see
Appendix. Art.
178).
tin priii.
i'
i
siiil.ol
"
"
li
tin
meaning
'logy
i.
nt
on
unt!ii'_'
//
',
;/
<
',
.in.l
then
li(y)=
du/logu.
except
/
,
of
we
inus;
326
SERIES. [CH.
XI.
is
this expansion, although convergent for all values of x, unsuitable for calculation when \x\ is large, just as the exponential series is not convenient for calculating high powers
But
of
e.
To meet
x
is c x e t
this difficulty
we
If
positive,
we
write
dt = e
Jx
l+U
du
where

Rn < n
x~ (n+l)
This result can also be found by integration by parts. When x is large, the terms of this series at first decrease
very rapidly. Thus, up to a certain degree of accuracy, this series is very convenient for numerical work when x is large; but we cannot get beyond a certain approximation, because the terms finally increase beyond all limits.
For example, with # = 10, the estimated limits for jR9 R 10 are equal and are less than any other remainder. And the ratio of their common value
,
series is series
about
2500.
To get
terms.
:
this degree of
we should need 35
term
is less
# = 20, the
ratio of
RIQ to
the
first
than
K> G
When
then
is
negative,
we
x^
/
we
write
t
and
= x(l
u) = (u
1);
find
J
Q
where
1^ du
c
')/
n p~ u
n4.<u,+v?+...+u* )e**dM+P\
Jo
du
~\
\,
Art. 164).
Thus
where
R* = P
du
132
AST MIHU
i<
i.y
an elaborate
to
liusi>n.
;ise
which
is
too
l.nthy to be
also
we
1
approximation
aiil
y
taking
.iial
tin
tliat
tin
valur
inteie4
it.
tli.n
of
tin
OPd
j;
:i't
\\ithoiit
Dotetha!
se
to Lacroix
utilised
by
t. liiul
Kul.r's
O
nnl in
"
AiP'tlHT
apji!:
Miinniat imi
"
of
<.f
('
a
kmun
r.juat*tli.
ire
\\rite
#=1 and
>eii.s
MI,
pp.
we have
CM
i:
..),
,n.....
tli.
Lacroix
giv.s
\a!u.
tin
o;j)65996 as
tlie
value of
round
agree in.i;
ill
'.
98.
p.
.'1
.u'ivis
aiii.tlpi
cal'ulatinii
'f
tliis
><! ....illati.iy
the
method
.if
ajipi "\iinate
'
quadrature
I
to evaluate tip
integral
i/y
rf^d
\vlii
'
...),
r.
l.ut
\vitli"
.
and he
integral
appi.'ximate
<ii:,
tlie
dv
1
log.
whirh
is
f..und
'
ly writing
no nun.
'/>.
.ilr tin
two
/I
I
rr
f* 8"3
)
x
witli in tin
x
l
\vhich anin
tin
iii.t
lhory of
\\;r
liysial
Optiis,
and also
tlirory of
l.Mpwatr
*A*x
illy
ISM;,
p.
Jul.
the
i.
.1
have oc
Hit
s
with
this prol.l.
paper).
328
SERIES.
[CH.
XL
We
U+iV= f
= x(l + u) we
have
Jx \/t
^jdt,
so that
thus,
du =
+
by
du
parts.
of integration
Continuing
we have
e
~~'
j
l.S.i
'
1.3.5
'
1.3.5.
ixu 7 f" e
du
and the process can be continued as far as we please. A moment's consideration shews that the remainder integral at any stage is less in absolute value than the last term of the series and thus for any value of x we can determine the stage at which it is best to stop in numerical work.
;
We
*>^(XY),
The
series for
say.
iY
can be
"summed" by
00
observing that
Thus
1.3. 5. ..(2711) L=
applying Art. 118,
in Borel's
V
we
way,
its
j7T
e~
v n *dv,
Jo
and
be
so,
iY
can
summed
sum
is
X  i Y= %my,
i
"f
v
~
_ v~
given by
(see Art. 136).
y_ "
e~
dv
00
e"v
dv
and
U=
.(Xsinx+Ycosx),
132]
01
,..,,.
>iii:u\
these expressions the
\
qua] to
(lill'.lrntl.l!
tl
.j>lete
Th
Benoe we
Id
i'm.1
Lav
\
\
<.iuliti..n
/}')!= _^1.
tli
r)H
</}'
)
JT1.
"<1
..
It
1
M
for
.\\
)'
It
th.sr
tl.
l.v
tin
l.i
integralB
;m.l
that
:.!
IHI
to
1,0
i.j.r.tiv.iy
'
as
that
f\
I'
an<l
.\',
)'
man:
t.il
l.\
'I'lif
to
I
be
du
t>
i.lv
'aiKliv,
and
tin
asympt,,;
It
is
}Mrh;i}
\\nitli
wliil.A'.
to
niakr
aiii
tinI'
additi
t
mark
naturally
that
tluI
relations
between
I'
hy th qse 6f
[ing's
tin
asymptotic
1*0) that
*
(Appendix, Art
in
!><
j.rovtd
wliere
\fs(.r
i
= (.'+
.>)
.1
1<>^.
./
Now
we have
>'/
aivtaiK
X ) = (v
...
+ (1.
whew
(
,/_,(''>
Appendix, Art.
ITi'.
Bx.
:>>'.
We
li;i
wh.iv
//
ix
numerically
less
than the
tirst
term omitted
the
961
330
SERIES.
[CH. XI.
If we take the quotient of two consecutive terms and remark that (compare Art. 130)
where Q
is
1,
we
given by taking n equal to the but the first two terms give a degree ample for ordinary calculations.*
to those
of (1)
The reader may discuss, by methods analogous and (2) above, the following integrals:
7
/
I
OJ.AJ.
i/
'
~r
the
first of
which
is
related
to
theory of asymptotic series. All the investigations of Arts. 130132 resemble one another
Starting from some function J(x),
we
develop
it
formally
in a series
a,
.
ct f
is not convergent, but yet the sum of the first terms {tt+1) gives an approximation to J(x) which differs from n+l where than n /x n depends only on n and J(x) by less not on x.
This series
Thus,
if
Sn
denotes the
sum
of the first (n
+ 1)
terms,
we have
In
i
In
that the series is asymptotic to function', and the relation may be denoted by the symbol
all
such cases,
we say
Such
*An
series
when x
elementary treatment of this approximation will be found (for tin ra.Mis an integer) in a paper by the author (MeHsenyer of Moths., vol. .'>(>,
J90C, p. 81).
132,133]
It
II
is
to be noticed.
t.,
ho\
.'xampl.
lin.
more
thai
0,
tinIt
vuinr
s.rir.s
\\ ill
ivpi
fi.ll..\\s
from
tlf
of
tin
definition
tl
..
lit.
JC6
pr'dlict
Illptotic
appli.s.
\V.
.Illill^
that
the
nil.
Art.
ril
still
then
liml.
'
if
)^" +
(l
"
XX
1
i
^/'o +
!
V
X
.'
tin
formal product
',
ll(.')^'',,+
f
Jf
where
= ",/' + "/'
,h
+"
r/jT,
\\liiili
tnl ttip pi
by definition 1
;!
ins
in
"
1
<Min,i(lr>
fi
'/'
\\ it li
mlurt
>'
7'.,
nj
MI
t<>
1
ami
'
iiplu<lin;_'
t..
1
..
thui
.''""
\\luiv /'
'
is
polynomial

in
/
...
whose
/1
liili
mi
if
1).
'
us
[ /( /v , "][
.'
12.+'.
A
i
p0,
<r>0,
ami accordin.
lini
.*"[./(,
A
JT
'=0.
**>
OB
Thus
l.V
II'
tin
].rMiuct
/{
\.
A'
In
d
II"
asyiujit.
>t
iid
in
i
pv.
aymptotir
conoid.!tin
,y
Lft
us
imw
p.ssiliility
sul'stitutin^
first
an
In
tlir
p
',,f ./
may
./
c\idntly writ. /{
th<
^ul^titut<
in
f'V 7
'
*Of
332
SERIES.
[CH.
XL
the
and rearrange in powers of J 1 provided that a is less than radius of convergence (Art. 84); because lim /1 = 0, and we can therefore take x large enough to satisfy the restriction that

tt
l
ol~H</il is to be less
may
for
/,_
in the series
*Vi) = t' + C.J, Let us make a formal substitution, as if were convergent; then we obtain some new
where
**4+^ +
Sn and 2 n
2,/
:::.
Let us denote by
the
sum
of the
respectively.
Now,
'
if
= C + C.Sn + C,Sn* +
in
n
,
. . .
+ CJSS,
'
2n and 2 n
polynomial
(1)
agree up to terms
l/.r,
in
and consequently 2 W l/# n2 n+1 to thus (l/^) ranging from terms in (l/#)
;
is
Next,
if
rn = CQ
Sn
represents J^ asymptotically,
we
have, since
\imxn (J1 r
therefore
(2)
Finally,
thus, since ^("/i)
is
^ Tn = Cn+
convergent,
where Jf
is
a constant.
find
Hence, we
(3)
because
By combining
(1), (2)
and
(3),
we
see
now
that
lim
;\
3BR1
Thus
pou
t /,,
the
!;.
sequent
kan
Further, a
tl
tin
cor
in
in
wo
places <>niy.
tirt
in
"ideitin
rearrange
in
j
i'
./,.
;iti(l
secondly
bo
estal
iii.,,uality
/''/'
<
i
Ml
1
il'
his
th
i^
a
in
>UJJM,>.
tl.
ord<
ill.
/
l
Mini
mtir.ly M\.il
"//
r^tridinn
j
that
/(./ is
whose

first
term
zero
i'/f
mo
a,,
i
..fitufii
nt.
An
application
.f
th<
t'nnmr n^nlt
i>
is
t.
rstal)li>li
tli
(assuming that OQ
"'
\\<>(
xrn).
Fr
\\
can
\\
".(14whtre
A'x,
A').
Th.n
aini
liy
:
Ji
,,
i
o
(
i_A'4_Aan asvni])t"t
it'
thus r.instnirt
sain*
ic
Beriefl
1
i
ij"
t
.xacily tin
rule
as
th
w.iv '}\
we
see
divide
Finally,
;
l.t
which
'i
= 0).
j&l
\\,I
J8, <f
././..] J
..".
if
x>
if
,
>.:.
<
(
./ '/./
is
,{
asympintically
l.y
.r
334
SERIES. [CH. XL
series
cannot safely
differentiated without additional investigation, for the existence of an asymptotic series for J(x) does not imply the existence of one for J'(x).
Thus
0+2++.x a?
But
its differential coefficient is
;
sin (e?)
+ cos (e*),
which
oscillates as x
tends to GO
expansion.
no asymptotic
On
expansion,
the other hand, if we know that J'(x) has an asymptotic it must be the series obtained by the ordinary rule
proof
is
We
make
to QC
,
If J(x) <x
+ ajx + a2 Ar2 4
. . . ,
we have
Thus the
if
differential coefficient
^+
it
[t
/'(^)^'(
has a definite limit, must tend to zero. But xn [J(x)Sn (x)] does tend to zero, so that \imxn+l [J'(x)Sn'($y], if it exists, is zero. That is, if /'(#) nas an asymptotic series, it is
It is
and
combining asymptotic series with those previously established for convergent series. Thus any two asymptotic series can be whereas the product of two convergent multiplied together series need not give a convergent series (see Arts. 34, 35).
:
any asymptotic series may be integrated termbytern i, not although every convergent series can be integrated (Art. 45).
Similarly
*
111
fact
if <f>(x)
we can
if
find
r
Q
.
so that
"
Thus, since
= 0'(a
I
a
we
find
I
*'() </(**())
but the last cannot approach any definite limit other than zero may not take a// values greater inequality does not exclude oxcillatioH, since than .r as x tends to 00,
<f>'(x)
;
:
So
i.
133)
Til
I!M.
i:
l:Y
<r kSYMPTl
'
On
other hand
unless
ditl'eivnt
we
<lri\
in
depend'nt
'nptotir
aerii
ivasonin
.
mlin^
li,
in
in
apply
i.ii
tli
<on\
to
the
iliH'eivni
li;i^
that
th
l'i
an
contrasts,
In
wi
bo*
tin
l'l
as smpi
to
convei
parameter with
dtinition
pies,
ivsp.et
\\
ilitl'.nn!
and
in
no on
way
tin
enters
Ml in
in'" thasyni]'
of
tin
an
'
the
l.jH
niU
i>arani.
Tin contract
may
l>c
ilii.
in
an eveo
iiioii
l'tinilamntal
way.
1
"lliciiir
jMrt'rrt ly
^
a
lnli
in
tin
>au
ies.
i./
sniii.tiiiifs
i
convrni.nt
our
tli.
that
represented asymptotically
when
J
i
'I*
is
represented by
"+ X
.
''
!+..., where
<!.
l'
Stirlii,_
the
n~.
i/V^...),
'
r1C
2
/!
2
12'
r =B
,
11
)
Hitherto
./
i,
sn]]ios,d
to
ten<l
to
s.
through
linrtion.
l;
\aluex
coiiij.lex
i
l.ut
the
/:
theory
in
remains
..tlnr
unaltei
Mt
and tends
to
any
definite
,
dued analyi
336
In
SERIES. [CH.
XI.
we can determine r_ a
"
_i <M_ x
^l*!
HI C> !>/?
it
that J(x)
follows from elementary theorems in the theory of functions is a regular function of l/x, and consequently the
is
asymptotic series
convergent.
For different ranges of variation of the argument of x, we may have different asymptotic representations of the same function which between them give complete information as to its nature.
good
illustration of this
phenomenon
is
afforded
by the
P>essel
important application of Poincare's theory is solution of differential equations.! The method may be in the up following steps
:
An
the
summed
1st.
formal solution
is
vergent
2nd.
exists
series.
It is shewn,
capable of asymptotic representation. Thus we has been done in Arts. 131, 132 above, deduce a as may either, definite ^.epral from the series first calculated; or we may
which
is
with the
3rd.
series.
is
The region
determined in
representation is valid. Poincare has in fact proved { that every linear differential equation which has polynomial coefficients may be solved by
asymptotic series; but his work is restricted to the case in which the independent variable tends to oo along n specified
*Camb.
p.
Phil.
41J;
Mti/h.
also
r.
Mathe.matica, vol. 26, 1902, p. :>!>:}, that in the asymptotic series examined by him, the change in representation occurs at a value of the argument, which gives the same sign to all the
Ada
1857, p. 105, and vol. 11, See 350, vol. 4, pp. 77. Js'i. and Papers, vol. 5, p. 283. Stokes
marks
terms of the divergent series. Some interesting remarks on the sense in which an asymptotic series gives a Million of a differential equation, have been made by Stokes (Papers, vol. 2,
I
]..
:W7).
Acta Mathematica,
t.
8,
1S86, p. 808,
AlTLh LTK
tli.i
M
.).
PTl
I
( i
BEE!
and
hy
tO
l.y
not
determined.
perial
,
tilled
Horn
a
iii
iiiiin
we
ial
ma;.
detailed
diMu^i,
tin
,\
equation
.lacnl.Mhnl in
paper
intin
ii.t'l
l.elnw
Poincare?fl
ami Manly
given
with
very
l.y
i'u',1
iii
.nst
met
made
l>y
nmnary
l.y
{he
inei
a..j.tMl
I'.ani.^
IMVMIK!
<>!'
tin
liinit^
in!
book, a
give,
fa
lrMnls
in
MM th tlnM.ry
thl'nll\\ in\\^<\
l.c
rat inn.
iiHth'.,l
art id.<laliirj;
^imjil.
due to Stol
which can
in
with crtain
typ
135. Stokes'
ar+D^,
consider
th
ival
and
>
"
_p
I=/UL,
/'
= \, and
term
wlnrr
\\'.
is
luro',
and
is
tind.
is
of the
IMis
form
/"
whnv
is
an
nioiv
and then
A'
renmvrd
because logi
u log
'.
an<
lM iir
log Z
or
= M /Aul.(^/)\ r+;(

Z
This
ivefl
/
:.
/J. u/
A
,
c\p<
\uf>*/t).
the
See a series
ot
i
Is,
and
I.
U
:.
.
'!! in
HIM
\iisohnitt \'l
;
see also
//,
vol.
ip.
ins, in;.
fi
c<ut>. rhit.
ua
338
SERIES. [CH.
XI.
where q = e~^
Making use
we
q approaches the limit 1) the series in brackets approximately by 7r*(l q)~*, or by (2jr//tiJ*.
represented
is
rr,
where
= x.
same way, that
if
in the
f(x)
is
represented asymptotically by
+...
Aex/(27rx)\ where
and
= e~*.
SERIES.
SUMMATION OF ASYMPTOTIC
136.
Extension of Borel's definition of summable series. In the foregoing work (Arts. 130135) we have shewn how to obtain asymptotic expansions of certain given functions, and we have established rules of calculation for these expansions.
We
are
now
problem of summing method is to apply But on trial, it appears that Borel's method powerful to sum even the simplest asymptotic
arid the natural
If
we apply
Borel's
method
of
summation
to this series
we
which converges only if t<x. Thus the results of Arts. 99113 no longer apply, but we shall now proceed to modify the
definition so as to obtain corresponding results for such series.
We
and
have
u(t, x)
= x/(x + 1),
which
is
if
<
x,
t
regular, as
ranges from
to oo
(2),
vol.
i>,
191)4, p.
339.
135, 136]
1M \Tl'\ OF
Hi.
i
U3YMPTO]
i<
339
as
dtiniii^
writ
in
this
intfial,
i,
I.
\\a
'_
i\'n
in
The
l>ut
it'
vahnt so long an
is
real
and
./
p<>
c,mple\ th, f,,nu.r i convergent e\,,pt \\lnn negative. whereas the latter converges only if tin ival part <>f
is
It
and
i>
j
i>
nut
in
ditli.'iilt
hat
(
tin
I'MMIMI
in'
fiinrtimi
tin
part
tin
plain
for
\vhi<h
/.
th
negative real
I
ny
p..iti\.lints
numl..!;
Thi p;.
iy
two
paialll
juiinil
as in
tl
lilish thi>
that
"te
<4<.
and
(
that
th.
int.'ial
!>
that
tlu
test
..f
Ait.
174
Aj)pcti(li.\)
can
In likr niannri
tin
function in
/
;
\ part of the plain' for which tin ral part this n^iitii is l.oumlc.l l.y a line parallel to the iina^in.i!
tin
nirtlio,!
in this
for Minmiin.o;
an
that
is
seri'
r
OOB
i
tl.tiiuMl
oi'
\alns of
is
iontinuous
i'roni
=
\vt
to
di'tiiu'
tlu>
sum
..t'
tin
srrirs
l>y
tin
integral
'.

