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CM CM

BH

EnHI

UNIV.OF

TORONTO

BINDING

MACMI-LLAN AND
LONDON

CO.,

LIMITED

## THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

NEW YORK
ATLANTA
BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO
CO.

THE MACMILLAN

LTD.

TORONTO

AN INTRODUCTION
TO TIIK TIIKoRY OF

INFINITE SERI1>

T.

.1.
KKI.I

LA.

BROMWH'H.

M.A..

F.fc/8

FORMKRLY PROFESSOR OF M

.,

1908

Jug
\vli
.

tin-

ind.-prndt-nt
.

vari.-il.l.-

to

'

in

tin-

l.-ft-liand

int-gral,

jr

Th

(l- r
I

v.-iriatic;

ha\v

Ix-i-n

Lriven

## liin'> an- uixloul.u-.lly tin- UK-:

-

bo
tlu-

u-e

iu

p-.Miu-triv.-al
f.>il-

represeiitatiou of f/(x)<fe as

aiva of

tin-

cui\.

\vlu-n

38

## SEKIES OF POSITIVE TERMS.

Or, again, since the last term in the bracket
is

[CH.

II.

x is positive, because e

greater than X,

we have
"

'

As

/

any value

of
;

X greater

than

it is

clear

As

7*

or

Jx

f(x)dx
.

f(x)dx,
f

if

how
is

great

X may be,

number X' = e x

/oo

f(x)dx

is

/

f(x}dx
(3).

Thus the
These

tests

p
),

scale.

## For example, consider

f(x)=l/{x.\ogx. [log(log#)]
then

Thus
and so
or

ex

= e /{e .x. [log x]?}. f(e )/f(x) = [log(log x)y lim e xf(e x )/f(x) = Q, if
e x

f(e

,/'

^.

oo

= oo
That
It
is
is,

if if

1.

## the series 2/(7i) converges

p>-l and

diverges

if

increases

easy to see that if </>(x) is a function which steadily with x> in such a way that (/>(x)>x, the proof
be generalised to give ErmakofFs tests:
.

above

may

(i)

convergence,

if

x->

'

(ii)

divergence,

if

lim xi^;

*'<)/(())> L
./('')

14,

15
1

## LOG \i;n H.MK

39

15.

Another sequence of

tests.
;--s^

in

Ait.
I'".

imp..:
,i

<*-tecU>

continuation of

('and,

seen
_T.-S

iii

An.
i

ii,

that

if

17-"M

is

divergent,
'8t
:

"iily

if

p>l,

;"

>o
!

wh.-i.

and
11

di verges if

-!,,.:[/ Inn
log[/X tt)j

:aJ

<l

J

0.

th^u.-h

lirst
tli.it

we

logK
-/"(/')[^( /)]",

-r

>-,

>
(

This

>h,.\\>
in

that

(/_
tlii>

slu-ws that
;

l'<r,

S|i.-.-ia

(1)

/'() = /j

is

logO
logn
mction
is

log(l/wa,)
log (logn)'
;iicti"H
is

and
in

>n.

D
\\hi.-li
It'

I,,-

## tnuuformed into another

t>
(

-liape,

fii-st

given by Jamet,

the

i.-lati"ii

'a'h
).

h\
it

\v write A = log(l

,/.

is

ea>y

t-.

>ee tliat

it

A>
iii
i,

Thi;

;^=[
if

i^

(1

"
is

Will
l.e

this Condition

40
Similarly
it

## SERIES OF POSITIVE TERMS.

can be proved that test (2) can be replaced by

[CH.

II.

[n(1

## - a "" } " log n

log flog *)

^> 1

'

0=^=1
16.

This form proves for example that the series but converges for x>\.
>

--lognj

diverges

if

General notes on series of positive terms. Although the rules which we have established are sufficient to test the convergence of all series which present themselves naturally in elementary analysis, yet it is impossible to frame

any

rule

which

will

## give a decisive test for an artificially

In other words, whatever rule is given, a series can be invented for which the rule fails to give a decisive
constructed series.
result.

## The following notes

(l)-(3)

and

(8)

show how

certain rules

first sight have been proved to be either incorrect or insufficient. Notes (4)-(7) shew that however slowly a series may diverge (or converge) we can

## which appear plausible at

always construct series which diverge (or converge) still more slowly and thus no test of comparison can be sufficient for all
;

series.

sidered

Other interesting questions in this connexion have been conby Hadamard (Acta Mathematica, t. 18, 1894, p. 319,
t.

and

27,

1903,

p.

177).

has pointed out that there cannot be a positive function <j>(n) such that the two conditions
(1) Abel,
(i)

lim </>(n).an = Q,

(ii)

lim

</>()}).

an

>

are sufficient, the first for the convergence, the second for the divergence of any series Zf,,.
For,
l if so, 2J[<(wj)j~

would diverge

and
1

therefore,

if

Mn = wo)]-* + wa)]- +

. . .

+ ooor,
.

the sequence n would be an increasing sequence tending to oo Hence the series 2 (Mn n -\ )IMn would diverge also (Art. 11); but

so that

## lim <l>(n)(MH first

)
,

-I/,,

=0,

condition.

(2)

function

Pringsheim has proved that there cannot be a positive c/r such that the condition <f>(n) tending to
,

15,

16
1

U
.

function
BeriOfl

'id
I"
1

for

any com
'

an

n-ar
lin,

fiat
'

=
II

J0

'

'

See

Mth. A
ini

\>.

:ni.

lias

pi-..

v.-l

that

th-r.-

i>e

a po-

function

uch that

tinlin.

condition

I'm-

tin-

dhvrirence of

>() 1"

In
;

function

r/>(//

ami

"//// di\<

## DQ8 of tin- 861

can

I)--

BO arrani:v'l that

lim
i'l.-<l

=0,
the
!

that

tin-

t.Tin. .

!'

nl

to zero.

SetA1..-1

!.

8ft,

p,
il'

r.-iuarkt-.l
ii<l

that

1
also <Mv<T---iit
.

which

is

l>ut

BOCfa

lim (6^
write
i/ M = a +
>

+
-

..+//,

l,,

=
;

<i n

n.

MriM

-'

I.v

An.

11

and

(5) dii

1'iuis

IH-VIIIOII.!

shewed that
!/>

it'

^<>

i^

r ,n v.-r-vnt.
,

second

OOnvergeni

Beriee

can

1-

Tound

which

has

thi-

rty

MI.M

.!/,

-a,

J/,..,

.<

,/

_ 1+ ,,, i+ ._,4-

Then

J/ M ->x

and

<-..nsMjiu-iitly tin<

6M =
1'iovidfd
tliat
1.

7
it

is

jM.sitivi.-\

>

11).

idrnt

tliat

->/.
.

Sti.'ltjrs

sh.-w.-d
:

that
as
1'

il

...

i>

d*

ndin^

limit,

di

## can If I'mind so that

L/m,; then

seriea

M + -M
n
}

1
''..

"~F^T ^fw-w..-*-!
BO that

i/~"' M

42

## SERIES OF POSITIVE TERMS.

(7) Stieltjes also

[CH.

proved that

if

v lt v 2 v 3
,

... is

an increasing

sequence, tending to infinity as a limit, a convergent series 2c n can be found so that Zv n cn is divergent.
cn

i'

ll

For, write cM = l/vM -l/v,l+1 which makes 2c n a convergent series; then = (vn+ i-v n )/vn+ i, so that 2vn cn is divergent.
,

(8) Finally, even when the terms of the series 2a n steadily decrease, the following results have been found by Pringsheim

However

fast

series
<j>(n)

may

0.

always divergent

2an such

that limcw a n =
oo

However slowly

may

increase to
,

<j)(n)
.

for
9).

which Kmti.

an =

<x>

EXAMPLES.
1.

## Test the convergence of the series

:

2# M

where a n

is

given by the

following expressions

1
"'

(log)

10

n>

10

[log(logw)]

M'

a 1 /"2.

(Art. 15)
1.

I.,

and Art.

11)

Prove that

if

6-l>>0,

the series

a(a+l)(q+2)
converges to the

sum

(6

1)/(6

1).

Shew

## also that the

sum

of

a-l)(6-a-2),
[If the first series is

if

&-

denoted by w

?i

+ M 2 +..., we

get

\\hidi

Hence (6-al.\

l)(x

(l

## - V ) = a</,, -(< + /<)", hy

But

Ait.

The

Hence lim* w can be found. >ince the terms st.-adily decrease. second series can be expressed as the difference between two series
!,

of the fust

ii.
I

kiFLEfi

3.

I'iv.- that

tl

(20 +

1X30+2)

\xv*
4.

if

6>f>0
that
tin-

and dm-i-en
-Ties
'

if

|'|..\.-

'

+
l

1
I

3 5
-

irs.4.6

ulso that
3

+ \S74j
thrrwi-.- di\v:
'-1

V2.4.6

if

f>>-2,
that,
1

and
if

5.

I'l'-vi-

O<Y<!,
+

|i'-itiv-

tliat

)3

~ +"| +
.!

COOV-!

-.

>/3>l,
and

lint

that

tin-

ratio
6.

..nsrcutivr t-nn>
I'rnviI'
.i

i..-.-illati-

Between

10).

that

-n
in

oonvi
+ i.

d-<-reaaee t

i,,

7.

Sliew that
..f
1

Kunn
</>(/0
is

n-r i-(Hi\-.T^fn<-.-

\vt-

,-;IM

writt:

;.

## pla<r al>u that

/>

whfiv
is
-

an
in

arliitrary

jx-xitivr

fun-ti<.n

Imt

\>\

tli.'ir

making
aft

this .-liaiige.
in

convergent

if,

stage,

[Or
8.
ir
-

th-

jii"tirnt

"f

two
1'"
[I'i

|x.lyn..iuials in

degree
lii;h-st

X-,

whose

hiirln-t

b
div.-i^.-s

d
if

if

the

term
if

in

'/

POT

that

^>1,
us.]

rges
9.
1

10.

Kind limits fm

tli.-

sum

^\'(
in
tt-rins

of tin- inr

'^
s

and drdiu-f
Siniilarly

in<-iva--

in\

44
by means

of the integral
C
n

[CH.

ndx _

[i

dt
2
t'
'

Jo

x2 + ri2 ~Jol +

11.

cr,,

->

|TT.

Prove that

if

## approaches zero through positive values,

and that

where

is

Euler's constant.
if

f(v)

l/v.

The desired
1

limit is that of

/"(I),

which

we can

must be

12.

More
n is

and

generally,
zero),

if

= an + bn

(where

bn

is less
|

never

and
If

lim

^2

~~
;J/~I+P

exists
)

and

is

finite.

[DIRICHLET.]

n,

and

then

l{

p-+Q \

or =(1
or =0,

- l/o)/logc,

if
if

Mn+l /M -+c>l,
n

J/N+1 /J/,,-*oc.
37.]

Ex.
13.

= n*,

2", n!
II.

Utilise

Tln-i.ivm

of Art.

is

if

(</)

convergence of

2w

/( ,

by writing
,,

= (#/")

/,.

that
"

= S, =
,

r/
l

-,,,i

"- 1
I

,.

" ";~

=
!,

6', (

_1

[CESA.:,..]

"n

If

of

w,,

!.").

## and deduce the divergence

14.

,o also is

2(a N 6 N ),iustrat-d

!">(/,

dm-ip- and
:

\.-t

+ + -'
:: !

l.ut

iv

be seen

fnn
hand,

aft
if
<

implii
15.

[i'l::

Use

th.1

rhat

if

16.

If

that

')

=
N,
1

).

17.

tli",l

,,f

1
18.
S!H-\V

-l)]-'

= 21og2-l, 1
tln
n..tati..n

8-1).

that,

\\itli

:;

?
Deduce that

:,:'^l)=N
.

-+;>
<j/,,//,.

'

__=-:;

r,-;

i>(

1905.]

19.

l'i"\r -iniilarlv

that
"

1
and
20.
tliat

.'2v+l

1
tljat
j
~-

Slu-xv

21.
if

Kxamin-

th.-

OODV]
--

'i.-tilar,

<M n )=l
jr<
22.

+ + + 2 3

prove

tliat

## tin- > -rifs

converges

if

Shrw
1

that
'

v
If

,i

'

'

4
;tlltl

-l~2'
2/7-7-7

'

n!

\ -

CHAPTEK

III.

SERIES IN GENERAL.
test of convergence is simply a transformation of the condition for convergence of the sequence sn (Art. 3); namely, that we must be able to find m, so that
17.
\s n

sm

n>m.
n
,

If
:

we

express this

## condition in terms of the series

"

we

get

It

must

be possible to
e,

find m, corresponding

to the

arbitrary

positive fraction

so that
.

a m+1 + a m+z +

+ a m+p |<

e,

no matter how
It is

large

p may

be.

lim an = 0,
n
-oo

## lim (an+1 + a n+2 +

n >co

+ a n+p = 0.
)

sufficient unless p is allowed to forms of variation with n; and so they are not practically useful. However, it is sometimes possible to

## But these conditions are not

all possible

take

non-convergence by using a special form for shewing that then the limit is not zero (as in Art. 7
infer

p and
(3)).

We

are

therefore

obliged

to

employ

special

tests,

which
are

suffice to

## shew that a large number

of interesting series

convergent.
*

It is clear

:

in

'liaptcr II.

Ua

it

does not

<

## that the condition lima,, = does -\vn exclude oscillatory series, as

where lim

/,

= 0, iima n = l, and

\<t

In-

tn-ms

ti-inl

to /.cm.

17, 18

LB8OL1

II

OON1

El

17

18. A convergent series of positive terms remains convergent when each term an is multiplied by a factor vu whose numerical value does not exceed a constant can F..I- since 1 chow nvergent, th- indr.x
/.. ///
!

that

>/</,

Imw.-v.T small

may

be,

M+ "+/>
But

1 ^.
.

UJ
Thua
and therefore
TV.
i

s*
fche
ia

<.
ooni

.d

th.-.,i-rin
,>>.

deserve
tl

series
|a n
|

2a n
|

is cm\>->.r<i>

if

series

oj

values

is convergent.
1

## For hciv r/ H = |a n and Such serifs are called

.1
'/<
/

' ;(

'<
/ ,

"
(l

=
.

1.

///,><,////,-/_//

///.

series
/A*///
/'
/

////'

<<,,','<

i><>n<l'

,j

i'

positive
Tliinfinity

/.

'...uld
I

observe
K\.

that

we cannot apply
i

this
kn<.\\

im-tlnxl

iii< li

i-

An

cxanij.!.'

is

atl'

-rdcd

l.y

L'

lu-!..\v.

Ex.
it'

1.
1.

It'

\\<-

tak-

we

Kii"-

b,

11

tlia'

.verges

f>
1

Th'

tlii-Mi-mi

t-nai'

thf

'

'

_1+1_1 4 4P 5P

+
that tin-1.
tir>t
.-f

It

\\ill a:
:

Ait-. 21,

thr-i- i61

'i'g*

luit

EX.
tli-

2.
".

!+*-*+'
tinfa.-i

:t,'8
.

tO so

sum
'

x
-

that

- -I.
-Jl.'2
1 + '
'

+ --!- '""

48
The sum
of the first

SERIES IN GENERAL.
2?z

[CH.

III.

terms

is

is that the original series contains an infinity of negative terms and that the series ceases to converge when these terms are made positive (Art. 11).
;

Thus, by Art. 11, Iims 2n =oo. But *2n-]>2n, and so also Kms2 -i = oo. Thus the new series is divergent. The reason for the failure of the theorem

It is

:

## stated in the form

remains convergent if each a whose numerical value does multiplied by factor not exceed a constant k.
absolutely convergent series

An

term

is

19. It is often convenient, however, to infer the convergence of a series from one which is not absolutely convergent. For this the following theorem may be used

A
un
is
,

## 2an (which need not converge

its

absolutely)

remains convergent if

terms are each multiplied by a factor the that provided sequence (un ) is monotonic, and that u n less than a constant k. (Abel's test.)
\

Under
vn = u

these conditions
is

u n when (un )
is

;

when (un )

decreasing.

Then

it is

never increases

and

Now

so that

it

.