340
SEEIES. [CH.
XI.
ever,
To make any practical use of this definition we must, howassume further that a positive number I can be found
v><n
such that
lime lv fn (v) = 0,
differentiation.
is
where
It
is
is
any index of
evident that then the integral defines a function which within the region indicated in the figure.
analytic
137.
It is easy to see that the series of the last article represents the integral asymptotically, x being real and positive.
For,
if
we
integrate
by parts we have
= aU +l
/
I .
e'f(\dt, \ /
/
because /(0) = a
We
we
obtain
Now, by
so that
hypothesis,
we can
w+1
/
'
and therefore
Consequently,
"
(^)l<^^
/
'
which establishes the asymptotic property. It will be remembered (see Art. 133) that the differentiation of an asymptotic series requires special consideration; but
this
special
may
be
differentiated
any number
of times.
For
integral
(x
x>l), because
t
\te
f'(t/x)\<Atedt
is
and the
integral
te~
~ (x l)t
convergent.
Jo
136, 137]
SUM.M VTION
tli.
n
AS1 KPIU1
!'
I'
Now, within
int.r\al
OQHV6fgenoe
"i"
/<
>;)
we have
so that
/'(g) is
ptotically
l>y
the series
' x\x
a;
or
...), /
which
formal
is
tin
Beriefl
d.ri\rd
i'mm
tinlie
orij
diir.iviitiation.
as
could
ant
ici
from
A
of times.
rly tin
:'ali \vl.
.intril
with
tli.
lia\r
IK
litliriilty in
ilarn
indiiatfil
th
i:i;.
Lt
i
IH
c.
.iixidnv
M.xt
th.'
algebraic
operations;
ie Beriefl
it
follows
I'Miicaiv
and multiplied as
the product can considered above.
theory that two asymptnt may be added if Uut w must aUo pn>\v that convergent,
!.
ivpi.^.nt'd
l>y
an
integral
of the
type
is
tin
asympt'itie Beriee
"nvspondin^ to
tin
product,
it'
Now
if
both
AOXa
= r,
1
we can
/
find a constant
/
6n r"
(
< M.
Thus

Cn r<3f [/.:h(//i):
:J
j.:.j:h...f'
<
Art.
.!/(
and oonsequently 1
will
oonveige
it'
<
/.
Next, as in
'"
..i,
ai^K'
342
SEEIES. [CH.
XI.
and consequently by
we
find
Thus
F(v) = atf(v)+
\ Jo
f(vt)g(t)dt
and
But,
I
\F(v)\\a
\.\g(v)\+\"\f(vt)\.\g(t)\dt. Jo
find the positive constants
by hypothesis, we can
and
such that
\f(t)\<A#,
Hence
\g(t)\<A#.
lv
F(v}\< a \Ae
+A
ve lv
v>ao
lim[ethat
F(v)]
= Q.
Similarly,
we can prove
v><
= 0.
Thus F(v)
the necessary conditions. these we have the following rule results, By combining a certain number contains polynomial expression
satisfies all
If
of
asymptotic series* (of the present type) and their derivates, the value of the polynomial is expressible asymptotically by a
series (of the
by applying the ordinary rules of calculation, as if the series were all convergent. And the result cannot be identically zero, unless the terms of the resulting series are zero.
The reader who
difficulty in
is familiar with elementary functiontheory will have no extending these results to the complex variable, in a suitably
same
type), obtained
restricted area.
of the functions
may have
137,138]
138.
SUMMATION OF AflYMFIOTH
series.
Tinre are a
\ampl.s
nnthod,
in
come
IT
asily ly niaki:
we suppose
Art.
MS
I'm
it
i
a function Mich as is specified in 0(.r) to be that th.seen results are still pnvious rea.lily
.
true
tin
int.
/(a
provid.il that
06
/>

haa
i
f.
ni'
t!
DOHZerO ra<liuMItOCe
atili.<l
as to
In
\\c
can tind a
i'unti<.n
\!s(g)
such that
(D
we
shall
Jo

have
tin
jnation
For
this
i
ta^ily
}>roved to be true when v</>, ami we can tin d.tinition of f(r) for larger values
.
Then,
an,l
!/()!<
)<f>' Jo
tin
That
intt^ral
i
in
l.y
fact
r])ii^uted
asymptotically by
tin
series follows at
}
one.
Ml.s.rvin^ that
Me) Jo
fi
r
!
~

...+(1 r'+...+2
'"
+,,.
win
1
<
.
"'
+...+
344
SERIES. [CH.
XI.
Again*
and, as previously, this can be shewn to give the asymptotic series obtained by the ordinary rule for differentiation.
by taking
cn
= T(ni\).
definition
becomes
=
It
is
easy to
repeat
the
previous
changes) to establish the corresponding theorems for operating with this integral.
Art. 132,
last
method, we may point out that in Ex. 2, the differential equations for X, by simply
which leads
the integral
to f(v)
= I/(l+v),
We
shall conclude
of the
way
in
which asymptotic
Arts.
1.
series present themselves in the solution of and we shall illustrate the methods of differential equations
136138 by summing these series. Let us try to solve the differential equationf
dy _a
dx~~ x
*
is justified,
because
we suppose
and
t<f>(t)dt
Jo
converges.
Thus the test of Art. 172 (3) applies. fThis is the simplest case of a general type of equations examined by Borel (Annalea de VEcole Normale Suptrienre (3), t. 16, 1899, p. 95).
138, 139]
IHKl
!'
1.1:1
\i.
BQ1
VI i"N'S.
l>y
meanfl
.MI
asyinp'
On
substitution.
we
find
'I'll
is
g\:
4
= 0, A = l
I
..=
i*
"
2A,_
' :
1.2a ~~
34 8 _1.2.3.a
'
I,
I,
/,'
Thus we
lino!
'/=/' ox
and by
Art.
l.'lti
1,
.
ox
the equivalent
)'+...]. J
integral
bhif
"
and
tinit
i
,
I
7T
.
Lriven
Of
Art.
137,
tin
n>i<lr
iiK'tlitied
Bessel's
matiin
a
Writ. 'n
.
ami then
\vi
tind
If
ire
sul.st.tui,7;
=i
ire
...
+ ... +
Hence we
and
so find
...)=o.
(fife*
s45
1*.3.5 2
3> T
346
Thus
>/
SERIES.
[CH.
.3 2
__
.3 2
.5'2
2.4.6
That
is,
*=( D"
*
l
2.4.6...2w
l}
1
2"'
and
so
if
we put
cn
r(f)
we have
v^ vn =
A~i
TT
Hence
(/
s>&
y
,,00
/
y=
we
ptfjf C Ct'O
t
,
of
d2y
3.
J + 5s
In like manner the differential equation
du
*s+<. + /~*>i<**
is satisfied formally
y ~x\}~
.IT,
a(l^) l.x
a(q+l)(l^)(2^)
1.2.^2
This equation has been very fully discussed by Annalen, Bd. 56, 1903, p. 129), to whose paper we
as to the various solutions.
(Math.
details
have now completed a tolerably full account of the theory of nonconvergent series, so far as it has been yet developed on the "arithmetic" side. Its applications to the Theory of Functions lie beyond the scope of this book, and we have made no attempt to give more than a few theorems whose proofs can be readily supplied by any reader interested
in such developments.
We
XI.
I
LMPLE&
Integration of
1.
Summable
B
Series.
bhatth<
'he series
.
series
to be
*a).
This suggests*
\vhi.h
is
c 87U'' /
f'
b
.>
(
.
OS 4?
COS a
(0<a<7r),
tity
a>ily
vii ili'd
.os nx  cos na
_ ___
MM(i
,^ n(l +
{>>
ai
cos ./rns a
2.
.)ut
a
in
lli
and so
integratiiii:
\v
tind
log
of the
sej
.65).
log(f"fi.rin
..f
An'thr
tht
first
intrirral
is
Trlogma ^)}.
e
that
if
,
i.
0..+HX
3.
Sinn
\\r
':
it
i>
sii^^fttl
* that
if
//
is
a multii>
HI
=ir.
This
iisiilt
is
easily
vtrit'utl
indrMMidMtly.
intririiit
.e
*Thr nM
\,
x=
nor
>vir
ti
348
4.
SERIES.
[CH.
we
see that
Thus
and
Hence, integrating with respect to
0,
we
find
2J
sin
is
^
/?(#), p.
The
series
2( o
l) /(x
+ n)
sometimes denoted by
and can be
475), since
=\
Thus, ^y x is rational, the series can be summed in finite terms the case has occurred in Arts. 65, 90, so take now x = % as a further example.
;
We get
where
< 6<
TT.
may be
and
so the integrals are then expressible in the same form. If we allow to tend to in the sineseries, we get
[For
by Weierstrass's
Jlftest,
and
(.
^ I ?^(^) =
_ ^) COS
^_J
S in
^6 log(4
si
A specially
Feje>,
by
who
applied
interesting example of Ceskro's process was given recently it to the Fourierseries for a function f(x) which
174,
does not satisfy Dirichlet's conditions (Art. series need not converge.
App.
III.), so
that the
In
fact, if
a n =  { f(0)<x*n$d6.
TTjO
6,,
=  (*f(0)fa.nO dO.
'
TTJO
and
and we write
xi.
I
JfPLEfi
find
tli.it
\\
"
and
that
tin
aritlinnt
i
iman
"t"
.<,
x,
...
wh
ial
int..
tWO,
baa a
W6
iln
'
I'm
' 1~ :>
(A..
fninti..!!
The extension
to
caws
IK*
\\h
Unit*l.ut
i
mind"
n.ntinuitiea present.)
fnli
!
(litli.ulty
inti'^r.ilili
tin
pi..f
und*i
tli
>ingle
ni!i>t
6.
L.t
it
u> writ.is
'
,r,,
f.,r
tin'
arithiiMti'.
iiMan
lat
r
fl
thru
it>
ra.ily
Men
that
"lit iniKus
the
in
.nvrr
to
limit
to
L':
r
(l
^,1''
'
Since
\\f
o w _i
=a
1
r
1
^l
tind
that (ayin
at tint i'ii
t. tin iltiniti
''
l/l')J^
^+
rfl
A
(
v
(
^+/v)(i^)<^ /;V

/
i
any
nuinl.ri
K>s
than
,<
and
BO,
taking
tin
limit a> N
tends
I
r=l
=}
x
l"'[
becanae
li.M./, l= o.
Thti
:it
(Alt.
givi
7).
and
wr may
a].jly
1*^1
Tannri
y's
thfi'ni
(Ait.
1'.')
to
./
\vhirh
1
[Thi.>
>;'
+ V).
al>. a jnjir
ivsnlt
is
i
due
IM
dt
la
Vall'
I'misin
MT
lv ilnrwit/
{Mutt7.
Wr
~MiVr th
'
Lft,
Ch,
1
N.\
T6
MT
'
that
 ,
and
I
n
}<
\.
;,
.
1<.
.'!
Lebesgue, Strie*
I'.Hlti.
j,j,.
(_>
350
SEEIES.
[CH.
Hence the
is
convergent
and
its
sum
But
is
this is equal to
<r n
lim
n^Jo
because
<rn
dx=
{ f(x)dx,

[This result
8.
where and x
t is
a complex
number
of absolute value
1,
but
is
not equal to
1,
is
real.
It is easily
sl
proved that
S3
S2
_lt' ~" ~
i~ So~
if
'
S8
2
_l+t
3
*>
i>
and generally
sn
= {l(t)}/(I+t),
is
2
(vl)
^
),
1 /(!
lim (1
X
>1
lim (x sin
* >1
sin
30 ...) = i tan
to the aeries
(/I
+/*)
(/I
+/2 +/S>
[HARDY.]
[We
*1
have, in fact,
=/!
*2
~/2>
*2nl
=
of
.s,,
*2 ,
...,
%,
is
Apply
Stolz's
II.),
and we
arithmetic
mean
equal to
lim^.,,.
Again, from Stolz's theorem we see and so the arithmetic mean of 1} *a ..., %,+!
,
s,,
.,,
,.., *_,.
found
(<
tin
pi <.<luct (1
10.
Illn
'
liv
t.ti
(I
:.,M
r>
[in
wllieh
11.
tin
seeond
tli
m
base
10,
to
iU"
log ($TT)
il
= 098060
to 6 d
\rt.
1 J 1
.
ices,
]
V.lili'
that
O"
decreases,
and
C.
Thus the
series
2(l)r[(n
tli
n]
nu isseen to be
iCfilog
Tlif
tin
>uin
can
l>y
i.l.n
in^ that
th
sum
t<>
rms
fi)
+
(.
...+('0*,;:,
Series.
Asymptotic
12.
furnmla
L
Vn=
JM
tin
(l)'T, 1 **
;
v ,+ (/')i
 ]
I.
.
...<
4
...
(WTT)
nunuri<al
0787,
'
M;:ii,
<
and so on.
[C(.in[.air
13.
Art.
132.]
[(
An.
")
^>
t<>
sli.w
that
/'T
/ 1
" 'M<
I
/'
JT
asvni.t"ti. .\iKHisii.n
Where
14.
:
(a)
i
th.
Hernnullian
fun.ti..n
..f
An
1
<>
/* ***
/,^}
olitaiiuil liy
.t.iijtin^
the
IIT..I
at
less
than the
v
f.lb
t'Tiu in the
sn
first
and iMr.im:
[Km the
in;.
1
tin
 1
,~
K.T the MOOOd, integral. l.y jur ..Cgested by the series and tan le established dirertly.]
integral*
352
SERIES.
[CH.
the error being again less than the following term. [Apply the same methods again.]
By
writing
f" e~ tz dt=
J^k
latter
P
Jo
e~ t2 dt
by
parts,
we
16.
Generally,
r<
if
0<s<l, we
find
And
17.
to the
A>0, and
deduce
72xl03
Hence evaluate the sum
'"
l+i+i+^ 2* 31
to five decimal places.
18.
If
^
^^.
^o
/oo2i.a2
JO
1
la:2
r^dt'
J*
1.3. ..(2713)
2
of the
remainder
is
approximately (a
 71
infer
tluit
for
the
Lfd*
lies
9, p. 167.]
XI.)
19.
<>!'
i:Jl
tin
asymptotic expansion
^1( r
and
d<
(
:
6!
approaches
1, l>y
writing
\!ii.. ii.
= log(l
1
Com}
1..
p.
238.]
20.
From
tin
<(rb)"
Thai
//'
n+1
21.
H[See
Si
ii I..".MI i.i ii,
'
'7100;
.
1.,
pp.
I'.L'
!:>.]
22.
I'lovr
al>..
that
icuiiiu'
numerators
I>MIILT
'.
I.
>

354
23.
SERIES.
[CH,
where
t(t
1)
...
(t
and
24.
It
lim (/&)=!
rt
co
^ + __ = ^ +T j_^i_ g
.11111
tAS
I
A.
*^
"^
_^
Miscellaneous Applications.
25.
Shew
that
if
we
. .
),
which can be proved to have the sum cot# by using either Borel's integral
or Cesaro's
26.
mean value
Hardy has extended the result of the last example as follows If f(x) satisfies the conditions of Fourier's expansion from #=0 to
2?r,
a) expanded as
(x
~~\2
+ '~ + ?
a
\x
^
a)
satisfies these
is
summable except
In particular,
x=a.
7n
= l, we
f(x) =
+ <2^ ( a
i
cos
nx + ^n sin w#)j
t
where
a n = P f f(a;)co&nxdx TT Jo
f(x) sin nx dx
;
= P
7T
f JO
and
this is easily extended to the case in which /(.r) has any finite numlnr of such singular points. [HARDY, Messenger of Mat/is., vol. 33, 1903, p. 137.]
27.
2,
p. 42,
prove that
or
m+
(2w + l)!(2)!.l! + (2wl)!.2!...=0.
while
xi.
I
BXAMPLE&
i
355
li.it
tin
J+p
+
,..
+ >
'
is
represented
by
As
>M.ti\rlv,
two
(li tl'rivii t i;it
series are
ion gives
1
,/,

a,
a.,.1
s,,
\vliich
direi.t
multij*!.
28.
in
Art.
ding's
&
taking
;>
=2
in
Le Roy's formula.
fact
L\V, lind
in
series
if
<2irjr.
.
.*+1)J

^T"
tli.
intfivluinge
17''',
of
suinniatiiiii
and
A,
long as
i:i;,
<:
we can agree
it
l.y
cxplain.il
tli.
in
Art.
^()
as always
givm
l.y
lat
is
gra
bare
f
*'**
Md
l>ut
*}.
we get the
this last
rain
Jo
<r"
iiivrsi..ii
i
n,.t
356
SERIES. [CH.
XI.]
29. As examples of series which can be readily summed by means of various integrals similar to those of Art. 136, we give the following simple
cases
30.
of the equation
in the
form
\
[The
31.
integral
^/
V'(l +;)"'<*,
if
> 0.]
in the
form
n(nl)(n2)(n8)_
4 8#*
.
1 J
References.
Hardy, Proc. Lond. Math. Soc. (1), vol. 34, p. 55, and For a justification of the integration used in Ex. 1, see Hardy, Trans. Camb. Phil. Soc., 1904, vol. 19, p. 310. For Exs. 1416, see Diriehlet's Bestimmte Integrate (ed. Arendt), pp. 208215 Nielsen, Mathematische Annale?i, Bd. 59, p. 94; Hardy, Proc. Lond. Math. Soc. (2), vol. 3, p. 453. The equality of the integrals of Ex. 14 was proved
1,
For Exs.
35,
2, see
vol.
p.
81.
by Cauchy, (Euvres,
t.
1,
p.
377.
In Exs. 2023 the series are not asymptotic but convergent ; they may be used instead of some of the asymptotic series found in Arts. 130, 132. But the law of the coefficients is much simpler in the asymptotic series and for this reason they are usually preferable.
;
AITKNMX
AUTIIMKTic
Tlll:ni;v <1
I.
[RRATIONAL ffUMBE
AND
140. Infinite decimals.
II'
LIMIT.
\v
rath.nal
!'
livisi..n .\il.ni
t>
convert a
.ith.r
.
ix
thai
tin
process must terminate >r else tin <Utiintx imM neiir (//I) diviion^ at most; t'T in li\ilinu l.y l>, tlnn are not more than (/>!) ditl'.ivnt iviiiaiinLrs pussiM.. nannly
(
1
L'
3,. ../>!>.
nninatin.ir
i
aft.i
.
tin..
di\
71
!:
= 7
1) divi
.
And
If tin
drcimal part
'
is
ran
'In
diiua!
f..r
tlio
formula
'"HV'M
sunn
:
Tli';
1>V ritllfl'
'2
ii;il
t".
''
1
1
and
"i
BO
/'
\t
ll"t
f
<li\'isil
I
)!
"I'
.").
<
it
t""ll"\vs
fr'in
1'v
K".
1
.").
!ii.n
di\iiM
,itlMr
an
.if
index
/>
\\li.ii
t'
di\MlhI'.ut
liv/: thus a I
is
tin
f..rm
in
In'
1)
and
i
so can be expand d
i"dic
i..ridi.if
decimal with
t
liirurcs
the pel
i> nii\..l.
e,,ntainin_
:
and
/>
;
j
n\MH'
tin
Miut
i
contain eith.
because
relation
decimal
tie
1
Tic
hrt\\
it
the
in
.itlier pi th,'I'!,,
Mi..t
l.e
discussed so simply.
USB, Ditq.
is
pi..\.'d
that
if
lt
= V&r**"t* ....
where
r,
t,
r, ...
are
prin
.
is
a factor of
It'
IKINV
we
I
inated (say
2t
i
\l'}\
l>y
an
intinitr <l.'cinial
will
).
.vidtnt bhal
fracfa
.rdin.K to tlie n.
it
is
more
o.nviniriit
;inl
\\
shall .i.llure to
'l
358
IRRATIONAL NUMBERS.
easily
[AP.
I.
But we can
exhaust
see
which
Similarly,
we may
take a decimal
11101010001010001...
formed by writing unity when the order of the decimal place is prime (1, 2, 3, 5, 7, ...), and zero when it is composite (4, 6, 8, 9, This cannot be rational, since the primes do not form a 10, ...). sequence which recurs (in rank), and their number is infinite, as appears from the Theory of Numbers.
If the
it
would be possible
numbers
would be prime. Now this is impossible, since a + ab is divisible by a; and therefore the primes do not recur. If the primes were finite in number, we could denote them by p lt p 2 ...,>; and then the number jt? 3
, ,
would not be
of primes
divisible
;
is infinite
this
by any prime, which is absurd. Thus the number theorem and proof are Euclid's (Bk. ix, Prop. 20).
As an example of a different type, consider the infinite decimal obtained by applying the regular arithmetic process for extracting the squareroot to a nonsquare such as 2 this process gives a sequence of digits*
;
1414213562373....
This decimal has the property that, of the first n digits after the point,
if
An
which gives
*
h.
2^ n
< 3/10",
since
2^1 n +l/10 w
<
3.
rapid VIII.
way
is
140, 141
IM
l\l
i.
DEI IM
UA
<>r
To
see that
this decimal
cannoJ
i"
terminate
recur,
we have
\ecangivpoesilil*
,
tli;it
(<//6)
= 2 we may
;
are mutually
j.iim..
i
ami
U
'
j.iiM.f thug Suppose, if are .positive integers which Now at least one of them is odd.
:
;'
<an!i"t
,
must
/*
I..
<,<1(1.
lint
if
we write
SO that
.ann.t
l.
..tl.l
w.
thu> arriv. at a
141.
It
is
infinite decimals.
it
i>
.list in<t
ly best, to l)iiill
up
tin
.,1V
"!'
rational nuinlHrs
,,n
tin
basis of order,
be nuinlMTs as
1'.
numlMrs to
shall
thfii
tin
ri^lit
tin
ni'
tin
smaller.
we
<'
regard
tin/>'.
iiiMjualit is
.1
m.aninto the
that
of
mark
is
t<
th. ri'ht
an<l the
<\
mark
lefl
BO that
/;
falls
between
j
l>f<n<>
and
/;
\\'.'
I,, I
shall
now pn.vr
that KM cam
t lie
same
inent
directly.
that
w<
fiml
and that
say that
tin in'
I,,,
an
tin
same up
to a certain sta_
we
tind
.1....,
+;,
me,
n
.1
...
with
/>',.
Then
\ve
1.
> 1/10".
would
in.
..it
a,,
may
'i...
,i.d
lew
tba;
IRRATIONAL NUMBERS.
Also lO n (B
virtue of the
[AP.
is less
I.
Bn
is
than
1,
in
method
Bn
from B.
n
,
Thus
while
B<B
+l/lO
and Hence
Thus, in order to determine the relative position of two infinite decimals (derived from rational fractions), we need only compare their digits, until we arrive at a stage where the
corresponding digits are different; the relative value of these digits determines the relative position of the two decimals. By extending this rule to all infinite decimals (whether
derived from rational numbers or not) we can assign a perfectly for example, the decimal definite order to the whole system 1010010001 ... given in Art. 140 would be placed between the
:
two decimals
1010000
...
(zeros)
and '1011000
...
(zeros),
and and
also
between
101001000... (zeros) and '101001100
...
(zeros),
so on.
Similarly,
we may shew
For,
by
division,
we
find
ff = 1411...,
ff = 14146 ...
so that, in
rule,
< T41421
...<{f.
It must not be forgotten that at present the new infinite decimals are purely formal expressions, although, as we have
explained, they fall in perfectly definite order into the scheme of infinite decimals derived from rational fractions.
142.
If
is
any
integer,
and n
1
> m,
1
we
find
.1
141, 142)
IM Mil.
I
DEI IM
LLa
which
is
l..ss
than
'
nt'.l
'Iin
'
+
1
(
+
//
I
i
+
!,
l<
iliHiniiil
V
'
'
V(iV ra+1/
Ixtw..n
tin
Tim
>//<
the
for
lies
by
?lll
+l
= <'.+
hl)l
su.Ti>sivly
tini
In this
\\.i\
w,.
tiiut
lii:.
and
1708
i
Mid
w=3
:!;;
L71888
and
'H.
AJB
increases, these
two
t
<l.<imaU
1...1
t
<
hiarly iiual:
and
\v an
Inis
n^t
(] '71 8281828... X
Which T
1
1
as.Mjuival.nt
(1)
It
+ +' +
c<
+
to
t<>
will
tin
IIMW
<>nr
IM
with
which
any
iatinnal
MUMih'T.
I'MI
tin
dfcinial corresponding
111
31
lMiinal
21
4!
J_ wl
il.riv.d
I'IMMI
than th
+
2
'2
.
+
:{
2
.
:>
+ " + 2.3W  2
'
'
Ami
i
SW
Bence,
n<>
'8!(^>
many
th.ir
matt.] IIMW
d.'i'i\.'d
i'r..in
t.nn^
we take from
l>c
]
.
^,f
+ ...
the drcimal
75,
I'.ui
1
sinn will
less
'lian
1.
1
1
1_
21^0H
ir^t.fix
>
362
and
IRRATIONAL NUMBERS.
so
on.
[AP.
I.
representing any
number
of
terms from
O\ O\
"I
\/ ^
\ /
must be
less
than
'75.
that (1) could lead to an infinite decimal agreeing with the decimal derived from a/c, where a and c are positive integers. Multiply by c\, and (1) becomes
Suppose now,
if possible,
The terms
iind that
in brackets give
some integer
/, say,
and so we
that
is,
an integer equal
absurd.
to a
decimal which
is
less
than
'75,
which
is
Thus no
same
&
=!+
jx"'
to
terms
Here,
we
bm
=p/q,
\p8
b nl+1
= r/s,
then
while b n
lies
qr\
= l,
between
6 TO
and
b m+l if
?i>w + l.
...,
Thus we
1,2,
so,
,
I,
converting to decimals,
1
we
between
2
15
167
16
1625 1615
16191
142, 143
OBOME1
l:i<
.\l.
\\iri.l.lliniv
!
6
ijiiaI.
;in.l
DXM
.mil
lead
i"
an
iiitinih
decimal
10...,
I
which can
he considered IB equivalent
bo th.
intii.
inued n
L+ITiriTTTThis
fraction
infinite
r
'
decimal
ii'
caimoi
d"n\.d
lV.m
rational
it
were we houM
_"
'/
<
/.'_'
'/
SO that
>inc..
\PC
~ a<J\ <
1.
'
(pcaq)
is
j
IB
an integer,
,
tin
lai
.,!,.
litimi
Inn
this
nlivinusly alsurd.
iiiinator
C
(
gives r>>: of
rth cniiN.T^.nt
than
il'
>
'
Similarly,
tin
cnit ininl
lVactin
14LL.L
2+
'2+
can
'I
IM
]unvrl
t<>
1,ad
to
is
nt
rational.
lit
rt.nicr \\lii. is
fi
whil<
leted
143.
..iiMfxii.n
\vith
tin
\aiiij>lc
it
of Art.
A
SMiM.what ditl'nvnt
.xani].!..
is
intinihi
dfcimal
i
!
I)
30H
it'
J]
...
cann..t
rational.
.
For
it
\\viv .<pial
"
C,
w should
endfl
hut
10"
;
must
,nd
is
with
0.
wh<
with
r,
or
Thus
\v
l<>'
&
Similarly.
lo^ai'.it
have nr
Inn.
143.
Geometrical examples.
fche ..\aiii]>lfs
IYMIM
tinfulfil
ivcn
in
Ar
is
14:2
it
i
evident that
system
all
of
rational
,!'
nuinhers
l,y
no means sullicient to
the n. ds
that
it
al^ehra.
\\'e
shall
now
r*
jrive
an ezao
to
hew
L't
^ht
Euclid,
be divid..l at
11).
in
"golden section"
:
(M
in
Bonk
.prop.
so that
AC \CB = AB
AC.
r ~Y~b
7"
"i
364
It is
less
IRRATIONAL NUMBERS.
then easy to see that
[AP.
I.
AC
off
Cut
AD
CB;
it
follows at
once that
at C.
AC
is
divided at
in the
same
ratio as
AB is
divided
For we have
AD
if
is less
Now
rational
repeat this process 2n times, we arrive at a line n less than the 2 th part of AB. suppose, if possible, that AC/AB can be expressed as a
fraction
is
r/s;
then
DC/AB
is
(2rs)/s.
Hence
(s
r)/s,
and
and
ED/AB
Continuing this argument, we see that AN/AB must be some multiple of 1/s and so cannot be less than 1/s.
(2s
3r)/s.
than l/2 so that we are led to a contradiction, because we can choose n so that 2 exceeds s. Thus the ratio AC AB cannot be rational.
AN/AB
:
is less
re
71
prove similarly that the ratio of the side to the diagonal of a square is not expressible as a rational In fact, let ABC in the figure represent half a square fraction.
It is
not
difficult to
of
which
greater than
AB is a diagonal it is at once evident that AB is AC and less than 2 AC. Cut off BD = BC, and erect
;
B
FIG. 38.
= and perpendicular to AB at D; then we have ED DA, = for the line of symmetry EC ED, because BE is a quadrilateral BCED. Thus EC=DA. If we repeat the same construction on the triangle ADE, we see in the same way that AF=FG =
DE
*The
less
first
Now,
since AC'.
CB=AB :AC,
follows that
AB = AC+Cli is AC is less
143, 144]
\l.
365
Timarrive
at
.1
D(
than half
Tim.
i.y
AO\ and
imilarly,
/'
ii
we
is less
an isosceh
lo
ANP,*\u\i that
AN
than
the
L'
\\
Ar
4 then
J
1 1>
.!/>'
is(*r)/,
\B
hat
that
I,
Of that
i
.\'
40
ad
less
than
"Ex..
r,
\\hieh
n.
as !!'
th. coiitiiiMfd
i
Tin
ivadn
cle
My
tli.
tli.it
'
of tin
oonrerget
ratiM
in
M
144.
to tin
.f
di.i"ii;il
to tin
whfla
imliat. tin iif.l I'mM> Th< rxain]lv ,.f Art. I'.ut before smut thirrational numbers. proceeding to
'i
f'Tinal
lliniti<n.
which
will
!><
found
in
tin
nxt
artil,
a we
shall jrive
some
cnnsiliMti<.ns
t<
infinite .i.cimals
)cd. kind's
dctinition.
in
c
1'4I42I
...
disjiiMd
(A) Thi
r//xx,
which contains
than or
iijual
all
rational
fractions
of
tin
(Mich as
jM
l..s
to
smm tmii
141.
t
1414,
1414J.
etc,
(I
,)
T/
upper do88
\\hich contains
all
rational
>f
fraci
s.ju,
It
is
ih'n
tin
(i)
Any
numl>r
in
in
tin
n]>p.i
rla^
i
numltcr
(ii)
the lower
~t
dasa
nuinlcr in the
Thnv
no
tin
i
ami
least
numlier
..f
in
'!'
M6
truth
tin
<!.. n.l
\v.
m.iv
obMTVe
that,
if
we have
bean;
//i'(i
latiiinal
:
L'/'
iiiiin
>(S
MB,
we have
I
/(,
:
and,
t'^r tli.
sam.g
that
\\ill
^ to
MOW w. suppose
t<i
lf a iMtii>nal MUMilxr of
/
we prove

l.v a
i
aU,, a innn';
less
tlian /.
366
Ex.
1.
IRRATIONAL NUMBERS.
Prove similarly that
if
[AP.
1
I.
F</V,
then l>k,
<N,
1,
where
taking
Ex.
3.
to Ex.
2,
N
first
Ex.
4.
the
as
1,
f.
The
classification
of rational
described can, however, be obtained by a different process. the arithmetical process of extracting the squareroot of
From
2, it is
evident that
2
2
,
2
,
(14)
(141)*,
;
(1414)
(14142)
,...
but the sequence contains numbers which are as close to 2 as we please. Thus the lower class contains
are
all less
than 2
it
every positive rational number whose square is less than 2 and also contains all negative rational numbers. Since the two
;
contain all rational numbers, it follows that must contain every positive rational number
whose square is greater than 2. Thus the same classification is made by putting, (A) In the lower class, all negative numbers and all positive numbers whose square is less than 2. In the upper class, all positive numbers whose square (B)
is
greater than
2.
145. Dedekind's definition of irrational numbers. Suppose that some rule has been chosen which separates all rational numbers into two classes, such that any number in the upper class is greater than every number in the lower class. Thus, if a number k belongs to the upper class, so also does every rational number greater than /,. There are then three mutually exclusive possibilities (1) There may be ;i number (/ in the lower class which is greater than every other number in that class. (2) There may be a number I in the upper class which is less than every other number in that class. (3) Neither (j nor I may exist.
:
144, 145]
'I'll.
i>\
repreeenl
nai niiiui.>
/'
represent thunit of !!
r.
the
upper class
c<
.11
on
tin
lint'
and
tin
all
(2).
mi^ht be thouglit
is
and /m:
..vim
i.d i,\
b
that
falls
ial
nuiiil"
i
to
betWi
/;
and
this
>nal
and
nor/ can
wlnntinit
.'\i
lh
\aiujil' ^ivtii
in
the
last
articl..
\va prov..l
lo\\vr class,
and
\vlii.h
ar.
\anilr, ht us illustrate mi a straiirlit liiu tin ajijro\iniati.iidtri\'d from th; te to the rontintifd fraction
i
+ _L ^2+
'
LJ_ "
'1+ 2+
onvergenta of
while
an tho> of
It
tin
tin
uiMr
'
niav
..... l.srrvyil
falls
l.et\\.
_J
J_ttl
_ _ _
i
that
if
rant
of
.itlur
clttM,
the
next
'
',
\vliil
>>
hewn
in
tl
ti.
!ii.h
L'
II
HI
It
nnu
ti
368
IKRATIONAL NUMBERS.
[AP.
I.
in the rational
It is clear that in case (3) the rule gives a cleavage or section numbers and to fill up the gap so caused in our
;
numbersystem, we
agree to regard every such section as number. This constitutes Dedekinds definition
For
it
is
clear
rational.
On
so no
the other hand, in cases (1), (2) there new number is introduced.
;
no
section,
and
deductions.
:
a,
For the present we use the following notation An irrational number is denoted by a Greek letter, such as the numbers of the corresponding lower class by small ft
;
italics,
as
a,
by
capital italics, as
A,
B.
The
classes
themselves
may
be denoted
by adding
a
It is
<, >,
a<a<A, b<@<R
In particular, we say that a is positive wT hen belongs to (a)', a is negative when belongs to (A). Two irrational numbers are equal, if their classes are the
same; in symbols we write a j3 if (a) = (6) and (A) = (B). The reader who is acquainted with Euclid's theory of ratio will recognise
in
that this definition of equality is exactly the same as that which he adopts Euclid in fact says that A:B=C:D, provided that his Elements.
the inequalities mA^nB are accompanied by mC^nD, for any values of m, n whatever. In Dedekind's theory, the inequality mA > nB implies that thus Euclid's definition implies njm is in the lower class defining A B that A B and C D have the same lower class and the same upper class.
:
the other hand, the number a is less than the number /3, when part of the upper class (A) belongs to the lower class {&), so that at least one rational number r belongs both to (A)
On
and
to
(b).
M.l'i
1
<
[QNa
it
It
follou
</3and $<y,
{lumber.*
iste
in
tin
then u
< y.
<'<i<ft,
.1
">f
I'.i^t
and
u
/i
sii'li
tli;it
</<,*.
that
i
NOTR
find
there
DO
li.nal
/'.
numher
>
we ran
U
an
nuiiilni
hrloi,
and
than
Thus
a<r<<
Thru
if
iv
any two
j.i.sitivr
intr^ris.
w
hi
that
147.
all
lir
hrtwrrn
<i
and
ft.
,'<!/.
B*OT
th.Tr
/',,
\\ill
hr
to
(
solllr illtrvi'
tilt'
//
,
ji.siti\r
<
U'
llr^ltixr) sllch
!
that
hrluiii;^
/',,+
!>'
the
u]>}Mi
claN
).
rational
t'racti!
+
in
fl
......
t
"o+iV "M+
to class
30
i
"ln^
that
to
i.
MIJ
i
//+
//!
1<>
is
tin
dfl
that
\\v
'out
\\
ari'i\r
at
the result