2a n un

m+1

P V ni+\

where p

is

m-ni
|

'"

~~~H

-'

-j

01

Ai'.l

.1.

\M>
,

I'llMdll

m
fchtU

p=se

'\.

18]

^''
.

'

ll

!|

f.

and

c..ns,.ijufiitly

1
thai
ill.-

at

mgent
.

conditions as

lit

coiidil

Ex.

1.

If

uv takr

th.-

MriM

\
'

+\- +
}

...

n-tors

and

rnij.li.y

oiiic

sequ

0,

w-

ol.tain

tin-

\\liich

niii>t

th.-r.-foi

.-

---ni.

'!"

\-iify

that

this

tin-

OM6,

hat

_/l_l\_/l_2\
""

,i-l

1
i'-

'"

1_

3-

Thus

li

in ,<,._!
F1

t-xi-ts (liy

Ait.

1)
is,

(1)),

and
B61

sine.-

.<...

=%,_i -

(/<+i

liin*. _,

= liin.N-

,1

That

the

Ex.
In

2.

It is

18,

series
it

Ex.

2,

Art.

## converge; the sequence of factors employed

in
a.

any

\s

important intViviic-r is that it' tluu depend the conditinn of t'ori. ay on a varial >lr <suljrct
i

./

iin-nntMiiic

sMju-nc<-).
-

tin-

r.-iiiaind.-r

after in terms in

^'-,|u-ntly

tin/'//-/-

;

less

than i>('\+
niak.-s
r^ -f
1

this
/^

and ): ivmaindrr
that

than

e.

is

o/OJj

so lon^ as

is tinit,-.

This ].r.']Tty
!

may

In-

>y

^ayin-'

41.

below.)

## -prcial ca.M- of thi>,

whi--h

wul.

th.I'i

origin*]

ran

1-y

takin.i:

".,--

^1.

20.

//
lvm,\

1
D

minimwm
l.S.

50

SERIES IN GENERAL.

[CH.

III.

to zero

terms are multiplied by a decreasing sequence (v n ) which tends as a limit. (Dirichlet's test.) *
Abel's

lemma

m+p
I

^^ /

(K

1)

^^

nt)

771+ 1

where p

is

less

## than the greatest of the sums

a m +i>
than each of the differences
>
|

S m+p

- Sm

.
\

Now,
find

if

## the extreme limits of sn are both

finite,

we can
for
21.

some constant! I, such that sn is not greater than I, any value of n. Thus sn sm = 21, and we may take p = We can now choose so that vm+l e/Z, and then
\

<

m+p

|2wJ<2e, m+1
proving that the series 2a ?l f n converges.
Ex.
Of
27T.

The

nB converge

if

is

not

or a multiple

For

l>;

m+l

## cos?i0 = sin(te9) cos

.

[m + ^(p + 1)]<9.

cosec

m+p

and
so that

m+l

2 an0=sm(J0).8m[m+i(p+l)]0.eoeecJ0;
\

could here take p = cosec J0|. the first series may be convergent or divergent according to but the second series, being 0+0 + + ..., converges to the the form of vn

we

When = 0,
0.

sum

special case of the last article is the result: terms of a series '2( I) n 1 v n are alternately positive If and negative, and never increase in numerical value, the series
21.

the

## will converge, provided that the terms tend to zero as

*

limit.

Abel knew of this test the history is sketched by Pringsheim .(Math. Annul ,-n, I'.d. 25, p. 423, footnote). But to distinguish it clearly from the test of Art. 19, it seems better to use Dirichlet's name, following Jordan (Cours d' Analyse, t. 1, 299).
It is practically certain that
:

briefly

fThis constant I will be either_the greatest value of greatest value) the greater of Ilim,*,,! and |lim.<*,,|.

|,

or

(if

there

is

no

20, 21

AI.I I;I;N
1

\n: 9ER]
1

.".I

|-'<>i

if

we take
la>t
til'

-f

...

as the oscillat*

of

the

article,

\v need only

.suppose

that p

is

1;

and

<<|Uently

it.

<)n

account of the

frequent
it.

use of
It

this

theon-m.
that

\v.

now

## give another proof of

is

plain

%i-(i-^)-K^-4)+...f(^|. 1 -i
and each of
th-s.- l.i-ack.-ts
i>

## ]><it ive (or at least

n<-'

ive),

so that, as n increases,

th.- s.Mjuciice
(

of terin-

<>

>

never decreases.

Also

=
l

,1

-...-(t)

^K

## and so the sequence

Further

..,,.;>

Qever increases.

=-)

and
Hence, by Art. L the sequence (> v lias a limit not greater than >\ and (fi^+i) Has a limit not less tlian 0. But these two
)
.

limits

must be equal

since

lini

c.,

n ..^

=0, so that

Hence the
Ex.
1.

series
M-rii-s

in

and v r

The

Art.

1*,

K.\.

1,

is

n->\\

0<jol-l.

p=l we

get

tin-

\\hirh

is

## easily seen t> le cvjual

t<

l>^-2.

F.i

'i

jo

+.r

.'

1 H-

f1

.'-'"

,.
1! " 1
J,','i

,,,,1,,,

if-*L(i-J+J-J+.

52

SERIES IN GENERAL.

[CH.

III.

The diagram indicates the first eight terms in the sequence (sn ) obtained from this series by addition the dotted lines indicate the monotonic convergence of the two sequences
;

5
9.

FIG.

It is obvious that if the sequence (v n ) never increases, but n ~ lv n approaches a limit I, not equal to zero, the series 2( l)

will oscillate between two values whose difference is equal to I; in fact we have by the previous argument lim s2n+1 = lim s 2n 1.

case
of
is
:

interest

If v n /v n+1

can

be expressed

in the form

J^l +
the series 2(
\)
0,

2+

FX>1
^5,
{j

n ~ lv

n is

convergent if p

>
we

0,

For

if /x

>

## oscillatory if shall have

/m

= 0.

x~ n *^~ n*

>n

'

and further (by Art. 39, Ex. 3) limv n = 0. so that v w n+1 But, on the other hand, if /x = 0, it is clear (from Art. 39) that

>v

limt> n
/JL

is

oscillate.

And,

if

<

0,

we

shall

have vn

<v

n+l) so that

## limi; w cannot be zero, leading to oscillation again.

Ex.
2.

Take the
a.
ft

series

l.y

1.2.y( 7 -fl)

1.2.3.7(7 + 1X7 + 2)

and

## to the corresponding series of sines.

21,

22
1

\Ui:i;\

I.

9EB]
tin',-,!/. 1
{>
1/

hmiM
i.

l>e

observed

that

if

>M<1

nag

THIN

in

ihr

nor

sequences

tli.

fcmej ami

ill

reason In supjMi^- that tin- tln-nivm i- -till m-r.-ssarily fact r CODStrUCJ '\ani]>l<-s nf tin- failmv,
]
L>

snch as

+ i^| + j^i 4
:i:.

j^i
-f

-ily
Ii-ss

rooogDied

than

1111 l+
S
-2

M divergent
(Art

tlie first

p-

t-6.-

-- +
the

5i

>

aii-1

ii

lint

sum

tlll!

1/11 -iK+5 +
ntly th.
first
its

1\
'

## 2n terms of the given

series tends

to

-OD as
22.

limit.

A ruriou^ thc(,rcm,
i^

bo

some

L-xtt-nt

kin<l

of con

of th- laM.

'In-'

tn

'rsaro:

If a
<K,

farms

<> arranged
'/,.

ng order of
//<//////
n

tude,th(
n a
//

of P*
>r/,

ca/nnoi

owy

## other Ivmti flam

tl>'

it

i/

"

jli-xt

terms

<>/

fh<>

series.

mi

>f

th-

fi n

jM.sitivf

tiTin-

=
I

/'

'-h.-.-hy
..f

:-''

fence th-

sum

th-

tir-t

n
1

t<Tiii

(Pi-9
Suppose now,
limit
/;
if
/,

^+(/',
it'

-i-v
i

i-vj+dp,-^
mis to a poiml<

p-^sililr. that

tlu-n.

<

/,

\v.

can tinl an
n

;ch

that

>/,,

if

//

>

//'.

Hence

^i/
1
1

[n^
But,
sin.

>+'"'
given series
;

>
not

,C. + 'Wi +

---

+
^ont.
tlu-

i->

alsolut<-l\

ami

ntly

>'

+ >\

...

54

SEKIES IN GENERAL.

[CH.

III.

can be made greater that NJ^ by taking n greater .than (say) n n can be Hence, no matter how large is, a value t found so that
.

//;

if

?i>7i

hence

sn

must tend
if

limit; so that

lim (p n
if

value must be
value must be

0. 1.

Now

n=pn+qn, and so
This proof
Ex.
is

## lim(p n /q n ) exists, its

substantially the

## same as one given by Bagnera.*

sum
of

The

series 1

+ ^- + i + - + ^ + - + ...
we
note that the

As
than

a verification,

is

divergent.

23.

Abel's

Lemma.

If

## the sequence (v n ) of positive terms never increases, the

n ties between

sum

2 anV

Hv and
l

hv : where H, h are
,

the

upper and

al = s 1

a 2 = sz

sl

Thus

Now

## the factors (fj

v 2 ), (v2

v s ),

...

(vp . l

vp ), vp are never

## negative, and consequently

8 i( v i

- v z> < H v - v 8*( V - vs) <H(v - vs -V9 )<H(vp . ^V9 8f Vp <H> 8p . (v9
(
i

s).

),

)t

Hull.
4, p.

Sci.
\\\'.\.

Mnth.

(2),

t.

12,

p.

227:

Ces&ro,

Rom. Ace.

Lincei,

22, 23, 24

kBEL'fi

Ui.MM

Hence
or
In
likr

<

Xa
manner
l't
i

<//'-,.
[fl

lli-

sum
I

ilian

",,'',,

<

//

where H'
lil
it

IB

the greater of
!

1

is,

//

i-

the upper

"
is

-.., |*p|.
limitfl
lo\v.-r
.

It

that
//
//. A

for

se

mote
aiv
tl

th<-

u]|nT and

limits of 8mt

while

Th. -n exactly

<

Mi

tin-

ntli.-r

hand,

whm

.!/

i^

an

iiu-n-a^i

w.-

find

24.

</

series.

Let us writ

r/

l(

=
,

and

aw +2olH l -hh^=
.

tc.

Thru
(
i

\\v lia\r

and
whI.'

rous,',,urntly

^J",/"

="
lt

'/-f
1

/
.

//

= .'(
we

+.'>

## |"-atin^ this op.-rat

>n.

tind

<<

=o y-KjRo )y+...4
l l

-f.

56
It

SERIES IN GENERAL.

[CH.

III.

when

## the original series

tends to zero as
positive.

increases to infinity, at

least

when x

is

Consequently,

The

when x = l, and

the terms a

Write then
,

a l =+v 1
and we have

a 2 =-v 2

aB =+v 3

a= -v,

...,

where we write

Dvl = vl

v2

L^v l = Dv l

Dv 2 = v l

2v 2 + 1> 3

etc.

We
if

## v n =f(n), where f(x)

for
all

can write down a simple expression for the remainder, is a function such that/* (as) has a fixed
positive

sign

values of

x,

## numerical value as x increases.

For we have
so

Dv n =
l

Jo
l

f'(x l

Jo

dx l

Jo

( Xl

and generally
ri ri

J)Pv n

I)P

Jo

dx l
Jo
l

dx

Thus the

series

D pv

D pv + D pv
2

...

consists of a succession

Its sum is therefore of decreasing terms, of alternate signs. p in numerical less than value; and consequently v^

where
*For the
p. 188.

cose

x=l,

see L. D.

## Ames, Annals of Mathematics,

series

'2,

\.>1.

24
1

ION
This ivsult
,

lea

of th- type

Here
d
tin-

II

*>
n

ti,,

anl
tin- ac--

Teases as
\\ni-k, in

inn
r;i]riil;iti.ilis.

arithln.-tiral
tii^t

tO

apply

th.-

!';i

tin'

aay

at

and

s,-<-..inlly

at j

r ~^\\ i )

iv.Milts

## arc suhstaiitially the sain.- \v-

may
U
\ve
I

be ^ati-li.-d that

the \\orl
Ex.
1.

T;ikf

and
in

\\v shall
tal'lf

## r=\ if \v- work a=l -70711 apply tin- UMH

;
:

li\

get

-',

tin-

l).-l.>\v

58

SERIES IN GENERAL.

[CH.
is

III.

Now

## '40825 --19568 = -21 257, so that

s'

certainly

contained between

[Art. 20.]

16.

cos(w + !)

to

sin

^^sin nd
are convergent
17.
if

cos

n2 0,

2v n

sin

nO

n2
[HARDY.]

if

## vn tends steadily to zero, in such a not convergent, then the series

Shew

that

way

that 2v n

is

r=D

converges
18.

if

(and only
(

if)

a l + a 2 + ...+ak = 0.
convergent, prove that liniw(aM+1
)

If the sequence

n) is

must

19.

If

2an

## converges, and a n steadily decreases to

If,

0,

2?i(an -an+ i) is

convergent.

## 2an+ i + a n+2 >0, prove that

n 2 (a n - n+ i>->0.
20.

[HARDY.]

Apply

Euler's transformation to

shew that

21.

1
~*\

of the series

x
T
I

.v
~T~ T
'.

2
*j

x3
T
".

-j

~T~

It
is

## easy to see that

lies

(if

<#<!), Dvn
i(^i

is

positive
1
4

the

sum

between ^v

=J and

+ ^i)= ^j

and deceases

thus.

"1

x-

22.
nl

By taking ?> ;l = log( + H), shew, as on p. 56, that steadily decreases; deduce that

D p vn

is

negative

CHAITKK

IV.
I.

ABSOLUTE CONVERGENT
25.
Il

is

i'ainiliar
tin-

fact

that
.|'

a
tli,-

Unit--

BUID

ha- the

value.

IK.

matter how

termfl

MUM
'

projn-rty, series as
;

however,

is

ly no means uni\

.-r-ally

an

which we know
|i'itivf
this

is

c-on\ ci'-vnt

(Ait.
L-t

K\.

L),

and has a
tin-

value N
so
:

^rt-attT

than

.1.

u^ arrange
is

t-niis of

srrics
ii\

that

each

positive

t-nii

i'ol]o\\

v trnns
t

## th- 96068 th-n beOOl

. .'-V 4^:;
1

1
-

-J

i;

>_

K>

i-j

Now we

liav-

i_Ui_i 4 ^^ 2 -ri;

'

J_

-2

=
Thus
and
the
it

.,

is

easily
oi'

>een that
/

lim/.

..,

lim/.

..,

lim

sum

the series

i-

64

ABSOLUTE CONVERGENCE.

[CH. IV.

## Consequently, this derangement of the terms in the series

alters the

sum

of the series.

In view of the foregoing example we naturally ask under what conditions may we derange the terms of a series without altering its value? It is to be observed that in the derangement we make a one-to-one correspondence between the terms
of two series; so that every term in the first series occupies a perfectly definite place in the second series, and conversely.

Thus, corresponding to any number (n) of terms in the first series, we can find a number (n) in the second series, such that the n terms contain all the n terms (and some others); and
conversely.

For instance,
terms of
s

in

first (871

first

(2?
first

## are all contained in the

t

+ 1)

terms of
s.

t\

and the

3p terms of
26.

are

all

contained in the

first

4p terms of

series of positive terms, if convergent, has a sum independent of the order of its terms; but if divergent it

;

its

## terms are deranged.

As above, denote the original series by s and the deranged series by t and suppose first that s converges to the sum S. Then we can choose n, so that the sum sn exceeds S e, however
small

Now, t contains all the terms of s (and if any term happens to be repeated in s, t contains it equally often); we can therefore find an index p such that tp contains all the terms sn Thus we have found p so that tp exceeds 8 e,
e

may

be.

the terms in ip s n are positive or zero. Now t contains no terms which are not present in s, so that however great r may be, t r cannot exceed 8} and, combining these two

because

all

conclusions,

we

get

S^t r >S-e,
Consequently the series
Secondly,
if s is
t

if

r^p.
sum
;

converges to the
t t

S.

divergent,
if

cannot converge
s

Consequently
If
t

converges,

is

divergent.
t<>

we attempt

## to apply this ai ^unicnt

the

two

series considered in

Art. 25,

..1-1+I-.J+...,
terms
in
,,

1-1-1-1 + 1-1-1+,..,
////<////<.

we

## find that the

tf

arc partly
of fact

Thus we cannot
frmn
Art.
:.'">

pi

that

>S

and as a matter

we

sec

that

this

25,

26
1

M:I; \\'.I.M
>iu.il;ul\,
til--

65
argument ueed above ti h.-i-r>\.
I,,,.it"

fails

to

that
It

-1

(r

(,,

is

now easy
its

prove that
is

if

a series

"

is

absolutely

convergent,

sum X

## not altered by derangement.

write

0Zaw
:-j

n |].

'2|aJ, ami th.-n introduce the new contains no negative terms, The aeriea
-;

ami
term

no
in

I.

TIM

in

i<

than
is

twic,.-;

SUJ.JM.S.'

convergent,
th./;

\vl
.1
.

sum

of a;

and so
th.-

B B = S+A.
;

now

that N.
(

are

## th.- MIIII^ ot'

three series

al'ti-r

any
H'

.l.-rani;-i-im-nt

siij.|ns,.,l

tlie

saim-

Tli.-n
/'

= S'+A';

hut

tern

and

II,:

N'=/;'-.|
tin-

ll-A

}T..\ in-'

Ex.

1.

ii-iil-r

thf

>.

1-.
.trly

convergent
tla-

l.y

An.

11;
after

;m.l

therefore

ih-

series

## rgent, ;nnl lias

t!

same sum

any deran^fin.-nt.

is

t<>

-f

'

__L_JL. ^
1Q2

12

Ex.
betw<

2.

## From our present

point

ot'

Hew, WQ observe
i

that

tlu- iiu-jiiality

,.1.1

.^-i+j-j_^ + ...

-.ulain.-d
11).

l.y

th.-

tact

that
o'

The

wriefl a,

these serifs are not absolutely OO1 li\.-i^.-iit, and ..f couise we havt-

to infer thaTli.-

last

n-sult

should

U-

c. .nt

rastt-d
:

with

thf

-tate

of

affairs

explained
article,

.it

we

lind

lini(r,-//,
so that

)-N,

lim

<

./
,

-f

,'/

\A
.<

lim

(8+A
(.,'
;

).

limy -

-8+A
-.verges

## whereas there the se|Uencex

^ej.arately. althouo-h
thrii-

).

^-11

dill'-!

>

>

to a

## sum. whose value depends en

th-

66
27.

ABSOLUTE CONVERGENCE.

[CH. IV.

Applications of absolute convergence. Consider first the multiplication of two absolutely convergent series A =2a n> B = ^b n Write the terms of the product so as to
.

## form a table of double entry

/ t / t / t / a6 ajb^aj)} a b / / / t aj)^aj)^aj} a t / /
2 3
2

a^

afiz

a-J) 3

a^
4

...

...

3 4

Z>

...

## a4 b l -+a4 bz-+a 4 b 3 -+a 4 b

...
4:

It is easy to

prove that

AB

is

the

sum

of the series

arrows in the
is

where the order of the terms is the same as is indicated by the table. For the sum to n terms of this series (1)

A nBn

if

Now A = 'Z
/

an and B' = ^
\

bn

are convergent

by hypothesis.

Thus the
(2)

series

obtained

(1),

sum

of the

absolute

number

## has the same

convergent,

of terms in (2) cannot exceed A'B'. Accordingly, (2) sum as the series (1). Since (2) is absolutely

AB

we can arrange

(3)

1

## a 1 6 1 +a2 6 1 +a 1 6 2 4-a36 1 + a 2 & 2 +"

/>,

+ "/> + ...,
1

following the order of the diagonals indicated in the diagram. Hence we find, on inserting brackets in (3),

where

cl

= a b 1)
1

= c + c 2 +c8 +... to C2 = a2 6 + a 6 2 c3 = a 8 6
-A.S
1 1 1
,

oc,
1

H-a2 6 2 +a 1 6 3

and
For other results on the multiplication of series thr should refer to Arts. 34, 35.
iv;ul<-r

27
MM.!
us-|'ul

AI'I'LH

i<

application of
of

tin.-

theorem of Alt. 26
in

19

to justify thf

step

arrang
in
./
:

lowers
\vliere

wh.-iv
It

;/

is

polynomial
sutli-i.-nt

say

//

=
v

'>

-f

>

r/:

...

-f l*^.

is

hriv

to

have !<

,<=
and from

0.1,

## u-A+ftf+.-.+Af, A.-IU f-||:

1<>.

Art.

w.-

966 that
A,
if

this
1

iv.|iiires

,;<
'I'ln-

\-

= liin
shall

1668

condition iv.juiivs that j8d <X, and that than BOOI6 ti\-d value; and thm the n.-ct-ssary
last

will

In

## certainly not alter th- sum most of the ordinary 68864

th-

BOTJ
//

\=l. and

is

of th-

1'orm

the condition

is

th.-n

In particular,
if

.^__2.

it

is

to tak-

<

/ x 2

1.

which

ainly
-

satisfied
,,

\vln-n

uri,

,,,,.,.

be
is

sutlii-ient

lut

iav ). t.-mpt.',! t,. think th;it the coiulitiuii \y\<\ w..uUl tliis is m.t the case. K"i- we have to ensure the
i>

## \viitt-n cut at length,

and

V
\vhi--h

inaih

pusitivr

in
>f

/<>f/

form.

AB an
has ih.
ird

illustration
[1

tliis
1

j.oint, r..n>i.l'-r
-'.

>um
l.y

-(ir-.r-')]-

= (!-.)

\V!MMI
1)

jurii'-iilar liy

get

>f

## \toe-a?\<l. This conditi iad lyin^r Between 1 -r s ;

i'.nt

if

th-

in

i"
)

-X*

68

ABSOLUTE CONVERGENCE.
;

[CH. IV.

This equation is true if both series converge although the proof does not follow from our present line of argument. It may be guessed that, in general, the condition found for f in the text is unnecessarily narrow
;

and
ever,

## this is certainly the case in a

we we wish
is

of special applications. are not here concerned with finding the widest limits for x

number

Howwhat when x
;

to

shew

is

## that the transformation

is

certainly legitimate

properly restricted.

In view of Riemann's theorem (Art. 28) it may seem surprising that the condition of absolute convergence gives an unnecessarily small value for f. However, a little consideration will shew that Riemann's theorem does not imply that any derangement of a non series
-absolutely convergent

be made to have any value which may easily be of a far more n sweeping character than the derangement implied in arranging ^a^ according to powers of x.
;

sum

## but that such a

series can

by means

of a special derangement,

Riemann's Theorem. a // series converges, but not absolutely, its sum can be made to have any arbitrary value by a suitable derangement of the it can also be made divergent or oscillatory. series; Let xp denote the sum of the first p positive terms and yn
28.

the

sum

of the first

negative terms

## then we are given that

oo
,

= lim(a?p-2/ n ) s,
where p,

lim (xp + y n ) =

tend to

oo

## according to some definite relation.

oo
,

Hence

lim xp =
p
>oo

n >oo

lim y n =

oc

Suppose now that the sum of the series is to be made equal o-; since xp -*vo we can choose p l so that x er, and so that Pi p l is the smallest index which satisfies this condition. Similarly we can find n^ so that 2/ %1 2^ 0", and again suppose that 71 is the least index consistent with the inequality.
to

>

>

Then, in the deranged series, we place first a group of p l positive terms, second a group of n^ negative terms, keeping the terms in each group in their original order. Thus, if >S, is
the

sum
f

of

terms,
if

it

is

plain tint

<S

O,

v<p v

but

><r,

if

p^ v<p
;)

+ "r
pi)
//,^-ho-;

We now continue
positive terms,

where

the process, placing third a group of (p 2 p 2 is the least index such that r

>

## and fourth, a group of (n^

the least index such that
//

n^) negative

terms, where

n8

ifl

>

,/,,.

<r.

27, 28]

IMKMANN
im-thon!

BEORE14
evidently be carried
/*,

'!

Tin-

of
it

construction
is

can
if

indefinitely,
is

and

d.-ar that

/*,.+
/>,

>^=p
1

^ r
tin-

on *

positive,
if
<!

I'M:
.

## oannoi exceed th- (/>,+

/> r

.>^

t-rm of
Imt

MC
these

\vhil.-

i>,

,-f-

>' = />,.+
/', -)ili

//,-.

T
i'<.r

N,

is

jMiMtiv.-,

does not
.-it

tin-

</',

t'-riu:

N.-T
tferiea

ehangefl sign

terms.

Thus, since
increases,
It

tin-

ti-rm^ "f

th'-

mu-t

t.-nl to

zero as v

we ha\-

limN

=&

easy to mo. lily tin- t'oiv^oin^ m.-thoil so as to get a <li\fi-L;Tiit or o.scillat'ry 901166, by starting from a sequ<-:
is

which
in

is

ritht-r

<li\

tir-i

.....

turn to be

tin-

inlic-s
!

l

int-'jualii
t

>^-^i s>y
howe\ work and
;

--<rii

> xP -

;ml so

on.
of fact,

As a matter

fur pra'-tical

\vr

!i-ti..n.

i>\

increases

ami
\-

jiusiihv
tei-ni
s.-ri,->,

Art. 21.
:

is

f<.ll.i\vrd
first
/

itiv.-

tt-nn
/-

that, in

tla-

dfraniTfd

tin-

t-nns i-,ntain

-r r

ji--iliv,-

and suppose to n

-In

+ r = r).

of these r tern:

and

s..

lios

between

and
Suj.jiosr
first

r*r-

that

/-/'(/')
1

tcnd>

intinity

with

n,

then

/'(-")

''<>f

iM-tw.-iMi

and

/(*+?),

Tin;-

llOOSe v to

be

inction
tin-

hange

in

tlu-

sum
th,-

of th. rr-ult
:

/,

l.t-.-au-.-

th-n

!ii->t

''

?'*

*M^/'

=/.

tlu-

we

see
1 !

that v
v

may be
bi-

integer neireet
i

.r

^,

may

integt

!ogn.

i.

-J-J,

j..
1

to take

.:--nl.

order

## to xitisiy tin- i-.iulitiiin.

Hut

tl

70
Next,
value of
if
c,

ABSOLUTE CONVERGENCE.
lim nf(n)
is finite,

[CH.

however

small, a value

say equal to g, it follows that, for any positive nQ can be found such that

## Let v be chosen so that k = \im(n + v)/n.

It is easy to see,
i

by an argument similar
i
i

rn+v

dx

Hence the

alteration

is

## contained between the two values

(#c)log.
Thus, since
e is

arbitrarily small,

we must have

Hence, if lim nf(n) =g, and if k is the limit of the ratio of the number of positive to the number of negative terms, the alteration I is given by l=%glogk. In particular, since 1 -* + ... log 2 (Art. 21), we see that when

=
;

this series is

arranged so that
is

Ten

terms

its

sum

log 2-f

log

k=%
we

positive terms correspond to n negative and so, if there are two positive log 4

get

While,

if

## there are two negative terms to each positive term,

we have

a result which has been proved already (Art. 25). Finally, if there are four negative terms to each positive term,

we

find

To save space, we refer to V. of Pringsheim's paper for the discussion of the rather more difficult case when liranf(n)=Q.

EXAMPLES.
1.

+ 1+*+*+*+*+...
2

+J

+ 1 + ...)

= 0.
2.

Ex.

1 is

## applied to the series

1-i+l.lo.I. 2* 3* 4 6
Hhew that
(if

p<\) we

## series is negative, But, if the sum of the given series in

obtain the paradoxical result that the sum of the 1, the result obtained is correct and rx presses

p>

terms.

iv.)

Tl

3.

If

t/W
")
[It
4.
is

+ ...H'-!* 1 -

proved

in

An.

71

that i

I'K.VC that

5.

Apply

## a transfoi mation similar

tliat

of Ex.

to the series

i-i+j-H~,
ami piovr that
tini

suit iiiur

----.
>!
ies is

which converges to
6.

-um ItH

tlian

that of

th'-

-iven series.

absolutely coiiveru'ent

convergent series may be converted into an wriM ly tin- insertion i.f brackets. [See Art. 5.] Any oscillating s.-rii-s may W converted into a convergent sei and the bracket* may be arranged so that the in>.-rti..n ..f l.ra.-ki-ts

Any

n>n-alis..lutrly

la7.

sum

i|ual

to

any of the
.f

limits of

In

Mi-iK-i-

that

tin-

valu.-

n.n-al>>"lutt-ly
in

convergent series
tei

may

it-main

unaltered

aftt-r

a <-.-rtain chain:'-

sutli'-it-nt

may tend
G
s
Il(lt

## displacement <>f the //th term by the to zero as n increases to oo.

\

[Iiui:Ki..
30

V"tL

(2),

t.

14,

1890, p.

1*7.]

8.

Prove that

1
'

dfierminate numl>er,

luit

that

is

p.-rfe.-tly

definite.
//

Here

./

is

f

implies that

=0
lim

is

to le

>nii

Shew

that

wheie p and
9.

./

tend to x

in

siidi

way
sei

that lim

(</;<)

## Find the product of the two

+...+-K., and
10.

1-..-

+
,

'-. ..+(-1)-

Shew

that

if

.<, 1

= ^ + (/,+a s +...-l-a (1

then
.

CHAPTER
DOUBLE

V.

SERIES.

29. Suppose an infinite number of terms arranged so as to form a network (or lattice) which is bounded on the left and above, but extends .to infinity to the right and below, as

## indicated in the diagram

The first suffix refers to the row, the second suffix to the column in which the term stands. Suppose next that a rectangle is drawn across the network
so as to include the first in

## rows and the

first

n columns
.

of

the array of terms; and denote the sum of the terms contained within this rectangle by the symbol sm |M If # /M>M s t a limit as n and tend to definite approaches infinity

<

<

the

same time

## s is called the sun*

the double series represented by the array.* In more precise form, this statement requires that it shall be

possible

to

find
e,

an index
such that
!-V

//,

corresponding to an arbitrary
if

positive fraction

-*!<*>

>,n>p.

the last inequality is implied that m, n are subject to no other restriction than the condition of being greater than /z.

By

*ThiH definition

is

framed

in

p.

l.y
1

101

UK

29]

Sl'.M
:

OF

DO1
I

BLE 3EBU
I

pn.p.-rty

-y

th- e
\

|iiati<

HIM
->
tinis

s
tii
_

=
ifl

s-.

,r

lini

symhol
as to tlif
t.)
u.x,.

not MiMid-iit
1

1 ]

.-iM.-<|

mode
nthei-

of MI n

ia

i<

ii

.!

I'mi

it

eoii\ .-ni.-nt

method
tl>

:;1

whidi

i,

from

s
it

''

l+*m-\,
that
\\-IK-H

t'..lln\v.s

o
that
n.

>

converges,
in

we can
//
;i

find

/z

so

|tt w>H
iliis

<e,
of

pruvidi-d
doefl
//',
//

/"*///
(

and

ber

than
will

fi

eOUIM

n.-t

arily
I

ini])ly
/"/'///.

that

t-nd

'I'll--

t-nd t"

filiations
lini
.sr

y:

or lim x iHi?J
nuinlH-r

=
fr.

v:

## imply that, ^ivm any can tind //. Midi that

jH.vitiv.-

lio\v-\

.-r

l.i

8m,n>G,
and
It

it'

'"
'

>f*:
\V<-

tin-

d<>uM-

Berieci 18

then Baid
-/:
.

d. tint-

similarly divergence to
is

aNi

jM.^il,!,.

that
in

tin-

d(uM-

Beriefl

m.

and
l'oi-

th.-r.'

is

littlf ditliculty
tli.

to

establish
i

any

d..ull<-

sr.ju.

these

may
lii"
(m, w)

I).-

d'Mot'd

l.y

8m

and lim
i-

-imply that
/<

tli-

of

tli.-

t.Tin-

r.-ctan^lfs

//'.

and
/*
;

/*.

'/

must be

than

m- in

wh.-iv of
dition
d.-not,'
is
i

(-"iii-s,-

the value of

//

will

depend on
it

e.

Tl
i>

l,y

tli,-

\alue of

>;;
,

when
if

,n

i>

yi.-ld-

replaced ly

!o-9 -<r M

|<
limil

</>

>

At.

Heiu-e T

approaches

and so we can
if

^, such
"The

that

IS.^K^
in
full
l>y

lt>
1900,

rnnir-i

Wl,

74

DOUBLE

SERIES.

[CH. V.

Now
and

|

p,,-

<r

<K
S
>

if

so, if

// 3

is

S
\

## p,q>n>[jL 2 and n > // 3 we // 2

',

find

P,- \<
If

if

^ 2>^satisfied.

Ex.

1. 2.

Convergence:

m>w =l/m+l/,

Ex. Ex.
30.

Divergence: If s w> M
Oscillation
:

3.

If *,,

=0 and /x^2/c. = m + w, the condition of divergence is = ( l) m+n the extreme limits are -1
,

and +1.

Repeated

series.

In addition to the mode of summation just defined it is often necessary to use the method of repeated summation; then we
first

oo oo

obtain b m =

a miM

after

which we sum

n=l

2
1

6m

## This process gives a value which

we

denote by

(JH)

(n)

this

is

called the

In like

sum by rows of the double series. manner we define the repeated sum
\ ^J n=i x m=l
j

^m

>

or

2 2

which is called the sum by columns of the double series. Each of these sums may also be defined as a repeated
limit, thus":

2 2a m M =
,

(m) (n)

## lim (lim m->m n-+<x>

s m>n ) or

lim s m<ll
(m)(n)

with a similar interpretation for the second repeated sum. In dealing with a finite number of terms it is obvious that
8

M / N \TM x^

\
\

if

N M VM v*
/

\
\

But
lias

it is

by no means
s in

a double series

the

sum

## the sense of Art. 29 then also

a)

s=i m/

indeed the single series formed by the rows and columns of the louble series need not converge <>//, I ml may oscilla

29, 30)

REPEA1 ED
th.
L

81

MM Mlhe example

That

'A

hi.'h
.

1-0
lim
ii

lini

m
exists at
all.

Vn
f

I'l-iii^h.-im

has
.//.

/Ae

rows
/;/' //'.
I

</,, >i/,/,

9eri& is conr*

quatiow
In
I'aet

<

o&ot*

we have

MI that

lim

^e,

if

//<>//;

since,
'

l>y

lim
u->

dim
n-*>oo

>(/1
/t

= x.
<

In

like

i^

not

).

g(fr*.)-|(!
i^

mt

n.M-r.^arily

valid

convergent
1

h.

lim (lim *,.)

= lim

(lim

v)
= !.
tin-

## the repeated limits

/>),

we

tiiul

lim

(lim

x fllill

= n,
it

lim (lim
is

.<,

Knm
not

1'rin^shrim's theorem

clear that

.lnMe
oi

series

(mvr^e

(

ln-in--

^upposed con-

.

'2

is

valid:

Init
[

the truth
the

tli-

douMe

with

<

.....

= IHI<
(lim
Mi

(;/j

+ /o-, we

find

lim

.,

,,)

= = lim

(lim -V,
.

w,i =

FT
true,

## some purp.^ex it without tnmMin^

is

nvrt'ul

to

know
th-

thai

equation c2)

is

to

con^id.-r

76

DOUBLE

SERIES.

[CH.

v.

convergence of the double series. In such cases, conditions may be used which will be found in the Proceedings of the

limits.
(2)

A
may

:

Thus
but

lira

m*-x> n

(lim

s m>

= - J,

## lim (liin* mt w)=+i-

Other examples of points in the general theory will be found at the end
of the chapter.

9.)

31.

## Double series of positive terms.

if

anticipate that
s

been proved in Art. 26, we may a series of positive terms converges to the sum in any way, it will have the same sum if summed in any
In view of what has

other

way which

includes

all

the terms.

For,

however many

terms are taken, we cannot get a larger sum than s, but we can get as near to s as we please, by taking a sufficient number of
terms.
shall now apply this general principle to the most useful special cases. (1) It is sufficient to consider squares only in testing a

We

double series of positive terms for convergence. = n; then Write for brevity s mn = o-n when

m
.

plainly
if

crn
<r n

must converge

to the limit

s,

if

sw

iH

does

so.

Further,

converges to a limit s, so also will s m<n so that <TM lies between s and s e; /j.
greater than
/z,

## For then we can find but if and n are

we have

so that

= ,>*

e.

Hence s m<n converges to the limit 8. The reader will find no difficulty in extending the argument
to cases of divergence.

## *Bromwich, Proc. Lond. Math.

Soc., seri-

-J,

\..l.

I.

I'.MH, p.

ITti

30,31]

SERIES
If

mem

for

puri

ion,

we
'>nd

iccession of curves*

plainly,
a

when
two

tin-

mi therefore

th-<'
it

-jiiares)

sum
'

tained

if

to be con-

aqua

p,

thus

is

the

sum

for

tti<

,-ive,

in (1)
l-'urtli.-r.

^cr^a.
to
//

tt-iid

can

makr
\vt-

i>

greater than

1)V
rr
t
-N-

taking
,

>
it'

Thus, since
h

> <

x
fi

e,

>
two
!'

and SO
In
liknianii.-i-.

lint

N aft
;|

ly cnclo-in-'
that
if

s.juar.-

ln-t\vM-n

the

cm".
tin-

can

>lu-\v
t

tin-

cur
rect
boo, in

M|U;UVN (and

h.-iv!', ,r,.

tin-

virtue of (1)

particular da-s

<>|'

th,-

curv.-s

u^-d
tin.-

in

-J

i-

t'orim-d

ly

drawing
<>t'

## Imri/nntal and v.-rn'cal

riidit-hand

tin-

10.

Tin-

summation ly
t
i

>.|Uar-s

is

indicated on the

l-l't.

It

should

he noticed

Thus, hy sjuaivs.

we

)

r(.2l

+ ",, + ",, +
\vhlly IT
in
i

-f-

78

DOUBLE

SERIES.

[CH. V.

## and by the diagonals we get a n + (a a + a 12 ) + (a 3l +

22

+a

13 ) -f-

. .

Of course the equality between these two series is now seen to be a consequence of Art. 26 but we could not, without further proof, infer theorem (1) from that article since Art. 26
;

refers only to single and not to double series. By combining Art. 26 with (1) above, it will be seen that
(3)

No derangement

can

alter the

## terms of a double series sum, nor change divergence into convergence.

of the (positive)

important to note that: the terms of the double series are positive, its convergence implies the convergence of all the rows and columns, and its sum is equal to the sums of the two repeated series. For, when the double series has the sum s, it is clear that
It is also (4)

When

8 m> n

cannot exceed

## and consequently the sum

of

any number

of terms in a single row cannot be greater than s. Also, for lims any fixed value of m, m>n exists and is not greater than s.

Now we
than
JUL.

(n)

can find

JUL

so that s mt n

>

e,

if

m, n are greater

Consequently

silimsTO|W >s-e,
(n)

if

m>

//.

Hence

Km [lim sm
(HI)

= s, ]

(n)

In a similar way,

we

As a converse
(5)

:

series

and

and

the three

sums are

the same.

## For, suppose that

lim [lim*,,,
]

= *,

Art. 2 the sequence (a-m) converges to a limit then it follows from (4) above that x = rr. and that other repeated series has the s.-mir sum.
;ui<l

Hence by

y.j

tin-

31, 32]

PS

FOB
littlr

"N\ BRGEN4
ditlirnlty
in

79

'I'll.-

ivnd'-r will

find

ni'.difyi:
-i

in

(4)
32.

and

(."o

terms.
It'

we compare An.
>

s
,

with

<

>

.f

we

see

<

If

t;

rms of a
///,;,
/,

<l<>i>/<

to converge, th*
'

mother doub
Similarly for
Tinin.ist

;*

known
'

d;

with

greater
.-r^'-nt

in

plai
1

iiiipnrtaiil

## \y\- d' c)ii\

1

series'

i^

amtH = (<
that
tliis

wln-iv ^^',"
.inn!.],-

is

convergenl singl
t

-i\-n by to
.

seriee

i>
.i'

convergent we note
sj.1.l

-\\u\

ntain-l in a

s.|iiar:

n
-

i^
'

plainly r.jUa

+ ^o- +
limit.
last

and therefore T
Converges, ly
(
(

ha)

r<>ii^.,|u,-iitly
articl.-.
i'<

tin-

<l>ul.-.

of tin-

>n
/

tin-

tlirr
-

liand.
1
.

ly

=(y/>
aeries;

\vli<-i-.-

,n

;/

,i

and

## divergence' " is a ^/>

1
1

di

-in^lf

t>
in

diagonals,
ill-'

as

c2)

recognise of tin-

tin-

iliv.-r^.-ncf.

take
thi^

tin-

Bum

last

artirlr.

In

way

Beriea

which

i-

aeon

In-

divci--vnt.

.n

coin paring

it

with

'+..
Ex. Ex.
divei
1.

?.)n-*n-fi coir
l'(//j

a>l, /^>1.

2.

+ /)~

ft

di\

^v=rK
Ex.
3.
I

- A
,

opavergea

if

X>1,
thL:I>

div-i
-

\\h--iv

i>

uid
"t'

b\.
i

## Thus thf and

-J.

roiidit in->

dix'i

iiu.

.1.'

80

DOUBLE

SERIES.

[CH. V.

The reader will have no difficulty in seeing that the following generalisation of Cauchy's test (Art. 11) is correct: (2) If the function f(x, y) is positive and steadily decreases
to zero

increase to infinity* then the double series S/(m, n) converges or diverges with the double integral
\
\

as x

and y

f(x,y)dxdy.

test (2)

However, nearly all cases of interest which come under the can be as easily tested by the following method, which depends only on a single integral (3) // the positive function f(x, y) has a lower limit g() and an upper limit G() when y = x and x varies from to and if G(), g() tend steadily to zero as ->x
:

then
//>
I

the

double

series

22/(m, n) converges

if

the

integral

&()$; 00 converges; ## but the series diverges if the integral f 1 0()^ diverges^ For then the sum of the terms on the diagonal x-{-y = n lies between (n-l)g(n) and (n l)6r(?i); thus the series con30 ## verges with Z(?i 1) G(n), that is, ## with the integral l)</(?i), f I G()d\ with the ## but the series diverges with 2(?i integral that is, y ()(d(. Ex. 4. A particular case of (3) which has some interest is given by double series f(am* + 2bmn+o*,*), where /(#) is a function which 2 steadily decreases as its argument increases, and am* + %bnin+cn is subject to the same conditions as in Ex. 3 above. If A is the greatest of a, |6|, c, it is evident that the is less ## than A[a? + 2.r( -.r) is +( -x) 2 ] =A </, 2 . When is positive, is we see in the same /? 2 . way But if b that is if the least of b, c, the expression uivutrr than negative, we can put </tf) ## the expression in the form , [{( ## + c-26).r + (6-c)^} 2 -f(ac-^)P]/(a + c-26)^^ 2 if 4Jfl=ac-& Hence *That if I =(Ap) is, and we suppose f Ml' /(f, i?) ' =/(.''. 7 ? //). = II. -{ ""'' =='!/ Tin- us.- singlr int.'-ral lS7'i, |i. |',.r ## testing mull ipl- s.-rirs srrniS to be i-at ion s.-cins is due to Cii-m.-mii (</.M. H'o-Ar, l-VJi; p. an s:ti. ' all I'liat in\ t-st given by ## Hut-wit/ (Math. Ann'i/m, I',. I. Tin- .-ilmv.- tonn to lr imvi-1. 32, 33] /. il.trlv tl seen to diverge .. :i al.o\e; .'i and it -li.-wa also that \\ ' t >0) tin- tin- >eries converges; ..ii ## the other hand, p) 181161 divergei if 33. ## Absolutely convergent double series. as in tin- tlifry , . lust ! <>!' sing ,, ,-, I, w- call the series iit<l ;l if ^ Ar 1 ,n\ .-r^-nt. Tlit- in. -ill. .,1 u^.-.l in m in be applii-.l :il !'. ,-it once to shew that all tin- ivMilts pn.v.-il still Art. -r l..uM.- I'..sitivr il..nl.lc ten aeriea tin- true for any tlie In tliN oonnezioD of tin.I/"'/'. ## aK^>lutely convergent reader \vlm has advanced l-.-ycnd .l.-in.'iits sul.j.-.-t slmuld t-misult p. pajM-r by Hardy (Proc, A'-"/. N''. c2) voL l. I'.'o:;. ## Tliat tlu-se results are ## not necessjirily trm- for n>n-al.>'.lutely i-<nivergent t\v.. 1 may (1) In- sc-n first liy taking siiupk- examples: Consider + 1 + 1 + 1 + ... + 1-1-1-1-... +1 \vli.Tc all ll'-i,I' +0 + 0+ ... \.\\ tli-- tTiuif ?/J, jit in tin- tirst tin- rows and has tinit c.lui. ^,, = 2 plheim'l ## tt>\, sn that l-linition. Hut if .iniuiiij,' s.-ri-< >um :il ), i\ a--.-.. riling ## the d<uil>l- series into a Alt. \v,- tlie (1: get ## 1+2 + 1+0 + + .. .=4. nlivii.iisly, too, tip- convergence --f tlii- ## series does not (.}) ## imjily the con- ## tWO fowl ami columns (compare (2) ' Art. 31). : ## the (loul.K- series suggested 1 by Cesaro 1,1 j 1,1 7 2~ 1 ^8~16 + l6~7 1,1 + 21-, :i :i L6 16 73 153 16* + r6' 15s l.s, 82 Here the sums of the DOUBLE rows i 2' SERIES. [CH. V. in order are L I 22 ' I ' 23 24 ' *" ' and so the sum of all the rows is 1. But the sums of the columns are + 1, ## -1, +1, -1, +1. -1, +1, ..., proving that (5) of Art. 31 does not apply. This result is specially striking because each (the ## row converges absolutely secondly, the series also converges terms being , , less than t+i+i+J+J-K..)j and rows is ## formed by the sums , of the a *2i + 53 2i ~*~ > which absolutely. But the justification for applying (5) of Art. 31 is that the double series still converges when all the terms are made positive, which is not the case here ; since the sum of the first n columns then becomes equal to n. The series ## fact that the sum ## of a non-absolutely convergent double may have different values according to the mode of summation has led Jordan* to frame a definition which admits Such restriction seems, however, only absolute convergence. series is used, unnecessary, provided that, when a non-absolutely convergent we do not attempt to employ theorems (1) to (5) ## of Art. 31 without special justification. For example in ## Lord Kelvin's discussion " of ## the force between two ## electrified spheres in contact, the repeated series r* m=iUt'i is if ## mn~\ (-l) (m + nY J (m+nf m+n used.t ## This series has the sum first (log2-), and it ## has the same value with respect to m. However, Pringsheim's sum does not exist but oscillates between limits^ J(log2-f) and (log2 + |); while the we sum ## diagonal series oscillates between 34. oo and + QO A special example of deranging a double series is gi\vn rule for multiplying single series given in Art. 27 the by above. Suppose we take the two single construct from * series J. = 2ttn 5 = 26n , . and ## them the double t. 1, series P = 2a m bn Contra cTAiiaJye, 1, i>. p. ;>!>_'; ## <-..mp;nv <."iii>ufs Aiiu/i/xi* (translation l>y H.-.lrick), vol. :r,7. t-K.-lvin, :|. /.' /*///// >,f ;iiul MiTfricn/ MM. l.,i<l. Bromvvich 9). Hardy, /Vof. Mnf/i. So,-., sri i-s -J, >1. '_', l!Ol, p. lt!l (see 33, 34] MILTI1M.H \TI"\ OF ii.it -I.I: It /' eonvi-r;r,.s i- in lYini^h.-im --use, provided ha: .1 /> ponvi *m.n ire lu = ("i + ",+ J I!. + ",></>,+/>,+ ... + ' BO that lint liin >, -* f"i- to convert praeiiral work in analysis it ilouhle aeriea /' into a single series, tli'i ## ssary the one usually ehoflen hein;: i^> tin- sum l>y ## diagonals (see (2) A This siii-'l,. senee -'. where tVoin It follows at Once Art. >> that //' // ivo serif* t<> their ^_ product is eqwil ,!},',,}, Jut, tht's.- if cnu>'< ,'!<' i'f. und.-r al^oluti-ly cinMiinstanr.-s m, tin- lciil)l: ## !' -au.se 2|am |.|6.| converges to oonvergentj it <- '.(S^,,!); <t' ## and 2|cn converges because the sum | of ## terms from ~\c n cannot exceed \ tin- pi'oduct If. however, /->. one ;/> or both of f<> A, B = l>i should not converge f/lt ,f absolutely, we have Abel's theorem: Is 'i. /V<',V,>,/ the aeries ^ if 8wn l /<ii n ti n />,<///</ A.B.* For \ve tl we write An =n + -}-...^-'i nt '.>+. .. + !>, tind cl +ct +...+cn ## =alBn +atBn . l +...+amBv Hence ## Ol +Ct+.,.+On -A lB1>+AJBn . l +...+A Now (App., Art. r>4>. when \\m(' n = r. ,. have also lim ((', + (',+ i ... ' and again <AJ.I... An. 1.1 ./.' L t54 lim -*-.!.// II ' " r 4- ... + 4 HI )= A ,/y. .1 />. Hence <' = AH. ha> (For an ;i alt.'i-nativ.- |'ioof, see Art 54 be pr.ivi-tl. i.y t-> siinil.u nn-th<Kl. tin- oonvt .-onvTL.'-. provitlrtl jual thi? sum .! diagonal series, v \ that i-oluinii. 84 DOUBLE SERIES. [CH. V. ## It should be observed that the series 2an 26W , 2c n is 2c n cannot diverge (if are convergent), although it may oscillate. For, if = oo, and therefore also divergent, we should have lim Cn IV 2c n oscillates, it is clear from the article quoted that AB lies between the extreme limits of 2c n that in some cases 2c n does oo and -foe) oscillate (and that its extreme limits may be is evident from Ex. 3 below; but in all cases the oscillation is of such a character* that ; by Art. 154; whereas this limit must be equal to AB. If IV Ex. 1. Undoubtedly the Thus, if of power-series. the ## cases of chief interest arise in the multiplication two series ## are both absolutely convergent for \x g iven bv + + <r ## (see Art. 50), their product is 0^ 02^ + ..., bn which is ## also absolutely convergent for c =a cn =a ## |#|<r; where we have written + ^i&n-i + + an bQ . . . the notation being slightly changed from that used in the text. Ex. 2. If we apply ## the rule to square the series we have no ## reason (so far) to anticipate a convergent series , but we ## find the series -Q + is ( i 1 in ## which the general term l)"" ;^, where so that Ces&ro (to whom this result is due) calls such serii-s xhnply ind>(> miniate the degree of Indeterminacy being measured l>\ the number of means \vhioh have to be taken before a definite value is obtained. (See Art. 122 below. ; 34, 35 1 ## Mi l.THM.K LTIOH OF SEE] li.nfu 9 liin " lini logn)=' w-f LI), !>gn) 1 ,,'-i)-;r7T theorem, 10-1 this -S('+4 agrees with l'i in^lx-ini's general th.-c.r.-i: [MEx. 3. 1900.] Hut if w.- -qnare the s. ^i-I^...., "litain l'( 1 )" '". where -r[2(/l if '.at [./'( -.r)]" and it' ">/'' /> b, th<> .<'r/f.< ## -(~ 0"~ ljr n ?J{ de for iniilri ## (>n th- I'tln-r tlu- hand, if /' > A, I'l-in^h- ml.- 35. .! /;. M.-rt.-n- lia^ |.i..\,-d tliat tit. 'h<it \ one t, Suppose that ## and thru writr ...-f-,-... t' f->r In- .-|a|, / r^^-f-r.-f , , In. /. 4- />+... ... /!, it /?=/ (/ /; ('.'nsr.juently ## = </,/* + /,/;.. = (//_r,,)+ ,/ I ,-f...- ,(^-r,) .1 /; // # so that .-i -f-.-.-fc ...,-i-H. ..4- |,|i 86 Now, can find since the aeries DOUBLE a limit so that it , SERIES. > [CH. v. to zero as B is convergent, the sequence p 1? p2 Pa* tends has therefore a finite upper limit H. Also we /o /o m pm+ i, m+2 ... are all less than thus, if p=n m, we have Take the ## limit of the last inequality as n tends to oo and we find because so that tends to oo with n. Now is arbitrarily small and is fixed, we must have HnT|fln | = 0, (see Note (6), p. 5), that is, lim lirn(A n /f n = 0. ) Hence or It ## B-Cn = 0, MmCn =AB. is must not, however, ## be supposed that the condition of Mertens necessary for the convergence of 2cw ; in fact Pringsheim has established a large number of results on the multiplication of two series neither of ## which converges absolutely. of interest) is as follows : The simplest n~ l l) of these (including most cases If 7=2( )**"%, F=2( ## vn are convergent in virtue of the conditions their product is given by 2( -!)""%, } where 1 l , wn = u v n + u2 vn _ + ...+ u nv provided that the series 2(wn y n ) is convergent. Since lim^w = 0, we can write 2 7= Ul - (u 2 - UJ + (u 3 - u 2 ) - (HI - where 8l =u l , S2 , = w2 ~ w n 6" ^3 = W3~ W25 all Now, by hypothesis, 8 2 83 , ... are ## negative, and accordingly convergent, and therefore the series 8 1 -8 2 + 8 3 B 4 + ... we can therefore Mertens' and theorem absolutely convergent apply obtain Hence, 2|8| is is where 7i = Vi = ^i l ## = &ii>n + 82*^?j) -f (w3 Th UH 2 U F= w - (w2 - - w2) ~ ( W4 ~ ## and therefore we have /'!'-= Wj - w, + <r :, ## provided that lim ^',, = 0. 35,36] M:I: \v, i. Mi (in n.-.-d iir*-ut ii virtu...|,1\ ..f that limy,, <>, M i that \\' ## M.-rteiw' theorem), for vx less and \M- >iiji|.o-- that i> :i".v index th:in/>; as --cause in : 7+1 ha\e n-v^r 1 ti. lolll to ,/, \\e have ,',. + Thus we find i f, "/!-$)

If,

as

is

8iippc-

tind 7 so

tl.

is

leas

than Ac; 7 having been fixed, take the limit of the last inequality as n tend.- to infinity, and we find lini Thus, since t is ail'itraiily

"_.
1

small,

-0, and it follows that lim "-<. other n-sults are due to Voss and C'ajoii, in addition to those found of 1'ringsheim's aiti'le in the K"i iirjsheim.
lini
'/
1

'i

Ikl.

I.;
/,

two
vol.

nii-re
-2,

i-.-.-mt
j,j,.

]>;i])ers
-J.-)

will

l.e

found

in

IJHM,

and

4<l.

36.

ThU
,j

Substitution of a power-series in another power-series. operation -ivr^ anotlicr t-xaniplc of deranging a double and -r 4-.. oaider tin- aeries
.

t**f(

/._,//

l,
t}

l>

i'

/'.,./-

4- ...:

if
./'

convergent

at

all.

th-y

con\.

al.solut.-ly for

//

<N.

<

thru
Beries

arises
in
tlif

\vln-tluT
tir^l
if
:

tin-

/

50)
i

Tin- <|U-ti..n

nt n i

th-

BeOOnd

gent,

and

from

thr

powers

of

//

i-an

lr

calculat.-d

usino;
-ijual

tin-

rule
///

for

tinl>;i

to

8WM

:

+ "/' + "A
4-..
:;

"
:

-f-M
-f...
4-...

88
If this

DOUBLE
double series
it

SERIES.

[CH. V.
x,

is

these

we

are
if

summing

by columns

## two sums are certainly

is

equal

still converges, after every term 31 positive (Art. (5) and Art. 33).

Write
|a|

= an

\b n

=/3 n

x\

= g,

series is

## not greater than

--(2)

Now

this series,

summed by

rows, gives

which converges, provided that Take now any positive number less than r, say p, then the series 2/3 m /o m is convergent, and consequently the terms m have a finite Thus our condition is /3m p upper limit M.
satisfied if

or

if

Hence

if

/3

<s, and

g<( s p

)p

/(M+s-/3o), the

series

2)

of positive terms will converge. Consequently the derangement of the series (1) will not alter its sum. Thus the trans-

formation

is

## permissible if the two conditions

|6

(i)

|<,

(ii)

|*|<(8-|6

|) /

,/(af+-|6

|)

are satisfied (where p<^r, b n p n ^M). In particular, = 0, the conditions may be replaced by the one
>

if

n // the series converges for all values of y it is evident that the condition x is sufficient to justify fit r
y

derangement.

The
series,

case 6

is

is

not

itself

and generally,

if

n>

2,

cn will

## contain the terms

36, 37

N"\ LBSOL1
!

Ti.

<

Ex.

.1
y=i"
iation
all
is

hyH
'>'-',,

tlu-n

tin-

verges for
a

vainin
z
//,

all'.waMf, pn.vid'-d that |#|<1, since z con- ! I/1. Tin- i- -ult is .lvi..M-l\ ./;", where
-

polynomial
Lining that
;

sn<-h
t>/

that

tin-

term

of

hi_;li'--t

degree

ifl

"

= e* and
A ill

= /zlog(l
/x

+.r) (see

A
...,

vanish for
l.rf<.i-'-

= 0,

1,

2,

/'-I, l--ans- in

'

caeOfi

th-

neiiefl

t.-nninat.-s

i-.-a-hinj

II.

cH

=
/'
.

fj.(fj.

an.l

we

'il.tain

;|

ami

37.

tlic

AliiK.st
tiv.-ly

l.y

>.-ri.^
t..

has

l..--n

iriv.-n.

.,,ni|,aiM-

r.-mitly.
i:. L ".
(

Hardy;*
series
'

it

n.n-,-sji,,n,ls

tinf
'

t\|i-

discussed '<<

in

Art*

Th.- th.-.-n-ni
''

ia

th- aztenrioD
(/<>
.<//;/i

niii.-h..

^, n
-

m>

/"///"'/- '"^//

'

con>'^

"//

//// '/.<

/-

^^*

.-'.*!.,
In

;<
,.

<,

'

,,+i

'/*'//

'''"'^ ^o -2^0

as either

or n
i*:'.

ta.-t.

just
tin-

as in
Lrivt'ii

## th> proof of Abel's leninia (Art.

i-onditions
f"r
//

that

iiinh-i

\vc

22<Vt>
win re
//
is

an upprr limit to

M
''"

''

11
it'

- | fci-fc*-l-*-H'H
i

s..

that

rithiM-

//

or

LB

I.

//
.

-''.
1

and otherwise
A
i-

//

./

.i/

.v

N'-

S2-Z 2 1111
(V
!.,

S
1
,

2-1-2
M

2-f2
1

S
,

that

v V'v;

+, V(1 ),
//.

whit h .an

as small as w.;

|>l,>as.-

l.y

]I-MJ.T

.-h'-i.-.-

.f

r,

because
''ges.

## and P^ | both tend to

AII apjilii-atinn
is
r

and
th.'y

>..

th'

diMilil.-

iv-n

Iiy

wc/)),

<,..

\vhi-rr

o,

'-.',

p
'.

an
.l/'/'/K

SOC., srri.-s

_'.

vol.

1.

UNI:?.

},.

I-.M

roL

J.

l'.U.

]..

I'.MI.

90
For then

DOUBLE
\s mttl

SERIES.

[CH.

and

-.'

\<4\cosec$0cosec$<f>\

## while lim v m>n =0.

EXAMPLES.
1.

As examples
n

of double sequences

we

(1) *m

=
in
0.

I--;

all

equal to
(2) s m n
,

m n =(-l) +

(!+!); \m n)
limits

## here the double limit

exist,

is

again

0,

but the

single

and repeated

do not
s m<n \

although we have
,

lim /lim

= =

m
(3) Sm,w (4) s m n
,

>-oo

\n
5

-ac

## lim / lim sm n >-3o \ m wo

= wm/(w 3 + = m/(m + n)

here the double and repeated limits are again all 0. here the double limit does not exist, but we have <*,<!, and limsm n =0, lim *,. = !,
tt

because, however large p may be, we can find values of m, n greater than such that s m<n and other values of m, n for which * TO ,n>l e. But /x,

<

lim
/

lim
>cr>

MO \n

s m> ,A J

=0,

lim
n
>-oo

lim
>

s m<n \

= 1.

\n

## Similar features present themselves in the sequences

sm .n = mn/(m* + n?) and s m n = l/[1 +(m-n)*]. m 2 3 s G = sm n we have (-l) m n /(m + n
,

(5) If

),

lim /limsw
(m)

\=0=lim /lims m
J

n\
/

(n)

()

\ (m)
,

bat yet
us
to

limsmtn =-ao,
be seen by taking

lim sm n =

+ oc

may

m=

ri

2
.

Here

it

## should be noticed that the

limit of the single sequence given by putting w- = n exists and is equal. ; although the double limit does not exist. [PRINGSHEIM.]
2.

The double

series given

by
</.,

+ bn + (, - 6 ) + 2 + f a4 -f ... (-a +!) )+(-a -!> )-a 2 -a3 -a 4 -... b. +0 + 0+0+... 2 +0 + 0+0+... A,
(a
)
()

!>.,

/>.,

.^ives

the

sum

in Pringlheim'f sense,

## whatever may be the values

.f

But the sum by rows is only convergent if 2a,, converges; and the sum by columns converges only if 17>,, is convergent. The sum by diagonal is lim (n + />), if this limit exists; and is otherwise oscillatory.

",

/>.

lt

v.|
3.

IfFLES
In
tin(1.

.ul. I.-

neriea

1+2+4+*-i-1-2-4-i-J-1-2-I

j
l'i

ci.luiiin

converges

t<>

o,
:

Inn

row
tin-

li\.

!_"-.
is

<

iii^.-ht-iin's

sum cannot

t-xi-t

and

sum

l.v

diagonals

divergent.

4.

The

series

gran

l.v

0+1+0+0+0+...

-1+0+1+0 + 0+..
+ 0-1+0+1 + + + 0-1+0+..
..

ha> the
tlu<>

sum
H<

l.v

rows; -1

l.v

## columns; u ly diagonals; and naturally

Pringsheim's sense.
if

doul>

'iiverge in

In

fact,

if

m
'I

and
i

is

-1

if

m>n,

or

+1

m<n.

5.

given by

..

## 0+1-2+1+0 + + 0+1-2 + + + + 0+1-2 +

1

..
..

..

has

tin-

sum -

Imth

scillates

ln-twet-n

-2 and
if

-1
6.

and th- diagOIM] ly r.\\s and columns 0. There is no sum in I'rin^hfiin's m=/>, and is ..tlu-rwise 0.
;

The

dnul.l.

## 2 + 0-1+0 + + 0+.. 0+2 + 0-1+0 + 0+.. -1+0 + 2 + 0-1+0+..

1+0+2+0-1 + ...
+ 0-1+0 + 2 + 0+.. 0+0 + 0-1+0 + 2 +
ha>
the
tin.

..

sum
l.v

l.v

K.US

sum

diaLTonals

1
<

tin-

<>

/we, since
</ w
,

= 2.

7.
l.y

fr

",/',.

+ 'ij>.*i-+ ...
+...

+ </,'

first

liy

ru\\s

and

secoiully l>y

92
8.

DOUBLE
:

SERIES.

[CH.

If

1111

first

## by rows and secondly by columns, we obtain

+ 1=5

or
[J.

1=0, where
BERNOULLI.]

If the double series 22a m>n is 9. convergent in Pringsheim's sense, it does not follow (in contract to the case of single series) that a constant C can be found such that sm C for all values of m, n this is seen by
| ,
|

<

and supposing 2a,,, 26 n to be divergent. In like manner we cannot infer s m> n < C from the convergence of the sum by columns or by rows (see for instance Ex. 3).
considering the series of Ex.
2,
\

m+n in which a min ( /mn does not converge l) sums by rows, columns and diagonals are equal to one another and to Pringsheim's sum. The common value is, in fact, (log 2) 2 m + nu v Exactly similar results apply to the series in which a mtn = (-l) m n where the sequences (u m \ (vn ) steadily decrease to zero.
10.

The double
;

series
its

absolutely

but yet

11.

## Consider the double series in which

and

am
find

= 0.

Here we

<)

2 2 = -|2< IS = + P(W.

[M^Pall

[HARDY.]

12.

Prove that
V V

m?-, n?
tends to
/.<!'
.

when

v tends to oo

pnvilnl

tliat

13.

## trrms for which m = n Moth. Trip. 1895.]

[

If

mam
,

and
then

= 2~ m
/

= - 2~",
If

= 0,

m=0 \i-0

Yi *)--

w=0

m=0

V.|
14.
It

!.\ \.MTi

.u.

,(-ir*"m/(>wm

1ml

tin-

-inn

i.

illatt->
/
,'rt

lirtwi-rn
/

-x
e

and

'

and

sum

oscillates l.rt\\.-rn
ti,,.

and
I!

+ jV
Iin.inwi.-h

[F.-i

M.I,

j,.

17.-,.]

15.

## 'rove that the product

<>f

the

two

series
.r

x
,il

x*
'

^
^
2 (3!) .6!
"

to
*

16.

It

<

,. V

)=i+ y (.,.+
1

.i/^) + ^
-

)4....

iy:<i,
r
i

and
th.-n

J?)-^*"*/(*/^^)-25ffi
-Axing).</)-."('.

v=-i,
.? ).5r(y ,9
2 2

2
),

17.

Verify that
1

L!(n-l)!+J

!':</'

1
-2).
:

./-- 2

K*-)!
+

4?+8

1.1
'

./

x(x 4-

!)".'(.' +!)(.'

+ 2)

+< "

Lr

1!

.r+1

2! .r-f-2

3!

18.

8h6H

that

_.

_._
j

....

into

;i

dulle
.

M-rirs.

and transform

it

..
,
,

Taki- /r

lit

and 8O

calcnlatt-

I'l

/,-

t> 7 d.-rimal

places.

[STII.

19.

Ckm^

_. + _^
it

i>

c<jual

t<>

94
20.

DOUBLE
Shew
that
(if

SERIES.
series

[CH. V.

## this series is equal to Clausen's series,

l+x
Hence evaluate Lambert's
series to five decimal places, for is also equal to

Shew

## that each of these series

the coefficient of
21.

19, or directly,
.

of divisors of
if
|

(1

and n

included).

From Ex.
x
T

prove that,
.

x <1,
.

3?

3?

&
+a

&

l-j^^l-^ 10

~\+x
22.

Shew

that, if

\x\<l]
3.r*

2x*

(l+xf
"*

## [For the connexion

functions, see Jacobi,
23.
If \x\

between

the

series

in

Exs.

19-22

and

elliptic

Fundamenta Nova,

40.]

## <1, shew that

where
that,
if

<^>

.is

the

sum
,

of the divisors of

n (including

and

n).

Deduce

<^_ 1

= 0=<#>

24.

If \x

<1, prove

that

2

X/(rf)
*

for

all

6 6

'

In
[LAGUEHKK.
25.
]

Shew

<>f

sfiies;

series

(loulilil,

## but the diagonal series

gives for the diagonal
[H,\i:i.v.]

= <=7r, p = l, _ 3 + _ + ....

CHAPTER

VI.

INTIMTK PRODU(
38.

Weierstrass
and
leee
1

inequalities.
ej,
..

In

an- suppn

])(>N]'ti\c

than

1

we

(!+",)(

1

Eeuoe
(

+0,

)(

+",>(

+" >[
S

+('/! +",)](
see

+";;>

>

+<"!

+ ",+

ami
(l)

(-(.ntiiiuin-

this proc,

tliat

(1 4-0^(1
liU(

\vc

In

nianinT
1

ha\.1 1

1
1

-h",,)

+ " ",>l
1

-('/!

Thus, since

Oj

i^

|<sitiv-.

\\r

liave

ami so
\\v
1

nt-rally,

>>\-> +, +
l

,+

...-

and

tip;
tin-

/,

+</.,+

+
1

1.

\v-

have,

>y

aid nf c2).
(

r.-Milt
1

1+,/jH

## + ./.)...< 4-OnXP -(",+">-...^".)]_!t-utrr tluiii

1.
tin.-

1
.

siiu'i

it

_+Oj+...would tluMi

iiu-|U,ilit

96
Similarly,
(4)

INFINITE PRODUCTS.

[CH. VI.

we
1

find
1
.

(l_a )(l-a2 )...(l-an )<[l+(a 1 + a 2 +... + a n )]By combining these four inequalities, we find the results
(l-2a)(l+2a)all the letters
is less
1 1

(5) (6)

and
and
1,

where
that

1.

such

2a

than
,

39. If

a lt a z

a3

...

## are numbers between

1,

the

convergence of the series 2a n is necessary and sufficient for the convergence of the products n Qn to positive limits

P,

as

n increases

to co,

where

For clearly

Pn
is
3.

increases as

increases,

and Q n decreases.

Now,
that

if

2an

convergent,

we can

find a

number

such

to oo

<L
we have
'

Then by the

...

+aB ) ^ P m

and

-a
n
is

## Hence, provided that

greater than m,
ra

we have

Pn <P
and
Thus, by Art. such that
2,

/(l-<r),

.>Q.(l-<r).

PH and Q H approach
we can

-P^Pm /(l-<r),
But,
if

QSQ.(l-<r).
find in so that

Sa M

is

divergent,

and
It

N may be.
inequalities,
I

## P n >l + N, QW <1/(1+JV) = lim Q n = 0. consequently lim P n

,

if

w >m,

should be observed that if a product tends to zero ^mi^, without any of its factors being zero, the product /*

38, 39|

POSH

97

rallrlism

with
_'>,

tli.-

tli. -MI

Ex.

1.

ili'-

I'i'xl

will

approach a

limit

because

thr |.i"diu-t
I)(M

+ 1)

+l

so

tll.it

lllu '/

Similarly

+^

If

\v-

to the equate

**-(So,

we can deduce
pn>\ id-d that
ditr.-ivnt
</;/;>;<;,/,

at

oner
tin---"-

hiBeriefi

tln-nivin

(Art.

:{-!

that

CAE,
term
1.
i>

all

convei
tirst

we

assuni,-

that

tin-

constant
it

tir-t

\v- tak.-

08

Thus

>nsilrr

where

//

Now
and
liy

Art.

.')U.

th

may

1..-

arran-v,l in

pw.-rs

<>:

pi-i>vil-l

that

In-ill^',,.'-",

any and

nuiiiln-r
th.-

than

th.-

h.'iv

16

of

upper

## limit of \b n \p n (of cour>-

>=!.

\\'-

ohtain

<!+//)-

1=1-^., + ,^ -:_/,

,.,-:

_,/,,.-:_ O/^/,^.

This
in
./:,

seriefl

may

th.-n

l>e

multiplird
-

by any other

j.

and we

ol.tain

p
:

..v

## ^r" r ''-h" ,'-+...)(l-f^ r ''-f^

in.,

.f

th,.

initial
l.c

trim-

in tin- ilriic-minat

tli.-

.lu.'tinit

may
( ,

still

found as
tliat

powei
n..t

Th

= 0,

l^=(l

1'iit

/-_,

is

BWO)

th.-n

w-

h.,

wben

/
/>',

Tlu-n, as

al,.

:u l

'',

Thus

138
In practice
it is

POWER
coefficients

SERIES.

[CH. vin.

method

of undeter-

mined

thus

we

should write

(5),

^0
'

'

2'

* ' '

'

A
is

## given in Art. 84 below.

55.

Reversion of a power-series.
series

## Suppose that the

y = a^x + a 2x
required to express x, Let us try to solve
power-series
If
if

+a x
B

-i- ...

## converges absolutely in the interval

k,

+ k),

and that

it is

possible, as a power-series in y.

2b n y n

is

## convergent for any value of y other than zero

(by Art. 36), the resulting series may certainly be re-arranged in powers of y without altering its value, at any rate for some values of y leaving the question of what these values are
;

we
2

## have, in a certain interval,

2

y=(
or

A) y + 0,^ = 1,

A+

V)2/

a 1 6 2 4-a 2 6 1 2

3
z
1

and so Thus

## on, in virtue of Art. 52 (5).

we can
6X

determine,

step-by-step,

the

succession

of

coefficients,

= l/a v
0,

b.

= -a

z /<**,

bs

= 2a22/a 6 - aja^,
1

....

It is evident

different

from
case

aj

## that a t must be supposed

will certainly fail.*

*For the
K.xs.

when

and a a

is

may

refer

to

## B, 31-33, at the end of the chapter.

54, 55]
\\'e

REVERSION OF
then
1

9E1
loss of generality,

may
Q

without

for the

and

BO,

with a slight
//

= + ",.''' + 'V
.,-

:1

+....

i'or

l>
{

where

given

])l'o\

id.-d

that
the (Mjuations
l.y

Now
ol)taine(l

for

the

,-J's

are

those

which

wouM

l.e

## in.srrtin^ the series

in

the equation

Hut

any positive nuniher less than /. the aeriefl 1 iver-vnt, and BO we can timl* a nuiuher .17 such that
it'

ft

is

/'

fol all

values of

//.

## Thus we ran put

_,_
/.'/

this equation

-'i

Of

iiiii.itic.n

i.f

M.

Mfl

below.

140

POWEE

SERIES.

[CH. VIII.

the negative sign being taken for the square-root, because and tj vanish together.

But
where

(p

## + tf-^M+p^X-Mft-n), X = 2M+ p + 2 [M(M+ p)]

*,

Thus we have

and

can be expanded* in a thus, since X>yu, the value of convergent series of powers of rj, provided that 0<i;</x. But
this series is clearly the
if

same

verges absolutely convergent in the interval ( /x, +/x). Consequently the formal solution proves to be a real one, in the sense that
it

0<>7</u.

Now

;

is

## certainly convergent for sufficiently small values of y.

It is perhaps advisable to point out that the interval ( /*, +//-) has not been proved to be the extreme range of convergence of the series 26,,y we only know that the region of convergence is not less than the interval
;

For

r-

and

cos#=l-|

sin(#-) +

f-2

f-x

cos(#-)J

fi

-^m(x-

## find that, in the notation of Art. 59,

Hence we

find

and
61. The binomial series. Let us examine the series

-l)-j

+ K^-l)(^-2)+...

to oo.

from elementary algebra that if v is a positive now this series terminates and represents (l+x) v integer for values to examine the theorem other proceed corresponding
.

We know

We

of

v.

By
by
x
|

Art.
|

12,
;

the

region

of

absolute

convergence
is

<

and so

vergent in

any
f( a; ) =

(Art. interval (

50)
A:,

the
/.,),

series

## given uniformly con1

.

is

where

< <
/

Now

^l +

( l/

-l)a;4.( l;-l)(^2)^+... to

x]
v.

= vg(x)
where g(x)
differs

say,
(v
1
)

in place of

60, 61 J

BINOMIAL
(1
-f

Also

1)(.

x -2)jj+...

BO that

Hence we
or

see that
/(aj)=.-l(l

+
x.

where

## a constant in<l. JM n<l. lit of v\<- choose the po*>' consequently,

.4
is
it'

But/(0)=l: and
>lue

for (l+x)",

have

.1

that

18,

This result has, of course, been proved only for the im '.\trnl-l t. inrhnl.(-/, + /.); K't u- now see if it can
!

th.-

series

points ly the

1,
(

+1.

Th.>th
(??

<jU<'ti.-nt

<>t'

the

/>th

term

in

th--

,/

is
i^

//

1).?:,

if

/>>i' +

l,

and so the
an.l

## series con\< r-vs for ic=

if
">
1
)

1 if v is positive (Art.
).

for

./=+!
(Art.

(r+1)
tile

is

thenl-elll
i-

sillll

## positive (Art. '2\ of thf Sel'leS for

Thus by Abel's
iC

1
is

18

0,

if

is

positive: and

for

.r=+l
f,,r

the

sum

is

'2'

if

i'-fl

positive.

l'hB

ni">t

rapitl

nictli-ul

r.-calling

the series to m-

th- ditlrivntial

M|uatinii
(1

iy

assuming a

sei

f(.r)=\
\vr

+a r v + <i.,.r-+
1

On

sul.stitMti..ii.

lind that
-'
'..,

+ </i =

etc.
..nU-i
t..

tliis

mu>t

l>e

supplemented as abov.- in

o>ni)>l-t-

tin-

|i"..t".

in
r,

multijilv l'_:-!li.[
\<
:

t\\,,
)

writ

\vitli

:

ami

r.)
r

and

\it. \rt.

L'T

that
1

tlu-ir

j.l.xlu.t

whii-h

s;i.

.iiimt

as was
lu-

must

tlu-

rth

|H,

\\n

,,f

its

valur

f.-i

= l.

152

[CH. vin.

(3)

We

have

## where we obtain the

last line

by integrating by

parts.

Continuing thus,

we

get

Now,

if

is

positive,

(l+x-t)

lies

between

and (l+#),

so that

provided that

> v - 1.
if

On

is

negative,
x}

v

IJ

-,

if

r>v-l.

## tends to zero as r increases to infinity. If

x=

1 it is
,

series to a finite

interesting to note that we can sum the binomial number of terms. Thus we have

to (r-fl) terms

is

Therefore
is positive,

it is

clear

if v is

this

sum tends

to

if v

to infinity

negative.*

62.

The logarithmic

series.
II.) of

We

the natural

+i+ +

...

to GO

is

divergent.

81, 62]
v

I'

GABITHM*
'i

\vln-ii

./'

<
\\-

wriit-

ml-t+t
tin(

...tOQO,

l.y

Art.

## uniformly ha\- th- -\|>ai,

:!

from
4

to

=/.

log(l
llo\\.-v.-r.
it

+ .!) = ./not
861160

A./--+^./- -J.i-

+.
of
tinunit''.

i^

(oiivrr^rnrc

"1

tin-

in

ry <>nl-r

i"

make use
to

mi
;

inlt-ji-al.-

t.-i-m-ly-i -Tin

Can

\\rib-

Thus

in-

i-f.'-)

= ,--^,^-f!.' -...-H(-l
;

oF+
It'

*
i*

is

## positive, tin- la^t intf--ral

cl.-arly

l.-ss

than

P<
J
/'

+1
i>n.vMMl even for
that

which
)n

tends
1.

to

/,-ro
//M

<s=
(

Thus

x\.

when

./

is

-,-111

## only say that

jf;
98

than
1
tl.

+#
Ssion
'

Jo
it

anl from

woull

!.

cxi..-ct-il that

./=

be '-xrlnd.-.l iVoin
9;

of
tin-

th<-

loirarili

96li6fl

been

|'ro\

.<!

to

li\

-2

..

tin-

i.l-

(1-f J-X = tf

-i

Tli.it

is,

.-re

be

ext-

of

unitnim

OCH

154

## SPECIAL POWER SERIES.

[CH. vni.

It is now necessary to consider whether the first of these series can be re-arranged in powers of y without changing its value. By Art. 26, this derangement will be permissible if the series

is

if

convergent, where f = |# |, ^ = \y\. But the last series is the expanded form of (1 -)~ T!, which is convergent <1 that is, if |#|<1. Thus the derangement will not alter the sum.
;

coefficients of
...

?/

## and y 2 ) the equations

to oo,

^(l + HHi)+-..
Similar (but less
of log (1+0?).

to oo.

simple) series

may

be deduced for

higher powers
9.]

63.
is

it

## better to use the series

x which can be found from the previous series by writing 2 x ). for x and then subtracting; or directly, by integrating 1/(1
In either than

way

terms

is

seen to be less

iX.

-I

* ~T~

~*

J-

~1

The

## details of calculation for log f

may

be arranged as follows 00 00 00

I 5

= -20 00

00 00

-20

-^3=
-J3-=

800000 +3

2666

67

32000 +5
12 80
51

6400
1

-^r=

+7

83

+9
2

06
20 27 32 56

= -40 log f
Tin-

54 65
l.cvoiul
tln>

error involvrd

in

m^li-ct in^

terms

tifth

is

loss

than

-i4L_-.
result
is

rff))

which cannot

<lt<imal.

Hence the

## 62, 63, 64]

LBH

>l\

\M

AJEf

get

again

l-ss

th;ui

;i

unit in

tin-

ri^hth

!.

Also

log}
th.-><-

= :.'[-imilll+-OOCn.=a'2L'.'Ji
1

'KXXXKX)3]

t" -ix
tlnil

decim
the natural logarithms of all integer7,

ivMilts \\-

t..

whi.-h .-an

1..-

t'--iind

simOarlj

r'i"in

l"g).

In

particular,

\vi-

havr

Iog2=
log:.
:

-698147,

Iog3

= 1-09861:.'.
\vlii.-h
<

= log 10 ^:
tin-

han

to

-on verge

more
:

rapitlly,

>f
.")

nmiilM-r
l"ic

placrs.
in

T<.
..f

illu>t iat<-.

## be easily calculated to a the reader may find formulae for

r \\ritiii'_ ./--!

log 2, log^i.
1

terms

--

31,

lt;

'"

+ ir* + ...).
and
,n

64.
II'

~

b;i\

and

BO,

l>y

tlit-

principle of

reversion of
b-ast

Beriefl

(Art

~>~>),
r

we

## can expreefl th- Dumerically

in
.>'.

value of
<!'

as a

_ ent

tin-

first

t\v>

t.-nn*

\\bicb arc

\\-f\-rr.

it

i^

ii"'

i-asy

tx>

obtain
\v<-

tin-

^'iirral

la\\"

<!'

tlic

coetlici.-nts in this

manner: hut

can

me

th>-

ditliculty

^c^il-^r
wlr
i!

+ :r +

.:;
(

,g

'

:>. 4''

^.l.,;

to

lie

between

## -ATT and -fl-. sn that

positive
B6VJ

The
writing

r-

i^

nhtain.-d
:

lV..in

the

binomial

Beri

I'mit will th. -f.r: --^. ami unil'nrmly in any interval (/,-. +/,) if ()</,<!. We may int.- urrat.- fcenn-hy-term and so obt-iin
i

./

arcrina

= ,- + ,
i

i.

156

## SPECIAL POWER SERIES.

converges

[CH. VIIL

which
(

1,

+1), as
l,

may

absolutely and uniformly in the interval be seen from the test of Art. 12 (5). Thus,

we have a series for |TT. Although we have not found* a series for tana?, we can we have For, writing x = tan easily find one for arc tan x.
<j>,

writing x =

dx
or
d>

'o

where

</>

is

supposed to

lie

between

|TT

and

+ JTT.

The

aj

2n+l

/2n,7/__!
;

lo

## and this tends to as n tends Hence we ha vet

to cc

provided that x
|

= 1.

...

to

'oo

where

==+!,
we have

jTr^

In particular

Of course this series converges very slowly, but by the aid method given in Art. 24, the reader will find no great difficulty in calculating JTT to five decimals, from the first 13 or 14 terms. The result is JTT = '78540.
of the
*

We

## can, of course, form such a series

by dividing

sin.c

by cos a- (compare

Art.

54),

but there

is

coefficients.

The

first

## three terms are

anil

in

more coefficients are given in Chrystal's Alyebra, vol. II., p. 344. The method used in Art. 54 shews that this series will certainly be convergent XZ yA y& < 1 &"il a short calculation will shew any interval for which ol + T-, + ^j +

that this is satisfied in the interval (-1*3, -f I'.'i); but by means of a tlu-ornn given in Art. 84, we can shew that the region of convergence is ( ^ir, + ^TT). fOf course the term-by-term integration could also have been justified by

making use

of the

uniform

coim-riM-in-i-

<>f

the series

-x'2

+ x*-

...

64,

65
1

ntlGONOMETRK
rfoai

\i.

t"

i\.

kii'.un
Tl.
I

,'\,

tan

[en

7r )

= 2.H
\
I*-.
1

.tli. -r

m
iVi'in
1

1.

65.
Il

## Various trigonometrical power-series.

is

clear

Art.

'21

that

tin-

BZpCU
i

l-2rco80+r*)- =l+(2rco80-r )+ without may In- arraii-vd in ]M\V.-I^ |mvi<lrl that* <r^-|.
i

f+... to
alt-riiii:
its

oo

..!'

\alu\

t'..r

is.

h..\v\

er,

tli.-

fraction

(l-rcoa0)

(12

.1

.1

.1

....

<>i'

H.

1

-rooed- L-h^r

+J

:i

4-

-l
:;

/-

+...

-^00802^^00802
ami
h.-ncr

80+...

we

get,

u-in--I

Art.

52

-0-1
.1
,

39,

ha\.-

tli.-

r_
It'

sul.tract
1

to

\\v

and

ilivi.lt-

l.y

r,

\\

:

;f9-f ...

tn

Jr|+^ = f|<l.

158

SPECIAL
these,

POWER

SERIES.

[CH. VIII.

Combining
1

we

get also
...

r2
to
oo
.

An

to oo
.

By
led to

inspection

we

see

that or

all

## these series converge

when

r + r 2 + r3 +...
the interval

converges, enquire whether the equations are not also true for
(0,
1).

when

0<r<l.

Thus we are

Now we

find, identically,

Hence, as for the geometrical progression (Art. 6), we see that lim.R n = 0, if and accordingly the first equation holds for the interval (0, 1). And the other equations can be

0<r<l,

## = - 2(cos 0+r cos 20+r2 cos 30+

by what has been proved.
Hence, integrating,* 2r cos + r2 ) = log(l

.)

we have
2(r cos

+ Jr

cos 20

0.

dt
>

(*'

dt
7

==
$7\ ~1 5 ^ r^ ^ an Thus we find sin . <ft Jo ## = r sin + ^r2 8^20 + 1^ sin 30+.. * may Term-by-terni integration is purinissihU- hrcause, if 0^r^fc< 1, tlie series be compared with 1 + k + k- + k?+ ..., ami Wt-ierstrass's J^-test can be u]])lied. 65 TBIGONOMETRK \\ , \i. SEED tin1, li.-iv.- only .-stal.lMi.-d ill-- -,, nations above on </<!: hut ## we knew from Art 20 thd >-f ... ih- two series rin0+j MB lepi tin- !ir>t 20+in30+-= or i'or ~>i >. ## Thus, hy AbeTfl theorem (Art we have I"-'* 1 C080+ and similarly, ''+..-- Mm "J -l-Vn.sfl + r2 ) -!Tjlog(4Bin cos0-4cos20+Jcos:W-...= a in in li -r2 ) 1'iv^li lit- tioo iV.iiu tin- i^ unnecessary, 1,\- the la-t clian-iiiL:l'r : driluo-il ]>ivcc(lin-- In likf inaniii-r \v.- have v hisin30-|-...=limarctaD ^I \ii\\ is tli.- t'roin tinr/>, ti^un- it is -vi<l-iit that to J. tin- an^l.- in drtinitioii ijii- anu.-lc wliich (acc..nlin^ lit- the TT of th-- tan runctioii) must l>-t\\v<'ii and +J7r; so that 17. Thu> I Jut ## Bm0+ism20+i8m30-|v .. = J(ir-0) = 0, nr "2~. th- valu.- of th- Beriefl i> if > if (> 0<d< l-rc-au' t.Tiii in it vanishes: thu^ tin- .>ntinu': and If lies Ix'Uveen aegatiye, '2L-- ## and 2 (Jb 4-1) IT, ha\. wli.-iv /,- is an iir w.- = j[-series (A: N]. ## MM these are points of n.-n un. 160 It is SPECIAL POWER SERIES. [CH. ## not difficult to discuss the series by a /(0), direct method. In fact, if Sn (0) is the sum ## of the first n terms in we have, by differentiating, Thus n(#) Now, by ## Art.. 174, Ex. 2 (Appendix), the limit of this integral lies is TT, provided that ^0 between and TT and consequently /(0) = i(7T-0), if 0<0<27T. But /(0) = 0=/(27r). Thus the curve y=f(6) consists of a line making an angle arc tan ^ with the horizontal and two points on the horizontal axis. glance at Figs. 12 and 13 of Art. 43 suggests the conjecture that the limiting form of the curve y = Sn (0) consists of the slanting line and two below). vertical lines, joining the slanting line to the axis (see the figure But as a matter of 'fact this is not quite correct, and the vertical clearly the point ## lines really project For ## above and below the slanting$_ w^ ? ,_ g

(X.lri)

line.

belongs to the curve y = Sn (B), whatever the positive number Now, as tt-*oo, this point approaches the limiting position
/i

A may

be.

f J

A sin
t

in virtue of Ex.

3,

Art. 174.

u = Sir.

y=

/"*
\

sin
t

dt,

Jo

Now

the integral

(sin t/t) dt

## can have any value from

i

to its

maximum