"
If
we
rail
!
these
is two decimal tVacti.n " .1 plain that made [688 than any proirihed rational
. .
i;
i'racti<.n
merely
l.y
taking
l.e
sutlicieiitly
\\
great;
that
((
a:
is
indefinitely
infinite decim;il
see
the
JflO
t,,
that
t'
fix
f/,,,f
i^
uet'ul
;tll\
i..
not,
further that
r/'
<
can
l>e
chosen so as to
el,:
plrviTiled ilUmher
>f
the loWel"
370
IRRATIONAL NUMBERS.
is
[AP.
I.
a" be another number of the lower class which a''; and then choose r so that 10 r a'). l/(a"
greater than
>
Then
a".
Ar
But 4 r >a",
ar
<a"
a',
a'.
or
ar
a'> A r
so that a r
>
Suppose that a
(1) if
following properties
class
(2) if
class, so
(3) (4)
number greater than A every number a is less than any number A numbers A, a can be found in the two classes such
;
that
Such a
irrational.
For any rational number r which does not belong to either must lie between the two classes, since any number less than a number of the lower class must also belong to the lower class and therefore r must exceed every number of the lower class similarly, r must be less than every number of the upper class. Hence, if a, A are any two numbers of r A the two classes a
class
;
:
< <
s is
a second rational number which belongs to neither class; then a<^s<^A. Hence \r s\ must be less than A a; but this is impossible, since by hypothesis A, a can be chosen so that A a is less than any assigned rational fraction.
that
classification
Suppose now
Consequently, not more than one rational number can escape if there is one such number, the classification may
;
if
there
is
no rational
a Dedekind
number which
section,
148.
escapes classification,
we have obtained
irrational
number.
Algebraic operations with irrational numbers. The negative of an irrational number a is defined by means of the lower class A and the upper class a; and it is denoted a. by
Tin reciprocal of
1
an
irrational
number
first
is
defined most
easily
by
147,
H8
i
\l.<;i:i;i:
\n
OPEB kTIO
>,il
li.n
L/a
by the lower
.1
ami
t
tli.
uppr
tin
class
ft.
Thus
,,f
if
th
number
lower
'
ive,
In
compl.t.
sMMili,;it
ion
th.I
will
he
i\'n
ih.r
who),
of
.1
in
t
th
class,
188 will
contain
only
definition
framed
t>
l'ir
when
al
tl
is
m
i
nurru
as
ti
always
or
i\i
anl
:
i^
i.jual
<.r
i^
],..siiiv
ive
it
is
(l.ntl
by
o.
'/X.
B
ii
,i
fco
be
/>'.
the
two
given
tin
irrationals,
so
that
< <
Art.
.1,
making
the up],
o!'
1
< <
rational
cl.i
<,
nuin
lo\v.r
nil.
nl\
it
iou.sly satisti.s
s.u i.sii.s
,ndit i,,us
17.
To prove
///'
that
ronditinn
(4)
ami 8O
l.'tii
nuiiil.r.
.
w
not./
that
14. />>>_(, /
at
,..
u i_ (M _ H(
i/
/;_
147.
<ach
ami, as .'XplaiiHd
!
thr
iM'^innin^ of
Art.
A'
//
\\v
l.ss
can tind
and
/>.
II
.1
BO &8 to
(r/
mak J
f/o
is
Lefifl
and
than
.',e:
and then
nunil
It
+/>')
than
I..
t.
II.
Mice
our
classifica:
may
rational or irrational
this
tin
MUM
typ.
<t+/3.
i'ollo\
DO thai
tin
o+(
'
is
represented ly
is.
a)=0; for here the lower dan J.and th. upper das i,y A
<t.
That
(lie
and
is
tin
upper class of
t
numher
and
tlnr
iticatioii.
In
,'*
/8)
= 0, w may
detine ,<>'
t. tlie suni
>!><</
,+(
ft).
M
l'or
't
i/
simplicity of statement,
We
<>mit
the
numl..rs
from the lou.r olasses; and then \v, detin. the jro(lu'.t a/3 by usin the tyj>e ,if, for tin lower elass and A Ii for the &
spondine upper claSS,
let
t
To prove
that this
.1.
tines
.inl,.
l.sx
nun
tha
372
IRRATIONAL NUMBERS.
[AP.
1.
then choose any rational number P which is greater than a+/3+l. Next find numbers A, a and B, b such that A a<^6 l ,B b<i l
where
el
= e/P.
}
The determination
Art. 147.
Now we
of A, a and B, b have
is
possible in virtue of
or
That
is,
ABab<6.
;
Thus the classification by means of ab and AB defines a single number which may be rational or irrational and this number is called a/3.
In particular, if /3=l/a, the product is equal to 1 for the lower class is represented by a/ A and the upper class by A/a.That is, the lower class contains all rational numbers less than 1
;
1.
Con
equal to
number
classification.
Multiplication of negative irrational numbers is reduced at once to that of positive numbers by agreeing to accept the "rule of signs" as established for rational numbers.
Division.
In consequence of the relation (l//3)x/3 = l, we may define the quotient a//3 as equal to. the product ax(l//3). It is at once evident that any of the fundamental laws of algebra which have been established for rational numbers
remain true for irrational numbers. Thus, we have the following laws
For example,
let
By
and
definition
we have
But a + b = b + a and A
+n = fl+Aj
so that a + j3
r<ii;il.
and
/2
+a
are dHinrd ly
148, 149]
KONOION*
NUM
in a ^imii
intial iiili<s
t"
and
of M^;H
if
t.
li.
iitli.
149. The principle of convergence for monotonic sequences whose terms may be either rational or irrational.
A monotonic sequenc
iiinnal
n
in
tl.
niimi
defiuiteneSfl
tin
that
the ^fijuncf
le8G
i^>
an
main
than
lixed
nni
;lt
...<A.
i.il
numl.er, one of
in
two
(a,
alt
IK
HUM
to
Ol
occur;
eitJ
term
sequence ry term
;
tin
will
tijual
!'
will l^e
[066
than
/,.
afl
.
tin
<la>s
nf
all
rational
(
//
\vliich
all
sati>,t'y
In
tirt
,iiliti<n.
<.
tin*
class
tt)
as
<>t'
\\hirh
>atis'y
lln
96COnd
,mliti.n.
Ty]ical
!>'
!'
the C
are
tin
rational nunilMrs
which
the
it'T
It
Beqv
than
rl<ar
.1.
\\liilc (II) contains .vry iational nuinh.r and possiMy sonic rational nuinhrrs ].ss tlian J.
i^
that
tin
d
\V.
Aether
/
<.
.ntain
///
ra'
HUIIIMT>.
and
thr
which
call
i
dctini
may
/,'
t'othc
\\]
and lower
\..\\
clfl
ia
;
every
i
juctivdy. defined ly the se.jiie; i"ital numlter Teater than >1 I'clon's
;
t<>
the
ujijier
th
oil
same
tru
And ter than any term .' nnmlter inatimal y ^ivater than ft ry
,.
i
:id
',
:
:
.i.
and these
also
th'.
than
any
tequentlj
rcecd
ft.
o'
the other liand. every rational nuinhcr lc>s than helon to the lower Now if t i any
<
)n
inu^t
tiieie
will
l.e
rational iiuinl
these nunil"
i.
than
i>,
f/,*
:
.},
they nr.
}
e.
That
374
Hence, since
IRRATIONAL NUMBERS.
a n = am,
[AP.
I.
we have
That
is,
@ = a n = /3
e,
^ 7i>m, if n > m.
lim a n = ft.
such a sequence is afforded by the terminated decimals derived from an infinite decimal and it will be seen at once that the section described here is an obvious extension of the method used in
;
A good example of
Suppose next that the terms of the sequence, while still It increasing, do not remain less than any fixed number A. is then evident that if a m ^> A, we have a n A if 7i>m.
>
Thus
lim a n = oo
n >oo
As an example we shall give a proof of the theorem that any continuous monotonic function attains just once every value between its greatest and least values. Suppose that /(#) steadily increases from x=a to x=c, so that
b<d,
Then
is
if
also
we
consider /{^(
+ e)},
less
which
,
this is
found to be
than
write then
<*!
= ( + = c, Cl
<!),
b 1 =f(a l )<l,
d =f(c )>l.
l l
On
is
greater than
I,
we
write
d =f(c )>l.
1 1
Continuing the process we construct two sequences (), (c,,), the first M never decreasing and the second never increasing; and c a n = (ca)/2 Also by the method of conso that (an ), (CM ) have a common limit k. unless it happens that at struction it is evident that f(an )<l<f(cn ) some stage we find /() = I, in which case the theorem requires no
;l
further discussion.
Now
since f{x)
is
continuous
we can
find
I
f(c n )f(a n
)<,
if
n>v,
that
f(
,)
and /(CM ).
Thus we can
\f(k)l\<
if
n> v
and therefore, as
it is
in Art.
is
= f(k) l. From the method of construction and this is also evident only one value such as /
1
(6),
#.
149, 150]
LIMITS
150.
all
il
tli.
than SOUL..mil
iiiiinl
l.t
p be a
smaller
ater
inn
'I'll. ii
i!'
icfa
that
i
an
intiiiity <f
tennfl
tlian
it
p,
we
is
evideni
an
intinit
id
/'
:
y or
iii
a finite
tl,
number
r
lall
beta
'
case
we
\N
in
the
latr
\Y<
bains
.at
the
in tin
diagram.
P J
Then
the
lees
'/
(
/>.,.
/>....
never
1
1
anl
t'nniiK'S
]
th.
sequence
which may
article
/'
i.
irratinnal,
ID
tin
la>t
Thru the
limit
i!'

a.
i
p*(Pp)
:
'
sequ< * n
U M
n
the
>aiin'!'
increasea
]Miti\e
numli.T.
we can
tin.l
//
/'
G'fe.
Conse.uent ly am
vn
"i"
the
bermfl
<>f
the
Bubaeqtience 1'p'iii (" ..) which has G a certain stage after which all are less I'f + e: than thus no >e,juenn.
a
find
convergent
sabsequence
s/Htr
can
have
;>
//
Inn
ber
thai.
tlmt
a
/'
A qut
It'
DO
such
numl.ei
afl
can
of
80
if
/
be
l'"Un<l
in
ar'uinent.
th.r.
;iiml)er8
the
('
sequence
ater
than
flu a
at
naMe numher.
JO.
On
no such numl>er as
can be
_^r.
found, there
only
rm^
1
than
.V.
however
lim "
B
consequeni
376
IRRATIONAL NUMBERS.
[AP.
I.
sequence has a
All the
For the sake of uniformity we may say even then that the maximum limit, which is, of course, oo
.
foregoing discussion can be at once modified cc ). establish the existence of a minimum limit (g or
151. The general principle of convergence stated in Art. 3
is
to
both
n >oo
the terms being rational or irrational. In the first place, the condition is obviously necessary for if lim an = I, we know that an index in can be found to correspond
;
to
e,
in such a
way

that
l
\
Thus
sufficient
for let
be
or
<
Then
has a
index
it
finite
follows from the last article that the sequence (a n ) maximum limit G so that an infinity of terms fall
;
between
G
is
and
Also
ap
Je
follows that
;
 f e < aw <
<
<x
< ap +
Je,
since
>
>
7?i.
w..
if ?i
if TI
> m,
>>
e,
Thus a n +G and consequently the sequence is convergent. Of course in this case g G, the extreme limits being equal
in a convergent sequence.
Various proofs of this general theorem have been published, sonic icing much shorter than the foregoing series of articles. But on
1
apparently
of the shorter investigations it will be seen that. in all cases the apparent brevity is obtained by avoiding the definition of an This virtually implies a shirking of the whole difficulty irrational number. for this difficulty consists essentially* in proving that (under the condition
of Art. 3) a sequence
*
may
I. A. 3, 14) says: "As the truth of this theorem and exclusively on an exact definition of imitituml inn.', naturally the first accurate proofs are connected with the arithmetical theories of irrational numbers, and with the associated revision and improvement of the
Pringsheiin (Encyklopiidie,
rests essentially
LIMIT1
"I
MI MIII
152.
I.
th>
steadily decreases,
Inn
,.
<',,
.
lim
,.
."
second
</
SUJ.J.M.:i
tirM
i>
linit.
ami
'jUal
to /: th.n
foiiinl
if
t
AD
u
so
i/t

</+*
inoe
(''
'',.
i'e><^^..,<'',. '',<<' + *
Chaii^tllfll
/'
to
/'
!.
/*
+'2. .../'+/'
ni'l
ali
tin
\Vr
tillil
(/cHl*,,!*, .,,)<",<".,,
<(/ + f
as
/>
~ s.
;
..
p ).
N>w
n.Niilt
w
ol.tain
()
ly hypoth
Hinci.
sine
positive,
we,
h.r.
/
or
if
//
>
\\
..
liini",,
'')
/.
On
if
tin*
limit
i^
can timl
,
so that
>
how\,ibefore,
.V.
if
>
lar^r
re
timl
!i
..+*).
which
or
1.
A'.
if
/>
>
m,
Thus
is
linn,/,,
in*
AJ
x
that, \\ith tht
ditliciilty in
D
"11
'\ti'inliii.
llir
iii
t>n
'
;"""'.
378
IRRATIONAL NUMBERS.
[AP.
I.
This theorem should be compared with the theorem (L'Hospital's) of the Differential Calculus, that:
//
then
lim0(X) = 0,
X>x>
limbec) = 0,
<f>'(x)/\{s'(x),
lim 0(aj)/^r(aj)=lim
X>oo
provided that the second limit exists and that \^'(x) has a constant sign for values of x greater than some, fixed value. II. If b n steadily increases to oo then
,
n+l~n
provided that the second limit exists* For if the second limit is finite and equal to I, as in I. above, we see by a similar argument that it is possible to choose
so that
(le)(b n
bm )
is
< an  am <
positive,
(I
+ e) (b n  b m
),
if
n>m.
Thus, since b n
Now,
since b n + x
we have
and
lim
n^
(i
+ e)
= +
i
e.
And
so
we
find
But these extreme limits are independent of m, and therefore and so the inequalities can only be true if each of also of e the extreme limits is equal to I. Hence
;
lim (a n /b n) =
Similarly,
if
1.
the limit
is
oo
we can
),
find
m, so that
a n a m
>N(b n b m
be.
if
n > m,
however great
may
Thus
*
i
for the case b n =n.
152
1
LIMITS
tinliat

an.l
limit
of
t!
on
lh
is
N, OS
Jim
'
and
lli.
Thus
Inn
imilarU
tli:it
with
tin
'
I
 *
Cf M
'
'/
"~~
1
(.It.
o*
IVIM
(
o w
tinI'nllov
<>rem
LI
I'
f<>
s_
ttifl,
./,
/A
'^1:
/,</
tin
it
d,,>
second
..ut
i.f
il,
//'///
It
tr<'l>,illv
nt
nl mi
tliis
iiiijxirtant
theorem,
>of .*
he extemU'tl
f"iin
Banvalue
tln'i.ni
\\.
have
and
>>(
')'>(,,)
is
j.ositiv..
Tin:
adfl
to a limit
lin,.se
a so
tl
')
Ami
fr'lii
hn
if
.....
\vai(U
tin
;n iiniriit
])i
Similarly,
that
</>(a)</>(a)
>()],
Ex.1.
If
,r+...+
^=
iiin.laiiirntal
(^+ i ) p
+i_ n p+i
A
limit
..f
tl
ilus.
H.'
lin.
JL,
liiu" 6.
ami 80
380
Ex.
2.
IRRATIONAL NUMBERS.
If
.
[AP.
I.
a n = lo7?
n + i
=n
\
we have
so that
if
bn+ ib n
n
161.)
lim
=0.
,
(Compare Art.
find
Similarly,
a n = (logw) 2
b n = n, we
^
which tends to
+1)
<  log (
+ !),
by the previous
that
Thus
Similarly
\irn[(\ogn)*/n]
= Q.
we can prove
If
a n =p n
a n+l
n
bn
= n,
we have
and hence
lini(a n+1
Thus
or
=ao,
ifjo>l,
2.
(Art. 161).
Of course Ex. 3
Ex.
exist.
4.
is
Even when
In this
case, the
and (6 W ) are both monotonic, lim n /6 n need not theorem shews that lim (a n+l  a n )/(bn+l  b n ) does
given by
not
exist.
An
example
o
is
Here
if
q>(p + l)'/(pbn+1
1).
^.iiz. o
n+ io w
jo1
1,
= jl. b
n
pl
while
Since
lim(aw /& w ) = 2
Theorem
II.
Ex.
5.
If
ow
we
see that
Thus
oscillates
between
and
5,
although
Again,
if
we
find
152, 153
\l.l
!
1. 1.
MM
\.
tts
mill,:
a drlimtr limit.
Ex.
.saiilx
6.
It'
!">
ii. .t
II
neces
Tim*
aw =
ii
&.<
ntlv
!
=
)
luit
.
= 1.
\\lnn \fr'(x)
In
lie
same M
"iiid.i