TTX (1-1790), which occurs for A = TT so that in the limiting form of the curve y = Sn (B), the two vertical lines have lengths T85194, instead
1'851 94 =
;

.'o

of

^7r=r57080, as conjectured.
85
--

-J7T
-1-85-

FIG. 18.

Some
of

<

## in Byerly's Fourier Series, etc., p. 63 (No. II.),

,sv-/vV, etc., p.
/'////.

49

45, ls)s,
I'].

is

5.

Mag.

(5),

vol.

XII., Fig.

vin.
I

A.

161

Differentiation
1.

and Integration.

.Ju-tify

tin-

i-iju.-itinii

## 5-a4s + J^-J:i/- + -~A'n:? rf

Thus the
De<1 ......
series can

'

<a>

4>0

>-

be found
~

in

Unit.

..nal.

[GAUSS.]

"""

+ -=
1

1111
that

ll^'-sba+-= -Jl
[Math. Trip. 1896.]
.'\v
if

and

i-

3.

Utilise
1

<<

x*

and

find a

fonnula

fr

the

sum

of the

## Obtain the former result also by

4.

111
i:

the logarithmic

se:

2r4-4-rr6 + 6TY78--=i('r
5.

- 3 )-

.i''

Shew

that

with

rrt:iin

restri-tions

on

a,

j8,

y,

and dedu
Ft

\:>,.

rh.

r (y)r(y-q-)

7-)r<y-!sy
*In
a

number

is

used aa equiva

me
are implied.
I.s.

I

x
^

162
6.

POWER
The complete

SERIES.

[CH.

7.

Prove that

8.

From Ex.

13,

-

r(2)

-4

,2.4.6.8
[Write
9.

a=

J,

/3=-, 7 = !.]

integration that

[Compare Art.
10.

62.]

If

11.

Prove that

## [By direct multiplication, or by expanding the

differential coefficient

(l-^)
12.

Prove that

[Use

the equation
similarly that

Shew

13.

Prove

that,

if

\x\<\,

## Is the result true for

x=\

vin.
I

LMPLE8
Sln-w that,
if

A.

14.

\jc.

< 1,
i
.

:j

:>,

log[i{lW(l-*)}]=15.

Prove that

K^,,^.,^.'^,
[It
is

easy to see

th.it

(1-

,(.

+ J* + J** + ...)

## + (l+*%r-J^ + J*-. = 2{*-(J ,116.

tf

j/=(seco:-ftanar)
.

m=

2a^,

prove that
,

## -IK-i + jrfa-SK.s -... =

Of
(\
//.]

[Hen
17.

I6C,

[.V

.1896.]

Verify that

J(arctan.r).log(l-

where
and dciluoe that

J log 2
[Here
(1

=
.1

"

!>-....

[Math.T

3 0) sin

36
...
,

where
39.

=cot#.

[EULER.]

eerie s

is

11=5,

\\lii.-ll

TT

-^^

lu'lilv

COB

*-*
-|

7r,*4f.

l++
1

2.4/144V
below
'--in

+l>e

## In writing these serif* il"\\n, \\in

tin-

n..ti-

that

..

2,

put

f'-rni

r,

2
-

\
1

-J-

EXAMPLES
1.

1',

Euler s Transformation.
Sl,.'\\

hy the

saint-

nirtli.xl as
...

in

'hat
...1

N'(

!+//-)[
01

il

-/r,.

## Similarly. jr'V- that

;

^-

.r'+...^
x

s
N

>'/

+...],

If

[KrLKR.]
1.

2.

By takin_

',

= J,
'

cr

=l,

...

in

K\.

ihew that

if

:/

< 1,

logty

K\
Dedu*-c that

V3 log V~7r/~~

J\J*\_

,2.41

2.4.6

v:

h"
=1
3.

in the first
if

Ml

[Ei

Shr\\

ftlM that

'

V:

4-...=

vV)-(Mr,,),-^ + (/>-,,)^
,

^;'

170
4.

POWER
In particular,
if
,,

SERIES.

[CH.

=w

3
,

we
/

find

a =0,

DaQ =-l,

## Thus from Ex.

3,

^^
2 ^ #" = (a? -f 7#2 + 6-r3 + .z4 ) e*.
oo

Similarly,

,,r

5.

If

*=2|L,
e,

is

an integral multiple of

and

in particular

[WOLSTENHOLME.]
6.

By

if

|y|<l,

24 l|+|:
2 w4 2 y4 2 4
.

7.

valid for

y = l?
if

[J/a^A.

From Ex.

oo

n
i
:

xn n
I

4
n- l

and that

^(-l)
1

Sn
71
!

= 0.

Shew

similarly that

## Obtain these results also by differentiating the exponential

series for (1 -4?)~*.
8.

series

and the

Apply

Euler's

method

to prove that

m m+l m + 2 f+3
"*"+ UH-W
9.

__(_*\+
~
f

'

2
/"

"(7tt

+ l)(m + 2)\l+#/

Vi
"

Apply

Euler's

method

to

prove that
a
.

F(a, ft 7, ^) =

(T^-a^(
!

7- A

7'^)
x* +
...
.

where

/(,

= ft 7 ,)
,

x+

[GAUSS.]

\MI'I. l>

I',

171

Miscellaneous.
10.
If
//

(!+.'-)

ail.

l...th

less

tha:

that

[#=;
11.
If

',-_'!'
'

Also

1.4
12.

From
in

the fxpan-i-.n

.f

(1-^.,)"
tint-iiln-

ih-t-i niin.-

tli--

drrinial i-lan-s.
(>l>tain

[Til

Uirr.ilL'.-JTS.]
\\-iv

the

saint-

root

of

from

tin-

-.\]>ansi.>!
:

KK -l

13.

With

## thr notation of Kx.

!>.

sh-\v

tliat

tf

14.

If

n.i

if

then

OUL]
that
< 1

ivea

apply AWl's
15.
If

tlit-..|

-iii.
]

PJ
if

ITS and
I'/
lin,
^.'iil

liui t

51 to

pr'\c (hat

oi-

di\

.-1

L.

'-nt
I

that

if

/''

.1

tenda to

lim{2
X *1
Hi;.'

J-^,
ntiv

and

that

.1

tendl to

172
,

POWER

SEEIES.

[CH,

16. If the coefficients b n satisfy the conditions of Ex. 15, and fn (x) n decreases as n increases (but is always positive), prove that ^b n fn (x) will converge provided that 2a,,/n (.r) does, if lim A n fn = Q. Deduce that when

/n (l)=0,

and lim

2, ^(.r) = rr>0,

then

\i

17.

of Art. 153.]
:

If

## Ayn = y -v n+ i, & 2 v = v n - 2v n+ i + v n +2, and

ra
ll

lim(?iv n )

= 0,

shew that

Writing

fn(x) = &?vn A 2v

in

Ex.

16,

shew that

if

y n is positive,

and

if

## then the series

are equal.

-f

2 A 2 ?> 2 + 3A 2 y 4 +

. .

v
1

2,v l

+ 3v 2 - 4y 3 +
x tends
to

. .

as

1,

x tends

to

1.

## Use the method \imn&v n = and limv

18.
n
x vl

of Ex.

17 to
x *!

shew that

if

&2 v n

is

positive,

and

if

rt

= l,

then lim(i'
3,

-^4- y 2 -y 3 +...) = |.

## [For another method see Ex.

19.

Art. 24.]

From Ex.
lim
x-+i
i

15,

prove that
1

= 1 log 2 = lim |(- 1 IX-l)- -^^-u -f>. )-^^ 1-.^' *_i n(l+x ) 2
i

20.

, and $n(-x) ~-1 i ## the second, multiply by 21. [The difference between the two sides of the \-x and use Ex. 18.] first is less than in On the lines : of Exs. ## 17-20 establish the following asymptotic ## formulae (as /r-*l) Tf --'~4irp where is Euler's constant. [CEsXno.] Lagrange's Series. 22. (t Shew t that, if + a) n = n + wi(t + is ## a positive integer, ~ n~l + 4- n r a(a - rh) r l>) is . . . ## + //>)" ~ r + ... + a(a nb)"- where w r the ordinary binomial coefficient [ABEL.] vni. I B. .". ;ind multiply i.il I'.v equate coetl ## authors have con-id- n-d th- \aliditv i.f tin- ## equation, also due to A1...I. 4(t + a)=<t>(t) + h.-ii i. <i>'(( + b) + a(a IM-M-. \\'. -* b) <!>"((+. M.-iy --ults raniK't if I..- ..'ivi-ii ## remark, ho\v-v.-r. tha' Tiniiio.-t </>(f) i is Ini: 1:<1. recent 28, tin- ").] 23. is ( ## Prove that the 1 i-ot-Hiri, in \\ [ ' BZpl <.f -1)]" ## l'i"\,- tliat tin- roctVirirnt 'f.," in tin- <-\j>ansi<.n 2 "- 1 (l+.r) (2 + [Mtl,. Trij.. 1906.] ## [Tse Lagrange's series (1) for y = e*- and (L -j/), wli- y 24. '] l>u r Kxjtaml t* and > in )" t-f*-t- = (a1 and drtri-iiiint- tin- interval [Write 25. ## (*-^l+y and apply is 1 J.a^ran.u'* '- -e.] \v If /'(.') pc \vt-r-st-rics in in ./, wh. /('')]", in a>.-,-nding that the of :-e to the r.\jiaii.in <>f [1 the '"tli. -it-lit ..f .'" in th- Sip .' powers iiiiin.- tlie coefficient ## for tlie f.-llowini; : f> n.r; n, (3) log(l [\\'< MK.] [The ivsnlts : 0)'"" ^ <4) ;;':; (8)0or(-l^ Oor(-l (3)1/( W -1): (6)0 \ on. Tin- values 26. occur \vh- .-n.] that .i N 27. Lagrange's s. Use Lagrange's ## series to establish the eqi: where ## /=./(! -.r) and 174 28. POWER Prove that 4 SERIES. [CH. 6.7# 5 and 1 8.9.10*7 2 1 where 29. t=x(\ +x2) u-3 , < fa. . Shew that , on-l nt *n-S tt(M+l) , *(*+ 1) , (2tt - 2) = n ^ TVzp. 1903.] [M^A. is ## [This is the coefficient of l/# in the expansion of therefore equal to na n if \,v(l -z)\- (l -Zx)-\ and 2o^" = Hence TT log(l 2.9?), where y = x{ 1 - .r). or a n = 4"- 1 /??.] first 2a ny n = - J log (1 - 4;y), An alternative way of stating the result is to say that the sum of the terms in the binomial series for (1 -|)~ M is equal to the remainder. 30. ## Extend the method of Art. 55 to 4 prove that ,r if y = a*>x*'+ a$y? +
there are two expansions for

. . .

of the

form

Shew
where
31.

also that

if

W
As

<7Oi

n is

the coefficient of

l/.r

in the expansion of
if

then
32.

.?!

## + ^2 = a,y + (ab + c)?y 2 +

find

. . .

If

y^x^+x}-,

we

# + ff2 = 2a,y,
1

where

a 1 = m, a 2 = wl (2^-l)(2m-2)/3

!,

33.

l)

- 2) (3m - 3) (3m - 4) (3 w

etc.

It

is

easy to write
:

down

## in the following cases

Differential Equations.
34. If

P
,/--,,

are two power-series which converge for |.rj</i', prove that the differential

equation

has solutions of the type y A + Ai. + J.y-+... \x\<R. Here A and A\ are arbitnuy, while conil>iri;itions of J and J,.
(

.!._,,

.1..,

^J 4

,...

are linear

vni.|

LMPLES

r,

17
.'e

the

coii

,,-t

-f ...

+ .!,'/.
.1,
.

i-t-J,//

we
i,/;

that

/;

.i,,j,

if

#,=

/;

.!:

and

*B

..v+c*-;
that
/;,,|<J//-",
//,,

J^

where
\\,

r<R
ti,,.,,

and
tind

u mob

lin:

-r.

Thn-

tmvergM

if

.-

</; and

\v.-

lind that

1.

.verges

35.
th-'

Witli

til-

differential

<juati(n

tli.-

type
-...),

ie

t(t-l) = tpQ + q
A
.

and

J,,

is

arl-itiai-y,

the

other

erti'-i-nt8

being

inultiilr- ot
[If
/'

is

..f'

th.-

<|ua<lrati<-,

we

lind
.

## -{(*-l+t)pl +qJA n-l +...+(tpn +qn)A

wliidi

may

!*

i-mnjiai -d

with

K-l+T)^+...+(l-fT)^},
re S
If

= \t-t'\,
tak./>

r = \t\,

\p,,

u>8.
shall

we

= |^ol
o.

Bp =

A,

l.-n-r

;us

J0^8, we

have

Fur-

that
6
:

lin,

=r.

that

1'.!

.-

COnV<
nicditicai

<

/,',

as in

il

in-tli-..i
;

with

tip

tht-

\\i!l
].

-MI

in
!'

\\

f-und

36.

Sup|iose (hat

'hat

## |*-bl^a, \y-y \^b,

and
that

y=y,,+

= 1.

176
Then y n approaches
satisfies

POWER
dv

SERIES.

[CH. VIII.]
77,

## as its limit a continuous function of x, say

which

dx=f(x

>

^
x

for sufficiently small values of \x-x \. [It is assumed that for these values of x,

[PICARD.]

y
is

\f\<M,
where
function of y.

|yw

## \f(x,y')-f(x,y)\<A\y'-y\, and so in particular f(x, y)

;

a continuous

Then

values of

and so, if c is the smaller of a and b/M, the \, within the prescribed limits, provided that X-XQ <c. Suppose now, for brevity of statement, that x>x& then

-y |< M\x xQ
fall

yn

Jxo

and
I

#1

- .yo
find

## < M(x ~ ^o) < Me.

Thus, by integration

we

and generally

yn

yn ^ \<^MA

n~l

(x

- x^ n <
(

MA n ~ cn
1

## Thus, by Weierstrass's rule, y

their limits
77,
.

and (similarly)

-^

converge uniformly to

dx

Also,

g = lim^
is

because f(x, y)

continuous as regards

yJ]

CHAPTBB
Tl;I<;<>N<>.MKTl;irAL IN
66.

IX.

VKSTH IATK
tf>

)XS.

Expressions for

and

as polynomials

in c

## \\V have seen (Art. 65) that

cos

+ } r^cos 20 + ^cos 30 +
2
/>2
'

Bui
f/ .-) = _[(
wln-n.

y _r-)+^/-y-

<

,<'

7-^)3 +...]
may
be
re-

y = 2cos0; ami,
j.o\vi-rs

t'urtlu-r.
r,

## the latter series

2

arr.in-vd in
that

of
is
tin-

without alteration of

valu.-. jn-ovided
is

()</-:^|.
/'

It
in
J

therefore
r\j session

## evident that -cos//#

the

coefficient of
1

(/-y-'-'
/ /

)"

+ 7;-^T 7(

n />2

+ ---+<''yr*.

becan^'

"/.
"
,

i"

+2
,

...

contain no terms in

Thus
//

//I
(f/

(71-8).

*!

innnlxT of tt-nns
1

lciiiLT

ritlu-r

i(//

Of

<

/'

1.

= y"
4f

2
/?

y""

2
*

+
l.s.

..

178
Similarly,

TRIGONOMETRICAL INVESTIGATIONS.
we have
rsinO
seen that

[CH. IX,

1-ZrcosO+r2

= rsin#+r sin
2
-

series
1
2 )

for

some purposes

it

is
0.

more useful
This

of

nO

in terms of sin

we

shall

## to express the functions do in the following

article.

we

Before leaving the formulae above, it is worth while to notice that if write y = t + Ift, instead of 2cos0, then 1 -ry + r2 = (l -rt)(l -r/t).

Hence
and
so,

log (1

ry + r

2 )

rn (t n

+ t~ n \

## from the foregoing argument, we get the algebraic identity

t

+ t~ n = y n ny n z + ...

as above.

Similai ., y ,

and

so

we

find

~r. =

n~ l

-(n-2
cosTifl

n -3

+ ...

as above.

67.

and
to (J^r
0)
;

then

2 "'

--+... to

=
in case

(m + 1 )

terms,

is

66,67]

BINES

njiial in
2 'M
l
<

\\<;i,E8.

I7:

Bir
(

M.l.l aii-1

-2n> -f

-1

<

iNm<2,,,+l)0 = y

+ -<:>/,<

>

(-l)

M(2m + 1 )d
c<

asy

-(2m-l)y

->

+... to

(m+1)

terms.

llo\vr\.-r.

tli.-sr

f.

nnul;u' take a

arm
it

wording
not
sji.M-ially
lnit
it

tn

i-

litlicult

rearrange

ilnill.-

l.i-.iically.

is

way,
in
//rt

or cos

//H,

\v-

ha\-

\vrit-

.'

sin H.

anl w- have

it'

\\-.-

<(

n^ilT
//

tin-

fxjiri-svioii
'

## ^ivrii alx>ve for cos

2m6,

966

that

/'//*

//

M
//

polynomial of degree
in \vritr

in X,

cos
tin-

?>

=1+J
I.

,.'-'

-1

* 4 4-

4-

A nx n

ronxtaiit t.Tin
\\.'

l.'iii;_;-

h.-caiisc

in
th<*
diti'.-r.-ntial

Il'

vul.stitutr this

expression
4.

equation,

ire

tin.l

.2.

.l..-f:{.

/--'+.

..+<,/-

and

so

.1,

L__
r-

__ZV

42 )

H
\\ht-n

ii!!<.

oo6ft0>l~
i-

+
'

k
. t

//

Siinilarl;.

tin<l

tliat

sin

nO
.r

is
:

a polynomial
tl.

of degree

/'.

## which contain^ milyodd powers of

sin 710=
4-...-I-J

180
the

TRIGONOMETRICAL INVESTIGATIONS.
first coefficient

[CH. IX.

## being determined by considering that for

~

= 0,

dx

d
find
.

Hence, on substitution,
.

we
.

A x+5
3 3

x*

## +n(n- l)A nxn

+n
Thus
giving

(nx + A 3x

+A

x5 +

+ A nxn ) = 0.

3.2.^ 3 +

-l)?i = 0,

5.4.^ 5

to J(7i
?i

+ l) terms,

being

oc?<i.

To verify the algebraic identity between these results and those of Art. 66, consider the case n = Q. Then Art. 66 gives
or
cos

1.

Change from 9
cos

to (TT

0),

and we get

.
.

-^

in

## agreement with the formula for cosnO.

Again, consider the case n

=l

we

or

## cos70 = 64cos 7 0- 112 cos 6

Hence, changing
to
TT

+ 56cos 3 0- 7 cos d.

0,
3

we have
6'

-l v - 7(7
2 2 )
.

7(7

-l

)(7

-3 2 )

By

sinnO and

to A(?i

+ l) terms,

when n

is odd',

and

67,68]
BID

-SINES
is

AND 008INE8 OF

Ml

I.Tll'l.i:

AV-LE8.

1-1

3T
to JTI term-.
that

when n
Til'-

f
in;iy
>1|. \V

iv;ulrl-

co70/coB0^
an.lth.it

::i'>iii
::

i(>0/co80

//-T-:^>in 5 ^f

\\ith

til"-,-

,,f

An

68.

'I'd'-

tone obtained in

//.

ly

c.-i-tain

conditions on

tin-

tonn of
in

L.-t

us no\v

st-e

il'

these

ran

J,

. (

i-,.ino\-<-i

any

\vuy.

.iniplr

the &
-

in that product

and

To express

cot$, we know n~ i . that 0^ sm = n sin- II r, 1 n r= i 1_ \\, sm 2 (r7r/^)J' . sin 2 (0/7i)-] .,, , (n being odd) and so if we take - ## logarithms and then differentiate, we have the identity 1 4.0 -=cot ^ V 1} 2 . n smo, r7rn / 2 sin(0/n)cos6n . si assuming that is not a multiple of TT. this identity we apply the theorem of Art. 49, first step is to obtain a r comparison-series To and our ^M Now .also ## (see footnote, Art. 70, p. 184) ## sm2 (T7r/n) > 4r2 /^2 2 provided that r < \n 2 sin (0/7i) < /7i Thus, sin 2 (r7r/%) ## - sin2 (0/7i) > n> 2r (4r )/ ## for all values of r such that sin(0/7i)cos(fl/?i) sin 2 (r7r/7i) sin 2 ($/?i)

>

and consequently
if

Since 6 is fixed, there may be a fixed number of terms (i.e. a number independent of n) at the beginning of the expression for cot 6 for which the last inequality is not valid. But for
the rest of the terms

we can

which

is

To

these terms

## obviously convergent and independent of n. we can apply the theorem of Art. 49

for

the fixed

number

of terms preceding

them no

special test is

necessary.*

*No test of this character is requisite for any fixed number of terms; the object of Art. 49 is to enable us to handle a sum the numher of whose terms tends to oo with n.

71]

in:

<'T\v.i:vr SEB1
"
'

187

'

li,,,

ocri

I!,,

'-/tan J)-J n/ 9 n\

i
.

8in(0/7i)co8(0/n)

e
*

sinVir/n)-8m*(0/
1

'I'

-0i
This ivsult can also
>in(>.
l.e

derived

at

product for

## ty differentiating theorem at the end <!' Art. 4s

In exactly the saint-

to
jn^til'y

the operation.

way th-

identitir- (p.

1*3),

^IJ'S"^^^
and
.11

Cod
(r

dd> n

w*

## apply intr An.

I'.',

the

two

s<-:

a~TrV
or
r
-f-

l_y_l_

2~7'

'

4.

and
uis- tlin-c
i

f+:
is

>-..=
the second of th--c
fr'iii tlu

no

dilliciilty in d-lucin.i;

use

+ ... =
(
j

-p+-

-J)(i'
th.-

4*
l.v

traiisf.,nnati.ns

being

ju<tili.-il

Ait.

i'h.

IV.)
r];il,o|-at<,,r

1'urtluT

dflails

of

(altliouM-h

greal

interest)

w.ull
ch.

## analytical l-al UN too i'ar

a
i

ati.-ll.
<

\\'.-

content
('liry.stal's

oursi'lvi'S
2.

with making
in

to

Algebra,
ol'

vol.

XXX..

which
ident;

will

l.c-

i'ouml

lar^c minihcr

us.-l'ul

and interesting

188

TRIGONOMETEICAL INVESTIGATIONS.

[CH,

EXAMPLES.
1.

From

## the formula (of Art. 68)

sin(mO)=msin 9
obtain a power-series for (arc sin xf
ai
:

-sin 3

+ ...

to

oo

namely
o2 /

==

6T
2.
'

2^\l

2.4. 6

From
I

n9

given at the

end

## of Art. 69, prove that r

cosec 2 6 + cosec 2 (0 + a) +
If

. . .

+ cosec 2

+ (n - 1) a = n 2 cosec 2 nO.
}

3.

is

2
l

4.

If

is

## odd, shew that

r=l

'^cosec^nr/Ti) = J(%

- 1).

If
If

n = abc...k, where
to

extended only

a, 6, c, ..., & are primes, shew that the above sum, values of r which are prime to n, is equal to

(a -l)(6 -l)(c
5.

-l)...(F-l).

are given

Shew

## that the roots of the equation 3?

#2 + if =
2 sin

by

AV7 = 2sin(^r),
-l) To distinguish between the two
7(3/

2sin(f7r),

(fir).

## [Write ^ = 2sin0 in the formula of Art. 67 for sin

70.

Then we get
that 2 sin (f TT),
0.]

/=

or

^=^7(^-1).
lies

6.

1,

while 2sinf;r

between -1 and

Shew

2 cos

are

2cos(y7r),

2cos(f?r),

(fir).

## are the roots of

f - bf + 6y y=x+Z
if

= 0.

The

substitution

1,

7.

Shew

that,

\x\ <

and deduce

that, if

y=2

cos 20,

IX.]
.in

iMl'LKS.
the series
;i

,'

all

terra* for

\vhi--h

is

multiplr

.f

fn.iii

tin-

series

Shew

that

if

0<*<*,

the greatest

int.

_'

-r

IN

tl

to

').
9.

RISKS.-

Sum

the series

-i(

-)+^( Kin
'

!si

[~'l!u-

MUD

is

tin-

smalK-i-

>f

anl
~'^

if

<>__.,<
7T.J

in

it

"'(- + /',)(/Mtl
II. -li..
,

sin

## (q^ain (a*r) ... sin (a^)^

if

'~sin(/>J 7r)8in(^7r)...8in(
It'

S6-2a^

>h-\v that,

tin-

;io-rnt

iinj.lirs

that

:
.

= li m

II

/,,

/'.

:lu-r, if

lim(// r)

= /\

\\- hav.-

wh.-r.-

i>

rxcliuled

and KM

n. ,.,..

hl ,t

_x

-C
**
~i

-J

8 " iL =1 -

8 -fi?^-

[K
fa
I

,
'

Why
12.

l.r

## written without an i-xpciu-ntial

Sh.-w that
(l-.r)(l
tin-

-fr)...
in
j.air-

= co8(|MX. Jl.
(

terms

ami
1

aj]>l\

'h.

VI.. ..Staining

r(-)
4.1

\viit.'

OU<

tin-

i>r..lm-t

f.-rm

-(

-.r)}
l
:

sin(|7r).]

13.

Prove that

_r

n fi L

-**- 1= (nTT+jr^J

[Ki

190
14.

TRIGONOMETRICAL INVESTIGATIONS.
Determine the limit
of the product

[CH,

where
15.

/x,

tend to

oo

in such a

way

that

Km (/x/v) = k.
sin

Shew

directly

sin (x

= cos x, TT)

cos (x + ^TT) =

and
cosine.

16.

of the sine

Deduce the

infinite

fi*
Jo
/

ran (&)*=* 2#

oos(2f)c&

by means
17.

## of the series for cos (2xt) in

powers of
.

sin

(Art. 68).

Shew

that
sin (TTX)

" irx II _ QQ

F/ - #\ - )e*/ n H 1
( L\

%/

= -+ 2' =2

-n a-n

---

7T

cot

(TTJ?)

cosec 2 (7r^) =

oo

2
-co

-j

(.1?

W)

ri 3

cosec ^^) - ? o

(TT^)"] _l

=2

oo^^-'

^.4y
is

[EULER.]
excluded,

In the
18.

first

last

## Deduce from the

example that
n=-V X
7
(a?
ll

lim
I/->ao

and
where
19.

v _^o

limf 2 2 L m= _v = - ^
summation

- m)(x - n),1=-^ J
,

in the double

all

values

m = n are

excluded.

Shew

that

and

sec ^

cosec x = cot
( Ja?)

[EULER.]

[We

## can get the expansion for cosec# from the identity

- cot #.
first)

The second series can be derived from the series (equivalent to the

by writing x+\ir

for

differently.]

i\.
I

iMFLES
Shew
that

20.

I
Deduce the value
of

-lfc+A+A+.~
l)-'
tin-

n=0
21.

l'lo\e
tli:it

Miiimiation.

[J/.-

1896.]

?("
22.
If

the general
in
tlic

term

<

form

1\1=0,
tli. -11

-B
\\li.-ic

2"

1.1-'->t(</7r),
,i

all

the ntunbers

a are supposed
sci

ditl.-r-ni

from

xero.

23.

## Find the sum of the

-0
[\ H< L
24.

being 57i-2

iv\

'hided.

1\

6^^57?00

"m/+
2
i
.
.

Find

tlu-

vain-

w ;tnd dftt-nniiif 5,

A
-I)
3

-1A_
(271)3

C so

that

(i'/'

may be
if

i:

25.

We

V!..

th-n
M.I

=
J{L
=

if^>A.
l.v

Now

^l=

--

Ait. 71,

We

lind

^ = ^(^-9), ^

^fcW+fcW^-S

CHAPTER

X.

## COMPLEX SERIES AND PRODUCTS.

of complex numbers. assume that the reader 'has already become acquainted with the leading features of the algebra of complex numbers. The fundamental laws of operation are

72

The algebra

We

If

x = g-\-irj, x + x' =
x
x'

x'

= g' +

irj',

then

+' +

i(>i

*)'),

(subtraction)

xx

## = j/), g'-\-i(r) = gg' w 4- i (gri + g'rj),

.

(multiplication)

En

'ti

laws include those of real numbers and that these four operations can be carried out without exception (excluding division by zero). Further, these laws are consistent with the relations with which we
It is easily seen that these
;

as a special case

## are familiar for real numbers, such as

= (xy)z.
Thus any of the ordinary algebraic identities, which are established in the first instance for real numbers, are still true if the letters are supposed to represent complex numbers.
It
is

## which would be equally satisfactory.

suggest for multiplication

##' = {f' + i7;i/'.

But

this

is

inconsistent

with

tin-

relation

x+x = 2x,

since #' = 2

would

then give

2.r=2

+ i(0) = 2f,
t'

whereas

x+ x= + +

[72, 73

H.sXUIIIpl
MI

Mill

tin-

tive

laws an

to fix the

Uw of ranlttp
by
It

iuulti|>li<-Hti'.ii,
tliil'

a8iii:
rail
'

MIlllllMT*.
(t*
r.l.

be shewn

II..

\>\>.

*-\-2) that

we

jitjons

i-lse

we

are forced

'he produ\\

ithout

t-it

ht-r

./-,

73.

Argand s diagram.
is

tati"ii d' tin-

douhti*

I'amiliar

## with the usual represen-

;nt

wit):

(^,

O
r.ut
it

f
19.

may

!>

i-nnvi-ni-iit

t<

inv.-

ln-i.-t'

^uinmary of
can
writ.-

th.-

tod
If

we intnxlucf polar
./

coordin.-,
/((.-< J
i

\v./'

^-f

si:
<>l'

\\.-

shall call r

>/

33

(it

is

someshall

## times also callcfl the

mo
\x\.
'I'his.
.

</*w of a*):
i-

and wo

denote

it

l,y tli.-

symbol
n^,-,!
./.

(juitc ccn^i^tcnt

her
\V"
call

+./

or

<>f
./
:

H the

wrgwneni

it

is

snm- times
:-

called

the

From

tlu-

:.

ident.

194
If

## COMPLEX SEKIES AND PKODUCTS.

we draw through A, AB, CA equal and C are respectively x+x' and x x.

[CH. X.

then B,

OA

x +x

= x'+ x

is

represented
parallel to

A'B

is

equal and

OA
or
\

(Euclid

I.

33).

Since

OB<OA + AB
the relation
|

OB < OA + OA,
x
|
\

we have
and

x +x' x
x'

similarly,

< <
or

x
| \

+ +

x'
1

|,

x'
1
\

Again, supposing

OA < OA,
# 4-^
r
|

we have

OB + AB>OA
Thus,

OB>OA-OA'.
x
|

>

x'
\ \

and so

also
|

x'

^>\x

x'

It is easy to

and write

2x
1 \

<E
/2

x
|

.
\

## These facts can be proved algebraically, thus, consider the

first

inequality

R = \x + af\,
J

so that IP = (f +
/

f ) + (^ + T?') 2
2

Then we have
Hence
and
this
is

## = r2 H-r + 2(^ 2 2 /2 = 2 (r/ (r + /)

ft 2

certainly positive

if

^' + t]tj'

is

zero

or negative.

But

if

s positive,

we have

so that

if

Thus
or

in all cases

## and the sign

which
74.
is

and + >;>/> r represented geometrically by supposing that 0^1' falls along OA.
of equality can only appear
if

>?'-'?7

'

If

we

x = r (cos
the product
is

+ i sin 0),

x'

sin 0'

found to be

+ sin

cos 0')

= rr

## [cos (0 + 0') + i sin (0 + 0')].

73, 74]

Dl KOIVBE'S THEOREM,
tlio

195

Thus

absolute valu- of

/'

N
i.

/T';

or

I-I*M*'
and
tli-

ai'innm-nt

of

././'

is

O + tf,

tli-

sum
f)

of

the arguments
/

In pariicular,
to

if

/'=!,

tin-

product ,/<>->

4-

-in H

is

equal

r[oo

h* sin (0+0')],

o
It

is

## therefore clear that

if

=cas0 + -isin 0,
/- l

1-

\^

pial

t<>

20+ % six
ami so
on, as indicat.-d
in

hisin30;
th-

to

cos(-0)+z sin(-0);

22.

if

i^

any

\vli<.l.-

nuinl>T. ]M>siti\)"

<

r n. -Dative. \\v

have

(cos 6

+
.

''

si

= T = cos
///

>?0

sin

/?

0.

To

intrrj.r.-t

\vh.-iv

and
(f

//

arm
f

wliol,still

nun
true.

indi<-.->

")"

is

Qenoe

if

./<-^''sin</>),

wr

p (cos ??<+/
I.

sin

,><;>

^

thus,

and ty

//<t)4--2/"7r.

whciv
'rh;i-

/',

is

any whole
-cos
|

nunil>.T.

j(m0+2fcr)l

+ifflu

[^(m0+l
l.y

thus
I.

has

/,

litlrn-nt
/

Th'

casr

()

taking fc0,

I.

196

## COMPLEX SERIES AND PRODUCTS.

large

[CH. X.

number
of

Morley, some
to the
1.

which

of elegant geometrical applications have been given by will be found in Harkness and Morley's Introduction
II.

## Theory of Analytic Functions, chapter

triangles x, y, z

We

if

The

and

x', y',

z'

## are directly similar

x', y',

z'

1,

1,

1
1

If the triangles x, y, z and x', y', z are directly similar, any three points dividing xx', yy', zz in the same ratio form a third similar triangle.
2.

3.

The conditions

=
a,
1, 1,

and
i

zx-\-yw,

7
1
.

1,1

y
x, y, z

(where

a, ft,

y are

real

75.

## numbers) are respectively the conditions that x, y, z, w should be concyclic.

Sn = X n +iYnt we say that the sequence (Sn ) converges, when both (Xn ) and (Fn ) are convergent; and if Xn -*X, and Fn HF, we write Sn -*X + iY. The necessary and sufficient test for the convergence of the
If

sequence (Sn )
e,

is that,

however

small,

we can

|#n-m|<e,
To prove
so that
this statement,

if

>m.

we observe

that

-Xm

and

if

\,

\

\.

Now,
find

(Sn ) converges,

## are also convergent, so that

we can

to satisfy

and consequently
so that the condition
is

Sn - S,n

<

e,

if

>m

necessary.

On

when

we have

also

Xn -Xm \<,
;

## \Yn -Ym \<,

if

n>m,
sufficient.

and therefore the sequences (Xn ), ( F,,) are convergent. Thus (S) converges and therefore the condition is

application of this principle we consider the interpretai sin 6 and a is irrational. note tion of t* where t = cos

As an

We

as a preliminary that
|

(cos

$+ i sin$)

(cos

tjs

4- i sin

\js)

=2

sin

|(0

74,

75

<

i:

OF

<

OMPL1
numl.-i^ which
lias

can lind

in

so
.

-,,,|<e/|tf
'I'llUS

11

>m.
|

|{cos(an 0)-f

>

//<

## and so the sequence

It

9)-j-isini
1

<-on-;

gent

IN

thT
rfiii.-nilM-i-.--l

'iiral

to delin.<///

/"

as lini/'

but

of course to be

that
*)

tin-

limits*

limlcosajtf +

l.'

+ :>/,-)]

(/.'=+!,

2,
/

3,
a
.

to

Thus equally well In- regarded a> incIulMl in tin- symbol tak.-n -I th.m.-anincr must be be attach. care to to ^{..-cit'y special

may

r.-diir, - U)
I

it

i->

>utlici'-iit
h;it

which

\vln-ii

t)

tin-

valur ^i\'-n

l>y

It'

"n

iti n

w' bave

....
+
.,

Th. u

il'

fj

-f

to

* and
s,
t

//

-|-/y 2

4-

...

to

are separately

nt

tn tin-

sums

...

+ '/.,+
Z// (1

to oo

OOIH

tli-

sum

N-(-/V.

"/

we say

that
It

^L"
is

<li\
t

o^-illates).

easy

///.

and

tin-

l'>n-^i.in_

COSfflOI] l'r

BtMjurncrs that

inn

e,

\vt-

-ji.mdin^

tin- n-al

no mattci- lm\v
In
like

i^r.-at

j>

may

be.
th.-

manner
]>r<><i

\\v

..Main

<lrtiniti.>n
.

.!'

n\

<

rgence of

an
\\e

infinite
n.-.-.l

oniplr\
t

l,

in

in
*

Art.

77.

All

:ui

iitt<

## these values are uiuMjujil. bOMMi ( must not be allowed

makes la equal to
t

;h

198
76.

## COMPLEX SERIES AND PRODUCTS.

[CH. X.

Absolute convergence of a series of complex terms. a n = gn -\-iri n and if 2|a n is convergent, we shall say that 2an is absolutely convergent. It is evident in this case, from Art. 18, that the separate series 2 n 2^ are both absolutely
If
|

convergent, because
|fi.|^
It follows therefore that
|

and Ifcl^KI.
is

2an

## convergent in virtue of our

,

definition (Art. 75); and by Art. 26 the sums 2 n 2^/ n are independent of the order of the terms. Hence also, the sum of

an

arrangement.
It
is

## of inferriDg the convergence of

2a n from

Let

= a + a 2 +. ovHail +
sn
1

## and represent the numbers

in Argand's diagram, as

below

O
By
definition

ff,

0*

ff

a <7f

O-

FIG. 23.

we have
Os 1 = 0(T li
S 1 S2

= <T (T2
1

S2S3

= 0-2 0-3,

etc

Thus
But we have
where
<r

*n*p
<r H <rp

= =

0"n<7>
o- no-,

by elementary geometry.
if

p>n,
.
|

represents the sum 2 an = lima w Now, by the definition of convergence, we can choose n to correspond to so that <r Mor = cr-<r w <e.
,

## Consequently, n can be found, so that

**,<,
or, geometrically, all the points 8P

if

p>n

centre is s n

Since

can

!<

within a circle of radiiis irJnw taken as small as we please, the last result
lie
,

must

shews

f,

tintin-

p-tints

*,,

s.unc
it.

limiting

\\hi--li

may

In-

<>

ciivlc
riivli-s

## Imt cannot be outside

(li;r_iT;un

indicates the
ffiii
>f

with centres
lias

2,

3,

.-.,.

An

alti-rnaiivr

diagram
\.,1.
:.,

been proposed by G. H.

A.*ndU nf Mathematics

(2),

76.77|
It

AlisoLI
ni'

II.

(X)NVJD

199

is

CMIU-S,-

obviMiis n-Miu
alisMluh-

of ival

-hut

i>l.-x

series whirl

although

M<

-*+.
For both
s.-ries

ival

## and imaginary parts cunvi-r^, by Art. 21; but

is

of absolute values

which

div.-rjres

by

Art.

<

K\. >)
I\'.

W
l.y

Ai-t.

11.
M!'

## evident I'mm chap.

that

the

sum

a non-absolut.-ly

oonvergeni series
77.

may

altrr.-d

derangement.

## Absolute convergence of an infinite product of complex

intinitr proiluct
ii'

factors.

Thr
at

11(1 -f"

i-

"ail
i-

th.-

j.rMluct

11(1+

onc-f
-

that

'v

convergent,
so

so

also

is

lid
t\\-M

F.-r

\\.-

know
have

that

|

by

Art. 39

th..-

pi-M-lucts

Jl(l4-|a n |)
still
<

Hut

\\v

to

## 11(1 |a |) are convergent. sht-w that (in the case of complex

tt

and

pi-Miiu.-ts)

wmpU
^

am
if

deck

tonv*

\\\

</,<!. we have
"

1and SO
m+p
II

^11 + a.l
i

'

(lII(l-f a
>

II
IR-fl

(1+rO
it

since
that

converges,

follows

1
:

and thnvfoiv
thus we can tind
//>.

No

1( I

from Art. 39 a n \)
|

gent

s. that

H
\

<

"

>>l-e
be.
i

and

"ll'\l

",

)<l+e,

m+l
ei Mnall

may

11.

MII tind
11
-,,4-1

hat

L+a

>

<

1+6,
/'

-mall

may

le.

may

be.

200

is,

[CH. X.

That

II(l-fan )

satisfies

## the general condition for con-

vergence; and so the product is convergent. It is easy to modify the proof of Art. 41 to shew that if *an is absolutely convergent the value o/II(lH-an ) is unaltered

78.

## Pringsheim's tests for absolute convergence of a com-

plex series.*
of chap. II. can be applied at once but since to the series of positive terms 2 a n
1 \

## = V(&2 + ?n2 |on|

it is

)..

if

On = fn + ^n,

Of course the

evident that the square -root complicates some of the tests. tests of Art. 9 can be at once changed to
lim
(7n
2
2

,\a n
.

<

oo,

(convergence)
(divergence);
rule,

limDn

an

2
|

>0,

## but the same transformation cannot, as a

the ratio-tests of Art. 12.

be applied to

## Thus, the condition

n+l

by no means sufficient to ensure the convergence of 2 an ; because whenever lim Dn oo (which is usually the case), the above condition does not exclude the possibility
is
1 \

n+l

## which may occur with a divergent

For instance, with l/a n = n\ogn and
2

series.

Dn = n

(n>2),

we have

because

Thus,

but yet
*

2|a|

diverges.

[See Art. 11

(2).]

Archivfiir Math.

u.

Phys.

(3),

Bd.

4,

1902, pp.

1-19.

77,78,79]
It

TESTS FOB

LB8OL1

can be

therefor*
li.ul />

ii/

tin-

conditions

,.ee)

\\ni\D
\\-\i\

uliMantially <-<juival.-nt
if

t<i

tin-

conditions
lind
/i

..l'

Art.

"2.

the

first

condition

is

s;it

:nid

/"

*!;!'
"
.
i

%
/;

"

"'

--s;
it

Now
limit to

## in all cases of ju-n-ti.-al intt-rost,*

I

is

possible to assign an

-2s-

1

th.-u

l) n

J?S-

-//

and so the

## r'nditi.ni "f Art.

;(!.

But

if

the

sfc..n<l

.-..nditinn

hld>. we

C0

tind

si.

that

if

that

tli-

lir-t

fa'-l.r

must

nr-m iv.

79.
It

Applications.
i^

easy
/'
)

t<>

UMii^l'orii!
\-2

ri-iii^ii.-iin'.s

rnnlitinns ly writing
tind

/'

/(

in Ail.
'

(3),

and

th.-n

\vc

lim/v-,,>

win -re
only

fash point

to

notice

i-

that

p.
in

*-'
>!'

jr-*

\irtur
-o.

L'l I -

j.ital's

nili.

(Art.

l.">2):

no\v

w-

that

and

|/<
us take

## also tends to /.era

In particular, In

-n,
ailiuitx slightly

(8)/(n)nlog
-itions.

m.-n-

202

## COMPLEX SERIES AND PRODUCTS.

obtain,
after

[CH. X.

We

few

transformations,

the

following

conditions:*
(1)

lim
[

'n+l

(2)

lim

an
7i

2,
2,

(convergence)
(divergence).
> 2, ' 2,

(3)
''n+i

(convergence)
(divergence).

The most interesting case in practice (5) of Art. 12, where we can write
(4)
^n+l

is

one corresponding to

'""

(I

w
in
(4),

## It is easy to see that -if

i2

^=a

(5)

n+l

from (2) we see that the series 2|a n converges if and diverges if a in case a = l, we apply (3), and 1 find divergence. Thus we have the rule:t

and

so

.|

>1

<

When
a.

n
real part

the series

than

1,

|

of

jm

is

greater

On
holds,

## account of the importance of the series

proceed to consider application of (1) above

2an 03 M when

(4)

some further results. An shews that the series converges if absolutely |os|<l, diverges if \x >1; and we have just examined the case when \x =1 and a> 1, proving that then 2an # w is absolutely convergent. But we do not know yet whether the series may converge
(although not absolutely) even when a^l. will increase with n, negative, the sequence \a n ut least after a certain sta^v, in virtue of (o) above; and
for
|fl5|

we

=l
is

If

*The

inequalities

## are here used as equivalent to the two

t Weierstrass, Gea. Werke, Bd.
1,

HmP>l, HtnP<l.
185.

p.

79]

consequent
termfl
-i

nee

of

2(t n x*
/<

is

impassible,

sin,-,-

th.-

M
if

ineivases.

Kurth.-r.

0,

it

i-

OftSJ

bo

see (by an
a

argument ^imilar
1

to

linite

limit,

BO

that

On
or.
\\'e

## the other haml.

ti'iiU
|

if

0>0,

it

follows lY"m
;

Kx.

:;.

Ar

that |a n

to /..TO as a

limit

so that convergence

may

## prove next that

2
first

and

< a =1,
h-

In the
vali;

place

ii

is

evident
|rt n
|

that

(at

least
//

after a cei-tain

jiience

decreases as
istfl

im-n-ases:

the

finally

.f

uly.
(5),

and

it

is

obviously convergent
J0n_
I'.

Kurth.-r.

we bave, from

|q-a,.

(<

n
i

1_I^ +

"A

|J|

^n

*n+l

!/lk +

/'a. -n+l

^Ik-H,

Thus
I

and

it

follows, as

in

Art.

IN.

that

the series 2|

a w+1

is
|

convergent
v,

\\v

have identically.

ami

ami eon-e.juently,
00

if

|a?|=

ami X
'

\^

litlen-nt

t'n

-m

1.

the
fl

1
o

-"

l>irirhl>

= 0.

This result
\\'e

may aU
(

.leri\e.l

t'rm

>

<

it.

Lilt

the

proof

is

little

tedious,

ami we simply
limit

li

i-

to
r

unless

= 0;
:lty

should

in

proving

tlr.~

204

## COMPLEX SERIES AND PKODUCTS.

[CH. X.

refer to Pringsheim for the details.* Of course we have already proved that the series diverges in the corresponding case when

an

is

The
Tf

## real (see Art. 12). final conclusion is thus

_^n_

aH+1

= l_l_/

^_ VS*
.

>!) (\\<A)
(

absolutely for x cannot converge for as 1. a + i^, there are three cases: If \x\ = \ and
|
|

>

<

1,

and

fji

(i)
(ii)

when

>

1,

l,
\.

when when
As

0<a =

except for x =
(iii)

## ^ a, the series does not converge.

we may
take the

(Weierstrass, Lc.)

Ex.

a special example

hypergeometric series

(Art. 12), in

which
an a n+l

so that

u
see that, for

Then we
(i) if

x
|
\

=1

## the real part of

this real part is for .r=l
;

(y-a-fi)
;

is

positive,

the hypergeometric

(ii)

if

between -

and

0,

## the series converges except

series does not converge.

(iii) if

is

or less than

- 1, the

## Special cases of this have been found already in Arts. 12

and

21.

Further tests for convergence. will find no difficulty of Art. 18 to establish the theorem:
80.

// 2a n
|

in

(1)

2anvn provided
,

that
|

number

k.

L.c. pp.

## easily seen to diverge) the behaviour of 2a,,

13-17; the proof shews that (except for /&=!, when the series is the same as that of

is

1-A*

"I"
And
the

(1-AQ(2-/Q 1.2

(1- M )(2-/0(8-AO

1.2.3
is

sum

of

?i

## terms of this series

L^\
1.2. 3. ,.(7i-l)
2
?i,

)'"\

L + (i

Lz/A n-l)

It can easily be seen that the absolute value of this expression tends to oo with and that its argument has no definite limit.

79, 80]

IBEL'8 TES1
is,

<>i;

<

It

ho\\,

that
in

Ai

'.ill
*

need a
\\

little

alt t-rat

ion
ti,

to include cases

which

i-

complex.

shall

prove

9,

/////

nsider the
Writ-for
i.re\
;

modilied form of
note

Ahel'fl

I.-ii.

the
1

-um
to

of

tl

vn

vn+l

-f

t' n

+j

i',j+ 2

-f

>at

V -

l'n+i.

\Vc

1,

;
i

>+...+([T;
it'

-v

SO thai

Vw+1
is
1

<

:,

/'

//

>

//<.

Til) tli'

series -('..

2|vn
SO that

And

>-}-...4-('\
'

'

,)='',-'
:

lias

<lctiiiit'-

limit
//

;/

MS

R-QC
.

and

h-t

n-

\vrit.-

G:n.
\v

=Hm|t; n

-'
.

iiat

if

we take

## the limit of this

ine.jiialit
[.[
.

\v- tind

Q
Thus,
if

\' \^ we write }' = (!+!' It i- aNo obi lOOfl that the se.jUriir, injual to Beqne&Oe, and that !'- I'

al\\
i

than
.

I'

'..+i|
:>:>.

if

-"j' !-f
''.,)+

".,''.,+
^

+",''

## ^'e tind. as in Art.

that

Zn
Thus,

=
if

l(>\-

)+...+
than the upper limit of
-^
|,

S,VW
|*t
|,

// is not

Ie86

...

|w|,

we
v

tind

ITRFj-F^-f
is

which

the form of
if
//

A.bel'fl

\ijp-r limit
|

//r
:

term-.

Similarly,
1

is

tin-

ti

/,/

1,

ami

i/

than
.

tin-

from

:iul

i_

,;( I",

r,,,)-f

>/

206
If

## COMPLEX SERIES AND PRODUCTS.

the sequence

[CH. X.

G = \imv n

(#)
,

and

Vn = vn

is real, positive and decreasing, we find that so that these inequalities are almost the same as

Now
It
is

apply the

Lemma

to the

sum
in

is

is

less,

Now

e,

m
e

|

however small
. . .

;

a m+l v m+1 +

+ a m+p vm+p
2a Bv n

## |< e Vm+1 < e Vv

convergent. complex series.

This

series

is

may

## be called Abel's test

for

a function of #, Abel's test also enables us to ensure the uniform convergence of 2a M v n at all points x within an area for which 1^1 and C/i remain less than a fixed value. For
If vn is

F = +*7
1

arid

0<

vj

tfi.

Similarly,
(3)

we can
vn

## establish Dirichlet's test for complex series.

0, then Ztt n t> n will Vn+i\ converges and limi> n limits. between oscillates 2a n finite converge if In fact is here zero, and (just as in Art. 20) we can find

If 2

a constant

(independent of
m+l

m)

so that

H'

< 2.
of

Thus

r,H.o.

less

than

by proper choice

because

in Art. 79. special case of this test has been already used

Uniform convergence. After what has been explained in Art. 43, there will be nouniform convergence for difficulty in appreciating the idea of a series 2/n (se), when x is complex the only essential point of
81.
;

novelty being that the region of uniform convergence now = +irj) q) plane (if x usually consists of an area in the ( It is also instead of an interval (or segment) of the real axis.

sometimes convenient to use the idea of uniform, convergence along a line, which should present no fresh difficulty to the

80,81]
Weierstrass's

\inl;M

<

ONI

l.i

'

tl,

ret;i

almost

unaltered,

-f+o
)

irifliin
t/nif

>'

oerttwn

wren

.1,

'/"

/,,

is

//--

/</"/"

/'///

when

M
.1.

<><'/"

Constant,
''.^nltitiln

///'/

ift)

^.M
'

co
i*

a/nd uniformly

com-

plex

are <>htained at
of Art.
4~>

Once from

tin-

last

art;

## (1) can he easily

iiioliti.-d
n-'ithlii
tin-

to sh.-\v that
f}
,-'

IWU8 fnixt'"!'
I

"/
fluif

./

9epa/ra&

><ma

contfawHU
Tli.-

vn

f/

lis<MiwiiiM

<.f

(liU'.-ivntiatiun

and

tn tin-

\arial)l<is

lnt

it

ini'iital

|>raet it-ally

not

out

<>i'

im-utiou

tliat

## BOqpe of this IxH.k: (wlu-n tin- fun-la4.">-47

remain
It

unchanged.
Art.
1^
i-

is

evident a No that
variahle.
i-

-till

correct,

when X N

c<.mj.le\ Tliere
lit

no ditliculty
valid,

in

remain

wlien
to

## seeing that the two theor.M, re the functionc<m}>lex.

integrate a complex function with

It

is

often important

rasped to a real variahle: in particular it i- usrful to consider the mean value of a continuous function /(./) along a circle |.r = p,

which

is

## defined hy the equation

i

where
of a definite
'
.

' ,

The existence
fr-'in

mean value

i-

inferred at
:

and

the o.ntinuity of /( JUM afl in Art. lti-"> of the Appendix the following condu>i -n^ are immediate consequences of
:

the definition
i

\\r i<>

ti.

if

.ii-tant,
.1.

(iii

<
'+
.

if

f(
(>.

<J
/

on the

eircle.
/.ero),

(iiii

\Vi'

if

i.

an int.-vr (not

because

'

sin /HI

and
!

Jo

00,

=(.

208

## COMPLEX SERIES AND PRODUCTS.

[CH. X.

Further, from Art. (45 2), we deduce that if converges uniformly on the circle \x\ = p, then

We can define the mean value without using the Integral Calculus, by supposing the circumference divided into v equal parts at #t #2 ...av, and writing
, ,

Cauchy's inequalities
82. Circle of

This method leads to the same results as those just proved and thus can be established without the Calculus. (p. 209)
;

n convergence of a power-series ^a nx

From
vergent

Art. 10
if

it is

## evident that the series

is

absolutely con-

ni
I

.x-i

and the

series certainly

cannot converge

if

because then a nx n cannot tend to zero as a limit. Hence, if we write (as in Art. 50)

(where, of course,
verges absolutely

is

real

if

<

## and positive), the power-series con1/L l/; and cannot converge if \x

>

To interpret this geometrically, let a circle of radius \jl be drawn in Argand's diagram then the series is absolutely con;

vergent at

circle,

## and cannot converge at

Fio. 24.

convergence

any point outside the circle. The circle is called the and it will be seen that, if a n is real, the
;

circle

of

interval
circle.

## of convergence obtained in Art. 50

is

a diameter of the

81, 82

<

U;i

|.|

Of

<

MI
<!!<

'h-

in

wh

## with respect i,-i n case to which

t

we can
[nation b
in

\\VI.TM

raae'e

mlthat

diacu
tin-

Art. 7!.

It

nniM
OO

nut.

li

npjx.s.-il
ilitifs
B

three

tli.-

circle;

in<l<-c<|.

I'rui^h'-iin*
-

has
circle.

<

*in

n hidi convei

<>n

th.-

l.ut

not ahsolutcly.
Tinan.
I

ice,
-

\\

hen - "

rgent
the ciro\

i.

jx ti H

,//,,,/,'
\

of

th.- cirrlin-oiii

x =1
.17

i.l.-nt

th.-

6 c;in

at

|.IVS,-MI
"//
h-

only

-;i\

ti

iinii'onnly within

and

any

cirri.

=/,-,

\vhn'int

between
iiinr.-

<

ami
Art.

I.

\\V -hall,

in

lit

1.-

difficulty in

## that the theorems

Certain

of

Art-

h<

>!'

for

cninplcx

|><

>\Vfr-series,

Mnall

\.-i-lal

;ilt-rati(inx

h.-in^

-

uniformly
crm.

<>n

every

ciivlr

,,,

!'..i-

which'

j>

<

/.

we ran
t

ivnlily ohtain
>y-t

its

mean-value

de hy
.

intc-'i-atiiiL:-

.-i-jn-1

if

\^

\,

,-

60

tli.i!

kl = /.i/0
tto2 /" '/x >;ihi

nf

//..

Similarlv.

wis

lind

8[/<
Thus,
if
.!/

-u.;

nn the

circle

./

=/>.

we

lia\.

<
.-ii.l

.V.

"

<M
ergence,

\!l

belongs

t<>

we may

of

>

La

210

[CH. X.

## converges uniformly on the circle

03
1
1

= p, we

find

w^'
a/

Similarly,

we

find

shall now consider the question Can a power-series be determined so as to have given values along a definite circle, say \x\-\ 1 Let us write the coefficients a n in the form a n + ifi n where a n /3 H are real;
:

We

then write 2o n # n =/1 (#), ^iftn xn =f2 (x\ so that f(x) = 2an xn =fl (x)+f2 (x). Now suppose that when x = coa0 + i sin 6, we have f^x) = u l -\- iv lt f2(x) =u2 + iv2 = u + w where u lt v^ etc., are all functions of 6 such that U = U I + H.,, a,TLdf(x)
t

v = v l + v2

if |c|<l, we find as above (assuming the uniform conn = vergence of 2a n # on the circle |#j l)
.

Then,

and

## In the second integral put \Jx for x so we have far

this will
c

change u l + iv 1 to

u-^

iv^

= ^-1

27T-/0

(u l

-w C-X de.
) l/ 1

If

we

/i(c),

we

obtain

/ ( C)=J^ STT^'O
t

Similarly,

## In the same way we can find integrals for

nly essential change in the
.

/2 (c)

in

terms of
.*

w.2 ,

v2

the
1

changed to .', u 2 + iv 2 becomes -u 2 + iv 2 This, however, does not alter the final formulae /v.sand so by addition we see that these formulae remain true when the x are omitted throughout. Thus /(c) is completely determined (save for a constant) by a knowledge of either u or v. But, given an arbitrary continuous function for u (or v\ we do not yet know that it is actually possible to determine /(c) so that its real (or imaginary) part does assume the given values on the circle; this problem will be discussed in Art. 83.
is
;

/////'.

83. Abel's

theorem and

allied theorems.
Sa,,o;" ant
I

tliat

=1

is

## the circle of convergence for

imt

2a

rt

is

known

to converge, altli<>u-li

absolutely.

82,831
It'

ABKl.s
in

THEOREM
tind that
'/
|

'2\\

we take vn = j- n
hat

An

= lim|v n = 0, and

Thus,

sine.in

'it,

h,<

unit'nniily

any an

for

which we

I-'
wh.

Ml-M),
1,

i.

and of course
be NM

\x\<
'I'-,

(See &beJ

ted OB

p.

## interpret this iin-,,uality wre

observe thai

it

may
i

p<\d-/->
where
1

or

(X-p)^g>
(see
(

./

=
|

/* (CMS 0-f

Thus

_-_)\ /J

__
/

32>X

n
In
this minlitinn.
.;,

-i)/,
li.-s

2(X

(l--2/,'-( s,/>-h f

oo8^t-

between
,;>-X),

~,

-l)p-8
Bfl

(-^7T<0<i
(witli

tinr.

innrr
.u-'hly

arc
in

of

;i

liuiunni
'2~>

n>(l-

at

/>

ti^un-

I'm-

tin-

case X

-i.

It

is

## easy to see that the anto the circle |#|

nt'

tintin-

lima;.m
lai

ajpn);ii'lu'v

thr

nearly

1,

taken.
1

Thus
//>/,

/A

Il'any rc^ulai- c-urvc i> drawn fmin a point inside the circle 1, then, provided the curve ruts the circle at a tc tlie ]>'im
./

/'unbioncnthtori
i

use a

wliii-h

in

our

n<>i.itii>n

212
finite angle,

## COMPLEX SERIES AND PRODUCTS.

we can draw
is,

[CH. X.

curve
curve.

that

a lima^on to enclose the whole of the the series will converge uniformly along the
,

Hence lim 2a n xn = 2a n where x approaches 1 along any regular curve which cuts the circle at a finite angle*
This
is

The theorems
so

the extension of Abel's theorem to complex variables. in Art. 51 relating to the divergence of 2an

cannot be extended so as to hold for complex variables quite easily, because the lemma of Art. 80 gives less precise

and it is necessary to assume that the possesses some further property in addition to the divergence of 2aw For as a matter of fact, even if an is real and positive, Pringsheim has shewn that the
information than the
of Art. 23,
.

lemma n series 2a nx

divergence of

2an

.

lim
|

2anxn = oo
|

## The condition introduced by Pringsheim

divergence, which implies

is

that of

uniform

where an

and the point x lies within the limacon. from Art. 51 that lim *La n xn = oo The reader will find no great difficulty in modifying the
It is then obvious
.
|

>

proofs given in Art. 51 so as to apply for complex variables when Pringsheim 's condition is satisfied.

## the limiting values of the integrals, given at the

end of Art. 82. For example, suppose that v is an arbitrary real continuous function then the second formula gives a value for /(c) which can be expanded as
;

a power-series in c, convergent if |c|<l. We shall now prove that if this function is denoted by U+i V, then V tends to v as c moves up to any point on the circle so that we have determined a power-series whose imaginary
;

= l. part has an assigned continuous value v along the circle |c| Clearly it is sufficient to establish the result for any point on the circle
so
*

we

as c

moves up

to

1.

## Picard, Traiti d'Analyte,

t.

2,

p.

73.

t For consider

Af
7

= A'P-^ (cos 20 -

sin 20)

J,

where E(x) =

*.

There

is

no

cos

when this series is put in the form 2a n diverges. However, if $* <0 < -, ^ir, 20 is negative, ## and so lim E\ p->o L(l -#) J|=0. 83] It POI will UL be seen that j- ## + c _ 1 - 1*+ 2ir sin (0 - o>) <u where now .r=co8<o + t sin ' and ,' ## from Art. 65, ->+ and we note further value of the ti : K'-H-H-i, is int.-jrati..n positive, less the 1. ## (km over any f ' x//<. > //// ran^e must be find . than f>r > <>, we (,'I ## )(l-rV<o -2r 008(0-0))+^' u>, and sinee is a eontinii"u Min<-tiou of we can determine a so that Th* .I 27T\Jo Iff*. j - = 2a to w = 2rr-2a; here, next to consider the integral from // that is not i.>) greater than cos a, and so 1 >) while ; + /- ^1 - iV e, ,s L-fJ <2(l-r> 1 -f /-' 2 jT sin a ## he upper limit to the values of \V\ on the eiivle, n we have (v-v )(l|l-2rcos(0I 'juently 1 ^ftr-fc 27rj2a It i-> .-^[(1-r 1 -in*a t< ' th.-i -i-t". p(.--iMe find if a, <-.. so that 1 |V-P |<, that is tf'<u, and r<8j '0 to sa\ moves up towards tegral tO and still -;i\rs id tlie preceding \\ did as c 1, T-> deal with appioa-he-, any point on the eiivle exOSpl 1. <> ha> the limit /. when that tlii'-'iiirh p.iti\e \a! .* suppose limit tin- ne^al i\ e I in ^. -1 \ . it" We \\ V=V it iit evident fioin the \ becomes continuous at .=0. I" o> = 0, if we assign to Furth-r. is ## indicated in the diagram on p. wluMe <:> rej.ie-ent- the same angle as :M1. 214 ## COMPLEX SERIES AND PKODUCTS. from the first [CH. X. Now case considered we have lim V' (r, e) limv' (w ) 7T <f> so that lim (r, 6) </> V as (r, Tito, where In have m=-l, 6) approaches 1. the particular case when v is given in the form 2an sin and then the result is sin is ## the limiting value of we shall nO= ; 2a n cannot be convergent were convergent we should have lim 2 nrw (cos n + i sin n 0) = 2an (M) in virtue of the extension of Abel's theorem (at the beginning of this It will be noted that in this case the series if it for article); that is, lim (r, 0) 2a^sin*0 = 0, which 84. is ## not the case. Taylor's theorem for a power-series. have seen that a power-series ^a nx represents a continuous function of x, say f(x\ within its circle of convergence We | 11 x | =R let us in h. Draw now attempt to express f(x + h) as a power-series the circle of convergence, and mark a point x FIG. 26. inside such that |oj| = r; draw a second circle (of radius with centre x, to touch the first, and mark a point x + h r\ within the second circle. We shall now see that f(x + h) can be expressed as a powerit, series in h. In fact f(x + h) is the sum, l by columns, 2 ## of the double series +a x+ a^ + + aj ag? +.., 83, 84] TAYLOR'S THEOREM. is 215 ln-raus.-. ii' ## Hut this series term by its ## absolutely convergent, absolute value, we ^. t r.-pla<-<- tl. \vh.-iv liv v tli.- ## \**\+\*i$$r+p)+\**\(r+pP+\**\(r+i = 'Muse Now tlii i> fi |. mnstructinii Tliat ami \vr ti 'Intin- <loull<- series converges l.y lately. i-, can SIMM ( loiible series rows, willmut H.'licr altri \alu- Art. /(/ + /,)=/! ') \\h ft l + '*i.,.rh3.4a4 o^+., f..., ## so that these series may t< be obtained inmi /< l.y applying tin- ## l'>nnal nil.- for SO att.-nti..n in // LOU, will any Series It ## th- nifanin- of the process. !>< may t.. rallfl '/''//'' >^8. in. iy ln> usrful ## ivuiaik that thr .-ir.-N/,' ; ..f h- .-iivl.- ./ \v kiinw it ## .-..nvergence for th that it f\-idcii.-f . that * may ## not rxtcixl further. it is <-a>y t- that it' \\ writ.- ..., th,n -M mgea it' J |A|<|1 \/t\< - ## Thus the Taylor's series in tini _.!!<.. w.- !M\.' tli-;- ## >)mded area ii >wei wi i i< rh II \M> iln I'liohl CTS. M |. inn. ii. .n i /( < I..-\MIM| I. I. he area of 111 nri^inn.1 dnfinil "I i niM-.il.il .i.|r Wrmi-MtMWl'H !!M ../ . Ilifiv I KlIlirMnllM, l"il 1. in IM .l.l.i IM .Mil .nil /,, province (Ii,' (If MI mil nil I'M (ill IP I .'Hid Morlry'H ,nt .. I Illtrixilli'd'nii '/'//<-,</// .\inlliiti,' l-'niK'tioii* (In \\V rnn I now ol.t.nin .in rxlrndrd Mir -.. 1'nnn <>f 'nnrli\ n|' ':. Ait. i S'J). i.s nnt Suppose known, ill' ,>' Mint, but. id l.ldill', r. ,n ## nr.j u.dil 1< < i i.-, ..I' Mint |aj| r h in Known Mint I'ol' to nil be witlmi pninln I Mir riirlr tlir rin\ cri-rnrr I .Hid I'tlillirl ) nil cirrlc I /', tlir /!/ // srric /(.' roiix rn;r;, /(,/ | inn >t in <n |/(.|BBM. Hiicli Tlirii, if is t.ln' inn xiiiiiini nf It) for nil points in that |u3|"r, |A|M| wi^ lui.\'(^ by applying Oaucliy r.|n.dity to tlir /^-series ,M_ M H HnN srrirs for , \ppl\in "' ll . : Mir \ ,;imr I inr<|iiiilit ;/ y I" Mi" I .' /;,< .-,- (m n)(m !)...(/// I), I/ ,17 '/'//// mi <>/' " (r f-N)' |(^ <( /( | or/-// term ia lew Until ,!,,<{ Un'i'ifon* (r It N) |,/. |< (/ , ,. n <>/' I/. I'olloU', tli.it UK- r,l</ills of ,;>i,r, I</<-IK-< i]/,,."' tO 'I'll! (f-f> . lr;ld .it to tlir Mn'O|VHl cii'i'lr MlJlt- ////'/r ix (if Intxt r -;, <K' n, s . liifiilur is, [mini on UK' point in of <-on i',T</f i,f lift oj'n fioir, ## Mir nrrdd,,, iirlio.>d which N|IC\\ t'H Taylor'', Minirrin ' i li.i ftlsO / ir.rd this ' rcMiilt. (i (,(> Ili.ii /In' <-ir</< <-/ con tin i'i i'</< iifi ../' of UK ///. of is i< /<> Is ritlirr /> /, UK siinir "/' Unit oi-K/tiKil irliirli UK :<T<> ,/,,, In l.i' I I Iffifl IM iH'itrrxt 'I il UK' orK/iii. I .n ...... Mill ..I Ii. -\\ Ii il il i, I.. m. /.' in. HIM .HI. I iiiiinmmii | \.ih ' Inn i mid oil if .in\ n. I.- A', tin n In// / \\ ill ,,u\ t'l'^c I ( , Mild ll.n.l ..... ,| //,' (/ I. II I. M. .111.1 M,.| II -' . \l i |H ' ' /'.. Lond M"> IK III I oL M I ..... . i- 186 IM to l.-Mil. .1 I II. \\ ## VlirillllloM, IIIUI <>f M||| ,, .Ml .. ,lll\ II Mill I.. 84, 85| r, IK ' rf // < , // O6M, ill- i.nlniH in NIMMI I" I"- IK. ill. 111 \sln-M- /< 86. 'I'lp - ## The exponential power-series. ilillimlt \ in MiMilir\ in" In | .1 In.. (I )' X ! I J? ^iin. I i l'.\ iniill ijilir.it i. .11 o liii'l th.M Oi An In IT A in. ii hiii'i.nii. ni .1 equal .1 Li A kind of li pM irith // the """ 1,'iiuly ln.i tin '"lulu KII in 1 require 1 1 in'. equal ion bo ho i! .'I"' 1. < /, \* ll IM.||, I,, ,,,//(, 218 then or ## COMPLEX SERIES AND PRODUCTS. /()x/(0)=/(a) so [CH. X. Hence a n = l, and Again, and if we take ## the limit of both sides as y tends to zero, f'(x) (3), we ## get at once Or, applying Art. 52 = a f(x). l we have and ## since this equation ( must hold ## for all values of in the interval ## ^R, +%R\ we must have a 2 = a:2 a3 = a 1 a 2 a4 = a 1 a3 a .... See Art. 52 . . . (5). That and so is, a2 = ax2 f(x) = 1 a3 a-f, = a^ . a n = a^\ +o this ; xz X3 satisfies all We do not know from it ## argument that f(x) the ## conditions of the problem but we ## see that if there is such a power- series, ## can be no other than E(alx). Now E(a^x) does ## satisfy the relation E(a,x) x for E(a1 y) = E [^ (x + y)] any real or complex values of x, y. Consequently our problem has been solved;* and is where a l the coefficient of x in the power-series for f(x). and in many respects convenient, to write e* for even when x is complex. But it must be remembered E(x) that this is merely a convention and that in such an equation It is usual, ; as e^ = i ## (see below, Art. 86) ## the index does not denote an ordinary power. * ## It does not follow from the foregoing that relation f(x) ## But, if f(x) has the exponential form. no other function can satisfy the xf(y)=f(x + y), because we have assumed f(x) to be a power-series. we assume that f'(x) is continuous, there is no difficulty in shewing that 85,86] 86. SINK Connexion tin- \M' < 219 the between ./' exponential and circular functions. in tinntial B6f n.mplex \arial>le variable on a mil /, we may differentiate term-by t-rm depends \\ itli respect to /, and obtain the same formula as if x w< 1 1' -i that "rr->jM. mlin^ in a .lian.u'*' '' in ', < hangea A.,,1 ..], ls. r, ## M 8<-*0, &r/& approaches the lim be la-t iiM-|iialit v li,n ( i : .<laoit foil.. ;-, !jA',, t! In pai-ticular. /'//. .siip|.ns,. : ## puiv iina-iiiary and equal to wli.-n- // is ival thru \\c or, if /:< w;)r(oo80-f '-i we have euj -*-L tn| .,1' // ; ## Thus and ft q are and so r=l, = o. / ind.-j.endent l.ut t'.r // ## Hi-lie.- L^-M. -rally r= 1. ;/, and SO which j- 'sin ;y. is continued l.y tlu- ivinark that -;;/) / ' / A'"V Another >l.scr\in^ that J )=^(0)=1. r.-sult i- m.-tlidd of establishing the last ^iven ly sin ;; = (cos^>-|-/ lim it' N"\v write cos^-f isin#= -f and we see that mra ;/, 220 because ## COMPLEX SERIES AND PRODUCTS. lim (n sin <) = r\ [CH. X. ## lim (sin </<) = q, lim [(1 </>)/</>] and lim n(l cos r\ - cos 0) = Hence + i sin r\ ## - cos = 0. w = lim (1 + n ) = E(irj) r\ /c by Art. 85. another method, analogous to that of Art. 59, can be used. Still In fact, write Then But, if ^ y = r(cos {yn _^ an d Ji ## _ i( GOS + i sin 77). 77 we have or ^| = Hence Lrii + r'(^) ^ ~ drj ' drj and 3/0, #1, ... ## are all zero for 77 = 0. Hence we find, if 77 is positive, the sequence of equations < Thus If < lim 71 ?/ M =0. ><K we ## substitute i^ in the exponential series, we find and so ## we have now a new method ## of finding the sine and ## cosine power-series (Art. 59). If we write r\ = \ir and TT, ## we get the equations E(Tri) = i, E(7ri)=-l. in Art. 85, ir* t ## Using the notation explained cos r\ we may write + i sin = e r\ ## and changing the sign of cos rj, we find r\ i sin q = e~ r\ ll> ; thus cos f] = (e^+e~ '*), sin -. (e^ -e~ ^\ 86, 87] \\'e WX3 MMTIIMir have at I'l VI '2-21 pivsriit IK. d-finiti ;l <-O80; <-,,n\ .-nieiil 1 and real. -in ' wh'-n and to detin,- tli.-m is by the tin- JM.V. already I ## est ahl ish.- when X i Then e.juai COS '' ('" ., are It tni.- I'm- ## comj.lrx valurs of X as well as also that i-.-al inll(,\\s any ri-< un nn-t rical i'<ii-iiiul;n- which Arts. ## depend only on tin- addition-theorema complex \ariahh-s: thus in particular re r.-inain tin.- unalt<-r-il formula*- of main vmte x -in tru-. : ///. it will / Ix- seen that COS X = COS ,' cosh ;/ sin ^sinh ,h ;y. --in fcoah ;y -f ;y. wh\\'- cosh/; = A(^4-r l), sinh // = <!' \(< "-, ## shall not elaborate tin- <l-tails inl cosh functions: th.- results can ## \\n> analysis of tin- sinh he found in many t.-xt V instance, C'lirystal's is to be noticed that sin | ## Algebra, ch. XMX.i. n-hen x is complex, fl"35 1 > //"/ /////// '.<< as |< 1, |cosic|<l are no longer vulii/. ## \\V can. liowever, replace them hy "there, * .sii.l, = x and so, if |#|< 1, we have |rfn|<| Similarly, we have ^ eoab r|; and. if \x\ < 1, we find 87. \\'.' The logarithm. have already seen that /.'i if // is a real s i" ; /- ai '/ y 008 If -f ( ' Henee if is any inte^.-r j.o.sit i\ ..] n.-^ative), AVJ, --;>=!, 222 ## COMPLEX SERIES AND PRODUCTS. [CH. X. and ## since E(g+ir}) the equation other than It follows =0, that ri ## = e(cosr]+i8inr)) there E((+irf) = \ = 2mr. t are no solutions of if we wish ## to solve the equation E(y) = x, so as to obtain the function inverse to the exponential function, the value obtained is not single- valued, but is of the form y=y where y is + 2mri, (n = 0, 1, 2,...), ## one solution of the equation. Q* If O FIG. 28. we ## represent x geometrically in Argand's diagram, we have x = r (cos + i sin 0) = rE(i6). logr is the logarithm of the real number r, defined as in Art. 157 of the Appendix, we have r = E(log r), x = E(logr+iO). and consequently Thus we can take y = logr+ i0, and then the general solution is 2,...). (n = 0, + 1, y = \ogx = \ogr+i(0 + 2n7r), But if We ## define the logarithmic function as consisting of all the ; and we can specify a exponential function one-valued branch of the logarithm by supposing a cut made inverses of the along the negative part of the real axis, and regarding x as prevented from crossing the cut. Then we shall have ## = log x log r + i9, With is where TT <C Q^TT- this determination, logx is real when x is real, which should generally the most convenient assumption. be observed that then such formulae as \og(xx') Hut it ## = log x + log x' can only be employed with caution, since it may easily happen that (0 + 9') is greater than TT, in which case we ought to write = log x -f- log x' 2?ri. log (.''./'') The reader ## will note that for ## two points such as P, Q in the ## diagram (Q being the reflexion of of the real axis), 1 in the negative half i 1 1 (log x p log X Q ) = 2-Tri. 87, 88] at LOG \UTH.Mh repi the rut. ill'- I. ranch sejrcted for log X IB oh\ jollsly continuous over tlir whole plillie of X. 88. \\'r ## The logarithmic power-series. know 1'n.ni .ind lii', that v >, if is real and \X < (1) // = .i-- A.i-'+'.r'-... ## represents the function ## inverse I" the exponential function In other words. ( if we substitute ;icc. .I'din-t tin- ## series (1) in the *J ## .and then arrange 1-j-.'. is must le and. as such, powers of X, the result* Hut thi- ran-fonnation is merely al^el>r;i equally true whether X \^ real or complex. to . ## Since the series c2\ c]\ i.solutely f >r all values of y. the d'-ran^eim-nt implied in this transformation is legitimate (see is Art. :>ii). provided that the series al>olute]y COB ( Hence, ipiat i- if 'ii < ## |o^|<[l, equation (1) ^ives one 'J i value of real >/ satisiyinu ./ ami the furthei'. from the (1). // i- when in is real. Thus, usine artic!--. hranrh of In^arithm defined the we have , +.,) = .,_ ^+., .:;_... p> (if |a.| < i). -1 From Wh- the ti-ure. it is evident that this equation --j\es ## This result can he at ## -7T <</>= +~ once continued (if < ^ tM ' Al l,y reference t> Ar where we proved that < < )' ' J '2tf+ Jr'cosSH:;> arctan j ^' ^= r(oOfl H-f- ,-sin Hf)) }. ## r-sin ^(9+^/ J sin If we \\ me X :; sin in the poi ^ ./ -...-, -f + |rcos:{H-... up to, /v/'sin^-^. /-sin l^+^sin.Stf-. i-Diuputation Ml is a gooii e\> ## i.y nuiiu-i -ir.-il say, a*. 224 ## COMPLEX SERIES AND PRODUCTS. p tan 2 [OH. X. and obviously ## = 1 4- '2r cos 6 + r = r sin 0/(l + r cos 0). 2 , < Thus our except that results ## are in agreement with those of Art. 65, see that we now ## actually lies between TT. \-K and + JTT (because r < 1) instead of TT and We shall obtain an independent proof of (if log(I+x) = x-x + x*-... 2 the equation a?|<l) ## in the following article. The ## series for arc since and 1 arc tan a?. Again, by ## Art. 64, the series y =x +2 , xs + 2T4y + -3" , , 3 x5 ## represents the function inverse to the sine-function (Art. 59). is 1. for real values of x, y, such that x for all values of absolutely convergent y, | < ## Since the series (4) and the ## series (3) for is aj|<l, the algebraic relation between these series to persist for complex values of x, and we can now seen accordingly write 1 xs 3 x5 .. since the series (4) is taken as defining the sine for complex values of the variable (Art. 86). Similarly the pair of functions (5) y=x ## are inverse to one another for real values of x, such that x | \ < ## and we may therefore write arc tan a? for b complex values of x ... a? \x* + \x (if |#|<1). In these equations the values of the inverse functions are determined by the conditions 88, 89] BINOMIAL SERIES. The binomial power-series. 225 89. /(, x). \vheiv hoth .lit j + ,* + ,< , C+ .11 1 ., ,. 2)+ is ;nil in.'iy r, >1* j Th- -rieS hav,tin- absolr/ ## when |#|<1, ami thus we /(,. il.-ntity r>x/<.',*)=/(, + ,>) tin- (|*|< in i!' we pick nut meHiri.-nt of & th- product /<**)x/(,',a>> it is ## seen by the ordinary of degree r in lth and ## rule (Art. 54) to be a polynomial of .r r \\\ /'; thus tin- co-tlici-nt ,X)-f(+l -o a polynomial ,. j of the same de^ because ,. Hut. when are . (my two ( int.---.-^ and is cniis ..ju,.ntly ~\ must be identically .V,. '2. M186, wh.'ii j' any a^i-nr<l values of i- int-^-r. I. is zero for an to oo ). infinity of <liti'<Mvnt (namely. 8,... Thus, identically, x)xf(v',x) =/(r+i '..'), (| *|<1). in From til this ## relatin we can apply the method indicated c2) to prove that ,.<) = (! -ho' when I'.ut i/ is a rational number. ## to deal with the case of ditl'erently. in i : complex values place /(v, a;) somewhat as a 1-y In the for lirst columns power-eeriee .f the t'd. ## <.f j. w.proceed can be expressed x) can be regarded as the doul.l,- 961166 1-f. fj '' -f ... 11 < -f .... ua 226 ## COMPLEX SERIES AND PRODUCTS. [CH. X. |i/| Now this double series is absolutely convergent because, if = and |a;| = the sum of the absolute values of the terms / a; in the (p + l)th column is ~~x/, which is ## the (p + I)kh term of the series if /(i/ a? ); and /(i/ o? by converges The double series being absolutely convergent its sum is not altered (see Art. 33) by changing the mode of summation to rows, which gives f(v, x) x <^ Art. 12. where = l + vX = x ^x x), ## Thus, since /(j/, #)x/(V, x)=f(vd-v, above, and deduce that* /(,, x) we can apply Art. 85 = E( vX \ i/ In order to determine lt let us write = l, which gives Thus x is is real, it is ## a value of log(l+x); and since the value defined in Art. 87. is real when We have thus a new (see ## investigation of the logarithmic series. Hence fig. X = log p + l i(f> ## 29, Art. 88), so that sn where a result which v = a + i/3, is due to Abel. The investigation above is based Goursat the on (Cours d' Analyse Mathtfmatique, proof given by 275). indices The method given in the example of Art. 36 (p. 89) applies and the following method was suggested in 1903 by ; : to complex Prof. A. C. JDixon The relation f(v, /(i>, .r) x/(i/, x) =f(v + v, x) gives at once *?-[/(i *)J-0 +f )" of that article Sa7 where n * is a positive integer. v Of course corresponds here to jc and A'j corresponds to a^ 89] BIKOM1 \i. (' >(-a(-*)* -=)(' -] its ## the aeries in square bracket* has each of lll.lli terms less, in absolute tllf '.n-t^|)Ml|ili||^ tf| + ;i convergent series, to oo can be independent of n and consequently th- limit found ly taking tin- limit of each term ; Hence )-v(*- But (Art. 86) lim(l + f)" = /;(./'), if .r' = lim (). [ Thus, /(is #) = lim(l +)" = log(l +.i-)]. ## Tin- di>eu-M<n -i\,-n alM>\i- appli--. only to points within tin* o5| = l. c-an >t' To i-.-i'.-r exaniiiif tin- ire back to ## WetarafcasB'fl nilf (Art. 79); s.-i-irs, ## convergence at points on tinbut on \\<- tinimportance of the binomial an indt-pciHh-nt treatment of case (ii). give \\\ have at once tint i shall <- ^-* i i -. i -"I \vhere i< I~ T~~9 [(*-o?+/fi = u4; -; and |o)| < .1. Thus the a is positive aeries converges absolutely the circumi and SO 2a 'Ilm-. up ff[vlog(l+flj)] to i- ## and including the also oontinaoi imference. nt aince that C) ,if >0) at th- cii-cuinl'crrnce |a;|=l. points (>n th.thT hand, ii' a+l=0, after a certain stago the absolute \alues of the terms of the series never decrease, and till /// so fd 1 ; Lverge \vhen liut tlu-r.is |a;| = l. tli.U (it : no ilitliculty in MTJIIJ; liin A'[ ## For the absolute value of this exponential is p*~^, where 228 Again, n->*> if ## COMPLEX SERIES AND PRODUCTS. [CH. X. -1 also < a^ lim|an =0; ## 0, we see from Ex. we have /(I, x) = I+x, so 3, Art. 39, that that ## (l+aO/fo x)=f( v +l,If x). we ## take only the terms up to xn in this identity, we see that ## where Sn Sn are the sums of the and /(i/H-1, x) respectively. , ' first (n+I) terms in f(v, x) and so the real part of j/H-1 is a + 1, and is accordingly positive ' follows from the previous argument that Sn tends to a definite limit as n increases to oo it . Now And since lim n\ n = is lim a n = 0, it follows ; that lim(l+oj) %->oo definite ## and equal to E[(v+I)\og(I+x)] f(v, n-><*> thus, unless x= 1, we have ## x)= lim 8n = E[vlog( ! + #)], 1. and the series converges on the circle, except at x For points on the circumference, it is evident that ,0 = 200810, = ^0, (-7T<0<7r) and so we have f(v, a?) ## = (2 cos J0) ae-^[cos{ Ja0 + /31og(2 cos ## 1. provided that a For the special value > 1, we have ## the identity (see p. 152) It follows, as in Arts. ## 42 and 61, that |^n but that 90. ## Sn ->0, ifa>0, Sn oscillates if a = 0. Koo, ifa<0, Differentiation of Trigonometrical Series. In some cases of interest, it is found that although the series f(x) = 2tt ne is inx ## = 2an (cos nx + i sin nx) coefficients ## uniformly convergent, yet the series of differential If this occurs, it is often possible to obtain ceases to converge. the value oif'(x) by differentiating the series 89,90] MITI:I;I:M \Tiov This gives ## pn>\ ided that the s.-ries ^/H/ n(o ")' +8(a ^ uniformly interval 1'rnin -...], c.,iver- linly fc ## the 6886 (in , , any is \vhirh = 0, 2-7T are excluded if /,. > a r.-al positive , Lence, or in any int.-rval ii' l/< " an is | ## decreasing convergent (see Arts, It' n \ve substitute ## the value of f(x) as a seri- re liml th,- eqaation ,,!-< In i 1.%^ it -(",-! '.>' -...]. 6 ].i-actic.- will usually first, found best to litl the for f(x) ## and obtain thf /"///// (Mjuatinii which and 4 l>y (1 as if the differentiated of JMW.-I^ rrangemeni accinlin^ This rule will be seen in ('haj.ter XI. Be were convergent is to int.Tj.i-rtcd t l>y multiplication . > to' ## be more than an accidental coincidence [Ar It md UO(2)J is ## easy to see that exactly the same method can be -' < if necessary, to .-staMi-di a similar rule to interpret the 91 oiwhere + +' ly IIMH- the 1'artoi> i. is ;iu integ Another process, which in practice U almost the xiine as the L 1, foregoing, is due to Stok.-x <.!/.////. i///// /'////>-. /'" pp. t D); the tirst ## case of Stokes's rule may -1> rcdue,-d the form where .1 i- Constant determined liy the e<iidition that i- e,,i, ## and another case can be i .- writt.-n -i. B]< -/>' liy t-.|uival-nt . tliis :>:.! luive Item ## pven by Lerch (Ann. dt, (S), t. !_'. lv:.. p. t i ,m.l r.n-nk ,,g < 8, I'.'M;. p, ^7). H, lt ## process seems simpler, Uotli in }u-:icti.-c ;unl in principle. 230 if ## COMPLEX SERIES AND PRODUCTS. is [CH. X. a constant which makes the series on the right convergent. These results of course depend on the fact that ## in virtue of Art. 65 (see also Ex. Ex. 1. 1, below). Consider f(x) = e + ix ## This gives the formal equation /()-t'(* which leads to the real equation (\-<&)f(x) = i(** or /(#)=-(*+ cot Thus f(x) for X=TT, #), 0<.r<27r. ## - log (sin J#) - \ix + const. But so that in we find /(7r)=-log2, sin J#) f(x) = - log (2 65. + %i(ir-x\ that ## < x < 27T, ## agreement with Art. Ex. 2. Similarly ix we can prove . . . + ^tx + fypx + if == ## J log ( tan i^) + i?, < < ^P TT, and ete These give, cos sin ## x + } cos 5^ + ^ cos 9^4- . . . =|TT - j log(tan Jo?), # + J5 sin 5# + sin 9^ + . . . ## = |TT + J log(sec # + tan #). ginx oo Ex. 3. Again consider 2i f( x ) = _,t -7i ## Here we get the formal equation f'(x)-itf(x}=-i^e**, 00 ## which gives the real equation [/(^)-i(/(.r)](l-6^) = 0. Thus ## where A does not involve we obtain the result #=7T Putting itx , f(x) = Ae #, ## and x ranges from to 2?r. or ^e ip =a __. + _._.. ## i=s7r cosec(7rO (see Art. !:>). 90,91, 92] BINE : \M> "', ' 06IKE PBQ01 < Th \ilim: l-y we get ' ## -coeff-iOf ~ 2< > 7 _ sin -- ' / i - n(t-n)x 91. The infinite products for Art. in a; / and rosa. complex values of 05, ## The identitie- "!' and we deduce, as (i! ## ivinain true for Art. 70, sin ?i .^'i KT sin 2 (a/n) 1 sn Now. BU to t.-ml -an always t-nsuiv tliat greater than \x\ t ## and so Art. 86 gives and, since < sin sin(r7r/?i)> 2r/n ## (see footnote, p. 184>. : n 2/ r n ,. I iC/ TV tUU II J v Hence ^ ^ N Q ' ~ -2.") L r2 l/r */ I* ' ## and consequently we can in tin- thron-in .1' Art. P.'. Hence, as in Art. 70, we h'ml r =i In tli.- ^anif way C( )S \\- find ./' 11 -Br= -/ , 92. The ## series of fractions for cot r ' tan for ./ , cosec '. )> ## The investigation u v -\t. uded \sith'Ut difficulty i i" Art. 71 real angles, can to a ## complex argument. ly making the t'nl lowing nnditicati"! e, \Ve ha\ ## of ooune, the idi-ntity x lie n) identity is ## merely an al^el.raieal deduction i'n>m li- ## trigonometrical addit ion-t .nients are real r .\liieh ai \vhether the 232 ## COMPLEX SERIES AND PRODUCTS. here, as in Art. 91, sin (r7r/ri) [CH. X. Now we have \ > 2r/n, . sin (x/ri) \<%\x\/n, assuming that Also n> x | we have (Art. 86) Hence 2n sin 1 ## (x/ri) cos (x/ri) and ri 2 1 sin 2 (r7r/ri) - siu | (x/ri) < > 4r \ "-\ -f ## Thus, provided that 5r >3 \, we have 30|a? ## 2 sin (x/ri) cos Consequently we can ## use the comparison-series ^ and so the theorem further, ( ' 30|*| ## of Art. 49 can be applied just as in Art. 71; X T hm /n sin - \ \ n/ = x, X V 1 lim / cos \ = 1, \ n/ ( exactly as if a; ## were real instead of complex.* lim ( Hence Vn - cot - = n/ ) and lim *(/n)<x*(x/n) sin 2 (rTr/n) sin 2 (x/ri) %x rV ' x2 complex (except Thus we have, multiples of TT), ## for all values of x, real or cot # = - + Zv -Q X X2 , ^ T 2x ri 7T o 2 2 / 1 =+ ^v 7 ~ , 1 TlTT IN )> VaJ 7?7r/ r. where TI, is now ## the variable of summation, instead of :t Now ## the following identities hold tan x = cot x cosec x = cot J# * 2 cot 2#, cot x. for the sine ## These statements follow at once from the power-series identities are familiar results and cosine. fThe when .i is ## real; for other values, they ## follow from the formulae obtained in Art. 86. 92, 93J ill. OTANQENT 8KB] Hence we find, on su)itra<-ii..n. &c ^2n-l) _* . ^-o^' 4-1 2x 811 ' = cos* = . .e < to . +e -r ' -j ,'-" =-, 1 ly writing y2i0, ## \v- M'- tliat ' 5^"i 93. ^tl.iVi-i v for x -j The power-series Beri< The exponential ## and consequently (as in Art. :>4) can expanded in powen "i' ! ' th<- iv<-iprocal function x .* | | ''- > i-r'-vidi-d that < p, \\\. 2!"*"3! + "*= 1 ' This last con<liti<'ii is certainly satisti-l l>y taking OK l.y tai p= can \\ i Thus \\v ,./'+..., 1 if ||<1-L>. ' ii'. At ' n'nd ## l-'- =1+ 2' 1 It \vr ## sulttract th.- lir^t of these ezpansioiifl tin- bom the aa we s<- obtain idmtity r= ^3=- -l-. (> 234 ## COMPLEX SERIES AND PRODUCTS. [CH. X. ## Consequently we can write *where JBj, "" ?J_7?^_ + J _L R ^2+J 7? 5 5 2, 3, ... ## are Bernoulli's numbers. It is easy to verify by ## direct division that 8 A= i> = *V> = A, #4 = #>=F but the higher numbers become very complicated.* Again, from the last Article we see that Now x, if x <C 2-7T, ## each fraction can be expanded in powers of giving ZnW And the resulting double series is ## the series of absolute values is ## absolutely convergent, since obtained by expanding the convergent series 2laj| It is powers e* of ## therefore permissible to arrange the double series in x and then we obtain t L is which now ## seen to be valid for x | < 2-jr.J By ## comparison with the former expression, T-k 11 J- we see that 1 -1- V~> T- Q J X~> 1 A T- J,^ *" K^> and generally *The numbers <;i;ii.sher (as decimals) and tlu-ir logarithms have been tabulated by to fiw are givi-n (Trans. Camb. Phil. Soc., vol. 12, p. 384); and l by Adams (Scientific 0.) Qhryitel'i .\/,,<bra, tThat 'lir is the radius of conver^riirf may be smi tVoiu Kaker's theorem x (Art. 84); for the zeros of e -\ are y = 2niri, and the least distance of any of ## Paperx, vol. Ch. XXVIII. 1, pp. 453 and 455). ## (For more details, see ## these from the origin is L'TT. 93, 94] l:l I:\MII.I.I - \i MI;|.;RS. Wo S-i Alt 6 It ## ol.tain thus tin- n-siilts (l) , \^ -^ v V \\ ' Z^^c hen x ^ V i is real, 1 - ^~9450* liav- is ## instructive to notic,. that. we any value of ** 2 ' ^+ (2.2 4nVJ o . l.y ail.litiMH. we tintli- see that srrirs i- c^ ~~ n-].ivs-nt.-l is \>y th- (r tin- + 3) terms of ti-rin ## with an error which l-ss than following of For instance, for any ## ival po^itiv.- \alu-- of ,/\ W6 h.-. 720' an.l so on. Ex. By HUM identity 1 WO ca liat md 94. Bernoullian functions. r.-'i-nonllian function of in the th- D of '',-",' whicli. / lv the in powers of < 236 ## COMPLEX SERIES AND PRODUCTS. [CH. X. Thus we have so that . <p n (x) rn ~2 -l ^Q-l) D T n-2 _ ~2~! x ## " 1 )( W " 2 X^ " 3 >P 41 . *** x ~n-4 ## where the polynomial terminates with either x or x 2 From the this formula, or by : direct multiplication, we find that first six polynomials are = yz, where Again, n (o? y = x(x$$ \-.T-' + l) (j> n (x) is the coefficient of /n\ in the expansion of so that If ^ n (33 + 1 ) n (x) = nx n ~ 1 results, ## we write 03 we see that, = 1, 2, 3, ... ## in the last equation integer, ## and add the if x is any positive n which gives one application of the polynomials. Further, by differentiation we see that n'(x) (j> is the coefficient of ## jn\ in the expansion of t*e _,t(e*<-\) e'-l~ t Hence we find 94] BERNO1 0',m(z) LI. \\ II \< TI< and generally 1 1 = 2m^,, ami / -I. + <-l 1.. Change x to a; to -/. hat$*aThna