.inn
may
fail
chang*
intiiiitrU
'riiu>
.
/+! +>
^('
for
\\hi.li
.
\v,
tin.
i

(),
\vliii
Ms.illat.s
bet
and
Ex.
;i>
7.
<
'"iii<tfi
tin
and
>i"\f that
Mm
= l,
.,)=!+<,.
wl.iK
Mm.
153.
y,,
An
extension of Abel
'
'
Lemma.
r {,.,
i
,/, /,
ran '*"
.\
,,
/,
rn
f //
\
Ii
''.,4
'V
~^~
~^~
"
,
'
\\i'itf
.1,,
'',,,
A =
,
'',,
''j
.1
((
ami
/'
/'
.
,
=
/>',
!> {t
}/',.
/>'
,
= '/,,fCj = + +
/'
f~
~f
'>!
4
'
Then
\
^(Vo^) 44
(
/*,(
'",
',
4
f />,
.i(v n .i~
% 1
'>',)
...
+ ^^
('
Hiv n )+^
re all
//'
]n.>iti\ 6,
We
//
'MII
.1
nl.tain
;in
n]nr
lin,
in
,
and
//.I
in
jla
..f
/;
0,
382
IRRATIONAL NUMBERS.
[AP.
I.
where H,
Hm
B
l
Bn
ana
f or
/Bm Bin+l
,
,
...,
\Am
"?n+i
Bn\ "'
V^
i,
(VQ
(t^
v 2 ),
(f rii
vn ) and f
Thus
and,
we
we
H^H
+a +
1
...
+a r>
"
i^ 'i
~T
In like manner
we prove
that
where
h m are the corresponding lower limits of Br/A r Secondly, suppose that the sequence (v n ) steadily increases. In the numerator of v x ), (v x f 2 ), n the factors (V Q
A,
.
( v ni~ vn) are a ^ negative, while v n is positive, so that the value of the numerator is increased by writing
hA r
and
/i
in place of
in place of
w 4r
Br Br
l),
we must put
Hm A n
in place
of
Bn
= k m (a
and, since h m
tn
llt
),
^h,
the
negative
this again will not be decreased by omitting terms in the last bracket. Hence, since the
denominator
is positive,
(Hw  h m } A n vn 4 (h m  h) A
in
v in
*The numerator
which
is
is
actually
+' 0,1?!
av
less
+ ... + a m r m  (a
f
^+
..
+ a m )v
153,154)
Till
1.
Mil
Similarly,
w
timl
n _
'/'A*
II,,,
1'
m )A n vn
+(HH m )A Mvm
.(
is
ilir
tli
than
/.
ll.i,
Ktors
while
!
vw are
Thu^
iln
numerator of
Xn
is
greater
/' .!.,(
tlian
I
'',)+...!.
+/',,,M.
'
,)+...
+ //
= y/
...+"
^4)+
+4i
..."
/'
x.i,,.',,.'/.
'...th<
Hriir
we deduce,
V
ly
an arumnt similar to
<
we
//
Similarly,
find
av +a
Ex.
l'i..v
(
v l +...+a n v n
divir.Lr/
iha;
be
provided that
154.
It
. ....
...
+ 6,,
[.Ins
Other theorems on
t'n>ni
limits.
follows at onre
Theoivm
II.
of
Art.
to
1">2.
that
if
>
Thus
l.y
ha
definite
8m
limit.
fcendfl
6
/
the same
\f a

limit.
writing
<i
=a
+Oj+...+a
I
that
as
iin
if,
fh>
fi>
lim
(r/

/.,+ ...!*"
I' 1
t!
;ivj,
monotonic
l\it it
saves
troul)K' to ixjiiniiu
it
lirr.
384
IRRATIONAL NUMBERS.
limit
[AP.
first
I.
= 1,
aj,,
= 0,
may
exist,
when the
,
does not
thus
{a n ) oscillates.
III. If all the terms of a sequence (an ) are positive, lim if (an+l /a n ) is definite, so also is lim an ; and the two limits are the same. [CAUCHY.]
THEOREM
and
For,
if
lim (a?l+1 /a w )
,
is
finite
and equal
to
(not zero),
we
Thus we can
find
1
m, so that
e,
if
n ^ m.
By
multiplication,
we
obtain
so that
c w (le) w
c
<
cn cw
<c m (l + e)
<c, n
(l
tt
.
Hence
m (le)<
n >oo
+ e).
Now
so that
1 e
i
limcm
lim c n
=l
^ lim cn ^ 1 +
e.
of e;
these extreme limits are independent of and therefore e is arbitrarily small, so that the inequalities can only be true if each of these limits is equal to 1, or if
Now
and
lim<v = l.
Thus
But
if
lim
n
oo
).
we can
t
find
if
m,
so that
*
n +il<*>n>N
be.
a> n (f
n^m,
m
however great
or
may
Hence, as above,
in>
>l
ai>^[
But
n
w /JT]i.
lim K,/JV']
=1
(Ex. 4,
p.
17),
so that
lim a n
J\r.
This
minimum
is
limit
is
and
independent of
m and therefore
oi
wr must have
Lim On*
a oo.
154]
h.n
HEOREMfi
1
LIMIT
Mm
tli.
can be reduced to
th.
,rt\
ioni
:n _"!in.Mt
to
proTi
r:il
lim
.ilnl
/.,".
');
',+iKX,
alsi.
it
'
.
tod
reaaes to
Ex.
1.
lit.:
ft
n*,
,:,t
'
Thus
lit.,
result can
rig's
fonnuhi
f(.'
(SIT
\.
Ex.2.
To
liiul
HIM
[(//<
l)(// <
+ 2)...(
!*
tixed,
ami
tin,,
/'+
i.u
tin
limit
ajruin
\\t
is
Ex.
3.
Similarly
find that
l
HIM
[(/<
<,
I\".
O.
]
90
that
Thm
p n >0,
'/
tin
iv.'ii
ezpreaaion tuk.^
ill.
f..nn
"^^'/i + ..f
Now, My
li"
Pi+
4
"'
f...
+r
that
the r.ult at
tin iM^iniiinir
/,fV,, f ...I.
386
IRRATIONAL NUMBERS.
to
[AP.
I.
prove that

lim (Piq+piq*i + tv
+Mi) =
we can
and
Now,
which
JUL
since
pn
q n both tend to
0,
find a constant
is
greater than \p r
\p r
and
\q r \;
further,
we can
find
so that
\<e/A,
qr\<e/A,
ifr>//.
Then,
if
>
2/z,
we have
\<e,
if
r^$n,
nr^$n> p,
p..
and
\p rq n  r +i
\<A\pr \<e,
if
r^$n >
if
Consequently
(Mn+Mnl+..+Ml)l< e
IV
>
>2/*,
is
and so tends to
established. 155.
zero, as
n tends
to
oo
THEOREM
V.
If 26 n
2c
.
ri
Co + ^4.. .+C
_  11111
i
.
exists,
and
c n /bn
= vn
b v
',
then
gn = (^QO)^O +
Cn
+...+b n v n
of the
1907, p. 269;
(2),
first is
13,
1889,
p.
61.
theorem is due to Hardy, Quarterly Journal, vol. 38, given by Cesaro, Bulletin des Sciences Matlnmatiques Of course A'>1 in case (2), in virtue of the t';ut
that
c n /b n increases.
154, 155
BEOREM8 OH LDA
tin
we can apply
tie'
An
and
(1)
ire
tind.
in
the
CM6, when
i{
(hm
//,
/,
h&<$<Hm +(HB
'
^n
x
whento
f
It'
.
an//
.
tin'
iipp.r
.1
:md
I',,
are
Pm/Bm
BO that
P
A,,,
/
lini
si
i
&,, We
1'n in
can tind
<
01
<:
II
+ e.
and
we have
>
(/,),//,,'/;<;;<(/+.)+(///.
BO
in.uality,
\v.
tli.it
it'
u.
tak
th
linii'
last
tind
/ t
I!*
ii
a
inn/; ^n
/
I...,;!"
/he.
<t'
;
arliitrarily small,
t<
:
each
limits
in
HUM
!)
.Mjual
In likr
manner,
it'
l n
'
>
tind
so that
\'.
""'
"""
'.'
>.V(.VA
i'ruin
Sine.
*'
"
s_
\v
tind
\in(QJCn )^
and
linKy,,
<
!>
inretises,
we have
//,,//
,///,
( fi
<^<*.+
N<.\v.
li\
hvpoth
a
//
',"
< A'
0,,
/.
\vhnv
A"
is
QODSU
fcei
than unity.
II.nc.
A ',//
/,
(
_
A
tind
A'
<
/^
II
>
as c2)
is
d.dur,d
fmn,
in,,/;'
i'.
,.
we
from
that
/CVv'lk
I'rniii
/frJA'as
result
.ll.vvs
388
IRRATIONAL NUMBERS.
[AP.
I.
in the first case the series 2c n diverges more slowly than 26 W while in the second case 2c M diverges more rapidly than S6n but the final condition excludes
It is instructive to note that
, ,
series
which diverge
too fast.
It should be noticed that if sn tends to a definite limit, Theorem V. is an immediate corollary from Theorem II. of Art. 152 for then both fractions have the same limit as sn
;
.
The applications
of
'
most interest
b
arise
when
= \=...=b n = l,
and then we have the result: // 2c n is a divergent series of positive terms, then
Co
+ Ci+..+c*
second limit exists
n+ 1
and
provided that
either (1) that c n c or that increases, decreases, n steadily subject to (2) steadily the restriction
the
nc n
where
<K(c + c
+...+c n ),
arises
is
a fixed number.
from applying the
Ex. 1. A specially interesting application theorem of Frobenius (Art. 51) to the series
where
Here
so that
it is
if
= ao> 4q>i ^o = o> ^i = o> A =a }a A +i = aQ + a ..., and so on. A v =a + a + ...} ant Generally we have c + c + ... + c, _i^v<c + c + ...+c n we have Thus, if 8n = aQ +a + ...+a A + A! + ...+A V =s co+ 5 c + + *nicw_i + s(v  c  c  ...c,,_
>
Co
Co
1l1

if it exists,
is
given by
Ex.
2.
+ 0! +
..
c,,
= (w + l)
;2
(w
+ 1) 3
etc.,
for
which
may be taken
as
2,
3 respectively.
155
Th us we have the
lin.
x
1
<*+...) = K">
n
ae
*+*> +
+*
"*"**
an
tr* + 0^r
r +...) =
I'
*'j*
Ex.
3.
Hut
if
wt \M
\e c
= 2,
our

Thai
i>,
<
lint
'
(*o
;
+ .+ *)
...
""I
;ls
matter of
fact
particular
t.iul^
SMJ.
I
can
roved to oscillate as j.
[H.\
to
4.
(oompti
!>.
489).
tO 8
,,f
tl.
Ex.
liv
We
can n>1.
tlii>
tin., i, in
taking x,,=
Then,
in
tli
notation
rt
=jy,
'1
i
oonvergea,
:niot
\\\.
i
.res.
Thn
aj)]ioa<h
anv
limit
"tlni
tlian xero.
Ex.5,
ani
w
/
/;('' \6
;
;^')=/ i*i/
...
+ /;
that
fl
Irt
A,,
/',.
/;..
th. MI
].!o\,
)'
i,
in
CMC
1
x, lut that
/'
'
ly applying Art.
that
*1:
pi
worth whiK
bo
;i
ce
1.
v.
Iii
.
fa.t
i:;:;i
the
in
loth
the
an<l
11
'"Is in
the
first
sequence, and
"n.l.
is
t This
is
tlic
necessary.
390
IKRATIONAL NUMBERS.
[AP.
EXAMPLES.
Irrational Numbers.
1.
(1) If
is
a rational
(a + 1)
2
,
prove that
(2) If
where
a,
p n qn
,
and that
Thus
if
p,
n
.
an approximation to *JA, p n/q n is a closer approximation. [The approximation p s /q s is the same as that used by Dedekind (see
is
Art. 145).]
2.
(1) If a, b, x,
?/
are rational
(i)
x = a and
?/
= &,
or
(ii)
ax + %bxy + cy = 1 = la have only rational solutions, then 2 J[(bm) (al)(cn)] and ^(<^
2
1
If a
is
irrational
and
a,
b,
c,
ad
is
aa + b and
are irrational
4.
Any
numbers, except when a = in the former. irrational number a can be expressed in the form
a
where a
is
a
,
,
any assigned positive integer and c 1? c 2 c 3 ... are positive integers less than a. Thus, in the scale of notation to base a, we may write a as a decimal For example, with a = 2, that
in the
is,
binary
scale,
we
find
^2 = 101 10101000001....
If %, a 2 a 3 is an infinite sequence of positive integers siuli ... 7 n can be found to make (a^^... a,,) divisible by JV whatever the integer N may be, then any number a ran bo e\n vssrd in the form
5.
, ,
that
''
!
+...,
cH
<a
1.
1
Iii
ordri
(hat
.
Th.thii.
rettliotiOO
th
mu>t
find
hi
.i
r
L
>~>T^7
~1
t9J^\ fl r 1 J )
dtln.u^h
'
and
eual
6.
so
'
thr
sum
to
intini!
If
we can determine a
d;
such that
linn
^0,
'/..a.
;
"
i
/,
is
thr
int.i;,.
to
K.\.
th'ii
,i.
niut
!<
irrational.
Aj.ply
sjMcial
cast
of
S)
to
thai \\hin
il
an tind an
nun:
[
intr^ii
\ mcb
M
\v
thai
.V
.)/
ii
.,
any assigned
intt^ral
pl.as..
v.li.i,
.I/
j^
tlu
pait of ^o,
Fr
tin
first
part.
n..i
that
'
'
<
The sums of
!
\\lifr/.
'/
t'or
inti_rcrs,
aiv irrational
numl.r!
[Ki
[For simi
p.
/'
>\.
1.".
1SU.J
.1
8.
If
i
th:
illation
of
!_
urh that
>
\
~K^'
Thai
if
podtive integera.
h
can
find
sii;.
that
when
oi
/'
ifl
iln
n.anst
integer to
eu/ M
//
n\bcr
degree
i:
""
wlni.
.
"'
than
It'.
ly taking
itncc
9,[
.in
pio\ r that
Li
392
9.
IRRATIONAL NUMBERS.
Suppose that a
is
[AP.
is
converted into a
continued fraction
and p n /q n
is
write further
A n = an +
sin

a n+ i
\
+
a, i+2
. . .
man
> Kj Qn +\
n +i;
qn

<m<q
sin q n air
i ,
to zero as
n tends
Monotonic Sequences.
lies between the two preceding monotonic sequences. two compounded (2) If a sequence of positive numbers (a n ) is monotonic, prove that the sequence (bn ) of its geometric means is also monotonic, where
10.
term
of
(3) If
<?!,
c2 ,
...,
cp
if
(ju,
n +i//^n)
steadily
increases;
true of //,.
If
Sn =
'
where ar
its
is positive and independent of ^, shew that if 2a r is convergent, gives the value of lim n (see Art. 49). Conversely, if lim n exists, shew that 2a r converges, and that its sum
sum
is
Apply
12.
and
to Ex.
6,
Ch.
XL,
taking & = 2.
where C is Euler's constant (Art. Prove also that for all values of
11).
n,
the expression
lies
between
and
1.
Apply
Stolz's
II.) to
prove that
if
Inn
+!
+ A "J=,
H
where A.>1,