Sim-.' 0,
i
i

='*,':;

i
<//>u
njuatinn that B
1

-,> = <-!
t'nllnws 1'p.ni tin- last
ia
.

<i

)--=<>.

it

i-

root of
tin-

'

(/>

>and thai
,

root of

<j,

and

a glance at

ti\- i'uncti"!

f/

v lraK to
lias

tin-

ronj.-i-nnv that

^,n (^)
-J-.
1'.

no root

"x
that
tliis

""///

'/"'

^oo<

Suppose
valu-

rouj.-cturr

IM-.-M

i-sialilisli-l

up

to.

then

since
<-c),

:(#)

is
<>

innnri-ically

at

./-=A,

and cannot
ran
I

\a:

en

and

1.

Consequently ^

('2/jL

:\

d
i

between havr no xrro lM-t\v'-n X -<> and '..and thcr.-1'mv non<- l>etween
/

Imn- ^

,.

Mid

I.

Thus
and
it

tinll

tlu'on-ni

has

IMM-II

rxti-n<h-d
tru-.

to tin-

\alu-

a-fl:

iin^ly
'

always

Tin-

## indiratrs th- ivlations

illustrates tin- general

diagram and so

ar^p.n

^j''

It

will
1).

lr

s.M-n
<f>
,

thai

)-'

(in

>

l'";in#e

m (.'')=
,

<.
/

"/"/ t/tt

tin'

/x

// M/

O y

i).

238
95. Euler's

## COMPLEX SERIES AND PRODUCTS.

summation formula.
if

[CH. X.

We

x and

## are positive integers,

li

the polynomial containing 1(71 + 2) or J(ti + 3) terms. It is obvious that if f(x) is a polynomial in x, we can obtain the value of the sum

/(l)+/(2)+. ..+/(*-!)

by

multiples of the Bernoullian functions of proper degrees. But to obtain a single formula, we must utilise the Calculus and so we observe that we

the

of

suitable

is

## a polynomial, we have Euler's formula*

/(l)+/(2)+. ..+/(*-!)

where there is no term on the right-hand side (in its final form) which is not divisible by x. However, the most interesting applications of this formula
arise

when

f(x)

is

rational,

algebraic,

or

transcendental

function, and then of course the foregoing method of proof cannot be used; and the right-hand side becomes an infinite series which may not converge.

## To obtain the formula

integration

by

parts.*

in these cases, we shall apply the method of Consider in fact the integral

where

<

KViniMiilmriiig

## denotes the Bernoullian polynomial. that </*_.(/) vanishes for /

is

<)

and

/-I,

\vi

tincl

that

this integral

equal to

*Seliwanoff, J}i/ereuzenrechnun</,

38, 39.

'

95
1

M.MATH'N

|,,|;MI

|. \

Int.-.natiiix

ly parts again, w-

mil.-u-ly

+0[^-a(0 + (-l)"^Hence
if

we

v,

.V

we have the

-i=(-l)'

')],

(:

## Let us now examine the case n =

A"

we have
,//.

tli -n

Thus, rinoa

<MO = '*-'> we

have

-l

Th.r

:r'

Thus

*f

r'(.r)

//(o^4-.;L/'o--Hi)-r

!)-/].

and

fl-

uke

a succepi:itii.u>.
Tlifii
\\i-

/*-!,
A'_.

liavr.

if

\\

M->J. at

f>r instance,

1 )

+/(&) - ( /(')<ft +

* L'X'O +/"(")]

240

## COMPLEX SERIES AND PRODUCTS.

[CH.

And obviously we can introduce as many terras as we please on the right-hand side. For a further discussion of Euler's formula, see Chapter XI. Art. 131.
Ex.
1.

## \n\ in the expansion of

prove that

and

if

is

a positive integer,

- -^n(O)
Deduce that
if

. . .

f(x)

is

/(I)

^Ex.
2.

...

+ const.

As

1,

we

find

## These give, when x

is

a positive integer,
or

l

and

so on.

In the
is

first

and third

according as x

even or odd.

Ex.

3.

It

is

From
Shew
Ex.
4.

also that

(x-%)
if

is

x(x\)

Prove that

is

odd and k

is

an integer,

r=0

result

when n

is

even.

x.|

LMPLBfi

A.

\.

Complex Numbers.
1.
It

th.-

inn

an-

l".tli
ii.

'mpl.-x,
li,

>h-w
;m

tl.

;-.ints

tli.-v
-I,

..ii

ri|iii;u

od n"i
d cases

when x

is

al.
if

and

;liat

!>--=a',

\\ln-i
.

I/--M-..

_rer.

2.

'

## y are complex, prove f l*+yl +

;

that

pivt

thi^

-|uati>n
!-'

in

Ai-iranil's ilia-^raiii.

'hat

l*+yl +
3.
It'

[HAKKXKS.S and
I,

/!

## are the points

.

in
.

.m

whirh represei.
'=0,
t.
tlif

uid
"<

.1

slu-w

that

tin-

.iindittMii

.N-nt

condi

o.i-

OA ./:.
..f

.:

OA
0.]

.\<>i:.
[.!/<

mid point

Ml.

1901.]

[Tian-fT
4.
if
It'

t"

.1-

"I'iirin,

\\hi.-l,

Q08J

I.

wh(
:i

inh //=

sin

and that

we write
in

^
'

\\li.-i

0=

sii

mi the roots of
tliat
6.

th.-

-.|

nation \\, :

(*+l

)\

and prove

tln-\
It"

the

|iiati"ii

ha(t \s<'

lii-nrj

real

and

t \\

-"ni|>l. s ,-as = 0.

7.

If

/]

a,

t!

tin-

point

't.

5+y

M
8.
t

a rouii- m- straight

lim-.

\vln-n

takes

all

n-al

\a!

[STU./ und
-Miplrx
iinniUtM
-u.

<

ti

IW

tliat

as

"
1.

at + h

t-c when it

,'ht

lin.-.

LB,

242
9.

## COMPLEX SERIES AND PRODUCTS.

If
t

[CH.

varies so that |j

= l,

|a]

## whose axes are

+ |6| and

|a|-

6|,

and

whose
line

foci are

If |o|

= |6|,
is
t

which
If

given by x = ab. prove that the point x traces out the portion of a straight terminated by the two points x2 =ab.
2

10.

varies so that

|"|

= 1,

## prove that the point

in general describes a limagon, whose focus is c b 2/a. Find the node ; b , shew that the limagon reduces to a cardioid. and if a [MORLEY.]

11.

If

varies so that

|tf|

= l, shew
a

## that the point

b

*-iZI + *Fl+
in general describes a hyperbola,

conditions

is

and find its asymptotes. Under what the origin (1) the centre, (2) a focus of the curve ?
x=
-,

Prove

## also that the point

t
3

(t

z^ H
*

-^

=
^-

+c

describes a parabola.
12.

## Constructions for trisecting an angle.

a = cosa + *sin
a,
t,

If

the determination of ga

is

## equivalent to the solution

of the equation in

= a.

To

effect
1
1

the circle

this geometrically we use the intersections of a conic with I the form of the conic is largely arbitrary, but we shall

give three typical constructions, the first and second of which, at any rate, were known to the later Greek geometers (e.g. Pappus).
(1)

rectangular hyperbola.
in the

If

## we write our equation

form

t that the points trisecting the + irj, 2 are + r/ 2 =l of given by three of the intersections with the circle angle the two rectangular hyperbolas

## *-o/4 = -;, we find l/t

-?/

-(cosa + 77sin

a)

= 0, 2^-^sina + ?/cosa = 0.
of the hyperbolas
is

is

is

not on the

circle.

## Either of these hyperbolas solves the problem, but the second

the

easier to construct; its asymptotes are parallel to the axes (tin- one axis being an arm of the angle to be trisected), its centre is the point

## (-Jcosa, Jsina), and

it passes through the centre of the circle (that is, the vertex of the angle to be trisected). Since a hyperbola is determined by its asymptotes and a point on the curve, we can now construct the

hyperbola.
(2)

The

first

-fr/

=l

in

a)+ 10.

\.|

LMPLE8
li\

\.

Tin-

pei

I,,,

la

baa
tin-

ecr.

>

),

and

IT-|M.M.|
oth.-r
I.

the
tin-

vertex on the

ran. h

,,f

pres.-n;
(1
;

## naturally tli.m th'.-e ^iven in

tii'

hut the

I'.v

that a*

tin-

iir-t

(1) cute

the circle

2 *+/ = l

in

tin-

same point-

,/sin

n -

1=0.
through the points

irallel

to ?;=0, passes

ami touches
13.
If

tin-

line

u f

//

sin u -

-----)

at

tin-

point (sec./.

and
(i)
/

.V

l'.'

shew
\
-

ti

= = 11
:

x /7,

...

,11.
V
:

(iii)
1

13
at

s
1

'i:'..

kin^

Oftfll

A'

s -f -'

N \ li'

-./O-K'-'-v

easily

|.i-.,v,-,l

that

,V-f.S"=-l,

.)-=n.
-

and

=2.
_

Thus

.v

is

a root of

,S-'

+ + = o,
.S'

:J

\\hi.-h

X*
It is

:.

or

.V

easily

proved
niii-t
,.

;.

\\\^

tor
tli >t

7)-

un(&r
ease

7)

sini
|..

irr

7)

the >i-n

Le

oompa
,th
(ii).

188,

In
In

like inann.'i

CM6

(iii)

now
s=.,
*

+ 3* + J>
::
1

II.

ig

1.

l,,,t

13.
i>

That

.s

(and the!

.mst

l.e
|.

iilivimis

ly
the
first

eonsid.-i iu^

;.

4-cos(67r
in
\\hi.-h
,,

term
vain-

i>

jh-

,nd

thai

lew

than the
14.

(in

nunn-rieal
n

With

tin-

same

in

the

last
-

example, she\\

that

(iii)

a- 18

...

[In the
In
tlu-

case

).]

244
The value
to a, can

a-l

[CH.

15.

of the

bn y=^x =o

~,

where

b is

an integer

prime

now be

## inferred in these special cases.

if

We

find, in fact,

if

if
if

if if
if

= 1, 6 = 3, 6 = 1, 6 = 2, 6 = 1,
6

2, 5,

4,
6.

3,
6,

4,
7,

5, 9,
8, 9,
7,

10, 10,
8,

3, 4,
5, 6,

12,

(-l+;)2v/2,

if
if

= 2, = i, 6 = 3,
6
fc

11.

(-l-z)2 v/2,
(1-1)2^2,
16.

6 6

if

= 5, = 7.

from a consideration of the special cases discussed ar n * may, or may not, be equivalent n set x In a is of the form 4/- + 1, where k is an to the the former case, and the of k sum consists 8 integer pairs of terms, whose indices are complementary (that is, of the form v, a v). On multiplying SS' out, it is easily seen to be the same as k(S+S'). or JT 2 = 4& + l=a. Thus we find S'2 + S - k = Similarly, if a is of the form 4& + 3, we find that the terms x~ belong
It will be seen
in Exs. 13, 14, that the set of values
*.
;

n<1

to

',

and then

Thus

we find 88' = (2k+\) + k(S+S') = k+\. S'2 + S+k + I=0 or X 2 = -(4 + 3)= -a.

[Mnth. Trip. 1895.] (and indeed a complete general determination of the sign of discussion of the distribution of indices between S and *S") belongs to the problem of quadratic residues in the Theory of Numbers.*

17.

When a
a=

is

## an even integer a = Zk, where k

is

odd,

we note

that

affi+W^-aF*, so that

When
18.

complete proof

identically zero. 4&, the results of Ex. 14 suggest that JT=(l+) N /, but of this requires some further discussion. t
is

tan
-

r- 1895.]

[In fact,

since

#" = !.

## Thus, in the notation of Ex.

i

13,

tan

= S-S'-2(A-

*For example, see Gauss, Disq. Arithm., Art. 356; Wcrke, Bd. 1, p. 441; G. B. Mathews, Theory of Numbers, pt. 1, pp. 200 iil-_>: Werke, Bd. 2, p. 11 111-117. H. Weber, Algebra, Bd. 1, 179 Dirichlet, Zahlenlheorie,
; ;

2, pp. IM

15,

x.|
19.
tin-

l.\

LMFLE8
to
.in

Tin? ivsnli

:

easy geometrical
.;

r.Mjular

heptagon
:io

gee at ODCe

'

roots of th-

s7 + l)-l
s<

tint

),

-,

2
.i--

x4 are

root-

If

\\>

\\nt--

'

+ //. l/<"4
,-

>

/N '7-l=0,
tlir-ni^i,
tintin'
:

\\hirh

represents
tlii-r

ular
r

IIVJH-I-IM-:

ticea

## n-^iilai- lu'|it;i.u iMi

insnil.nl in

f..!i>tru-ti..n
:{

bj rith.-r
".
i

/r

.-c

/N 7

20.

If

that
.

(r=0,

1.

_.

an.l

l.-liici-

l.y

.litl.-i-riitiati.'ii

that

1
'

duce
t-

that,

if

## rw) cosec u = J<u = ?r/-l/'.

!

58

^ -f rw)

'

osec^^.
...

5a

to

i>

.Mjiuil

[J/
is

1901.]
/,,

21.

If

/'

an

...1.1

r,. r int- u an ,l ^

an y

intt'irn-

jirinn- t.

shew that

||f-ll

2ain(S
wlu-re

^) i^-A,
inn-iM-r
\\hfii

6 = irqlp, ami A
MiiiM-

is

any

fr.ni

t.

(l...th
/-.

inch:.;

sum

than

[K:
I

:^)7.]
partial
fra.-ti.-ns

..f

;,
8

K4
and
\v

tin*

limit

-f

In.th

sides as J>--l,

get

-A-2<
1

1
;.]

-se

A</>,

-A
22.
I'ri'vi'

\

tin-

same notation
v

(a + H#)

f,

\vhnv

is

mid and

n.-i

1,

l>ut

net-d

not be odd.

[\Yriu-

A=

i(X-

+ ]),

.r

= e-' '*
2

in

tin-

Kx. ^l.J

246

## COMPLEX SERIES AND PRODUCTS.

Convergence of complex sequences.
If (a n )
is

[CH.

23.
limit,

and

if

a sequence of complex numbers, which converges to a as a b is another complex number, shew that values of b n can
is

the values of ba
24.
.

one of

If

is real,

finitely

both as x

tends to

and

to co.

!

drawn
])

complex variable

#,

^|^2!
line.

*(*-!)(*- 2).
3!
;

converges to

on one side

of the line

and

its

modulus tends to

infinity

26.

## [Math. Trip. 1905.]

least
is

If an infinite set of points is taken within a square, the set has at one limiting point (that is, a point in whose neighbourhood there
set).

## an infinity of points of the

[For if the square is subdivided into four by bisecting the sides, at least one of the four contains an repeating infinity of points of the set this argument, there is an infinity within at least one square whose side is a/2 n where a is the side of the original square, and n is any integer. It is then not difficult to see that we can select a sequence of squares,
; ,

each within the preceding, and each containing an infinity of points of the set the centres of these squares then define a sequence of points which can be proved to have a limiting point. Finally, we can shew that within any square whose centre is at this limiting point, there is an
;

## infinity of points of the set.]

of

Sn (x)=f (x)+fl (x) + f2 (.v) + ...+fn (x), and let the roots be marked in Argand's diagram for all values of n if these roots have x = a as a limiting point, the series
27.

Suppose that

(#)

has # = a as a zero, provided that the series converges uniformly within an area including ,v = a. [HURWITZ.]

EXAMPLES
1.

B.

Power-series.
If H,
:

K are
is

## the radii of coin er^enre of

^/,,.r"

and

-!>.<" respectively,

then

(1) HI!'

## (2) If 11 is less than

but

if

the radius of convergence of ^Jt .'". n is tin- radius of /.' /.' convergence of 2(a n + bn )x ; 11= It' the radius is at least equal to A' and may l>e greater.
.

## [Apply the method

2.

of

Art. 82.]

If a power-series is /.en. at all points of a set \\hirli lias the origin Art. .">_'. .as a limiting point, then the series is |< '<>in|>aie identically /.en.

x.|
\ power-series cannot within

IMPLEfi
!

a
ary) at
'in.

purely real

all

jM.ints

tin-

la-t

example.)
in

4.

## NV- have seen that

i

many

ra-.-s

ill.-

.f

Convergence of

2ar*

can be determined

lun(o

a
/
,

and
that

Kal'iv
if

ha-

pr..\ed
is

(te
t..

lal:tni;irl.

pp.

!:

this

limit

e.|iial

A.

th<-n

{.WIT ->.-i
t

!-.

Si.nirtiin.-s

=A

n-luti.>n

such as

\\ln-i.

'

ml

t.i

drtinit'-

limits

/>,

>/

as 7i-*oo.
t

ThiMi

tin-

3

tin-

of

Vl.-.-k.

1.

1<>00, p.

293.]

5.

An

example

is

afforded

by the

series for

log[(H
in

**+i*-K..>
(;j

which
tin-

4-^)'/,,+-j=
1

and

IMOCiatod

is

f^ + |^+5.r+...
oUaincd from
-l<.u (l
(/
r -

.'-)

+ ar<i

tan r,
,

we + (/

get
-f l)// M +

+3K,
ciil.

=0,

and
l.-it

tht-

associated
if
-

=0.

:ally.
.litl'en-nt
:IH-

## singular |.int>. th under Van VK-ck's rule.

rgence be expected

6.

If

-"

'

'

converges within
value
>>'
i

tin-

circle

.r|

= fl(>0), shew

that

Com

all

and 1
value of
l'a,,r"
(

7.

If.

-'/

is

the

maximum
ilian

,n

a circle

.<

/,

is

also

any

p.-int

within

th-

com
within
ti,

## Sliew tiMtlier that

vvln-r..1

[Use
8.

auchy's ine<|ualit

ie-

"i".
]

I'

/.'.

tlien (>e,
:

"JV ",

wh.

>educe Caudiy's

ineijiialit;

248
[For we have

<Sfor"f(x)
,

[CH.

= ant
to /(#).

and

if

an

'

is

the conjugate to
n n '2a n'r* /x
1

Thus and

\

(Art. 82)

9.

If /(a?)

= 2a H#n

converges for #
|

< R,

then

where

D is

the

maximum
.a l

of !/(#)-/(

-#)| on the
l

circle

\x\=r<R.

[In fact,
so that

## = morif(x\ -a^m.v- f(-x\

result.]
,

2a l =m[x-i{f(x)-f(-x)}~},
that

## which gives the desired

10.

n the series the radius of convergence of 2an# ^dnX"* will converge absolutely, provided that the argument of x is greater

Shew

if

is

11.

## Obtain from the binomial

series, or otherwise,

the equation

where

v is real

1.

What

## restrictions are required as

to the value of 61

Shew
12.

i>

= 7r, and

explain why.

cos 30+...

and

of

[Apply Art.
13.

89,

putting

v=-J,

x-e

i9
.'\

If

is

positive,

shew that

14.

of the result of

when

w = l/10.

(l+#)

m
.J

## Examine the convergence

of the power-series

[Apply Weierstraas's
15.

[In

Lin-

third,

tin-

...rllirim!

,,f ./"

-2,

Art.

.]

16.

d of

f/017.

Determine

tip-

expan>i..n of
*

-*
s

it)

in po\\er-

;,,/

Jo
[I'u;
in

-1

Jo

## the exponential series.]

lv\.

18.

Shew

tliat

(compare

17)
-

*
\\here there are
(/<

...},

!)

b(n

+ -2)

tei-ms in
Q
/./-.

the luackets.

Determine
19.

a siini!
if

Sh.-w that
cos

0|<l/e,
1

0=1 -6

22

3s
'/*

Bin 6-* 33
_!

cos

40-

3!

[JA/M.

r/-/

1891.]

[Write

<t

=b=i

in

the formula

.f

K.\.

I.

Ait. 56.
lie

The

intr.nlneti,.;

complex numlters in the place of i-eal oii.-s may of the same type as that used in Art. 88.]
20.
It'
'
'

justified

hy an

ariju:

'.

sheii

that

Lagrang*

H+^l
ay
I
|

21.
'

< 2.
shew
that
.-...

It"

OM^H
1
,

0<r<l.

/'**

(1

+ ft)"t

and

SF/
ted
;

^H
lie

-,i.?-i*nf-'
c,,etlicieiits
iii

## the liinoinial series.

fiom

.\IM-I,

theorem

that,

if

>o,

+--3><
.neiMr).
[Note that the ai'mimen; -1) when ril
tirst

itive,
if

and

summation

is

valid

!

if

>

lj

lut

th-

me

\\

'ive.]

'250

## COMPLEX SERIES AND PRODUCTS.

.r = cos# + isin#,
|

[CH.

22. If is convergent, prove n -*0 and 2|an -a n+1 Dirichlet's test (Art. 80) that 2a,Xl is convergent if 0<0<2?r. If 26,Xl is convergent, under similar conditions, then shew that

by

cn

=a

bn

+ ^ &_, + ...+
\

provided that

## 2^ n Z?n converges, where 4 n = \a n -a n+1 + \an+ i-a n+3 + ...,

\

Bn = \b n |
|

b n+l

6 M+1

6 n+2

+ ...

[Note that the sequences (A n \ (B n ) are decreasing sequences and that A n \bn On Then apply the method given in Art. 35 n (as in Art. 80). for establishing Pringsheim's theorem on the multiplication of series.]

<

<B

23.

If

## f = l/n log n when n>\, and/ = l,

x

the series

convergent, but not absolutely, while 2 v n -v n+ i\ is convergent. that the signs of v n are the same in groups of 1, 2, 4, 8, ... terms.
is

Note

[For we have /5</4<4/2 or /4+/5</2 and /7</6<i/s or /6+/7</3Thus /2+/3</4+/6 +/o+/7 and so on for each group of 2* terms with the same sign. The convergence then follows from Art. 21. 2 v n - v n+l = + Again, 2) + )+
:
1 \

(t\

+/

(/2 +/4

(/4 +/8 )

. . .

24.

converges.]
series

[PRINGSHEIM.]

It follows

## from the previous example that the

=
converges, but not absolutely, at every point of the circle
|.r|

= l.

[The convergence of 2|-y n -v,l+I |, combined with limv n = 0, establishes the n and the last example convergence of ^v nx at all points except x=\
;

that
25.

As regards
divergent]
,

## the absolute convergence,

we note

2|tn

*|
l

2|t>1

,|2/n
l

is

[PRINGSHEIM.]
are the upper limits of 1.5,, as it follows from

If H,

= b + b + ... + b n and
to ?>i-l,

if

A", A',,,

n rant^s from
Arts. 81, 83 that
is

and from

to GO, respectively,

'J'li

us,

if

*2,a n

83),

## uniform divergence (Art.

x
I

we

h;ivr
0,
if
li

In-

llrii'-<:

path of approach lying within the lima^on of Art. 83. ^ciM-rallv, for such path-,

## the right-haml limit Iming supposed to

e.\i>t.

[PRINGSHKIM.]

x.|

LMPLEfi
:

K
>

r\ten<i

to tin- coinpN-.x.

variaMe
tO

;in<l

in

part

i-nl.i

theorem
lyinu'
:

M
It'

to

apply
\\
,

-h

\\ithin

tin-

In

note Blao
-_

tin-

foil..

ilt

-IM-H. ;is

.r-l,

-\

t'i!ili.-i

'-xtelision

is

quoted on

|.

I:'!',

al"

27.
If

liin(l
Mt- to
ii

ial

t<

;i

finite

nuinl't-r
fui'tlit-r
tlii->
[\
i

.1.

it

\\itlmut

'--t

i'-t

iotj

.n

liiri.-iit^.

In

two

siiiijilr

c
:

in
all
JM.^

ni.'ikr

(1)

<>,

and

.>

aj.pr-.a.-li.-

l.y

## any path within

\\e

tin-

Ol

Ar
[Sincr in ras
of
(I)./lini !'</. /"

[T.\-

1

l>y

IM! valurs.
;

can

infi-r

fi.m

tin-

livrr^.is

cann-.i
l>y

## llrncf, in case (1)

^i-f,,

convives, and
,f
r[

then-fore eijual to J,
find

Abel's

theorem.
In
<
;

it,,

i,

,. then we

1(1

r)|

= |l+^ +
.',.
.
.

>

./--

+...+.r"U)
f.
.

|^
1.

to

;.

...

We

then

./

as a
in

ha\e

th.-n.

<m

tin-

iriven

i.

\\

|l-j:|<A
1
on th--

and 80

T|^
-x,'a<'h of the

1
liirht

//,.

ti-rnis

t<-nd- t>

<Mt)

lt

\\

i,,

and SO
lini
,

,i
^<i n
o
\\

lim

1
e

.1.]

28.

In
I'lom
th.-

ii"

d'-fmite limit.
lini z

can infer
h

th.

nee of

of

and from

tlie

Condition
lini

(i

'2'i.
i

4-

&

/
;:

-f

Thoe
[Tau

coiiditinns are

vutl,
.

2^,

and,

!'.d.

^.

i;d.

:n,

UMI.

252
29.

## COMPLEX SERIES AND PRODUCTS.

Applications of Art.
84.

[CH.

it

is

84,

and so

on.

Thus,

we

The two
|
1

series

## on the right-hand are both convergent

the latter condition
circle
| |

is

satisfied for

## which are outside the

of the binomial series.

;

|
\

## where we assume that the broken

\xr+l -xr \<\l+xr
\

line

from x to xn
I,...,

is

drawn

so that

= 0, (r

n-1).

## For example, by taking

so that

where

if we take a broken line passing below the real axis, we find /(-2) = e^ 7r [cos(a7r)- <'sin(a7r)] we thus obtain two different values for/(~2) by approaching -2 along different jf>aths. This
;

indicates (what
(3

we know
wimilai

=
30.

is

manyvfelued

unit's

and a

is

an integer.
to the last

method

for

which we

find

and
tl
<

same

|Hiints

.1-,

.r,,

./'

.1-.,,

.r

us in the

last

example, we get
ival

<(-2) = Z7r.

And

with

lnkni

lim-

axis,

\\<-

x
I

31.

If

tin-

OCX

aiv
<_'.,
tin-i
i

all

positivr
ai.d
if

(fl

\i>*

has a

BJ

i-oint

iln-

l:..d
,,f

VIVANTI

pi

Su|,|,(^.-,

possible,
--on-

that

(t'..i

0<r</0
than
A'
/

the
;

HIT;-

\v

can

l!

1111111!..

f>

that

tli.

84)

M
it

a d<>ul>;
kin

will

thm
X
It

OOnvergen(
>in^iilai-

\\ln-n

>iimiiiMl
!" tin-

as
.-i

I'//.,

{/-

That

\\

ill

000
In-

i-inal hyjM.tli-

and

si

nin-t

point.]

32.

that

thr

1
anall

-.)
and
nnlli.'i

OOnvergenl

f.-i-

A',

that th-

OODY<
(1) thr

'/////// a
90
i

1>

in

L:

r\.-ry circle
fin-

\\1.

--ss

than

A',

'i

r\.-ry

valur

..f

1
tn=0

-I

<lt.

n=0
i

tin-

is

\..w on this

uniformly
r.jual
!-

i-mi\ rru'nit.

and

so

th-

-t

be

-ti!ivri'_u'-nt

and
//

in,

if

is

'

f '.,

\\.

ha\r similarly
/;
. .

,.d

/;

if

M^

is

thr niaxinnini
ii

ol

=r,.

Eenoe,

N=0

and

1.

LIT.

Q(

<M^

so that
-r.

li.l.

11..

p.

206.

254

identically

[CH.

F(x)-G(x) =

n=0

2 (^

-#,)'"

number
L

we

find

we

n=0

(/z)

of series: am'

p.
oo

- r),

if
|

*
|

= r.

as small as

/x,

independent of

## we can make ^fl n Thus, since F(x) and ~2A nx are

J\

71

n ^A nx =

EXAMPLES

C.

Miscellaneous Series.

the series

*La n
is

where f
of
all

F(x, n) converges absolutely, provided that 2 a n \n ^does so r n the real part of x. Thus, in particular, if ^a nx has a radius

convergence greater than 1, "Za n F(x, n) is absolutely convergent for But if the radius of values of x (other than real negative integers). convergence is less than 1, ^La n F(x,ri) cannot converge.
Finally,
if

is

equal to

1,

suppose that

where A >
-a.

and
|

a> n

<A

then

F(x, n)
x

is

absolutely convergent if

[KLUYVER,

Gammafunktion,

1)3, J.)4.]

[Note that
2.

F(.r,

n)cuT(x)n~

.']

Shew that, with the notation of the 2 a n F(x, n) converge for the same
/

last

values of x.
;

[Apply Art. 80

l/vn
3.

= n*F(x, n) (2), taking v n then are n easily proved to be convergent.] \jv fi\
that in the notation of Ex.
/'(.''-I,
1,

## example, the two series [LANDAU.] the series 2|i',,-v n+ i| and

Shew

n)-F(x-\, n + l) = F(*, n), and deduce that S/'X-r, n) converges only when f >1 that is, -F(.i; Shew also that 2( l) n /X#, n) convi can only converge absolutely.
;

u)

if

^>0;
4.

## and apply Ex.

series (see

to

deduce

the

corresponding results

for

The

Ex.

19,

Ch.

1.)
''
]

*
represents the function
5.

#
if

1_^41_.^
.r/(l -.r),

|.r|<l, and

1 /(I

-.<), if

|.r|>l.
[J.

TANNKUV.]

## Slievv that tlu; scries

are botli convergent for all values of ./, except Kor applications, sec N IKI.SKN,
|

0,

## -1, -2, -3,....

.^33.

ti'-iiniii<ifnnktion<

x.|
6.

LMPLE8
1

:i-e

of

comph-\

nuiiilM-rs

-n.-h

th.it

iily

to

>0, >ln-u

that

ho series

erge* abftolut.-ly

f..r all

uniformly
within
I

within
'

th.p
ill-t

dly
Cw
|

l.y

the circle

isilly tin.-it
.\

liy
/,',

= r,

\\liich

an:ll

muni"-!-

enough to

any

vrlappmu'

"f
t

7.

'I

.-vampi.
>M.-h

## implith-d in CftM th- p"

iionur a .-traiu'ht

lin-.

and ancirciii!

that

- CH

^.k>

'

a constant
\Vltll

undt-r thrsr
to

|Tx|,,-.-t

nfi v
distril.ut.-d

8.

A-jain.

if

tin-

pointin*

-v,

although not
tli. -in

alon- a

linr.

tliat

t\\n

of

lilar statfini'iits

can

.

i-

n(iA
fuii'
t

-iin|)l.

set

of thi- \\.
tl,

bheory
n<-t\\i'ik of
JM.;I

>f

elliptic

ions, the

j-oints

r,

In-ill'.;

jiaia!.
fall

notr

that

imt

:n.t

witliin

<ir.r.
niol'i-

than

^,,t

]n>int^

.-all

li-

liMv

)/,

(ni

;
.

Eence 2

ron\-fl\
a st-ijiu-ncr of
is

9.

I'

i.-al

numli.-rs

\vhich
i>

'

and

if

conijih-x

numl"

part

jto^itiM-,

tin-

B81

lit.

.:/

--+''>! an<l

<.!/

.)/+,/

=A

(I ,

tin-

ratio

,,f

th,.

-,-n.-ral

t-

'" /f

)/(l

-A
.

if

and BO
<>n

if

MC
othrr hand,
if

that

//

^3.
i

tin-

A
A,,)1
.
,

1

/,'

s
!

'i

use
2
'
'

+
i>

'

tinit.-

up|).-r

limit

//
.--nt.]

256
10.

If
is

[CH.
if

2a M

is

7* is n 3/f

convergent

## the real part

of

is Thus, in general the region of convergence of *2a n positive. bounded by a line parallel to the imaginary axis. Further, in case 2a n is convergent, the series converges uniformly in a

M^

## sector of the plane

bounded by the

lines rj=

-i

K, where

is

any assigned

number.

[CAHEN.] [For then we can use Abel's theorem (Arts. 80, 81), merely noting that we may write Vn = HM~_ in virtue of the last example.]
11.

It

is

the same type as in the last example) by any path between the two lines ?;= K (where K is an assigned number), the series has a limit /I, and if lim {a n f(n)/f'(n)} = Q, then 2a w converges to the sum A.
is
:

## to series of the type ^Zan e~ xf(n \ steadily increases to infinity (this

If as

not hard to modify the result of Ex. 27 (p. 251) so as to apply where f(n} is a positive function which
to

x tends

12.

u. Phys.,

Bd.

## 18, 1907, p. 19.]

Prove that

if

O<#<^TT,
*

cosx
13.

cos 3^ cos 5x + ) ^ o

\
...

)=cos.r +
if

cos 3.r

o3

cos

5x

R2O

+ ...

From Ex.

2,

## Art. 90, deduce that,

O^^^TT,
sin

_ sin x -X(TT-X)TT
,
v

sin
I

3#

bx
+...,

^p
if

^3

14.

[EULER.]

From Ex.

13,

shew that
2

-^=v=%Tr,
siii3#
sin 5^7

7r.r/7r

#2 \_

llTT 4

~ar

~5*~

1536
15.

v/2
2,

cos

5.r

if

-\TT^X^.
t
1

3x

cos

cos

*ix

1. 3.

5~3. 5.75.7.9"

_TT = CC
8

~3

and

find the

sum
that

16.

Shew

0<y<l.

## etc [L'A.MiK and ScHlAMlLcil.] and apply Ait. !U.|

[Put

= 0/27Ti,

^=27r//

iii

Ivx.

:i.

Art.

!>n.

x.|
17.
r'n.i.1
:

i:\

\\n
it'

i-duce that

li

between th

two even

integt

f
aild rXHUlillf the
r.i

[Writ,- *
18.

(A
that

8r)r,

-f

-.]

Shrw

and divide
19.
\\li.-r-

this r<|iiati>n

int..

ival

and imaginary
_.;-<' 0'r

|.

Sh.-w that

_.
//

rintar
9

is
.'

tli,-

ditr.-ivn.T
r

between
tineerifl

and

tin-

int-^-!
90,

to

v.

-d
is

-L'>/)

iii

## and ..W-rve that

20.

If

"

an int-grr and
1
'

<

><./<!, we
4n*
th<<>

V'
,~i
\vhri'
-

m* - ri*
i-xdudt-d from
.-,
00
I

~~n
[Kx.
tlic
if
if if
</,,( / /)

'

summation.

3.

Art. 90.]
r-

21.

If

1"'th

y an-

lirt

\v-rn

and

j.,

w- ha\-

following

-7r(./--i),

-r>v,
.'

or

--('

-.{),

or
i'.-v)

= 7r[</>,(,-) +
T-'[</,,(,-)

+ // -

J],

if

.r>y, .r<y,
2.

or
<.V,o>
,-'-.,-

+ </>,(,/) 4- .i-H,

if

+J

is

22.

By writing

## Mt. 90, or otht-i-wise. sh-w that

sllll:

Sllll;

|
!i)
t.

0<<>r.
of
MI

Use

Stok<-s'>

mil- (Art.

the otln-r
'/'

l>y

ditlrivntiatin.i:.

[JVM.
i-t

23.

rxainjilf.
2
-

that

77

.
!

>

7T

'

_sini
.

-1

1 -I)"" '**"

<..<...,

Slllll

|c=
and obtain
l.v
a
.

+(-!)"

258
24.

Shew
that the product

[CH.

## converges absolutely except [If the general term is

25.

when x

is

!-,

lim(iAi) *

a positive integer.

Evaluate

#2 [(H-.r>4) and
i i

7,

p.

23.]

26.

From Ex.

10,

## Ch. IX., find the values of

27.

Prove that

where

log H c
of logc being taken.

any determination
28.

[HARDY.]
[GRAM.]

Shew
i

that
so that
t

n^l=| +
2
*i

</J

[If

= J(-l+iV3),

= l, we

Now

write

that

29.

Shew

that

"1
_^
w^-r

TT

[We
L

have
^

= 4

where

$f4?\i+to J_Y_1-- i), / is 1. ## Thus, as in Ex. 22, Ch. IX., the given sum and ## this gives the required result.] 30. Apply a method ## similar to Ex. 29 to find x.| 31. \MI-LIProve ti 259 that til.- lr;i-t Vtlllf /j_v ' [.I//'/. 7 rip. 1892.] *)+/ and so the 32. %U+(* + i>)~n+<*-iy)r sun. Shew that -l 4/1- -1 , .. 7J\/3 ,7T V ^ech-^-. [M,,- 1898.] + ,T^ 2^^"2M^rV' \\li.-iv <,> = ^(-l4-'x easily reduced tliat ii tli* .iriv-n seriei A7r{cosec(i7rto) t< whirh 33. is tin- -jivi-n fm-ni.] Sh.-w aivtan, 1 ., -arc tan., .\ tan ... ...... =arc tan L 1891.] [.!/ [It is <>asy t<> prove that aivtan-5 "- -.'- - an- tan f * N ## ..I -fare tan X x ..I, \ 3/ and it follows that th.- ^ivt-n il to \, \vh-i. :;. .\i'pl_\ iil ## the ^ivcii foiniula.] 34. Slu-w that '= " L In partii-ulai- \ve tintl \\ \n + .r/ ith H3 v/ 1 l<s i 0-1= T -- + are tan rsinh(Tr.r)~l . -.') 260 ## COMPLEX SERIES AND PRODUCTS. [CH. X.] [We have and log tan(^-) In each of these, change x tox + iy, and equate the imaginary parts on the two sides.] 35. The points P, Q have coordinates (p, q\ ( the point with coordinates (na, 0). Shew that - p, if q) respectively is then [If ## we write p + iq=x, -p + iq=y, x ## [Math. Trip. 1894.] tan0=tan(7rp/a)coth(7r?/a). it will be found that ## id = log sin (n-xja} - log sin (iry /a).] 36. Verify that, if is a positive integer, ## where we are to put EP [Apply Art. 94.] 37. = -B BP+ = Q l after expansion. ## [Math. Trip. 1897.] Shew that fcotf-1-^fj-B^-.B.f;-..., and that x g 2 sin ## _Bx^ + B^x*_ + BS^ + 2~2! 4 4! 6 6! 84), (Jar)"" ## 38. In virtue of Baker's theorem (Art. powers of x if |#|<JTT, and if we write ## we can expand sec# in the coefficients En ## are called Euler's numbers. Prove that =1385, 111 l-3^ 1 # = 1, ^ = 5, 2 ^ = 61, XXX., + 5^-7^+... = 2^, TT''" +I ^ )f .'-" ## [See also Chrystal's Algebra, Chap. 39. 3.] ## Shew from Ex. 37 that cos x cosh x iog--^40. -^ n+lcos ,<,_ ,, Bn ^-)^(2^r [Math. Trip. 1890.] Assuming is large. Stirling's ## formula (Art. 179), shew that J when n CHAPTER \ XI. ## CONVERGENT AND ASYMPTOTIC SKIM 96. Short bibliography. follow in- Tin- are th-: principal BOOTOeS l'r<.ni which this ## chapter has been d'Ti\<-d r.'i;K!., /.5 is, 1901. 2, 1896, p. 103. 1899, p. ]>. !. Normal < 10, 1. n. ISDO, ;. IN. H', II. H.MM'Y, '/// '.<> i. ij'.iT 'am ,,. (published 1902). ^ //,///.-//// I-:. ./" '/>//// nf M,iti. 01.36,1908,1).! LI. BtoT, I'.HH. II. I'. I I p. 317. 1 l^"' 1 .. I'. .. \ / \.-\\ Yolk. l!n;., j.. < i'/.ig, 1906. 97. Historical introduction. tiniiu'tlii..ls <!' r.rfniv Analysis before tin( had IM-.-II put on sinv footing, and in jiarticular l>y tln-ory of convergence had little t Alirl and ## 'audiy. niatlicinat iciaiis liad ln- in u-in-- in ii-r ## n\ -i-r^-nl aeriea in Imtli n-tical and ## investigations, In nunirrical Work, however, which tin- art- n..w rallc.l ln---in If ## naturally used i.nly asymptotic (Alt, l.'JO below); in such tli.-y s< trnii.s to decrease, tak.- the and r.-ach minimum, afterwards incr we sum ## to a stage at which the terms th< *T listi; rs ## on these serifs use part of ti trgtnt aa including in viotis quotations. a<i 262 ## NON-CONVERGENT AND ASYMPTOTIC SERIES. [CH. XI. we may hope to obtain an approximation with a degree of accuracy represented by the last term retained; and it can be proved that this is the case with many series which are convenient for numerical calculations (see Art. 130 for examples). are sufficiently small, An ## important class of such series consists of the series used : by astronomers to calculate the planetary positions it has been proved by Poincare * that these series do not converge, but yet the results of the calculations are confirmed by observation. The explanation of this "fact may be inferred from Poincare's theory of asymptotic series (Art. 133). But mathematicians have often been led to employ series of a different character, in ## which the terms never decrease, and : may increase to infinity. (1) ## Typical examples of such series are (2) (3) (4) ## i_i + i_i + i_i + ... 1-2 + 3-4 + 5i^2 + 2 -2 3 + 2 ## Euler considered the finite 1-2! +3! -4! +5! -6! + .... " sum " of a non-convergent series as the numerical value of the arithmetical expression from the expansion of which the series was derived. Thus he defined the " sums " ## of the series (l)-(3) as follows ( ~1 + 1~2' and of Art. 98 (see p. J__l. ^_ _1. -(1 + 1)2-4' ,^_ -1 + 2-3' _L ## his discussion of the series (4) will be 267). ## found at the end In principle, Kuler's definition depends on the inversion of two limits, which, taken in one order, give a definite value, and taken in the reverse order give a non-convergent series. Thus series (!) is ## lim l-limoj + limic 2 -lim^ 3 +... ; as x tends to 1 ## Euler's definition replaces this by ## So, generally, " sum " as lim X-+-C 2/w (c) is not convergent, Euler defines the 2/n (#), when this limit is definite a definition if ; ## which should be compared with the principle the beginning of Art. *Acta Mathematica, t. L'ormuluti'd .it !M). 13, 1890; in particular i:t. 97| 'I'-- fflSTOR* tlii- \i. [KTEODUi < i< definition IM- ('all.-t raided the in;.; >lj-cti>n in t tliat the series can aUo ohtained l,y writ he series (5) , +*-+..., istead of$.
n,,-i
I

whereas the left-hand side th.-n This ol.j.-ct ion ..!' 'all.-t 's \\as
(

,\

## vrho suggeated that

ti

-h.ul<l

rk of Lagrange's, written as

ami

that th.-n

tin- <l-ri\-.-.l

..tiM

!>

1+0-1+1+0-1+140-1+.
Tin- la-;
I

imfl
....

to

!.<>.

|(i

BO
.

that
|,

tin- "

',

which
th-

i-

value
aeriee
<

^i\,. n
1

},y

1(

.ft
1.

hand
<>.

^\>\<-

.f

.">

In

nri^inal

).

cin^r
u-'ith
t-

i,

o.

i,

o, ...,

of which the

Kulci-'s

sum.

lla\inu rc-'ard

l>y

KulT and
M-i-ii-^

\\e

may

ftgrOe

with

Dnn-l

in

usin^ the

:

statement

that

the

ollcr

n:athMiiaticians
that

in

sutlicient ly
if

^(.o<l

results t

-vil-

COrrecl

Bi t"
..litaiii

themselves
i]l.1

,/,/////,/////.
.f

rxumplr
1>\-

tli-

is

atl"nl.-il
i.

pa-au

'

in

1.

p.

rier

is

ol)t;iiniiiu

\vliat
'

\v<-

should
}

IK>\V

call

K"iui.
la

inctk>O

f\

ih

and

## finds that tlu-

*Thi
tluMMvm
of
in

more satisfactory
l;,l.
x'.i,

basis
_'.,

Fiolx-nius c'
Ait.
."!

ls>u,

],.

iiat
liln

*-!
:iu
'

sum

,(

-f-

1)

lim

J.
with a few
al-.

MB

|>t

264
Tims the

## NON-CONVERGENT AND ASYMPTOTIC

...,

SERIES. [CH. XL
and may therefore

coefficient of sin x appears as 1-1+1-1 + be expected to be if we adopt Euler's principle. As a matter of fact this is correct, since
,

sinh

## x sin x dx = | (cosh x sin x - sinh x cos x \

2 f
I

so that

f(x)*v&xdx=^.

Abel and Cauchy, however, pointed out that the use of nontheir anxiety to

convergent series had sometimes led to gross errors; and, in place mathematical analysis on the firmest
foundations, they felt obliged to banish non-convergent series from their work. But this was not done without hesitation
;

thus

Abel

writes

to .his

former

teacher

Holmboe

in

1826

(Oeuvres d'Abel, 2me. ed. t. 2, p. 256): "Les series divergentes sont, en general, quelque chose de bien fatal, et c'est une honte qu'on ose y fonder aucune demonstration ... la partie la plus

Pour la des Mathematiques est sans fondement. il est vrai, mais les resultats sont justes, plus grande partie, c'est la une chose bien etrange. Je m'occupe a en chercher
essentielle
la raison,

## probleme tres interessant."

in

And Cauchy,

the

preface

of

his

Analyse Algebrique
par exemple, qu'une

un peu dures
"

## series (see Art.

the asymptotic property of Stirling's 132 below), by means of a method which can be applied to a large class of power-series. But the possibility of obtaining other useful asymptotic series was generally over-

Cauchy

established

in

looked by later analysts and after the time of Cauchy, workers the regions of analysis for the most part abandoned all
;

In England, attempts at utilising non-convergent series. however, Stokes published three remarkable papers! (dated 1850, 1857, 1868), in which Cauchy's method for dealing with
Stirling's series was applied to a number of other problems, such as the calculation of Bessel's functions for large values

of the variable.

## *Of course no one would now regard made it.

fSee the references
of Arts.
1.'!::,
i:i.~>

Ix-low.

97, 98|

M.I:

\l.

ON8IDBB

Hut

no

-eii.-ral

tin
.1

OOming
until

ISM!,

nil
tli.-

the

<|Uot-d
In

in

Ait
in- articles
tin-

the

t'oll.\\
t

we
i)l'

^hall

r.

.r

mod

par!

e..ntine
1

1>\

theory

non
al

)i

1'nuvl

in

MMI. although

we

<!> not

series.

98.

## General considerations on non convergent

\ii-\v

In

of

th'-

r.-sults

ol.taiiK-d
ins

in

th-

]>ast

l.y

th-

use of
a

non
I'.-rlVrtly
j.ivcis,-

prnhaM.- that
juirpo-.^

\ve

can attach

niranii

sud
uiili-r |M

may
cnal'i'

1-

M---I

!'<

.r

ivergenl of formal

calculation.

jtrictioDB,

Tim- we attempt

to formui.-i'

which

n a

tvergenl
a
call

not).

t<

as-ociatf
f

\\ith

it

is

dclinitc

function

....
It

## numhcr. which and which

i-:

i-

of course
nl

olvins
hut

tliat
it

the

(letinition cho-.-n

to a

l;i

arl.itrary;

>lnull

he such that
lie,
(

that the
to
!,u

c-alciilatioii

s

M'

COUT
aeriea

i'leiit

BUBD

'i

with

a noii-

convergenl

i-

not

conf-'unded
.

## with the sum of a

a'

in the sense of \rt.iii: hut it will Convergent confusion if the deiinit i<ui is such that tin- same operation,

when

applied
.'In
i..
I..-

Qvergenl
t.-il

yields thtliat

sum
rate,

in

tli.-

ordin

|i..ii,

..in
hi.-,

Kuii-r.
"
't'

;it

;.n\

wai perfectly

## of the di>t inrti'in

ln-t \\t-f

"

sum
lu-

nmi

.nvcr'_:-ii;

Of I
hat tin-

Tliu>

says

(jj<

los-l
i

U
1

d.\
ii>u.-ly raiiiu't
1;

I-:
doesS.

mi
1

.'.

in tin/

>nlin:r
i>,

th- larp-i-

tin- iinira

i-th tlu-

lull

account of this

IM-.T;.

rory see

Ar

-w).

266

## NON-CONVERGENT AND ASYMPTOTIC

SERIES. [CH.

XI.

And he adds, after referring to various difficulties, that contradictions can be avoided by attributing a somewhat different meaning to the word sum. "Let
us say, therefore, that the sum of any infinite series
the expansion of which the series
infinite series 1
is
is

generated.

## In this sense the sum of the

because the series arises from

-x+x

-x* + ...

will be

--

the expansion of the fraction, whatever number is put in place of x. If this is agreed, the new definition of the word sum coincides with the ordinary meaning when a series converges and since divergent series have no
;

sum,

proper sense of the word, no inconvenience can arise from this new terminology. Finally, by means of this definition, we can preserve the utility of divergent series and defend their use from all objections."
in the

In writing to N. Bernoulli (L. Euleri Opera Posthuma, t. 1, p. 536), Euler adds that he had had grave doubts as to the use of divergent series, but that he had never been led into error by using his definition of "sum." To this

## more than one expression, and that

-could be given.

Bernoulli replies that the saine series might arise from the expansion of " if so, the sum " would not be definite
;

to which Euler rejoins that he does not believe that any example of this

However, Pringsheim (Encyklopddie, Bd. I., A. 3, 39) has examples to shew that Euler fell into error here but in his definition almost exclusively in the form Euler used practice
given a

number

of

and

if

which do not bottom, from those held by modern workers on this subject although of course his attempted definition leaves something to be desired,
It will be seen
differ greatly, at
;

restricted to this case, Euler's statement is correct. from these passages that Euler had views

in the light of

modern

analysis.

It is to be carefully

## borne in mind that the legitimate use

is
;

of non-convergent series

merely

always symbolic the operations being convenient abbreviations of more complicated transin

" shorthand Naturally this background. labour us to the of not enable avoid representation" does justifying the various steps employed but when general rules

formations

the

have been
It

laid

down and
in

firmly

established

we may apply

## them with confidence

may
work

the

particular case. that we might just as well writr be urged very likely in full, and so avoid all risk of misinterpretation.

any

But experience shews that the use of the series frequently suggests profitable transformations which otherwise might never
be thought
of.

An

c.\ainj)k;

of

this
(//.

## may be taUm fr>m

Euleri ()//'! /W/tuma,

KuK-r's
t.

ronvspmuli'iu-.' with
;

Nicholas JWimiilli

1,

p. f>47)

uhrir

ilu> ivul

98,99]
olij.

BBL'fl

WTBORA1
Caning
ti-

ll.-

prOTM

lir-t

that

th- M

'!'

which

In-

nlitain-

tin-

intrirral

if

|-;h''

"

(l

in

tin-

"th.T hand,

liv

## n>inu' tin- rul-->

which

In-

li:nl

olitain-d

f-r tin-

transformation
j?

x
i-h

2.r

&r

3.r

3oi-t-

1+
aiid
it
1:

1+

rr
l.v
I.

TT~ r+~

|.r..v.-(l

"~Ldt = 1 1+AY 1+
N"\v this n-latiun
\v..rk
l.t-.>

__-__
1+
1

1+

1+
1

1-f
ill

n.it

iUggi
i

naturally \vithut
is

tlie

nnai -ki-d,

it

r\ idnit

tli..'

.r1,

1>\

fi-.-ni

Writing

Kult-r cl-tains

th<- c'.ntinu.-d

fia.-tion tlic

nuivfrgente

1>
and
value
Ity

usini;

tli-

l-'Uh

and

1-lth

In-

int"-i-

tin-

numerical

Hr then

J

and

-f

tin-

## 99. Borel's integral;

Tl).-

summable
<>!'

series.
la->t

general considerations

th.-

m-ticl.-

lta\.t

n\\ to be
In-

## Specialised ly adMjitin-" as Insum of a n

t

aome

mivrntinnal im-jmin^

tak.-n

Hardy,

in

tli:

[.MJM-I-S
//'

i|ii"ti-.i

rniulatt'd

tlu-

inllowin-- jn-incijilr

definib ordt

vdku

A'.

Imt.

268

## NON-CONVERGENT AND ASYMPTOTIC

Y,

SERIES. [CH.

XI.

meaningless expression

we may agree

to interpret

as

meaning

X.
~=o

## For example, the equation

J
is it

f(x,

n)dx =

[lim/(#, n)]
n-><x>

dx

JO

But true under certain restrictions* on the function f(x, n). definite may happen that the right-hand side is perfectly

be

while the left-hand oscillates between certain values (which may oo and + x ). In such cases, Hardy's principle is that we

may
limit.

sum

to

n+1

terms

and that

o

<&(x)dx
Jco o

is

con-

vergent,

when

is

not

if

so,

we have an
of a non-

integral ivhich

may

"

sum "

convergent

series.
<j>

<t>

The

n (x)

n (x)

= e-*un x n/nl,
x.

where

un

is

independent of
too o

n (a?)

dx = un

arid
let

e-*<$>(x)dx is ## x convergent, but lime- (f>(x) does not exist, may be obtained by taking so that It follows ## from a general result due I to ## du Bois Reymond that ## 2 - 3 exp ( x sin .^) dx is ## convergent (see Ex. 3, Art. 166). in a power-series for ## The function$(x) can obviously be expanded

value of x, although the law of the coefficients
is

any

not simple.

absolutely summable series, we may refer to those given already in Art. 103. Thus, for instance, take Ex. 2; here it will be seen that

As examples

of

and
so that

dx*
the

dx

is

cases

>

0.

Similarly

other

are

proved

to

be

absolutely

summable.
105.

For we have

so that
|

u(x)

^ v(x),
5> n
Jo
is

if

vn =

un

\.

Now,

e~*v(x)dx

## converges (Art. 100), and thrn-l'mv the integral

e-*u(x)dx
{oo

is

absolutely convergent.

104, 105|

Mill.!

-279

Further.

tli.'I

m
.same
I

## ^_it A+1 H-v/ A ^_.-i-

...

is

absolutely conthis

tin-

argument applied
\dx

to

series

shews

that

tin-

int.

Jo

## dec absolutely convergent

absolutely
1'iit
I!..)-.

That

is,

an absolutely n.h
-

suiiiinable.

in. -lit.
is

that

any
lias

<-<>n\

utely

Minmiablr,
const

not correct. as
llar.ly
(in
h

b.-.-n
I

proved by an example
.a
]

n id.

-.1

l.y
is

per.

pp.

-~>

2&).

This

fxaiiijil.-

^ivrn hy

takin.u'

in

\\liii-h

K,

-I/'

i-

\\li.-n

/-

r-,

and
ill.-

i-

"

\\ li'-ii

i-

lid

M]
;

and
in
all

that
'lie

lai-<->t

saint-

.id.i

is
It

s
t

\\hich

:
i-

and

that

'*
<
\

u(x)\>
L.-inu'

K r,

\\ln-i.- K
r

intn -\

any int-u

-i.

that

^'-nt.

It

is

## hut not absolutely:

easy to construct simple series which aiv suiimial>l<\ an example is ^i\-n by the series

For here
and so
I

')=

x ['

(c.s./-+

sin

./)

!],

v , f*cosic (j-)<Lr=\

c-'-f/sinaj -

_ ^ ==
,
fl

But
SO
i

ucc

"i
|*\

,.-*

Jo

U(x)\dx^\ Jo
.

lit.

{
In iVLranl
t

this srrii-s.

\v-

m>t<-

that

-O/^
\vhirli
'

tends

t<

B6TO, a
i

in

thu>. as

in

Art.

1"1,

we

B66 that

"'
I

ges.

280

of this integral
x
is

SERIES. [CH.

XI.

so that
/oo

## not absolute, because

\er

u'(x)\^j2lx-2la?,
is

if

Thus the

integral

JQ

e~ x u'(x)
\

dx
|

divergent.
Vac
I

Similarly,

we

e~xv>(x)dx,
/oo
I

A.

being any

## index of differentiation, and the divergence of

e~ x \u x (x)\dx.
all

Thus

the

series

^A +

%+ + %+
i

+ "-

summable for

values of

A.,

If the

summable

series.

## are both absolutely summable, and

if

wn = u
then the series
is

also absolutely

summable, and

W = UV;
For then we have
I

Jo

e- x u(x)clx\
- (x+v)

e~

Jo

= lim
where the
square of side X.

\\ A->oo J J

u(x)v(y)dxdy,
taken over the area of a

## latter double integral is

Now, in case u(x) and v(y) are both positive, the integral taken over a triangle such as OA'C' lies between the integrals taken over the squares OABC and OA'B'C'] so that, since the
latter integrals both approach the limit uv when OA tends to oo, the integral over OA'C' will also approach the limit uv. 15nt if u(x) and v(y) are not always positive, the difference

105, 106|

Mi I.TIN. h
tinini

\TIN
n.\ /;'
I.

between
tin-

OA BO and
'

integral

"'WaOI.
1

'"

the integrals
f
J

.I//'

''//.!

an<l

this

is

the

dil

A
-

C
'

A
"

'(

'i)\dy

Jo
'

and
Jo

'|tt(j")|

tLc
\

e"V\v(

which teniU

to
r
I

30

ii,

e~*

and

r
<

-'

Jo

Jo

lim
A

'

>/:Jj

<lxdy,
t.
!

when-

tin-

integral

is

now

tak-n
i-

"\-.-r

th- ai-ea of

Del

wl.^-

sil-77

_\.

us write
tli-

= .,-+,/
Ix-conif-

= ^,

and th-n

intr-Tal

Jn
|

l-iy.].
Jo

.-(

Owino-td the
^I'-.'nt
I'.-)-

fact

l'>r
\\

//

./

).

-(//)

aiv

al>s,.

lately

any \ah

## can obtain the product

fti-)]-*(dr)
hy
the
rule
t'or

inultijdicat

i.

.11

of

Beriefi

(Ari

uid

the

product-Seriee

will
iliat

obvi

be

uniformly

convergent

with

resped

we may then
in

integrate terin-hy-terni.

the

|>r

and

['

,,

tl.al
I

282

## NON-CONVERGENT AND ASYMPTOTIC

integral over the triangle
is

SERIES. [CH.

XI.

Thus the

where
-and accordingly

we have

the equation

uv =
'0

## But we have not yet completed our

the last integral
is

the

sum

and
is

summable.

It

we can

because

|TP()|
if

=
Jo

u {(l

*i)} I-

v (&)\ d>j.

Hence,

we

## reverse the argument used above,

rx
r\

we

find

e~%
JA o

e~ W(g)\dg<\ Jo

\u(x)\dx.

Jo

e~y\v(y)\dy

Joo o

e-*\u(x)\dx.\ e~y\v(y)\dy.
Jo

is

## convergent (see Art. 166).

let

To complete the demonstration of the theorem, the two absolutely summable series
Their product
is

us multiply

## given (in virtue of the foregoing) by the absolutely convergent integral

where

106|
'I'll.'!'

Ml UII'LK

\TI<

)="',,+

"-,V

...-,/'

"|

anil

so

ah
|

JO

--'Itrtf)

ami therefore
ix

<

Jo
ahsnint.-iy

W((

gent
:

No*
i^

HT()

i*()

-,4-^;-

-r

<<>...

tin-

t'unction assu-iatrl

## with the scries

//-

w=
whicli
is

4- /r t 4- /'._>+...
its

## therefore suniinablr: ami

sum

is

r|ual to that of

0+ "'+"'!+ "',4-...
If

(Art

101).

we multiply

Mimmable
'-+'"'

ser;

//
;{

+"

+...

'
,

'i

we can

<

'out

inning the

].r..cess.

VT6

can

pn\v

that

Jo
|

e.n

for

any

int.

ue

.,f

\;

an-1

aceuplin^ly

the

!'<)hltely

slJininahle.

By

>lutely

t'nllnwili.
//'
/'
.

suniinal-i

the

''

p
Ill

IIKllll'

ng

fl
/

si

'/'//

i4

un#

6c

284
107.
series.

SERIES. [CH.

XI.

1.

Ex.

results agree

Of course these
Ex.2. Write

,

(7=l+cos
'

## + cos 20 + cos30+... =0 + sin + sin 20 + sin 30+

...
l

then

C7+i#=l+e + e K * + e s ''+....

+ 4e ^ +
3

By

C and S

## found in Art. 103,

..

it is

easy

to deduce that

+ cos 0+2 cos 20 + 3 cos 30+ = + sin 0+2 sin 20 + 3 sin 30+.. = 0,
.

cosec 2 (|0),

Ex.
3.

## Another exercise in multiplication

directly
2
;

is

given by squaring

C and S

this yields

above. These 2 We can also find C + S* by multiplying (C+iS)x(C-iS); and we can find CS directly.
108. Multiplication of non-absolutely summable series. Hardy (p. 43 of his second paper) has given two theorems, \vhirh are the extensions to summable series of the theorems of Mertens (Art. 35) and

= Jcosec0(sin0+ sin20+ sin 30+...) + JO + 2 cos + 3 cos 20 + ...), = S + sin 20+ sin 30 + .) | cosec 0(siri -1(1 +2 cos + 8 cos 20+...). 2 S 2 found obviously agree with the value of C
2
. .

The second of these extensions will be found in Art. 111. theorem is that it is sufficient to suppose one of the series u v then w will be summable and its sum will be equal absolutely summable We suppose that u is absolutely summable, while v is summabK' to uv.
Abel (Art.
34).

The

first

On
(luubl

it

is

plain

is

tin-

OA<\ <>M>C

107, 108

Mi LTIPLU

\i

i"V

writ,-

ami

th. MI

/'

'

tin-

integral
limit

c~ y

<(>/}

<(>/

is

roppoted
<.f

tt

<

.n

vergent,

^(

finite
;

upper

//

f<T all

values

* ami A

hat
if

X-jrg
from
in

Now
exceed

may

t\v.

parts,

to
],v

A-// and

fim

\-fji to A;
//.

in

tin-

t'oimei

>>(
i

is

l-xs
.

than

t,

the

Tims, sim-o

</>(./)

we

timl

\D\<
.'0

,(

Now
i<-

/"*
/

<:

so

if

we take

the limit

last

## incijuality as A trmls t> infinity.

\v.-

timl

lim

l>

A->
Hut
!

i-

arl'itrarily small,
/>

ami
i>

M
tin-

p.

.")

tin- la-l

in.Mjuality

I)

Thus lim
A-+-OO

0; and

tin-

intr^ral OTef
I

<>.(!',<'

may again

II'

## !ila--l ly th- intr-ial ..VIM- tin\\,m.i\ \\ nt-|iu;. Q Art.

'.!

'
.

lim

/
|

A-*
the integral l.ein- taken over the triangle

OAO.
the same lines

r

\.i.-lly
"', -f

tlint
It

one
can
)>e

shewn

that

any

s-

+ ...

is

summahh' umler

r-

H.'I

is

that

"a

-4-

"'.,,

-i

"a

.-

...

may

l.i-

summal>le

t

286

SERIES. [CH.

XI.

mable

of a variable
a,

so that

we may
a\ =

write
( a \?L_.

u (x

^u
o
oo

word uniform,

we

## shall say that

to

Tlie series

Q^un (a)
o

is

uniformly summable

with respect
e~ u(x,
x

a in

an

interval

(/3,

y),

interval.

## a)dx converges uniformly in that

Thus, in particular (Art. 171, Appendix), the series is certainly uniformly summable, if we can find a positive function M(x} >

independent of

a,

such that

\u(x,a)\<M(x\
while
j.90
I

(/3^a^y)

e~ x M(x)dx is convergent.

(i)

are true

If

all

the

terms

un (a)

are

is

n (a) is
o

o

uni-

## formly convergent for any

the interval
(/3,

finite value of x,
00

when

a lies in

y), the

## sum o^un (a)

is

a continuous function

of a in the same interval. For then, if a is any particular value of a in the interval
oo

r
1

## Km (?un (a) = lim

a >a

e~ x u(x,

a >a Jo

a)dx= ^ e^'lim

|<

[u(x, a)]dx,

->o

this transformation being justified by the of the integral (Appendix, Art. 172).
00

uniform convergence
n

Next lim
a^oo

[u(x, a)]
is

= lim
a-^-oo

~ =u x 2 ^() x = 2 <(o) x
U

*
o

71

IT,

>

o).

because

u n (a)

a continuous function of
45).
r JO
is

a,

and the

series

oo

Thus

a->a

## which sliews that the sum

a continuous function of u

.it

any

## point of the interval

(/3,

y).

109, iio|

hii ii.

IMA n

TI\ \M>

i\

raoB

di

/',/./, r

tht

9am
T[
Jft

<* in

(i

"
\

Jft

it-Hi

be cor/
f..ll..ws l,y

This
tiii)

an ar^uinenl
conditions
of

similar to that of
"/"'/'/////'///
*/////''

(i).

//

//"

saint

'*

^
easy deductiOD from A

00

This thenivm
110.

is

also

aii

\~~2.

00

Ex.

1.

If

we consider

tl.

where x
o

is

& complex
that

number

,

less
f

than
j

1.

we

find

Jn

135*
;

where
It
.

me

that

may be observed
and
e.'nse.jurntly.

if
1

lesa
ft

than

i.

f
,

wlieiv

...

\\i:

fi

is

## but positive. thwith rrsprct

is
/5

inti-^i-al
:

for

.'

will
:

conv'i-^f

unifoi
oo

t..

./-,

thus
P6gi
tin-

tl,.-

sum
:

^xn
1,\-

a
1

r..ntiniion.s
<i,

fuin-ti..n

.f

x within

tin-

ti.-l

as
If

is

nhvinus
(
I

f|-,,m

thr valu- of
lind

Ex.

2.

in

we

writ.-

that

and 80
Thus, the integral functi..n
00

bed
,/;,

with

288
because

## NON-CONVERGENT AND ASYMPTOTIC

we have
the algebraical identity

SERIES. [CH.

XI.

7^ = 7i(?i- l)...(?i-_p + l)+^l 1 ?iO- I)... (n-p + ty + ^. + Ap^n, where A 1} A 2 ... A p . are certain coefficients which depend on p but not on n (compare Exs. 4, 5, p. 170).
,
,

Hence

\up (xt)\^e*

(t*

+ \A
t

\tP-

+...

+ \A p _

1 \t),

## and therefore the

integral

re~
.

up (xt)dt
a.

converges uniformly

if

cos

=1

Thus we may
00 00
,

'

is

## <25^ sin 710, as

i

often as

we

not a multiple of

2?r.

Hence we

## J^n* cos 7i0 = 0,

i

J?VS+1 sin n6 = 0.
i

## Taking O = TT in the we find the results:

1* _ 2* + 3* Again,
.
. .

first

## equation and J?r in the second,

1
26 +1
'

= 0,

- 3* +1 + 5 2s+1 -

= 0.

is

TT.

we

find

_ <>>+i)
92+2
I

5].

Thus

in particular*

l_2 + 3-. =
..

(Art. 103),

*The

## similar to those used in Art. 103.

second and third of these may also be obtained by means of devices See also Art. 126, Exs. 2-4.

110] In
lik.-

Di;

NATION
sn

\\i,

289

manmT
COB

ih,-

sec

l.-a.U

to

tli.'

n-iilt

where E

Buler'fl

## 3+5-... = i(-l)'#., number (Ch, V Ex, C

I

[Ci

Hi-nee in particular
._:;

+ ;,-_...= _
.

Ex.3.

As examples

m we may tak-

the series

-n
whi<-li (as
in
-2)

ATT.

s fi &

Now
f^flq-MC* 6
Ji i

2n+l
scries

and

iherel'on' tin-

mi th- ri^ht
J,

is

convergent;
,;),

also,
4, p.

## 2cos(2?i + l)^/(2?i + l)=

1'

(see Ex.
2

290)

ami
<-..ii

28inc2/<
verges uniformly
l.y

l)c)

(2//

+ 1)

\V.-i.-rstraas's test.
"

--',,+rami therefore
o
./ft-. -

,,-

<-')'

1
In like

manner we
f J

pr-.ve that

dOOtdcW=2

^f *Hsin
i

ami

hei
I *fl,.
(

,t

d,/rt=9 is

V/ _1 V82<-i
T

g -:;io 2

2.

290
Ex.
4.

## NON-CONVERGENT AND ASYMPTOTIC

As other examples
first series in

SERIES. [CH.

XI.

integrate the
cos

Ex. 3 from
. . .

(0

< <
is

TT)

## where the resulting

series converges.

This series

summed

## independently in Art. 90, Ex.

2, and Ex. A, 43, Ch. VIII. series the from Similarly cos0 + cos20 + cos30+... = -J,

sin

to
.

...

=J

we

find,

by

integration from

TT,
. .

the results

sin

= JO - 0)
(0<0<27r)
to the simpler

= log sin 1 0.
These form
series converge,

## and the second one leads

...

cos

+ i cos 20 + J cos 30 +

## = - Jlog(4 sin 2 i #).

Similarly

we can

All these series agree with the results of Art. 65. establish the results
sin

## 0- J sin 30 + i sin 50-

= ilog(sec + tan 0)
=i?r
(0

and
Ex.

sin
.

...

< <

TT).

5.

T If

^=

we

get

Thus

The values
Ch. X.
(p.

of

for

cc

= 0,
it

cc

=2

follows that
.

u=T
6

1 /
(

,
i

- -

For other

## applications, leading to the values of

some

interest-

ing definite integrals, and for the investigation of conditions under which the equation

refer to the latter part of the references given in Art. 96). paper (see
is

true,

we must

Hardy's

first

110, ill

(An. 5L)
tin-

111.

that
oo

<*Un
//,/
,

is

n-al
ion.

possihilitv

of

summing

/
o

\v

i.

ami

lies

between

ami

1.

## \\V have th.-n,

l,y

li-tinit

<&u n =\ e-*u(xt)dx, Jo
t

ami
(

BO,

ehaninn^
fold

tin-

iml'-]>'ml-nt

variable

from

to

xt

=//, sa\

Thus,

it'

17 = 1+0,

su that

is

n-al

ami \>

ire

have

Jo

Now, by

eJo
|

Jo
f

Y.\.

~2.

>t

e-9< l +*>u(y)dy
6,

i

in

any interval

(0

oo

Ih-nce

^*u o
(

t"

can le
1).

havi- the result
l

resp.

the interval

<>,

Thus

in

partieiilar

w-

')='

Further,

pi-Mvi.lr.l

that

the series

ummaMe

f->r all

(^u n
o

n
t

is
1

positi\.-

\aluesof

less

than

)]

= 0,

(X^O).

292

## NON-CONVERGENT AND ASYMPTOTIC

find a constant A, such that

SERIES. [CH.

XI.

Thus we can

Now
so that

[*e-*^[u(xt)]dx

= P-

\e

to
oo

is

00

taken up

must converge

(Art.

166);

by the

series
o

## Thus we have the theorem

//
n o^u o
is

*
:

summable, then
t

o^un n is
t o

uniformly summable
1);

oo

in the interval

(0,

and

if,

further,

is
o
oo

summable for

(^un n
t o

is absolutely

is

between

and

1.

## immediate consequence from this result theorem on multiplication of series

:

An

Hardy's second
the

// neither

u nor

is

absolutely

summable

equation

uv = w
that

is still correct is

00 00 CO
y

provided

summable.
series

Q7*u n t
o

n
,

<^vntn
o

Q^wn n
t

are

000
t

(0

< <
t

1).

approaches
/TV

1,

we have

*Due
Hardy

(p.

## in part to Phragmen (Complex 44 of his second paper).

Rendw,

t.

132,

1901, p.

1396)

and

to

111,112]
112.

!'<>V,

An important

class of

summable power-series.
|

Suppose that

where /()
int.-Tal
I'm-

i.s

sueh
is

tliat
j'

f(g)\dg
<

i-

convergent, so that

//

aUo absolutely
A. Art.

>n\ ,-r^ent.

Then, appl\

17").

\ve

have

beam-.'

tli.-

aeri
'/;-

## converges uniformly with respect to

is

and

H^I

Jo

convergent
I'm-

Thus

r.oivl's

int.-ral
'

P
[

"..//
it

c-'cfl

P
Jo

Jo
Fr<.in

Jo
t'>ll>ws

**/()<*

be inverted
i-^

imt

order of integration can integral, provided that the real part oi !'<>r then the than a fixed nuniher / i<l); ^reati-r is seen to be absolutely C(n\ rr^vnt ly coniparini: it
Art.
177.

that

tin*

in

this

with

tht-

"
o

Jo

Thus

IJiiri-l's

integral
I'
J

reduces to
C
(
-

/
1

V'/^
.''(

(real

part of
will

x^k <

It

is

-vident
t

that

the

last

integral

I
;

all

values of x
last

except

real

## values which are greater than

thus the

gives a larger region nl' suiiinialility \\V cnuld, of COUTSe, have adopted this than IJmvl'.x integral. " as a definition nl' the sum 1" making another l.y
,|'
,

int'-rai

\rt. 99 above); but it applicatinn of Hardy's prineip. would not have been evident to what extent the new definition

Could he deduce.
L.-

tVoin

Corel's.

in

.!' applicati< ms ni' this integral the paper ijunted above (Art. !ti). and the method has 1" nded )>y Hardy.^ ly th.- aid of contour-integrals,

*/'/

.oi.

;?,

ini:,.

p.

294
Ex.
1.

We have
1

SERIES. [CH. XL
1

J

Jo

(p>0),

series
1

+ 2* + 3* + 4P+
is
>

3,

^2

can be

summed

and

its

sum
L

lo/dt =
r1
\

rff

Ex.

2.

Again,

-ji ^ +

=
1

r
/

00

e -* sin t

n~ l

d,

JQ

-'o

i

I_l-l2
is

J.1.92'

**%'

i_

summed by means

of the integral

Ex.

3.

If

can be

summed by

the integral

d-ft*-'- ^.
In particular,
if

## 6=1, the integral can be evaluated by writing

which gives
If
is

x is complex the last transformation requires a beyond our range, as it depends on the theory
4.

little justification,

which

of contour integration.

Ex.

where

## can apply the nirihixl

(m + l)

contained between two integers and m + 1 then, if w^O, we ..f Ex. 3 to the series obtained by omitting the first terms, and so pn>\r th.it tla- original series is summable by applying
is
;

Art. 101.

112, 113|

H
of

!'"\N

113.

Application
a
first

Borels

process

to

power-series

in

general.

## example, ennsider the series

1+r + .r- + .r +
;

\\'e

Jind

by Bond's

m.

-i

hod

so that

<

^x
?

!'

=\
Jo

t'~

('<(((=:I
'

and
is

this

integral convei--.-^.
1.

less

than

we

find

tin-

HI.
'

Cc
h
'

a?

a;

<

.,

j.i-n\

id.-.l

that

tin,,r

are

all less

than

1.

Tin-

i.^ioiis

suininaljility
in

thrv,-

t\v

## in<licat- the t-ircles of coin'tT^t'iict-

of

th<-

power-series.

snmmahle
I'ln

Similarly, the -jM-cial 861168 e\amin-d in the in the region imlicated in li-airr
3

last

article are

to

the

r.-njeeture

t!

Tin

m/mabili
,-<></
i
i

from

th<

origin

to

of

i/

il'|>"M- ;iny

jMMut

/' tak.-ii

in tln> rr_i:i"ii

tlu-i.

drawn on
-n

-iniMil.ii 'it;.

\m within or
le
.,11-iti--.-.

tlu-

-iivunr
hi.
}i

It

i> tli.-j.

endooee

".

/'

and

>till

296
Let
is

/(.r)

SERIES. [CH.

XI.
if

= 2an#n

## the mid-point of OP, and

is

it follows from Art. 82 that any point within the second circle,

is

circle
|

k\

= r.

## Thus and so we get

an

where the interchange of summation and integration is permissible because the series converges uniformly at all points on the circle since

Hence the
part of

integral
I

f
\

## f u*(x, t)\e~ dt converges, provided that the real

on the circle; now positive at all points at P, because OP subtends an acute angle 6 at all points of the circle, and so (f #)/*= pe**, where p is real and positive. Thus the series is absolutely summable at any point within the polygon

(-*)/

x/(

is

this is satisfied

when x

is

specified.

By the aid of complex integrals and a slight modification of the method of Art. Ill, it may be proved that if a power-series is absolutely summable at P, it can have no singularity within the circle described on as diameter.* This is the converse of the last theorem.

OP

It will be evident that, whenever the number of singular points is finite, the method of summation enables the value of the power-series to be found at points belonging to certain and we have thus regions outside the circle of convergence
;

## summable within any area inside

from Art. Ill that the power-series is uniformly the polygon of suinmdbility. This property completes the analogy with the circle of conIt follows

vergence^ Borel has also proved in a later paper t that if F(xt) is the integral function associated with the given power-series, then
the straight lines (drawn as above) determine on each radius through 0, the limit of the points x for which

(r]

<

<

## 122, 123, 124

Ml.
1

AN

Al.

818

in,

ly Art.

-"'I

\\-

B66 that

25;
11111

=shm

=
so that
liia

-.
'

=/

pl

\\hirh

is

tin

<

'tension of Frobe //' //>'* //,//,/, .r thi> theorem are air<>r.l,.<i i,\- M\-.
t.
!

:;

i.-sult

aj]).-;us

iK.vrl

lnt a closely

ivhit.-.l

th .....

h;i.s

been

=:

( J b+'i

+ -+-) - 5
!

ro
;

=71 -f- 1

7'

'"

= --r [7
~

"-'4-ri '^-f...

7'

tlu-n

if

/.

II.'ld.T has
<

|,i-..vr,l

that

lin: x

:.

It

stains

1;

that
!"

tin-

in. -ans

found ly

.tlmd and ly
t..
/

tli,-

>aiii.-,

and
|ti'<.

J.
t

Kn'])p* has
It

m hod
tlian

H.'.ld-r'>
'

i>

## usually l.cttn- to apply Ceskro's

an-oiiiit
!'

method

a given series on
124.
It'

it>

-_

ri-at-r >implirity.

\^

definition.

^LH
it
,

/'-ply

iiil<'trniiinat'

ami

lias

tlic

sum

/,

ii,

## EolloWS t'n.m thr

.l.'tinition

that

Thus

\v-

can

writ,-

SflJ

-^.i
-h

\\hri

that

(1)

lim
tli.-

=0.
i.l.-ntiti--

Benoe, remembering
tin-

of Art.

rj-j.

we have

n->\v

identity

(2)
i,

,1-0
/

'(i-x

314

## NON-CONVEKGENT AND ASYMPTOTIC

SERIES. [CH.

XI.

where the
&bove.

coefficients in p(x) are subject to condition (1) given And, conversely, if (2) holds, the series n is at 'most

Su

It
is

sum

I.

where
For we have
<r n =
/o n

lim{o n /-d^~

1)

-p n _i and A
|

*~ l}

= 0. = A * - A^,
(
|

and

so

if
|

/_!

< eljjtj
|

and

/>

< *A ^\
(

we can
or

## only deduce that

|er n
(

<e{
}

A^ + A^}
}.

*~*

cr n

/A

)<{!+ (2n/r)

Thus, owing to the presence of n in the factor multiplying r ~ l) be inferred that limJ IA^ \=Q
if

e,

it

cannot

## that the condition (1)

is

satisfied.

simple example

is

given by taking
<r

r=2 and
. .

Then
so that (Tn/A^ oscillates

(x)

=I2

between

and +2.
identity

In particular,
(3)

if
(r+l)

we have an

(l-x)-

2unx n = l
series

where P(x) is a polynomial not divisible by 1 x, the 2un is at most r-ply indeterminate, and has the sum I.
For
if

there are
r

p terms
than

in

## values of the coefficients of

is the greatest of the absolute P(x\ and if P(x\ it is clear that the coefficient of .v" in

P(x)(\-x)-

is less

MpA
by A n
(

(r

~ l)

and

## the quotient of this

is

Mpr/(r + n\

which tends

to zero as

n tends

to GO

In practice the most common form of identity - x)- (r + ^unxn = 1(1- x)~ (r+l} + P^x) (1 (1 (4)
l

is
2 r

)-

(3).

## theorem on the multiplication of The following lemma will be needed:

125. Cesaro's

series.

IfZu n
upper

2t> n

are

wo

series
(

limit, while v n /A n

such that \u n \/A ? has a finite tends to zero, then the quotient
( . . .

(u v n + u.Vn^ +
tends to zero.
It

(

may

?,

may

be zero here.

124, 125|

!.l

ll'l.h

[(

we can
\

find
II

aini
-

Um

Viilu.-s

ami

l^l-

>m.
;.:,*"

Then
ami

|2*,.,*|<r

|2*l<tt
rl
A',,

.ayH)

Now
ami
10

'x(l

= (l

/;

equal bo

Hence

vK^l'

-",

Consequent lv,
and, since

lira)

-*^

2u
,

v \/A (r+*+"~
it

can

1>

tak

follows that
==0.

--i
\\'e

-..~

" +1>

proceed

HoW

aii'l

Suppose

that 1"..

^''

I

## are /'-ply and *-ply V BO that I'.

.

i:

iliate

we can write

-^- /)

.1
wliei-.-

' +1)

+
=

o-(

p|
liin
-I

= ^/r,,.'[ft

.cli

that

f=0,

HIM

[o-,,/^!^}

Ti,

,1

>x(2
i

S
,.,-}-...-

wl"
e

(l-)
=

rn
in
in
/,'</>
/"(
l

where R(x)

r<

-.c)-

(r+

V-'')+ I'd-.'')
\\
,-

'

To each
n alo\.i->
/

of
:

the
i',

terms

can

apply the

lemma

.r

instance,
if

BO

/'(1-r)-"

SI
(

we have
Similarly for the

lin. ;A',,

A ?'
Ri

+l}

}=().
in
;,

two

..th,-r

termJ
.1

we have

lin. ;/,'

=0.

316

see

SERIES. [CH.

XI.

Thus we
and that
its

from
is

(1)

and

## (2) of the last article that the

degree of indeterminacy of

sum

equal to

2wn is UV*
:

## not higher than (r+s +

1),

The product of a series (whose degree of indeterminacy by a series (whose degree is s) can be formed as if the series were convergent. The degree of indeterminacy of the resulting series cannot exceed (r
is r)

126.

if

..
.

2.

The

series
.

find
s

..

is

>
;

has the

sum

For here we

=1

>

we

## i=-l> S 2 = 2 *3= 2, ... we have to evaluate

and

(n+ 1)50 + 715! = 1, (i-l)*2 + (ii-2)*3 = 2, = Thus, when n is even ( 2m), we have

Now

etc.

It is

## instructive to contrast the rules for transforming

and

combining asymptotic series with those previously established for convergent series. Thus any two asymptotic series can be whereas the product of two convergent multiplied together series need not give a convergent series (see Arts. 34, 35).
:

any asymptotic series may be integrated term-by-tern i, not although every convergent series can be integrated (Art. 45).
Similarly
*
111

fact

if <f>(x)

we can
if

find

r
Q
.

so that

"
Thus, since

= 0'(a
I

## >X where x > * >

x
'

a-

we

find
I

*'() </(*-*())

but the last cannot approach any definite limit other than zero may not take a// values greater inequality does not exclude oxcillatioH, since than .r as x tends to 00,
<f>'(x)
;
:

So

i.

133)

Til
I!M.

i:

l:Y

<r kSYMPTl

'

On

other hand
unless

ditl'eivnt

we
<l-ri\

in-

depend'-nt
'nptotir
aerii

ivasonin
.

-mlin^
li,

in

-in

in

apply
i.-ii-

tli-

<-on\

to

the

iliH'eivni
li;i^

that

th--

l'-i

an

contrasts,
In
wi-

bo*
tin-

l'-l

as sm-pi
to

convei

parameter with
d-tinition
pies,

ivsp.-et

\\

ilitl'.-n-n!

and

in

no on

way
tin-

enters
Ml in

in'" thasyni]'-

of

tin-

an
'

the

l.-jH

-niU

i>arani.

Tin- contract

may

l>c

ilii.

in

an eveo

iiioi-i-

l'tinilam-ntal

way.
1

"-llicii-ir

It

jM-rt'rrt ly

^
a

to .-xt.-ml
l>y

lnl-i
in
tin-

>au

ies.
i./

sniii.-tiiiifs
i-

convrni.-nt

our
tli.

## l-linitin and -ay

that

represented asymptotically

when

J
i

'I*

is

represented by

"+ X
.

''

!+..., where

<!.

l'

## two suitahly chosen functions

Thus, for example, asymptotic formula
f

Stirlii,_

the

n~.

i/V^...),
'

r1C
-2

/!
-2

12'

r =-B
,

11

-)

Hitherto

./

i,

sn]]ios,-d

to

ten<l

to

-s.

through
lin-rtion.
l;

\aluex
coiiij.lex
i

l.ut

the
/:

theory
in

remains
..tln-r

unaltei
Mt

and tends

to

any