then
+A
T.
1.
1
IIPLE8
[If
/'
(]
th.n
th.
L'iven
expression can
!"
\\
\\here
/'..
Th. ii
/,
increases with
//,
if
1fA
i>
p..
in
!L'
li.u
in
which we
iven
ret
Quasimonotonic Sequences.
<iiven a seq'
,
N.t
tin
^reateM
index
for
which
mti>n of
iiii>niit<iiiii
is
nut
ami dm
m.t
t.inl
t"
inl'ir
tii.n
f"i
th'
decrwuing case.
14.
\
it
I'lasimoii., toni.iiiuit
.
siijiniin
OOHV61
wliirli
if
si(MMK
itli.i divfri^ to oo or than any trrni nf th >cuence. f diverged t" / or converges to a limit
(in.i
is
quasim
.juainioiiotonic
ami
in<Tf;i>in'_r
\
s'iiiciic.'
IK
two
Q
ly
a n = n 2 + (l)";^,
,nt.
,,
=!
two.
Infinite Sets of
15.
irlti<li
Numbers.
need to
For some
<<>
]>ur>",,^
,t'
analysi
\\.
Beqilrli'
't'tcli
iall>11
Prove that th
countable,
r.al
nund><
and
[For
ah
if
/,,
Of,
'
...
i
an\
B6C]
write
t.i'in
as an
intinit.
decimal
'0*
iff*.
<'..
infinit
d'cimal
7=
in
It
\\
hich
clear th.r
all
/
lit i,.n
,t"
i<
to tin
exhaust
.nd
1.]
394
16.
IRRATIONAL NUMBERS.
[AP.
Given any infinite set of numbers (&) we can construct a Dedekind by placing in the upper class all rational numbers greater than any number &, and in the lower class all rational numbers less than some
section
number
k.
;
This section defines the upper limit of the set prove that this upper limit has the properties stated on p. 12 for the upper limit of a sequence.
Frame also a corresponding definition for the lower limit of the set k and define both upper and lower limits by using the method of continued
;
Given an
section
infinite
set
of
numbers
of the
(k)
we can
k,
by placing
but a
in the
upper
than
all
finite
number
than an
the
terms
limit
construct a Dedekind numbers which are greater and in the lower class all
of terms
set
;
rational
numbers
limit
less
infinite
number
k.
This section
defines
is
maximum
of the
a limiting value of the set, in accordance with the definition given above and further that no limiting value of the set can exceed the maximum limit (compare Art. 5, p. 13). Frame a corre;
maximum
the
minimum
limit
and
Goursat's
Lemma.
18. Suppose that an interval has the property that round every point of the interval we can mark off a subinterval such that a certain inequality
Then is satisfied for every point Q of the subinterval. divide the whole interval into a finite number of parts, such that each part contains at least one point (P) for which the inequality \Q', P} is
denoted by {$, P}
we can
satisfied at
lies. every point Q' of the part in which not if either half does the interval satisfy the condition, original [Bisect If we continue the process, one of two and so on. bisect it again
;
alternatives
must occur
either
we
which
satisfy the condition, or else, however small the divisions may be, there is always at least one part which does not satisfy the condition. in the latter, we have an In the former case, the lemma is proved
;
infinite
sequence of intervals
b H+ ia n +i
(, &),
= $(b H a H ) and
aw
^a
ll+1
<6,1+ i^6 n
not satisfied in any interval (a,,, 6,,). Now the sequences (), (&) have a common limit / mark off round / Then we the interval (/, g) within which the inequality {Q, 1} holds.
is
;
have an
= = &n
lt
<lf=gl.
(/,
Thus
tliirefore
">/+(& 0=/
is
is
and
is.
l\
That
'I
,ii..n
/.
atilied in (/./*,.):
and
'
o
we
ai.
led
to
.11
l.y
asumii
ue.]*
111.
..t
nat
i
an
MII
in:
ih
'
point
di\
id.
(I,
Miml.er of
parts
\\liieli li
mciiialit.
.a
I
mis
t.
I'loVe a
[
IS.]
20.
Slate
;
and prove
K\v
;
Is.
\\>
j,,
to
ieion>
in
plane
..r
I..
dOB.
Continuous Functions.
21.
'
:nuoii>
in
the interval
the inteival,
)
//
and
It)
of continued
1'iseetion.
i:et
an
infinite sMiienec of
in
intervals
\>\\
/'(/')
the inte:
<ommon
Then
if
/(/)<//, choose 8
that
8.
Thn choose n so
at
all
that
I,
A.,
~a n =&; and we
tind
tl.
W
an
int.
+S( f )}
p"int>
I
i
contrary
it'
to hypothesis.]
in
22.
s to
then
\\i>
finite
numliei of
j>art (the
mn
;idin
>nih
iny
23.
a
two points
said t"
in
in
INK.]
fun<tion
i
b
if

it
absolute vahu
finite
upper
limit
_'
the interval.
in
that
an
intei \al.
it
finite
in
the interval:
and
a!s..
that
that
l/(f ^
Tin'insat
I
f* in
<&
proof is of
form
suitat.l.
will he
s,
found
\\)
in
his C<
Mein to ha\
APPENDIX
II.
AND EXPONENTIAL
d
and a number of
used.
to
It
is
allied properties of the logarithm have been customary in English books on the Calculus
coefficient of log x from the exor else from the exponential series
would, therefore, seem illogical to assume these of properties logarithms in the earlier part of the theory; although, no doubt, we could have obtained these limits quite
book. But from the point of view seemed more natural to place all special limits after the general theorems on convergence. It is, therefore, desirable to indicate an independent treatment of the logarithmicfunction and it seems desirable to use this way of introducing the function in a first course on the Calculus.*
at the beginning of the
adopted
it
157. Definition of the logarithmic function. There appears to be no real need for the logarithm at the beginning of the Differential Calculus, but we require it in the Integral Calculus as soon as fractions have to be integral' M!.
At
first it is
until
vol.
4,
190,'i,
j>.
.~>l>
1,
pp. 487500.
157
in:i
i\i
[0
ball
the
tin05
present,
a
th
that
presents
nli
ana
between
Ai
curve, the;
Of
t!i.
nates
= a,
n
x=l
below
tlnMivm
will
lanular
shall
tli
hyp.il.ola
= l/x
be drawn,
l.y
th.n
w
denote
!i\<d
l>y
A(./i
tin
area
HTM
hound. d
th
ordinair
:
AH
in
(fl5=l),
tin
axis of
x and
tin
variable
ordinal^ I'M
(
I
or.
th<
/.</>=
as
will
h.\
1/j/x,
th<
whtrr.
id<nt
from
ti^ur..
is
siij.p
It
\B
..hxioiis
fi
,iii
tin
drtinition that
/.,!,
().
Furthrr.
if
paralhi Mill
//
and
7'
to
tin
HTM
Thus
/I
or.
>
of
1
/.(./)>(./!
nutation.
with
slight
rhan.
./>
(3)
At
+.'>>.>
f.o.
it
has
In
is
easy to ahew
\\lim
1.
...ld
v.
g,,Kl
///
/'
//////.
.<!.
i.J),
must
itive,
t.ikm
all
tlu
t"
in
ni'ti..
tliat
ten than
[iialitiis
..i
in
or
in
u'').
irv
\vmiUl havr
IM
r.\cjsed.
398
LOGARITHMIC FUNCTION.
(3),
[AI>. N.
But
in numerical value
if
<
Z()<1.
Again,
we take an
ordinate
ON=2.0M,
we have
L('2x) L(x) =
NQ,
and
That
is,
MN.MP.
or
x(^)>L(2a)L(x)>x(^)
get
Thus,
we
1>
Z(2)>J,
since
and so
on.
It follows
by addition that
it is
Now,
Hence
if
if
X>X
(n +
n
,
1)> Z(2
and Note
it is
2 n+1
>a;>2
1,
with x (Art.
(5)
2),
Again,
if
we
write x =
l/t,
we have
dt
cZa?_
~^~
so that
(6)
"T
=
 ^(
or
Z(^) =
a;c
=
Hence, as a? approaches zero, since Ifx tends to L(x) tends towards negative infinity, or
(7)
infinity,
limZ(aj)=oo.
a;>0
Again, the function L(x) is continuous for all povifiw values of x. For we see at once that \L(x + h)L(x)\ lies between two rectangles,' one of which is equal to \h\/x and
the other to \h\/(x + h).
Thus
if
\
\L(x+h)L(x)\<c,
\\
157
1
S'lTION
folloWB lYnin
;iii'l
It
tin*
t'mi'lani'nlai
tliat
between d>
tinn
int'jiMt inn
.A,'''
hut
without
aj.jM'alin:i;it

in
this
fact
L(. '))/'
is
WC can
nhtain
1,,lv.
/.(./
+ //)
rniitain.d
I/a;
and
l/(cr
A).
Thus
l
cia;
= ii..i'[(+A) T i()].i,
^_,
ire
two
onli
,ch
that
f>
> >
'/
t
\v
><(6a
l>y
exactly
tin
as
\vc
usnl
^
or
Tims
or
Consf(u<ntly.
'.NVX;
the functior(
L(x)/(xl)
n.arly olivioiis
.!/>'
/
as x
///'/
/'..
cw
a;
.\aiii])f, tin
ifadri
may jn'Vr
g
tin
la^t
result
<!'
ly
ditlcifiitiatioii.
Tin
timuv
lnlnw
will
n.ial
id. a
tin
course of
41.
'I'lic
dotted
liiu8
rcprt'sint
(lu
rurves
I
y = (xl)i(a
400
158.
LOGARITHMIC FUNCTION.
Fundamental properties of the logarithmic u f dx
[AP.
II.
function.
In the formula
writing
or,
= L(uv)L(v).
Thus
(1)
L
equation (1)
is
it
From
(2)
where n
any
rational number.*
Suppose now
that
is
the
existence of e follows from the fact that L(x) x function, which steadily increases from varies from to oo (see Art. 149).
a continuous
to
+x
as
a?
Then equation
(3)
L(e") = n,
to
as
ordinarily defined;
we
shall,
therefore,
write for
to
the value of
by
observing that,
writing x =
l
when n
is
+ l/n,
(4)
n/
l
n+1
tends to
1
+ (lV
1
)
as its limit;
and
so,
is
must tend
*
to
e.
Equation (2) maybe used (see Bradshaw's paper, 4) to establish the existence of roots which are not evident on geometrical grounds for example, th;
Of course, from the point of view adopted in this book, it is rnoiv natural to establish the existence of such roots by using Dedekind's section.
lifth
root.
158
li
M>
\Ml.N
\l.
PROPER]
Similarly.
WG
1.
Thus, we lind
lim( 1i
'
".
)
It
is
easy to give a dn
I'i
hat
the
i
<
a definite
limit
./
in
bi
increases.
Thuthief'!i(
ie
1
that
tlie
lo_ir(l
it)"
iiHTrastx
ur
that
(1
i
/)"
does
so.
In
saint
\\ay
we
less
~*
1
prov.
I'.ut
MC
(1
that
2.
than (11
/<)",
and
is
tl.
Thus
limit
(1
A
matlrr
i'r
!'
fact.
In
c<
>\\ <\
r,
tlusu
limits
ar
imt
v.rv
II
nice
Tlius
Wi1
(
it
will
I..
found tint
( V
1
]

\
tin
V = 27048,
is
V
:nit
\n \
in
V =2
I
third of whih
only WTOB
It i> alcu{>erhaps .if hist..rical int.r.^t to note that N lated the tir^t tal>le <f h iai'it lim^ l.y mean> an appn ximate
!'
formnla ailil
to
i.
nam,/
La
402
LOGARITHMIC FUNCTION.
[AP.
ii.
The error in the approximation (8) can easily be shewn to be about b[(a,b)/af, and in Napier's work (a b)/a does not so that Napier's approximation is right to the exceed* 5/10 5 13th decimal place.
;
Napier's definition of a logarithm is exactly equivalent to the definite integral which we have employed he supposes that the velocity of a moving point is proportional to the distance
;
from a fixed point 0, and is directed towards 0; so that of the time represents the logarithm of the distance OP, if the initial distance OP is taken as unit.
159. The exponential function. Since the logarithmic function logy steadily increases as y to + oo it follows from Art. 149 that, correincreases from
,
there
is
a real
y the exponential function when x is the indeand write y = exp x the graph of the pendent function can be obtained by turning over Fig. 41, p. 399 and interchanging x and y. The figure obtained is shewn below
call
We
variable
21
01
FIG. 42.
Dotted curve, y =
function
is singlevain
interval for
Generally, the function inverse to a given function is singlevalued in any which the given function steadily increases (or steadily decreases).
158, 159J
I:\IM\I.\
\i
mot
OCM
value of X in
.dlled
fmicti,,l
<
'
'
ion
Suppose now
80
tlial
//
that
.
.'}/',
Thus.
(1)
fiMMi
Arl
f
ehave
+*)<*<*/*
+ /).
Mini
if
/<//</</'<//
Hm,.
///,
A</(yH
see that
A<e, and
>
//<
expont'iit'nil /"i><fion
ilUOUS.
\Ve have proved in Art. i:,s (3) thai. \vlin x is iiu* of e*. \]Miintial t'unrtii.n i*> thinatinnal, <lrtmr.l
ra
ro/^'
If
now
a;
is
l>y tli
u]j>r and
ln\v.r
we
= t'.\jM/
' '
'\p
.1
=eA
t'unctinn
"
increases with
./.
Al
iiMtinumis.
can
p.
In
mad. a^ small as
we
please;
ami
<'>i!MMii,ntly
(rompaiv
(e*),
''.
o!'
o7<
expos
is
is
tin
sinM,
number
with
"//
d.'tin.d
hy
,
tin
cla^s.s
A
(e
).
Thus rxpr
irrational;
/'x
coincil>
D.drkind's ilrtinition
/V//,
///i
/
whn X
that
and so for
/v////*
.iy,/,
it
/M
,///'.//
fil.,,rt',u,,
///r
y;ox/'/;/V
/g*.
iV..m
Sine,
log 1
= 0,
i'..Il..ws
>"=!. and 80 w.
hav,.
th continuity of
tin
exponential function.
Hn,
.r>0
,>
= ,"=
1.
ii.
because
Logy+logy'log(yy^ we ha\r
l
et+.>
Of course
(8) and (4) agree witli tin ordinary laws of inaM^lnd for rational nundtcrs in honks ..n ah'vhra. Ki.ni the dctinition^ of the logarithm and exp)iiential functions
1
i
it
</>/
'/
//
Thus
that
is.
flu
wop
'i
derivuf
'(self,
j
This result can also
1
deduced
at
<>n
404
LOGARITHMIC FUNCTION.
inequalities are often useful:* for any value of x.
[AP.
II.
The following
(6) (7)
e*>l+#,
ifOO<l.
Since,
(1)
it
of Art. 157,
<05,
follows that
(2)
is
any
positive index,
<xn
or
log x
< x /n.
n
article,
we
see that if
x and n are
x/(n f x)
Thus,
(3)
we
find
'
n>w
Since
function,
(4)
lim=#, and
it
since the
exponential
is
a continuous
71
Similarly,
we can prove
that
if
n > x > 0,
_
When n
is
a positive integer,
we have
K)"='+<'(':>and
since all the terms are positive, this gives,
from
(3),
limit as ?i>oo,
if
e*^l+a: + ia
2
,
>
0.
Similarly,
we can prove
that
if
./>().
*The
geometrical meaning of
(6)
is
entirely above
any
of its tangents.
159,160,161]
161.
IMJ.l ALII
limits
;
II.
>
AM*
LIMITS.
Some
th.//,
last
if
I
article tliat
1,
<./"
and BO
I
s>
>0,
I.
IlCe
limllo^.r
x *co
fl
mply
(
>
lii.
<!<>./
if
//
>0.
is
tli.
X'^OO
Since
loga=
log (I/a:),
tin
last
equation
it'
same as
= 0, liui(.'"loga:)
(3) of th last
article
>0.
we
if
SCt
that
(x/n)<e*>
or
U,
<
,.
>0, /?>0.
,,aj^
f
)
/jn^
and therefore
or
1)\
liin(./'v
= o,
we have
if
= 0,
(.'*)
Of course w
(4)
Tin results (3)
is
in the
if
//
form
>0.
if
and
course true
thru
We
Art.
(I
;>
\>y
aii)ealing
to
L'Hospital's
rule,
l.'n'
HUM
and
l'\
<
,^=0,
hanging
or
to o^
we
?*
get
(1).
Si,,,.:
Inn
JT
0^*
A
"
>0.
power,
g
It
OD
**
>oo
\ve
write
</
ml
we
get
(4).
Th<
limits
(!) (4)
It
form
tin
basifl
l^./
"*^
tends to
^mall
e
CO/
oo
its
more slowly
index
than
li\v.\vr
may
tends
still
more slowly,
e*
ami so
On
we
see
406
to
oo
LOGARITHMIC FUNCTION.
[AP.
II.
be
faster than any power of x, however large its index may and hence a fortiori e? tends to oo still faster, and so on. Thus we can construct a succession of functions, all tending
;
to oo
say,
. . .
. .
to
but
It is easy to see, however, that this scale by no means exhausts types of increase to infinity. Thus, for instance, the function
e (loga:)2_ ^loga;
all
tends to
of x.
oo
x
,
(fixed)
power
Similarly,
tends to infinity more rapidly than e*, but more slowly than e? or than ef. Other examples will be found at the end of this Appendix (Exs. 11, 12,
p. 412).
162. If
The exponential
write
series.
we
we have
Thus
and
so,
Xn
is
zero for
cc
= 0, we
have
method
of repeated integration
by
we
find
ONEN
II \l.
407
last
I.
in
th<
integral
i>
losa
than
Iori
\\'li.
"J
(=
say),
=
'
3.11+1
(^+i?
is
i~
less
than
e*,
and so
ir IJo
w. have bherel
'
>
lf^fCr..h'^rA',.
A'.i
<
r^r.,
when
whn
./
^>
0,
./
<
0.
In
ti
lini
/.'
<)
(Art.
2,
Kx.
4),
and so
^
.,.
...
to
163.
The existence
)>
ivrt
found
l'c\v
l>y
sincr
lisciission
of
tin
Ku^lish aiva of a
The method
applies at once to any curve which can he divided into a // numhcr of parts, in each of which the ordinate steadily increases
a
or stiadily deereasee; although the attual proof refers only to curve lik' the rectangular liyprl)ola in wliicli the ordinate
<
constantly
Increases.
408
associate
LOGARITHMIC FUNCTION.
[AP.
II.
with this strip an outer rectangle PMNP' and an inner rectangle Q'MNQ\ now bisect at and draw the l ordinate R^M^ This gives two outer and two inner rectangles outside the curve, R^, QM1 inside. But namely, ly the sum R is less than the outer + 1 1 obviously original is greater than the rectangle; and R 1 1 original inner
MN
PM R^ N PM M+QM
rectangle.
If we again bisect four inner rectangles
MM
;
and M^N, we obtain four outer and l and the sum of the outer rectangles has
sum
When
sum
divided into 2 n equal parts, let us denote the of the outer rectangles by Sn and the sum of the inner
is
MN
rectangles
by
sn
Then
S
and
AISO
s
sl
82
8n >Sn
(71
= 0,1,2,3,...).
sl
is
Now, from the figure, we see that the difference S1 the sum of the two rectangles PR l} R : Q, which is equal
to
Similarly,
and generally
Sn  sn = J (Sn _ x  sn . x ) =
^(S
and
s
is
).
It is therefore clear
'Sn
sn
approach a
called the
common
limit as
increases
this limit,
say A,
PMNQ.
But it is essential to prove that we find the same area A in whatever way the base is supposed divided to form
MN
the rectangles.
163
I. .i
Al;i: L
OF
U
i:\
I.
4<M
i denote
up
<!'
the
n
turn
<>\'
wh.n
Vt <>r irr.
MN
1.
is
ili\ id.'d
in
i
any
*
nd
l.t
/r
denote
glanoo
tin
sum
t
in
oorresponding inner
will
Thn
w.
at
li.
liiin
shew
tliat
l
!'<
S>
wli.
'i'liu
uite
<
independent
"!'
n.
lini
Nn a
.1
lini
We
1.
2=^,
1
,)'
<T_ J.
llut
T
>!'
v/M/
tin
QjV),
_!
\\hnv
llr:
is
tin
linsultli
wilst
.main..l
in
the SHIMS
^l. rj.
MII ohOQf
LCb
if
j 1
that
2(r<e,
ami
tlnr't'. .!.
S<
since
/!=T. w
Thus.
Hiii }L
=J =
liin T.
^^o
That
lias,//
^^.0
*<i ,n>
is.
wis
olitain
ilividol.
the
aiva
f/,,,f
.1.
//,/
in
/
whut\vr way
tin
.17
A'
:'
!>,<;,/.,/
//'/>
/"
/a
function
t<>
lr
iutr'_r i"itr.l
s..
i>
ii"t
i':i,
mOOOtonic, hut
::
tinitf
in
tin
int<i\al
(./,
A) (f>r (Ictinitinii,
/'
.
K\.
p.
i.f
taking
//,.
tin
upjr ami
l<>\v.i
limits
tin
fumtimi
in
th
int'i\;il
r,
an.l
Writing
is
it
$ n ^//I
\vlin.
y,.
..l.tainril
is
iy
divi.linur (".
ii;
iiion.t,ni.,
iictd
ami
!
BO liavr
limit>
;
na
fual.
have gone
Supjxisi' that in
\v.
at
prrstnt
hut
we m\v
intr<du.f
//// sMliiivij,,n
Qto ulint<i\
n thf iippn
aU
c>
,j
denoi
// ...
and
bw.r

liin.
then
it
i
nn;
il.lr
t. tind
a
1
ill
//
W r <,
that
//,.
modes
of <livisic.ii
..t'
th.
int.
leea
thai
luivo
iiulio;it.l
only
the
rc.t.ui;.
latin
hciiiu'
<lttel
an.
th.
for
IT
410
Under
LOGARITHMIC FUNCTION.
this condition
[AP.
we have obviously
so that
= liin Km Sn = lira sn = A
()
(),
sa}*.
and by Riemann's
Thus
It
is
condition,
So <e,
if
yj r
<8.
Km2 = J=limcr.
App.
for (see easy to shew that a continuous function is integrable  a), if r <S. Thus we find I.) we can find 8 so that <o r c/(b rj
;
Ex.
22,
<
2i7 r a> r
<,
is
because
^r) r
= ba.
;
It
two
also easy to extend the definition of integration to a function of let us consider the meaning of variables, say .r, y
///(.r,
y)dxdy,
a' to
6'.
6,
we
divide
(a, 6)
and y from
and
(a', '&')
we
&m, n
^'^fJ.,
/u,
v>
are the upper and lower limits in a subrectangle or n is Then, just as above, we see that Sm n decreases if either 'TV,*. and s m>n have each a limit when thus increased, while s m<n increases ,,,,
where
H^
and A M
wi, T&
Further,
tend to infinity in any manner (see Ch. V., Art. 31). if f(x, y) is continuous we prove as above that
Km S
Now we
/
nlt
= lira s Mi n
\
F, say.
m and
Km
*oo
lira \ M >oo
Sm>n )=
/
dx
dy
fb'
\
f(x,
y)dy
Km ( Km SW) B ) =
>
\m^ao
(* ''
'
(* /(a?,
and
therefore to
EXAMPLES.
1.
,[For
If
we have
log(2) =
J*^,
1
we take
to 1J,
from \\ to
1J, etc.,
we
find that
Il.'l
111 W
2.
t.h
th.ii
gra]
3.
If
>i, t
*l as
tends to
prove tint
'.
Dcdll.T
th;,t
l
...+o
\\hi.'h
(
,f
tin
t\v.
<>na
1>r
(*'
'
l.j.n
ithin
ami
ii"t.
that
181.]
5.
If
if
/'
is
nmnrrirallv
lss
iiuU'Hi.
and
.og
(l
<
then
1 log( \
lim.r
+ i + _L_
/'
//
l"u
/'
/'
/'
log?i
=
Art
6.
12
(1).]
t.
Tsc the
last
txain.!!
>h.\v
that
if
'
.
I
tormi
1" converges
,
if
/x>l,and
..thorwisr diverges.
iiat
tin
_] )<"+!)
is
div.i^riit.
7.
Compare
".
Art
that .
IS,
If
>
pfov
'2,
(l+./)!lg(l
+
1906.]
and
UM
th.
'e'f
to
> 2^
if
is
Provt that
as
rank's fr..m
1
1
x,
tlu
funrti..ii
_1

log(lfj)
iitinuous
fr'in
to 0.
412
[From the
continuity
is
LOGARITHMIC FUNCTION.
;
[AP.
dislast example, we see that the derivate is negative only possible at # = 0, and when \x\ is small we find that
_J_ l_l.a
log(lKr)
the series converging
9.
if
12"*"
.r<l.]
Shew how
to determine
so that
,
e*>Mx y
\tx>X,
But
10.
is
[Apply Art.
11.
by means
when
is the largest number which can be expressed algebraically of three 9's ? Estimate the number of digits in this number written in the ordinary system of numeration.
What
12. Arrange the following functions in the order which they tend to infinity with x
:
x*,
# l0 **,
the
(log
a?)*,
(logo?)'
10 **) 8
,
(logtf)
10 * 10
10
**,
**.
Indicate
position
of
each
of
these
functions
in
between
the
members
13.
If
we assume
to be
suppose n
x
 \
we
find
Deduce
that,
if
is
positive,
series.
Shew
that
(1W
i
/
i
1
2
v,
1\*
a/ ill
get
(nl)
[If the
product on the
left is called
we
a?
,
^ V = ^ =
Taking
v
dv
e*l
+ 2! + 3! +
,
= 0,
ii.
I
LMPLE8
vre find
tin
idmtit
whi.h
15.
i
rly.J
Sh.u
that.
.iH
**<),
G^r!
16.
If
v
'""
,
=
(l
' .
11).
...\i
<x
[It
<
'
will
be seen that
Xwhirli give*
17.
tin
XJ
_ [
_Mc_
.'
\
}_
0/4 ( W
result.]
good
a)ii.'.\iin:iti.n
t. the
fuii<ti.. n
1
..f
K\.
16
l>y
taking
the
ermr
in
wliieli
is
<.f
tlie
.
'il.i
1
(I""
[A.
L"i><;K.]
[Aj.j.ly
18.
Kuler's
:)).]
I'IMV.
that
(/<
):
I=^Y^_ J !\fl
.
nf2
T 8!
[Dill'eiviitiutr,
and
l...tli
id. irdu, t.
19.
Shew
that the
Mqn<
= e,
3
= e'\
<
Ifl
t<
infinity
tliat
ni.nil.er of
tli
ial
scale.
20.
I'mve
2(loj
convergee
it'
i
or
it"
ami
and
<.tlii\\i>r
APPENDIX
III.
range is infinite or the subject of integration tends to infinity at some point of the range, an integral maybe conveniently called infinite* as differing from an ordinary
If either the
integral
differs
very much in the same way as an infinite series from a finite series. In the case of an infinite integral, the method commonly used to establish the existence of a finite integral will not apply,
as will be seen
We
..
ff
f(x)dx when this limit
a
a
of Art. 163.
f(x)dx
{00
exists.
fb f(x)dx
as equal to the limit
lim
6>0 J (t+8
[
f(x)dx
(S
> 0)
when
*
Following German writers (who use uneiyentlich), some English authors have used the adjective improper to distinguish such integrals as we propose to call The term used here was introduced by Hardy (Proc. Lond. Math. ^ infinite.
(ser.
1),
is
vol.
which
34, p. 16, footnote), and has .several advantages, not the least of the implied analogy with the theory of injinite series.
[164]
If
DEF1NITIO]
tinoi'
int'"_;!an'l
tendfl
t"
intii.
point
li\il. ral
i
within
tin
ran.
in
to
tli
i^ral
into fcwo,
ami
I
.uM
liml
i
ly
liml
,"'.
il,,.
t
>
But
a
tin/
in
nrtain proLLniv
intinitf.
liin
\vliil.
\\
limit^ in tintli
la*:
ln.th
tinitr
two
limit
int.'raU tends to
:
tinit
\v.
then
r\ /,)^=ii.It
' :
i
['/(./) //*].
bend
tinu^..!'
is
at
one,
.viilmt
tliat
aii1
tin
temuj
definitiona
Exs.
1
OA
>
%
ftr
^=
liiM
IA
;='
JO
A.
,
n/.
/"fr
"/./
di
,^
"
I
T+lim
pi
!
K)'5
i*o 2
n Ja X
=
\\hfic
in
tinla>t
i\\..
5_o\.
i("
int.
(s
>u])jisf
/
and
/<
shnuhl
ik.d
that
in
tin
lat
CMQ ^ ihoold
8
ml to a
Maik,
<
tlffuiiu
limit
BI
doea
so.
1.
1.
j..
.Ml.
416
Exs.
(of
INFINITE INTEGEALS.
divergence and oscillation).
[AP. in.
dx
diverges
l
and
/*
I
sm.vdx
.
oscillates,
dx x
,.
diverges
and
Jo x*
am
\xj
oscillates.
It
of
infinite
An
infinite integral of
is
continuous
else
=7 b
a x
or
a\b 
in
is
everywhere
finite.'
Ex
f
Jo
d^
*/2 )
^
reversing this transformation it may happen that an integral to oo can be expressed as a finite integral.
By
rao
Ex.
if
When
= !/,
r\
ar'dx
still
becomes
J^
if
%' d%,
which
is
a finite integral
5^2
(both integrals
converge
2>s>l).
It is also possible in many cases to express a convergent infinite integral of the second type as a finite integral by a change of variable. Thus we have
o(l
x 2 y*
latter integral is finite if f(x) is (0, 1) (for definition see Ex. 23, p. 395).
by writing x = sin
finite in
0,
and the
the interval
it
is
of f(x)
Care must be taken in applying this kind of transformation when the infinity is inxide the range of integration. Here it is usually safer to divide
/()*
oo
as
a,
we can
write
;
and introduce
as a
new
Jm
variable.
and
/
164,165]
165.
m:n \rrioNa
Special case of monotonic functions. Although. as we have pointed out in tin last
i
art
case of
an
,,f
infinite
integral.
can
obtain
direet
definition
tin
when
f(x)dx
steadily
tli.n
tin
function f(x)
c;
x greater than
w
cMnsi.lri
only
i'alls
tin
iiit.^ral
j
/
in
un.l.r
tin
ordinary
fcluefl
.'',,(='),
be a seju!
1.
to
liave,
(*+,'
Thus,
ii'
>'
I
/ '
>
Jx*
tin
integral
/<.')</./
to
the value
/.
:,)^I^"
<
'
)f
th>f
two
tin
MMiis
in
(I),
tin
srconil
viitut
COnVi
the
the
contains
it'
only
J"
j>ositi\e
teims.
< '
The
i
tiist
need
not
converv,
instance, \\ith
and
/()=]
l.e
./.
it
every
t'nn
\ir.
in
l.y
ti
Hw.
taking Xn to
l>
a
,<
}.ioperly
.
chosen function of
easily en^un the
.n>vr that
i^
some parameter
Convergence
the
t
(as
well as of
io
we can
.
of
lli
have
a
\\
common
this
made
he
to
tend t"
to
/.
ZrO ly varying//:
Miple.
si
common
(1).
limit
must
in
a^
is
independent of
//
and
eijiial
to A, say:
then
.r n
A[/(c)+/(+A)4
i
+ ...].
,,
418
INFINITE INTEGRALS.
[AP.
III.
hf(c),
to
with h
hence
q,
n and
equal to
and
Thus we can again infer the convergence of the from that of the second, and we see that
first
series
/co
Ex.
1.
Consider
xn =nh.
We
have then
7=
/oo
(where s>l).
n
,
and we get
by applying one
Ex.
r
/
3.
It can
be proved
oo
as
r<*>
I
<t
cos xf(x)dx =
liiu
sin
**
the
sum
is
then
//
165
1
DEFINITIO
,
I
H'.i
Sin,
is
I,,
than
tinv.
27T),
tic
UTT
M
givei
tin
limit
Ar
l.y
th.it
<
tlii
i^ivi
th
correct
I.
the
I
i.il
an
be verified
Art.
Ex.
4.
\\.iy
that
Jo
?
./'


Ex.
5.
liy
means
..f
tin
int.^i;il
<
''/r,
w ran
"./'
r.vi
that
lim/, v
vo
(<*
+ 2*
e * + 3*'e
;i
+ ...) =
Art.
<>.
r
.It
whi.li
in
"1
ly
an.th.i
inrtho.!.
In
lik
iiiaiiini.
oe
flB
Inu
stalilv decreases
ft \vli.n
as
a;
varies
erges,
I
fr.in
to
6,
we can
ji<vt:
that
f(x)dx
we have
i
f(
JO
Ex.
6.
t..
find
= 6 (lo />)/>,
av.
int'^i.tt inn.
In
tin
piwimis
ianu'.
\\Mik
\\.>
have SMMI
how
to
evaluate an
infinite
\vlnn
intr^Ta!
the
ly calculating the limit of an infinite 9BTJ is tinit WG can also "l.tain the result as the
series;
limit
l.y
of n /in
iff
that
is.
\\e
can replace a
loulle limit
single limit.
(See ah
tlie
<
nt
interal
f(x)d&
1
tlie
nt ^ra

nl
t<>
'
an<l
that
/'(./)
steadily
from "
to that
/'.
Then
II
\\iit.
>>
>i
. ////.
of Art.
will
shew
that
lies
liet\\en
the
l<
{/("
f
/'
)]
and
420
INFINITE INTEGEALS.
as
;
[AP.
III.
7^0, the integral tends to a definite limit and the between the two sums is Ji{f(a + h) /(&)], which tends to zero with h in virtue of the monotonic property of f(x) (see pp. 423, 424 below). That is,
difference
Now,
P
Ja
f(x)dx = limh[f(a+h)+f(a+2k)+...+f(b)],
7t>0
limit.
Ex.
7.
Consider
J^x'dx,
where
to find
0<s<l.
(by Ex.
1,
Ex.
8.
\Qgxdx
*
is
found as
Art. 154).
YT =1
(Ex.
],
Ex. 9. If we divide the last equation of Art. 69 by sin tend to zero, we find, if a = 7r/ n,
/
0,
and
let
. . .
sin (n
;
 1 ) a. we
get, pairing the terms,
Now
!)/$
A
+
",
(if
A = 7r/2w),
and from
For
this
we can
find
"log sin #.
(2/<)
. . .
=
Ji!." 27i
f* log
2.
n ~( n ~
x ) io
=166.
TT
log
Tests
of convergence
for
infinite
integrals
with a
is positive,
values of
increases
x,
it
is
clear
f(x)dx steadily
lor
with X;
165, 166]
t
integral
;,,/(
.1
\.
In
practic.
tin
usual
ni.t!i."l
<
!'
applying
is
thlfl
ted
nppial to tin!'
positive
in the case of
WM
ii'
which
't(x)dx COIIN.T^,,
tliin
/(./)</./
converges
than
if
any
tixrd
nuiiili'!
rat
for
valu.s
of
iC
M>me
(Le
I
<[
is
ami
tliis
la.st
rxpnssion
in<lj.'nl.nt
of \.
Thus, suppose
[">;'
we ooond
;
'.\\hereaispoArt.
'
_Mii\.\v.
fr.iin
'
I'll
./^e'l^^O a JT^OO,
>n that
eu
I't.riniiH'
A**
iind tlion
i=.r^e"
,
1
<l,
if
if
./>c,
ar
<e~i a
/
',
r>c.
is
1.
".
Ait. i;i)
e~^*dx
/
If
.^e~
in write A'=e*, we
fin.l
tliat
l
\fA'(
th
(a
*
\t.\'.
n '/./
i<
.(.nvcr^nit.
be niultijilifd
iiinic
tc.
;u
l.y
th.
;ii<l
of
scale of
inlii,:
Timfluif
",/
a <ni>/ a
rU
Ii
one
"/'
///
'l
/
fi'dl
J
,<>o
>,
J(
I'm<l
Tin coinparisoii
h'
t.st
I'un
as follov
ilnn
G
is
j
Iwaya
.:nl
]
<;<
80 also
at
any
rate
at't.r
crrtain
valur
422
INFINITE INTEGRALS.
(see the small
[AP.
if
III.
is
positive, c can
be
/?
may
Jc
/
be.
Now
and
with
Thus
I
y&e^dx
it is
also diverges.
If
a=0,
By changing
the variable,
fi=
I.
Joe a
an index
>
(ii)
/()>
4
J
>
BxPer",
or a
= 0, /3^l,
is satisfied.
These conditions are analogous to those of Art. 11 for testing the convergence of a series of positive terms; and, as there remarked, closer tests can be obtained by making use of other terms in the logarithmic scale (although such conditions are not of importance for our present purpose). But one striking
feature presents itself in the theory of infinite integrals which has no counterpart in the theory of series. integral
An
f(x)dx
limit
may
zero.
()
obviously necessary in
.
all
oscillatory cases of
convergence; but
method.
1
li...
IS,
/>'/,
x,
of
to suppose steadily increasing height; then, it is quite possible that their widths are correspondingly decreased in such a AV.IV
166
1
TESTS OF
the
(ii,
'
ONI
Bl
that
t'.nn
oonvergeni
series;
ntly
i
(a>/3>0).
.c
ft
~ a
,
itli
It'll
its
Xiaj.l
..f
to
fr
.
\\hi<h
./
is
.i
multiple
r,
we have
(n+1)
thai
f '
this
it
is
evident that

/'(./)</./
.'..iivrrL'ts
.,r
';th;r
/> 2(/?+l)
</>(#),
or
to
a^2(/?+l).
oc
And
^eiurally,
if
( A% )
steadily
with
*, tin
integral
r
J
l
44>
+v
if
^rs
diverges.
if l\/i(/< f 1)
00'
Ex.
/"*
o^dor
1.
/0
converges
"i
divergee according as
l+j<r\*inx\
a>(j+l
Ex.
With
2.
or
a^j8+l.
[HAUI.Y.*]
/"</,(
.nrergM with
^^^]
and diverges
[IIAK..Y.]
''
irff)
Ex.
with
I'
3.
/"<(*)Jo
M/
'
ih
1
^
jfefi
diverges
()
:r
.
[1M
Hois RBTMOSI..]
111
spit.
!'
tin
last
rrsuh,
''I'/
\v,
can
tl>
i'1ov.
(a.s
in
Art.
i
86) that
decrease*,
<jence of
I
l)
Accessary for
t/<>
.Messenger of Math>
mm iX
April
1JX.
111.
424
For here we have
INFINITE INTEGRALS.
[AP.
III.
is less
thus for convergence it is necessary to be able to find A so that than e for any value of p greater than A.
(/x
 A)/(/x)
Hence lim #/(#)=() is necessary for convergence. But even so, no such condition as lim {x log x)f(x) = is necessary in general (compare Art. 9); but it is easy to shew that if (for instance) xf(x) is monotonic, then
x\ogxf(x) must tend to 0. More generally, if <f>(x) tends steadily to x and f(x}l<f>(x) is monotonic, then f(x)<j>(x)l<f>(x') must tend to zero thismay be proved by changing the variable from x to <(#). [PRINGSHEIM.]
;
* so modify all the foregoing work which the integrand tends to infinity,
say at x = 0.
The
than
results are
The integral
Jo
is less
1),
where either
(i)
a>0
hand,
or
(ii)
a=
0,
/3<
1.
On
the other
when
where
167.
(i)
a<0
or
(ii)
(),
/3^l. we
consider
Examples.
illustrate the last article,
To
two simple
cases.
It is easy to see that the integral converges, so far as concerns the upper limit, by applying the tests of the last article. There is an apparent difficulty at the lower limit,
I/a);
but since
the difficulty
*
is
apparent only.
results directly by writing
l/.r
for
.r
in the integral.
166, 167
425
f
'
tin
intt'nal
i.s
liui
(<
<
l*J
dx x
X
nid
"
J
l>y
ri
\
J, 5
{"
the
Benoe
nr
int.
Inn
* <*
But
l>y
CM
I
e~*
lirs
between
"
tin
\alu.s
i'..unl
1\
rj,i,i
'
and ly
'"'
:
tli>,.
valns an
g'lno/
and
both
H.
ul'
wliicli
tend to lo^
liin
as o kendfl to ^ z
0.
=
=
1(.
>oJ
and aceordin.
f
(e~
e~ tx )
1.
iider
c
(Ae
J*<
^ + (v
///*
,
/.
//,
A
It
may
sh.wn as above
tliat
tin
integral converges
cnnditions aiv
NOW
fi
J3
!'
VJl
OJ*
rJ6
,\
In \irtu
the r(,nditi<'n
1J./=O,
it
is
now
idrnt
that
B
f
I (l
*
'
:=
,1.1.

Thu>
and BO
= "'J 2(^
I
l
.;
1.1
Jo
426
3.
INFINITE INTEGRALS.
The reader can prove
similarly that,
if
[A P.
III.
p > n,
where
2^A ra r = 0.
L
'
(k = Q,
1, 2,
...,
1)
168. Analogue of Abel's Lemma. If the function f(x) steadily decreases, but is always positive, in an interval (a, b), and if \<f>(x)\ is less than a fixed number A in the interval, then *
}
f(x)<p(x)dx<Hf(a),
i
where H, h are
the
the integral
as
ranges from a
to
b.
is
differentiate,
we have
J=
Now,
we
in
since /(&) is positive and f'(x) is everywhere negative, obtain a value greater than J by replacing x(&) an d x^) the last expression by H, and a value less than J by
h.
replacing
hf(a)<J<Hf(a).
Hv /^ are and H h
2,
the limits of the integral x() in the interval (c, b), we find 2
n the
 H, ( f(x)da>  H2
Ja
[f(<e)da> Jc
or
*If f(x) should be discontinuous at x = a, /(a) denotes the limit of/(#) as r tends to a through larger values.
167, 168]
\\
AN
\l.(M,i
i;
OF
Mil
IMA
is
li
that
if
y
iiinii
nunilMr.
as
ranges from
,/
to
and from
to
>>.
ivsjMrtmly. th.n
7
\Vlnu
/'./)
is
Uf()
<
/yj
/'('')/('>
+ >).>f(c).
fco
complex,
p.
formula.ol>tainr<l
ronvs,oiilin(gee results
/'
of
1.
Art.
i,
80 can be
()":
li>07,
hut
th.sr
an
not
u..j..l
foi
oiu
j)if>int
p
on
p.
i^<;
is
<t
ineijuality
iMjui\'alent
first
Itet
to
the
is
Of
Mean
I.
Value.
p.
:V.t~>
i
To
,ii;n
see thi>,
note
\alue
that
\(^>
ri.htiniK.us.
inter\al (o,
''o.
Thus the
ine,,uality
leads
the
^/('Oxtfo)' ul "' iv
i
= =
,
''
this
i>
true f..ran\
monotonic
writing
!/('') ff(b)
f"
\
^hu
we
find
the
t'oini
comnK.nly quoted
V
BOM
value of
,,
<}>(
>(l>)l^
cannot
le determined,
Mee
equa
t!
l.e
.t
ditl'erential.le
i>
of
little
i
hi
ic.illy
de.iral.le
to establish
udi results
\Ve shall tlnivfore ni; with the greatest generality possible. a second proof, based on one due to Pringsheim*, in whuh we me nothing aln.ut the existei
in;
:
]
part
l.y
inserting
j...
and wri
then we ha\e
=
where
'<K),
p.
'209;
this
paper contains a
equality on
vol.
j>.
4t'..
Another
i>.
}>roof
i.\
H.ir.iy,
MtMtny
.SO,
HHMi,
1".
428
Hence,*
(1)
if
INFINITE INTEGRALS.
[AP.
III.
/r+1 =/(.rr+]
Jrr
),
but in virtue of the decreasing property of f(x\ [/(#)/r +i] the last integral and is less than (fr fr+i), so that
(2)
is
positive in
<(frfr+i)A(ba)/n,
<j>(x)\<A and xr +ixr =(ba)ln. the equations (1), bearing in mind the inequality
n _l
rxr+l
because
see that
(3)
By adding up
(2),
we
JZff+il J XT r=0
$(x)dx = Rn
where
because
If
Rn < 4 (6 \
)(/
/) < ~ (b 
)/
fn =f(b)
is
positive.
now we apply
Abel's
Lemma
r=0
sum
we
hf
and
1
.fi^ for
it,
because
f
x
T^r+l
is
decreasing.
(4)
A/i^)/P<^<^/i+^)/f
/! =/[
where
If
+ (5 
)/]
now we
we
obtain the
desired result, t
In exactly the same way we can make the further inference that if
lies
between a,
b,
and
to
if
c,
H^
^ (.r )././
as
ranges from a
while ZT2
c to 6, then
In case
/(a;)
we
define
fr +\
;
as the limit
of f(x) when x approaches ar r+ i through smaller values of exist in virtue of the monotonic property of /(.<)
fit
that
/*
,
.
0(#)<4
is
by no means
t't>
essential,
and
it
;
may
for
\<j>(x)\dx con
verges
than any assigned number. But Pringsheiin has proved / that it is only necessary to assume that (f>(x) and f(x) x (x) are integrablc in the interval (a, l>) compare Proc. Loud. Math. Soc. vol. 6, 1907, p. tii?.
\<f>(x)\dx is less
;
168, 169
429
1
169.
AppK
<,////
fral
J
and
!n,t
for
tl
Convergence
<>f
tin
/i
we oam find
nieh
j
T
'//.
f
/in
"//'/ e 18 ni'ftifi'"
HoW( vet
which can
tin t'ollo\\
1.
iii
'
.
I'm
inlinit.
.ral
usually rlacil
l>c
in
iff j.i'act
a]>plic<l
more
<uickly.
DMTO
chief
t'sts
are
Absolute convergence.*
i
The
literal
.'
will
certainly converge
it'
I/O/
'
converges,
.<'
<!>'
I
Jf
i'.iit
naturally
in
tin
intc^ials
lut.ly
/
not
c(,ni])ltr.
since
th.r.
and absois no
In particular,
/(#)<
//'(.').
wli
Readily decreases
will coii\>
/'(')'/./
2.
Abel's test.
Infinite
integral wh
'
''hinnjii
m,t absolutely)
and
Suppose
tonic
\lr(.i'}
//N>
>e).
/)'/./
that
J
,/,(.
;id
that
i>
inonotit
function, such
that
*fr(x)
<.l:
it
th
that
Thus, i/
*
we
wri
..
thai
tnd
'I'lit
ahsohitil.y B(
.
is
clearly
pointed out
ami
/'A
430
decreases to
;
INFINITE INTEGRALS.
and
it is
[AP.
III.
obviously sufficient
to
prove the
Joo a
f(x)<j>(x)dx.
Now,
Lemma
(Art. 168),
we
see that
where
is
when
of
I
X ranges from
<j)(x)dx,
to
'.
Now,
we can determine
f/<
make
and then
f(x)<f)(x)dx converges.
Hence
3.
also
f
I
Ja
\}r(x)<t>(x)dx converges.
Dirichlet's test.
infinite integral which oscillates finitely becomes convergent after the insertion of a monotonic factor which tends to zero as a limit.
An
f^'
J
f(x)$(x)dx
< Hf(),
constant independent of ^; * so that e, and con
and
find
#/()<
Ja
f(x)(h(x)dx
is
convergent.
of Arts. 19, 20, yet it is not clear that they were ever given, in a complete form, until recently. Stokes (in 1847) was certainly aware of the theorem (3) in the case <(#) = sin .r (Math, and Phys. Papers, vol. 1, p. 275), but he makes no reference to any extension, nor does he indicate his method of
The first general statements and proofs seem to be due to Hardy proof. his argument is somewhat (Messenger of Maths., vol. 30, 1901, p. 187) diflerent from the foregoing, and is on the lines of the following treatment of the special case <(.?;) = sin ./.
;
remains
less
number G
thus
we have
169
1
\\i.
.
MI;K
III.L;
In tin
i>.
sci
i.ly
in
almost
intuitively
\
id.nt
that
tin
aivas
.,f
tin
\\aves steadily
alt
in
and
.sime
in
;
tliis
lies
s
Ut
oo
.
fl
TT)
so that
tends to zero as
to
Further,
vdxJf(x+**+lir)KD
It
which
i>
luiis
sin
is
c.n\ trgent,
by applying
In general,
if
<f>(.r)
method.
usiiiL'
i>iriehlet'>
changes sign infinitely often we can apply a similar t>t (An. ^>) to establisli th. ronvergence of
If
tin
introranil
tends
tin
JO,
.!'
lor
convergence and
tin'/
tr.t
Th>
'!/
8UJj
././
flu
is
fl.
fix
if
Ib
ivherc
///.
any
;>ox//?>v
*/
I
/
,ii
/'.>
/A.
'//.
It
is
i>M>vil,l,.
to
write
nut
l>ut
con.^jioinliii^
nioliticat inns
ci
of
Altai's
in
such
t.sts
are not
to tin
ingenuity
<>!'
tlu
reader.
432
Ex.
1.
/
!
INFINITE INTEGRALS.
__ctr,
1(
/
[AP.
III.
.dx
converge absolutely
if
p>
and so does
( Jo
/oo
^<foif 0<<1
x^
/*oo
Ex.
2.
*^.(lx,
if
0<p<l
cos tfcfo?
and generally
sin .rcr,
test,
</>(#)
if
I
<j>(x)
Cb
For
I
7a
3.
sin x dx
cos
cos b
fb
/
2,

cos x
dx
sin b
 sin

2.
Ja
Ex.
by
[HARDY,
I.e.]
= (sina?)*, <^(d7)
log(4cos%).
As a simple and
interesting example
of the
tests
of the
x
pco
where
<f>(x) is
such that
<j>(x)dx oscillates
between
finite limits
{or converges).
test,
we
see that
x
is
convergent and
is
equal to
'
if
a "5
>as x tends to
0,
THUS
and
if
<f>(x)
X
tends to a definite finite limit
,
finite
integrand;
In the same
way we
if
sina;.
170, 171
Tin
foniHr
in!'
<'\aliiat'<
IT
,j,(
>
tends to
M x tend
is
X
\\hi<h
th.\.ilu.
J.
.f
03
by
means
of
lYullani's
integral
may
1
be
Tli.'
integral
a
i
f.
.iiml
<>f
1
in
AM.
ii7
ill
i>
particular case of
formula
i<l
a U..
i.r
1
thai
>n8
and
l.y
Hai'
171.
Uniform convergence of an
infinite integral
i
tin
lue
!'
^\
lor
wliidi
tin
in.(iiality
^^
JA
Lfi
<6,
as
(\>$),
.f
function
!:).
w.ll
iliat
e.
In
nee
witli
Art.
we Bay
it'
tin
intf^r.al
.f
//
converges uniformly in
fr
if
t!
all
vahus
in tlir intnval
riii,
than
pendent of
interval
a
//.
i'linction
T.iit.
.
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d.ptnds
on
tin
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is
inde
which
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f
:.
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Papers, vd.
I.
j..
l.s.
434
INFINITE INTEGRALS.
[AP.
III.
we have usually in practice uniform convergence which is similar to the general test for convergence (Art. 169): The necessary and sufficient condition for the uniform convergence of the integral
But, just as in the case of series,
to introduce a test for
r
I
Ja
f(x, y)dx,
in an interval of valuer of
,
y, is that
we can find
a value of
independent of
y,
such that
e,
f(x,
y)dx
where
small.
'
and
is arbitrarily
The only fresh point introduced is seen to be the fact that must be independent of y. The proof that this condition is both necessary and sufficient follows precisely on the lines of Art. 43, with mere verbal alterations. But in practical work we need more special tests which can be applied more quickly the three most useful of these tests are
:
1.
Weierstrass's test.
(a, /3),
the
function
where M(x)
the integral
is
I
of y.
I
Then, if
Ja
M(x)dx
Ja
f(x,
y)dx
is
absolutely and uniformly convergent for all values of y the interval (a, /3).
independently of
y,
so
that
M(x)dx
Joe
I
is less
than
e;
and therefore
\ J
f(x,
y)dx
f J
M(x)dx
and
<
e.