definite

,-

dued analyi

336
In

## NON-CONVERGENT AND ASYMPTOTIC

fact, if

SERIES. [CH.

XI.

we can determine r_ a
"

## constants M, R, such that

2'

_i <M_ x
^l*!

HI C|> !->/?

it

that J(x)

follows from elementary theorems in the theory of functions is a regular function of l/x, and consequently the
is

asymptotic series

convergent.

For different ranges of variation of the argument of x, we may have different asymptotic representations of the same function which between them give complete information as to its nature.

good

illustration of this

phenomenon

is

afforded

by the

P>essel

134.

## Applications of Poincare's theory.

to

important application of Poincare's theory is solution of differential equations.! The method may be in the up following steps
:

An

the

summed

1st.

formal solution

is

vergent
2nd.
exists

series.

It is shewn,

## by independent reasoning, that a

capable of asymptotic representation. Thus we has been done in Arts. 131, 132 above, deduce a as may either, definite ^.epral from the series first calculated; or we may

which

is

it

with the
3rd.

series.
is

The region

determined in

## which the asymptotic

representation is valid. Poincare has in fact proved { that every linear differential equation which has polynomial coefficients may be solved by

asymptotic series; but his work is restricted to the case in which the independent variable tends to oo along n specified
*Camb.
p.

Phil.

41-J;

Mti/h.

## Tram., vol. 9, 1850, vol. 10, and Phy*. Papers, vol. 2, p.

also
r.

Mathe.matica, vol. 26, 1902, p. :>!>:}, that in the asymptotic series examined by him, the change in representation occurs at a value of the argument, which gives the same sign to all the

1857, p. 105, and vol. 11, See 350, vol. 4, pp. 77. -Js'i. and Papers, vol. 5, p. 283. Stokes

marks

terms of the divergent series. Some interesting remarks on the sense in which an asymptotic series gives a Million of a differential equation, have been made by Stokes (Papers, vol. 2,
I

]..

:W7).

Acta Mathematica,

t.

8,

1S86, p. 808,

AlTLh LTK
tli.i

M
.).-

PTl

-I

( i

BEE!

and
hy
tO
l.y

not

determined.
-perial
,

cases;* and
different
in

tilled

Horn
a

iii

iiiiin

we
ial

ma;.

detailed

diM-u^i,
tin-

,\

equation

.lacnl.Mhnl in

paper
intin-

|ii.t'-l

l.elnw

Poincare?fl

ami Manly
given
with
very
l.y
i'u',1

iii

.nst

met

Hai
oi
this
\\'.-

l>y

## ly power-Beriee referencea i^ ui\--ii

i^>

nmnary
l.y

{he

inei

a|..j.tMl

I'.ani.^

IM-VMIK!
<>!'

tin-

liinit^
in!

book, a
give,
fa

lr|M-nls
in

MM th- tlnM.ry
thl'nll\\ in-\\^-<\
l.c

## c< >nt< .111-

-rat inn.
iiH-th'.,l

art id.<l-aliirj;

^imjil.-

due to Stol

which can

in

with c-rtain

typ--

135. Stokes'

X
\Vi-itf
is
>

ar+D^,
consider
th-

ival

and

>
"
_p

I--=/UL,

-/'

= \, and

term

wln-rr
\\'.-

is

luro',

and

is

tind.

/

is

of the
IMis

form

/"

whnv

is

an

nioiv

-

and then

A'

## usin^ the greatest term

l.y

renmvrd

because logi

u log

'.

an<
lM iir

log Z
or

= M /-Aul.-(^/)-\ r+;(
-

Z
This
ivefl

/
:.

/-J. u/

A
,

c\p<

\uf>*/t).

the

See a series

ot
i

Is,

and
I.

U
:.
-.

'!! in

HIM

\iisohnitt \'l
;

//,

vol.

i-p.

ins, in;.
fi

c<ut>. rhit.

ua

338

/t
.

SERIES. [CH.

XI.

where q = e~^

Making use

we

## see that (since

is

q approaches the limit 1) the series in brackets approximately by 7r*(l q)~*, or by (2-jr//tiJ*.

represented

e'H-*
T
.

is

rr,

where

= x-.
same way, that
if

## M*(arO**" Hardy* has proved, somewhat

in the

f(x)

is

represented asymptotically by
+...

Aex/(27rx)\ where
and

= e~*.
SERIES.

SUMMATION OF ASYMPTOTIC
136.

Extension of Borel's definition of summable series. In the foregoing work (Arts. 130-135) we have shewn how to obtain asymptotic expansions of certain given functions, and we have established rules of calculation for these expansions.

We

are

now

;

## a given asymptotic series

Borel's integral.
is

## not sufficiently series, such as (Arts. 98, 132)

problem of summing method is to apply But on trial, it appears that Borel's method powerful to sum even the simplest asymptotic
arid the natural

If

we apply

Borel's

method

of

summation

to this series

we

## are led to use the associated function

which converges only if t<x. Thus the results of Arts. 99113 no longer apply, but we shall now proceed to modify the
definition so as to obtain corresponding results for such series.

We
and

have

u(t, x)

= x/(x + 1),
which
is

if

<

x,
t

.

regular, as

ranges from

to oo

(-2),

vol.

i>,

191)4, p.

339.

135, 136]

1M \Tl'\ OF
Hi.
i

U3YMPTO]

i<

339

as

d-tiniii^

writ-

in

this

intfi-al,

\vlii.-h

i,

e.\

I.

\\a-

'_

i\'-n

in

The
l>ut
it'

## t\vc integrals are

/

vah-nt so long an

is

real

and
./

p<>

c,mple\ th,- f,,nu.-r i- convergent e\,-,-pt \\ln-n negative. whereas the latter converges only if tin- ival part <>f
is
It

and
i->
j

i>

nut
in

ditli.'iilt

hat
(

tin-

I'MMIM-I-

in'

fiinrtimi

tin-

part

tin-

plain-

for

\vhi<-h
/.

th-

## an analytic ir-'in the

negative real
I

ny

p..-iti\.lint-s

numl..-!;

Thi- p;.

iy

two

paiall-l

juiin-il

as in

tl

lilish thi>

that
"te

<4<.

and
(

that

th.-

int.'-ial
!>

that

tlu-

test

..f

Ait.

174

Aj)pcti(li.\)

can

In likr niannri

tin-

function in
/
;

\ part of the plain' for which tin- r-al part this n-^iitii is l.oumlc.l l.y a line parallel to the iina^in.i!

tin-

nirtlio,!

in this

for Minmiin.o;

an

that

is

'.-

seri-'-

r-

OOB
i

tl.-tiiuMl

oi'

\aln-s of

is

i-ontinuous

i'roni

=
\vt-

to
di'tiiu'

tlu>

sum

..t'

tin-

srrirs

l>y

tin-

integral

'.
|

340

## NON-CONVERGENT AND ASYMPTOTIC

SEEIES. [CH.

XI.

ever,

To make any practical use of this definition we must, howassume further that a positive number I can be found
v-><n

such that

lime- lv fn (v) = 0,
differentiation.
is

where
It
is

is

any index of

evident that then the integral defines a function which within the region indicated in the figure.

analytic

137.

## Rules for calculation.

It is easy to see that the series of the last article represents the integral asymptotically, x being real and positive.

For,

if

we

integrate

by parts we have

= aU +-l
/

I .

e-'f(-\dt, \ /
/

because /(0) = a

We

we

obtain

Now, by
so that

hypothesis,

we can
w+1

## find the positive constants

|/
'

and therefore
Consequently,

"

(^)l<-^^
/

'

which establishes the asymptotic property. It will be remembered (see Art. 133) that the differentiation of an asymptotic series requires special consideration; but
this

special

may

be

differentiated

any number

of times.

For

(if

integral
(x

- l}t
,

x>l), because
t

\te-

f'(t/x)\<Atedt
is

and the

integral

te~

~ (x l)t

convergent.

Jo

136, 137]

SUM.M VTION
tli.-

n|

AS1 KPIU1
!'

I'

Now, within

int.-r\al

OQHV6fgenoe

"i"

/<

>;)

we have

so that

/'(g) is

ptotically

l>y

the series

-' x\x

a;

or

...), /

which
formal

is

tin-

Beriefl

d.-ri\rd

i'mm

tinlie

orij

## for /(#) liy

pat
.--I

diir.-iviitiation.

as

could

ant

ici

from

A
of times.

rly tin-

.

:'-al-i- \vl.

.intril

with

tli.-

lia\r

IK-

litliriilty in

## pruvin^ that th-se n-snlts arc valid within the part of

l.y

|ilarn-

indii-atfil

th-

i:i;.

L--t
i

IH

c.

.iixidnv

M.-xt

th.'

algebraic

operations;
ie Beriefl

it

follows

I'-Miicaiv

and multiplied as
the product can considered above.

theory that two asymptnt may be added if Uut w- must aUo pn>\v that convergent,
!.-

ivpi-.-^.-nt-'d

l>y

an

integral

of the

type

## \Ve have proved that

is

tin-

asympt'itie Beriee

-"nvspondin^ to

tin-

product,

it'

Now

if

both

AO-Xa

## oonverge und.-r the con. lit ion || such that |a w |r"<J/./!

f

= r,
1

we can
/

find a constant
/

6n |r"
(

< M.

Thus
|

Cn r-|<3f [/.:-h(//-i):

:J

---j.:.-j:-h...-f-'

<
Art.

.!/-(

and oonsequently 1

will

oonveige

it'

<

/.

Next, as in

'"

..i,

ai^K'

342

## NON-CONVERGENT AND ASYMPTOTIC

differentiation

SEEIES. [CH.

XI.

and consequently by

we

find

Thus

## Borel's associated function for the product-series is

V

F(v) = atf(v)+

\ Jo

f(v-t)g(t)dt

and
But,
I

\F(v)\\a

\.\g(v)\+\"\f(v-t)\.\g(t)\dt. Jo
find the positive constants

by hypothesis, we can

and

such that

\f(t)\<A#,
Hence

\g(t)\<A#.
lv

F(v}\< a \Ae

+A

ve lv

2lv

v>ao

lim[ethat

F(v)]

= Q.

Similarly,

we can prove
v-><

## lim [e-* vF*(v)]

= 0.

Thus F(v)

the necessary conditions. these we have the following rule results, By combining a certain number contains polynomial expression
satisfies all

If
of

asymptotic series* (of the present type) and their derivates, the value of the polynomial is expressible asymptotically by a
series (of the

by applying the ordinary rules of calculation, as if the series were all convergent. And the result cannot be identically zero, unless the terms of the resulting series are zero.
difficulty in
is familiar with elementary function-theory will have no extending these results to the complex variable, in a suitably

same

type), obtained

restricted area.

in
I/a;.

of the functions

may have

## ordinary convergent expansions

137,138]
138.

SUMMATION OF AflYMFIOTH
series.

numlM-r of
ini_
i:

Tin-re are a

\ampl.-s
nn-thod,
in

come
IT

## which do not but can be

tin- <l-tinition.

asily ly niaki:

we suppose

Art.

MS
I'm-

it

i-

a function Mich as is specified in 0(.r) to be that th.seen results are still pn-vious rea.lily
.

true

tin-

int.

/(a
provid.-il that
06
/>

|
haa
i

f.
ni'

t!

DOH-ZerO ra<liuMItOCe

particular,
ii'

-ati-li.-<l

as to

In

\\c

can tind a

i'un-ti<.n

\!s(g)

such that

(-D
we
shall

Jo
|

have

tin-

-jnation

For

this

i-

t-a^ily

## take this integral as

}>roved to be true when |v|</>, ami we can tin- d.-tinition of f(r) for larger values
.

Then,
an,l

!/()!<

-)<f>' Jo
tin-

That

intt-^ral

i-

in
l.y

fact

r-])i-i-^-uted

asymptotically by

tin-

series follows at
}

one.-

Ml.s.-rvin^ that

Me) Jo

fi

r
!

~
-

-...+(-1 r'+...+2

'"

+,,.

win
1

<
|.

"'

+...+

344

## NON-CONVEEGENT AND ASYMPTOTIC

J'(x)=

SERIES. [CH.

XI.

Again*

and, as previously, this can be shewn to give the asymptotic series obtained by the ordinary rule for differentiation.

by taking

cn

= T(n-i-\).

definition

becomes

=
It
is

easy to

repeat

the

previous

## argument (with small

changes) to establish the corresponding theorems for operating with this integral.
Art. 132,

## As an example of thewe could infer

last

method, we may point out that in Ex. 2, the differential equations for X, by simply

the integral

to f(v)

= I/(l+v),

We

shall conclude

## by giving a few examples

;

of the

way

in

which asymptotic
Arts.
1.

series present themselves in the solution of and we shall illustrate the methods of differential equations

136-138 by summing these series. Let us try to solve the differential equationf

dy _a
dx~~ x
*

## Differentiation under the integral sign

is justified,

because

we suppose

and

t<f>(t)dt

Jo

converges.

Thus the test of Art. 172 (3) applies. fThis is the simplest case of a general type of equations examined by Borel (Annalea de VEcole Normale Suptrienre (3), t. 16, 1899, p. 95).

138, 139]

IHKl
!'

1.1:1

\i.

BQ1

VI i"N'S.

l>y

meanfl

.-MI

asyinp'

On

substitution.

we

find

'I'll

is

g\:

-4

= 0, A = l

-I

..=

i*

"

-2A,_
' :

1.2a ~~

34 8 _1.2.3.a
'

I,

I,

/,'

Thus we

lino!

1

'/=-/' ox
and by
Art.
l.'lti

1-,

-.

ox
the equivalent

)'+...]. J
integral

bhif

-"
and
tinit
i

-,
I

7-T-|
.

Lriven

bo vei'ify

Of

Art.

137,
tin-

n>i<l-r

iiK'tlitied

Bessel's

matiin

-a
Writ.- 'n
.

ami then

\vi-

tind

If

ire

sul.st.tui,7;

=i

ire
...

+ ... +
Hence we
and
so find

...)=o.

--(fife*

s45

1*.3.5 2

3> T

346
Thus
>/

is

SERIES.

[CH.

1 1 1
2

.3 2

__

.3 2

.5'2

2.4.6
That
is,

*=(- D"
*

---l
2.4.6...2w

l}

1
2"'

and

so

if

we put

cn

r(f)

we have

v^ vn =
A~i

TT

Hence

(/

s>&
-y-

,,00
/

y=
we

ptfjf C Ct'O
t
,

Similarly,

of

## for the equation

d2y
3.

J + 5s
In like manner the differential equation

du

*s+<. + /~*>i-<*-*
is satisfied formally

y ~x\}~

.IT,

a(l-^) l.x

a(q+l)(l-^)(2-^)
1.2.^2

## which leads to the integral

This equation has been very fully discussed by Annalen, Bd. 56, 1903, p. 129), to whose paper we
as to the various solutions.

## W. Jacobsthal may refer for

(Math.
details

have now completed a tolerably full account of the theory of non-convergent series, so far as it has been yet developed on the "arithmetic" side. Its applications to the Theory of Functions lie beyond the scope of this book, and we have made no attempt to give more than a few theorems whose proofs can be readily supplied by any reader interested
in such developments.

We

XI.
I

LMPLE&
Integration of
1.

Summable
B

Series.

bhatth<

'he series

.-

series

to be

*a).

This suggests*
\vhi.-h
is

c 87U'-' /
f'
b
.>
(
.

OS 4?

COS a

(0<a<7r),
tity

-a>ily

vi-i ili'-d

.os nx - cos na

_ ___
MM(i

,-^ n(l +

{>>

ai

cos ./--rns a

2.

.)u-t

a-

in

lli-

and so

integratiiii:

\v-

tind

log

'

of the

sej

-.65).

log(f"fi.rin
..f

An'th-r

tht-

first

intrirral

is

-Trlogma -^)}.
e

that

if

,-

i.

0..+HX
3.

Sinn-

\\r

':

it

i>

sii^^f-t-tl

* that

if

//

is

a multii>

HI

=ir.

This

i-i-siilt

is

easily

vt-rit'u-tl

indr|MMid-Mtly.
intririiit
.e

*Thr n-M
\,

x=

nor

>vi-r

ti

348
4.

## NON-CONVERGENT AND ASYMFTOTIC

From
Art. 103(4)

SERIES.

[CH.

we

see that

Thus
and
Hence, integrating with respect to
0,

we

find

2J

sin
is

^
/?(#), p.

The

series

2( o

l) /(x

+ n)

sometimes denoted by

and can be

## expressed by means of the ^-function (see Exs. 42-44,

475), since

=\

Thus, ^y x is rational, the series can be summed in finite terms the case has occurred in Arts. 65, 90, so take now x = % as a further example.
;

We get

where

< 6<

TT.

may be

## expressed by means of "^-functions

and

so the integrals are then expressible in the same form. If we allow to tend to in the sine-series, we get

[For

by Weierstrass's

Jlf-test,

and
(.

^ I ?^(^) =

_ ^) COS

^_J

S in

^6 log(4

si

## Cesaro's Mean-value Process.

5.

A specially
Feje>,

by

who

applied

interesting example of Ceskro's process was given recently it to the Fourier-series for a function f(x) which
174,

does not satisfy Dirichlet's conditions (Art. series need not converge.

App.

III.), so

that the

In

fact, if

il

= -098060

to 6 d
\rt.
1 -J 1
.

ices,
]

V.-lili'--

II

that

O"
decreases,

and

C.

Thus the

series

2(-l)r-[(n
tli-

-n]
nu isseen to be

value nf
is

iC-filog
Tlif
tin-

->uin

can

l>y

i.l.-n

in^ that

th-

sum

t<>

rms

f-i)

+
(.

-...+('0*,;:,
Series.

Asymptotic
12.

in./.

furnmla
L

Vn=

JM
tin-

(-l)'T, 1 **-

-;

v ,+ (/'-)i-

-- ]

I.
.

...<
4

-...

(WTT)

|

nunu-ri<-al

0787,

'

-M;:ii,

<

and so on.
[C(.in[.air
13.

Art.

132.]

[(

,

An.
")

^>

t<>

sli.-w

that

/'T

-/ 1

-" 'M<
I

/'

JT

## and th-ducf thf

asvni|.t"ti.- .-\iKHisii.n

Where
14.

-:

(a)

i-

th.-

Hernnullian

fun.-ti..n

..f

An
1
<>

/* *-**

-/,^}
olitaiiu-il liy
.t.-iijtin^

the

I-IT..I-

at

## any >tage being

identity
/'

less

than the
v

f.-lb

t'Tiu in the

sn
first

and iMr.im:

[Km- the

in;.
1

tin-

- 1

,~

K.T the MOOOd, integral.- l.y jur ..Cgested by the series and tan le established dirertly.]

integral*

352

## NON-CONVERGENT AND ASYMPTOTIC

SERIES.

[CH.

the error being again less than the following term. [Apply the same methods again.]

By

writing

f" e~ tz dt=
J^k
latter

P
Jo

e~ t2 dt-

by

parts,

we

16.

Generally,
r<

if

0<s<l, we

find

And

17.

to the

A>0, and

deduce

## in particular the formula

72xl03
Hence evaluate the sum

'"

l+i+i+^ 2* 31
to five decimal places.
18.

If

^
^-^.
^o

/oo2i.a2
JO
1

l-a:2

r^dt-'
J*

1.3. ..(271-3)
2

In
particular,

of the

remainder

is

approximately (a

- 71
infer
tluit

for

the

L-fd*

lies

[STIKLTJES,

## A eta Math., Bd.

9, p. 167.]

XI.)
19.
<>!'
i:Jl

tin-

asymptotic expansion

^1( r
and
d<

(
:

6!

approaches

1, l>y

writing
-\!ii.. ii.

= log(l
1

Com}

1..

p.

238.]

20.

From

tin-

<(rb)"

Thai
//-'

n+1

21.

## Similarly |ii>\^ that

-H[See
Si
-ii I..".MI i.i -ii,
'

'7-100;
.

1.,

pp.

I'.L'

!:>.]

22.

I'lovr

al>..

that

icuiiiu'

numerators

I>MIILT

-'.

-I.

>
-

354
23.

## NON-CONVERGENT AND ASYMPTOTIC

More
generally prove that

SERIES.

[CH,

where

t(t-

1)

...

(t-

and

24.

It

if

lim (/&)=!

rt

## For example, consider the two series x2 x* 3*

co

^ + __ = ^ +T j-_^i_ g
.-11111
tAS
I

A.

*^

"^

_^

## *^/T + .... + _j-_^_-j

i

Miscellaneous Applications.
25.

Shew

that

if

we

series
.

## 2 (sin 2x + sin 4# -f sin Qx -f

. .

),

which can be proved to have the sum cot# by using either Borel's integral
or Cesaro's
26.

mean value

## (Arts. 103, 126).

:

Hardy has extended the result of the last example as follows If f(x) satisfies the conditions of Fourier's expansion from #=0 to

2?r,

conditions
;

at
if

a) expanded as

(x

~~\2

+ '~ + ?
a

\x

^
a)

satisfies these
is

summable except
In particular,

x=a.

7n

= l, we

00

f(x) =

+ <2^ ( a
i

cos

nx + ^n sin w#)j
t

where

## = ^-P r/(x)dx, ZTT Jo

bn

a n = -P f f(a;)co&nxdx TT Jo
f(x) sin nx dx
;

= -P
7T

f JO

and

this is easily extended to the case in which /(.r) has any finite numln-r of such singular points. [HARDY, Messenger of Mat/is., vol. 33, 1903, p. 137.]
27.

A

2,

p. 42,

prove that

## ^ "T" 2wi 27n(2//<-l)

\

or

m+
(2w + l)!-(2)!.l! + (2w-l)!.2!-...=0.

while

xi.
I

BXAMPLE&
i

355

li.-it

tin-

'

J+p

+
,..

+ ->

'

is

represented

by

As

->|M-.-ti\rlv,

## a verification, thru trim-l.y trim

-

two
(li tl'rivii t i;it

series are

ion gives
1

,/,-

--

a,

a.,.1

s,,

\vliich

direi.-t

multij*!.

28.

in

Art.

## 115 can be app!

ding's

&
taking
;>

=2

in

Le Roy's formula.
fact

L\V, lind

in

series

if

||<2ir|jr|.
.

.-*+1)J
-

^T"
tli.-

intfivluinge
17''',

of

suinniatiiiii

and

A,

long as
i:i;,

||<:
we can agree
it

to define

l.y

cxplain.-il
tli.-

in

Art.

^()

as always

givm

l.y

la-t

is

-gra-

bare
f

*'**
Md
l>ut

*}.

we get the
this last

rain
Jo

<r"

iiiv-rsi..ii

i-

n,.t

356

## NON-CONVERGENT AND ASYMPTOTIC

SERIES. [CH.

XI.]

29. As examples of series which can be readily summed by means of various integrals similar to those of Art. 136, we give the following simple

cases

30.

of the equation

in the

form
\

is

[The
31.

integral

^/

V'(l +;)"'-<*,

if

> 0.]

in the

form

## _n(n-l) *-**Vfl 4^2 L

n(n-l)(n-2)(n-8)_
4 8#*
.

1 J

## of this series as a definite integral.

References.

Hardy, Proc. Lond. Math. Soc. (1), vol. 34, p. 55, and For a justification of the integration used in Ex. 1, see Hardy, Trans. Camb. Phil. Soc., 1904, vol. 19, p. 310. For Exs. 14-16, see Diriehlet's Bestimmte Integrate (ed. Arendt), pp. 208-215 Nielsen, Mathematische Annale?i, Bd. 59, p. 94; Hardy, Proc. Lond. Math. Soc. (2), vol. 3, p. 453. The equality of the integrals of Ex. 14 was proved
1,

For Exs.
35,

2, see

vol.

p.

81.

by Cauchy, (Euvres,

t.

1,

p.

377.

In Exs. 20-23 the series are not asymptotic but convergent ; they may be used instead of some of the asymptotic series found in Arts. 130, 132. But the law of the coefficients is much simpler in the asymptotic series and for this reason they are usually preferable.
;

AITKNMX
AUTIIMKTic
Tlll-:ni;v <1-

I.

[RRATIONAL ffUMBE

AND
140. Infinite decimals.
II'

LIMIT-.

\v-

rath.nal

## apply tin- Mi-ilinary prO060a fraction a/6 to a <lrriinal. it

!'

livisi..n .-\il.-ni

t>

convert a
.-ith.-r
.

ix

thai

tin-

process must terminate >r else tin- <|Utii-ntx imM n-eiir (//-I) divi-ion^ at most; t'T in li\ilinu l.y l>, tln-n- are not more than (/>-!) ditl'.-ivnt iviiiaiinL-rs pussiM.-. nann-ly
(
1

L'

3,. ../>-!>.
nninatin.ir
i

aft.-i
-.

tin.-.-

di\

71

!:

= 7-

1) divi-

-.

i))
<livi-.
,

And
If tin-

drcimal part
'

is

ran

'').

'In-

d--iiua!
f..r

tlio

formula
'"HV'M

sunn
:

Tli';
1>V ritllfl'
'2

ii;il

t".

''

1
1

and
"i-

BO

/'

\t

ll"t
-f

<li\'isil
I

)!

"I'

.").

<

it

t""ll"\vs

fr-'in
1'v

K".
-1
.").

!i-i.n

di\i-iM-

,-itlM-r

an
.if

index

/>

## theorem that can be found BO

/'
(

\\li.-ii
t'

di\MlhI'.ut

liv/-: thus a I

is

tin-

f..rm
in

In'

1)

and
i

so can be expand- d
i"dic

i..-ridi.if

decimal with
t

liirurcs

the pel

## the drrimal pai

i> nii\.-.l.

e,,ntainin_
:

and

/>
;

j-

n\MH'
tin-

Miu-t
i

contain eith.

because
relation

decimal

tie
1

Tic-

hrt\\
it

the
in

.itlier pi th,'I'!,,

Mi..t

l.e

discussed so simply.
USB, Ditq.

is

pi..\.'d

that

if

lt

= V&r**"t* ....

where

r,

t,

r, ...

are

prin
.

is

a factor of

It'

IKINV

we
I

inated (say
2t
i

-\-l'}\

l>y

an

intinitr <l.'cinial

will

).

.-vidt-nt bhal

fracfa
.rdin.K to tlie n.
it

is

more

o.nvi-niriit

;inl

\\

shall .i.llu-re to

'l

358

IRRATIONAL NUMBERS.
easily

[AP.

I.

But we can
exhaust

see

## Thus consider the decimal

1010010001000010...,
consists of unities separated by zeros, the number of zeros increasing by one at each stage. Clearly this decimal neither terminates nor recurs: and it is therefore not rational.

which

Similarly,

we may

take a decimal

11101010001010001...

formed by writing unity when the order of the decimal place is prime (1, 2, 3, 5, 7, ...), and zero when it is composite (4, 6, 8, 9, This cannot be rational, since the primes do not form a 10, ...). sequence which recurs (in rank), and their number is infinite, as appears from the Theory of Numbers.
If the

## primes recurred in rank after a certain stage,

it

would be possible

## to find the integers a, b} such that all the

numbers

would be prime. Now this is impossible, since a + ab is divisible by a; and therefore the primes do not recur. If the primes were finite in number, we could denote them by p lt p 2 ...,>; and then the number jt? 3
, ,

would not be
of primes

divisible
;

is infinite

this

by any prime, which is absurd. Thus the number theorem and proof are Euclid's (Bk. ix, Prop. 20).

As an example of a different type, consider the infinite decimal obtained by applying the regular arithmetic process for extracting the square-root to a non-square such as 2 this process gives a sequence of digits*
;

1-414213562373....

This decimal has the property that, of the first n digits after the point,

if

An

which gives
*
h.

2-^ n

< 3/10",

since

2^1 n +l/10 w

<

3.

rapid VIII.

way

is

140, 141

IM

l\l

i.

DEI IM

UA
<>r

To

see that

this decimal

cannoJ
i"

terminate

recur,

we have

## >on whose aqua/re is

\ecangivpoesilil*
,

tli;it

(<//6)

= 2 we may
;

are mutually

j.iim.-.
i

ami
U-

'

j.i-iM.f thug Suppose, if are .positive integers which Now at least one of them is odd.
:

;'

<-an!i"t
,

must
/*

I..-

<,<1(1.

lint

if

we write

## a = 2c, we get 2c2 = 68

SO that

.ann.t

l.-

..tl.l

w.-

thu> arriv.- at a

141.
It

is

## The order of the system of jM.ssiM... ;iinl in many way\vhnlr

tli.

infinite decimals.
it

i>

.list in<-t

ly best, to l)iiill

up

tin-

.,1V

"!'

rational nuinlH-rs

,,n

tin-

basis of order,

be nuinlMTs as

1

1'.

numlM-rs to
shall
thfii

tin-

ri^lit
tin-

ni'

tin-

smaller.

we
<'

regard
tin/>'.

iiiMjualit i-s
.1

## .!>/). ]{>(.' simply as

of

m.aninto the

that
of

mark

is

t<

th.- ri-'ht

an<l the
<\

mark

lefl

BO that

/;

falls

between
j
l>f<n<>

and

/;

\\'.'
I,, I

shall

now pn.vr

that KM cam

t lie

same

inent

directly.

that

w<-

fiml

and that
say that

tin- in'

I,,,

an-

tin-

same up

to a certain sta_

we

tind

.1.-...,

+;,
me,
n
.1

...

with

/>',.

Then

\ve

1.

> 1/10".
would
in.

..it

a,,

may

## be negative, but that <r,

'i...

,i.d

lew

tba;

IRRATIONAL NUMBERS.
Also lO n (B
virtue of the

[AP.
is less

I.

Bn

is

of finding

than

1,

in

method

Bn

from B.
n
,

Thus
while

B<B

+l/lO

and Hence

## A = An A n ^Bn +l/W n A > B.

Thus, in order to determine the relative position of two infinite decimals (derived from rational fractions), we need only compare their digits, until we arrive at a stage where the

corresponding digits are different; the relative value of these digits determines the relative position of the two decimals. By extending this rule to all infinite decimals (whether
derived from rational numbers or not) we can assign a perfectly for example, the decimal definite order to the whole system 1010010001 ... given in Art. 140 would be placed between the
:

two decimals
1010000
...

(zeros)

and '1011000

...

(zeros),

and and

also

between
101001000... (zeros) and '101001100
...

(zeros),

so on.

Similarly,

we may shew

.

For,

by

division,

we

find

ff = 1-411...,

ff = 1-4146 ...

so that, in

## agreement with the

ff

rule,

< T41421

...<{f.

It must not be forgotten that at present the new infinite decimals are purely formal expressions, although, as we have

explained, they fall in perfectly definite order into the scheme of infinite decimals derived from rational fractions.
142.

rational.
first

Consider

If

is

any

integer,

and n
1

> m,
1

we

find

.1

141, 142)

IM Mil.
I

DEI IM

LLa

which

is

l.-.ss

than
'

nt'.l

'Iin

-'

+
1
(

+
//
I
i

+
!,

l<
iliH-iniiil

V
'

'

V(iV ra+1/
Ix-tw.-.-n
tin-

Tim

>//<

the

for

lies

by
?lll

+l

= <'.+
hl)l
su.Ti->siv-ly
tini

In this

\\.i\

w,.

tiiut

lii:.

and
1708
i

Mid

w=3

:!;;

a.,,1
!

L71888
and

'H.

AJB

increases, these

two
t

<l.-<-imaU
1...1
t
<

hi-arly i-i|ual:

and

\v- an-

Inis

n^t

## become nmn- and m<nv rud an infinite decimal

i

(] '71 8281828... X

Which T
1

-1

as.Mjuival.-nt

(1)
It

+ -+' +
c<

+
to
t<>

will
tin-

IIMW
<>nr

IM-

## pi-MYrd that this intinitr di-ciinal can'

)rr^j)<)ii'U

with

which

any

i-atinnal

MUMih'T.

I-'MI-

tin-

dfcinial corresponding

111
31
lM-iinal

21

4!

J_ wl
il.-riv.-d
I'I-MMI

than th-

+
-2
'2
.

+
:{
-2
.

:>-

+ " + 2.3W - 2
'

'

Ami

i-

SW
Bence,
n<>

'-8-!(-^>
many
th.-ir

matt.-]- IIMW
d.'i'i\.'d
i'r..in

t.-nn^

we take from
l>c

]
.

^,-f

+ ...

the drcimal
75,
I'.ui
1

sinn will

less

## than th- d.-cimal

'lian

1.

1
1

1_

21^0-H

ir^t.-fix

>

362
-and

IRRATIONAL NUMBERS.
so
on.

[AP.

I.

## Thus the decimal

representing any

number

of

terms from
O\ O\

"I

\/ ^

\ /

must be

less

than

'75.

that (1) could lead to an infinite decimal agreeing with the decimal derived from a/c, where a and c are positive integers. Multiply by c\, and (1) becomes

Suppose now,

if possible,

The terms
iind that

in brackets give

some integer

/, say,

and so we

that

is,

an integer equal
absurd.

to a

decimal which

is

less

than

'75,

which

is

Thus no

same

infinite

&

=!+

jx"'

to

terms

Here,

we

bm

=p/q,
\p8

b nl+1

= r/s,

then
while b n
lies

qr\

= l,

between

6 TO

and

b m+l if

?i>w + l.
...,

Thus we

## find for the successive values of b n ,

1,2,
so,

|,

I,

converting to decimals,
1

we

## see that 6n lies

between

2
1-5

1-67
1-6

1-625 1-615

1-6191

142, 143

OBOME1

l:i<

.\l.

\\iri.l.lliniv
!

6
-ijiiaI.

;in.l

DXM

.-mil

i"

an

iiitinih-

decimal

10...,
I

which can

he considered IB equivalent

bo th.-

intii.

inued n

L+ITiriTTTThis
fraction
infinite
r

'

decimal
ii'

caimoi

d"-n\.-d

lV.m

rational

it

were we -houM

## have the inequality

'

_"
'/

<

/.'_'
'/

SO that
>inc..

\PC

~ a<J\ <
1.-

'

(pcaq)
is
j

IB

an integer,
,

tin-

la-i

.,!,.

litimi

Inn

this

nlivinusly alsurd.

iiiinator
C
(

gives r>>-: of

rth cniiN.T^.nt

than

il'

>
'

Similarly,

tin-

cnit inin-l

lVac-tin

14-L-L.L
2+
'2+

can
'I

IM-

]u-nvrl

t<>

to

## an inlinitc decimal which

utiiiin-d
;

is

nt

rational.

lit-

rt-.-nicr \\lii. is

fi

## that the aqtuire of (3) con vergea to the value 2

in

whil<

leted
143.

..iiMfxii.n

\vith

tin-

-\aiiij>lc
it

of Art.

A-

SMiM.-what ditl'nvnt

.-xani].!.-.

is

intinihi

dfcimal
i
!

I)

-30H
it'

J]

...

cann..t

rational.
.

For

it

\\viv .-<pial

"

C,

w- should
endfl

hut

10"
;

must

,-nd
is

with

0.

wh<

with

r,

or

Thus
\v

l<>'

&

Similarly.
lo^ai'.it

## impossible, that 3,5,6,7, 11.... cannot

have nr

Inn-.

143.

Geometrical examples.
fche .-.\aiii]>lfs

I-YMIM
tinfulfil

--ivcn

in

Ar
is

14:2

it

i-

evident that

system
all

of

rational
,!'

nuinhers

l,y

no means sullicient to

the n-. ds
that
it

al^ehra.

\\'e

shall

now
r*

jrive

an ezao

to

-hew
L'-t

## does not Mitlice for geometry.

line
.!/;
II.

^ht
Euclid,

be divid.-.l at
11).

in

"golden section"
:

(M

in

Bonk

.prop.

so that

AC \CB = AB

AC.

r ~Y~b

7"

"i

364
It is
less

IRRATIONAL NUMBERS.
then easy to see that

[AP.

I.

AC
off

equal to

Cut

CB;

it

follows at

once that
at C.

AC

is

divided at

in the

same

ratio as

AB is

divided

For we have

and consequently

Also

if

is less

## Thus we AN, which is

Now
rational

repeat this process 2n times, we arrive at a line n less than the 2 th part of AB. suppose, if possible, that AC/AB can be expressed as a
fraction
is

r/s;

then

DC/AB
is

(2r-s)/s.

Hence

## AD/AB = CBIAB is AE/AB is (2r-s)/s

;

(s

r)/s,

and

and

ED/AB

Continuing this argument, we see that AN/AB must be some multiple of 1/s and so cannot be less than 1/s.
(2s
3r)/s.

than l/2 so that we are led to a contradiction, because we can choose n so that 2 exceeds s. Thus the ratio AC AB cannot be rational.

## But we have seen than

AN/AB
:

is less

re

71

prove similarly that the ratio of the side to the diagonal of a square is not expressible as a rational In fact, let ABC in the figure represent half a square fraction.
It is

not

difficult to

of

which

greater than

AB is a diagonal it is at once evident that AB is AC and less than 2 AC. Cut off BD = BC, and erect
;

B
FIG. 38.

= and perpendicular to AB at D; then we have ED DA, = for the line of symmetry EC ED, because BE is a quadrilateral BCED. Thus EC=DA. If we repeat the same construction on the triangle ADE, we see in the same way that AF=FG =

DE

*The
less

first

it

## than twice AC.

Now,

since AC'.

CB=AB :AC,

follows that

AB = AC+Cli is AC is less

143, 144]

\l.

365

Timarrive
at

.1

D(

than half
Tim-.
i.y

AO\ and

-imilarly,

/'

ii

we
is less

an isosceh

lo

ANP,*\u-\i that

AN

than

the

L'

\\

Ar

4 then
J

-1 1>

.!/>'

is(*-r)/,
\B

hat

that

.1
1

I

I,

Of that
i

.\'

40

less

than
"Ex..

r,

\\hieh

m;i\
sli.'\\
I
.

n.

as !!'
th.- coiitiiiMfd
i

Tin-

cle

My
tli.-

tli.it
'

of tin

oonrerget
ratiM

in

M
144.

to tin-

.f

di.i-"ii;il

to tin-

whfla

## special classification of rational numbers.

I

imli-at.- tin- iif.-l I'mM> Th<- rxain]l-v ,.f Art-. I'.ut before smut- thirrational numbers. proceeding to
-'i

f'Tinal

l-liniti<n.

which

will

!><

found

in

tin-

n-xt

arti-l-,

a we

shall jrive

some

cnnsil-iMti<.ns
t<

## which -h-w how

1

infinite .i.-cimals

## which do not ivcur h-ad un

Tin- intinit-- d-ciinal
'

)cd. -kind's

dctinition.
in
c

1'4I42I

...

disj-ii-M-d

/"////

(A) Thi

r//xx,

which contains
than or
i-ijual

all

rational

fractions
of
tin-

(Mich as

jM

l.-.-s

to

smm- tmii

1-4.
1

1-41.
t

1-414,

1-414-J.

etc,

(I

,)

T/

upper do88

\\hich contains

all

rational
>f

fraci
s-.ju,

It

is

ih'-n

tin-

(i)

Any

numl>-r
in

in

tin-

n]>p.-i-

rla^-

i-

I..W.T class;

numltcr
(ii)

the lower
~t

dasa
nuinl-cr in the

Thnv
no
tin-

i-

ami

least

numlier
..f

in

-t :it.-iiM-iit
.

'!'

M6

truth

tin-

<!.. n.l

\v.-

m.iv

obMTVe

that,

if

we have
bean;

/-/--i'(i
latiiinal
:

L'-/-'
iiiiin

>(S

MB,

we have
I

/(,
:

and,

t'^r tli.-

sam.g

that

\\ill

^ to

It'

## .mlirr in tin- l.\v-r class.

tin- u|>p<-r class,

MOW w. suppose

t<i

lf a iMtii>nal MUMilx-r of
/

we prove
-

l.v a

## similar aix'uin.-nt that

i-

aU,, a innn';

less

tlian /.

366
Ex.
1.

IRRATIONAL NUMBERS.
Prove similarly that
if

[AP.
1

I.

F</V,

then l>k,

<N,
1,

where

Ex.
2.

taking

Ex.

3.

Utilise the last

to Ex.

2,

N
first

Ex.

4.

the

as

1,

f.

The

classification

of rational

## numbers which has been just

described can, however, be obtained by a different process. the arithmetical process of extracting the square-root of

From
2, it is

evident that
2

2
,

2
,

(1-4)

(1-41)*,
;

(1-414)

(1-4142)

,...

but the sequence contains numbers which are as close to 2 as we please. Thus the lower class contains
are
all less

than 2

it

every positive rational number whose square is less than 2 and also contains all negative rational numbers. Since the two
;

## classes together the upper class

contain all rational numbers, it follows that must contain every positive rational number

whose square is greater than 2. Thus the same classification is made by putting, (A) In the lower class, all negative numbers and all positive numbers whose square is less than 2. In the upper class, all positive numbers whose square (B)
is

greater than

2.

145. Dedekind's definition of irrational numbers. Suppose that some rule has been chosen which separates all rational numbers into two classes, such that any number in the upper class is greater than every number in the lower class. Thus, if a number k belongs to the upper class, so also does every rational number greater than /,. There are then three mutually exclusive possibilities (1) There may be ;i number (/ in the lower class which is greater than every other number in that class. (2) There may be a number I in the upper class which is less than every other number in that class. (3) Neither (j nor I may exist.
:

144, 145]
'I'll.-

## hl.M.KINh- M.I IMTi>

i>\

repreeenl

nai niiiui.>

/'

represent thunit of !!

r.

the

upper class

c<

.11

on

tin-

lint'

and

tin-

It

all

## Similarly, \v- .MM illustrate case

thai
i/

(2).

mi^ht be thouglit
is

and /m:

.-.vim

i.-d i,\-

b
that
falls
-ial

nuiiil"
i

to

betWi

/;

and

this

{lumber.*
iste
in
tin-

then u

< y.
<'<i<ft,
.1

">f
I'-.-i^t

and
u

/i

i-

sii'-li

tli;it

</<,*.
that
i

NOTR
find

there

DO
li-.nal
/'.

numher
>

we ran
U

an

nuiiiln-i

hrloi,

and

than

Thus

a<r<<
Thru
if

iv

any two

j.i.sitivr

intr^ri-s.

w-

hi

that
147.

all

lir

hrtwrrn

<i

and

ft.

expressed as an

,'<!/.

B*OT

th.Tr
/',,

\\ill

hr
to
(

solllr illtr-vi'
tilt'

//
,

|ji.siti\r

<

U'

llr^ltixr) sllch
!

that

hrluiii;^

/',,+

!>'

the

u]>}M-i-

cla-N

).

,-hi^T,
>'

rational

t'racti!

+
in

fl

......
t

"o+iV "M+
to class
30
i

"ln^
that

to

i.

MIJ
i

//+

//!

1<>

is

tin

dfl

that

\\v

'out

## inning this j.rorrw.

\\

ari'i\r

at

the result
-

"

If

we

rail
!

these

is two decimal tVacti.n- " .1 plain that made [688 than any proi-rihed rational
. .

i;

i'racti<.n

merely

l.y

taking

l.e

sutlicieiitly
\\

great;
that
((

a:
is

## We (-..IliinUe the p numher detined l.y the The ariji.ment

A
\\

indefinitely
infinite decim;il

see

the

JflO
t,,

that
t'

fix

f/,,,f

i^

u-et'ul
;tll\

i..

not,-

further that
r/'
<

can

l>e

chosen so as to
el,:

pl-rviTiled ilUmher

>f

the loWel"

370

IRRATIONAL NUMBERS.
is

[AP.

I.

a" be another number of the lower class which a''; and then choose r so that 10 r a'). l/(a"

greater than

>

Then
a".

Ar
But 4 r >a",

ar

<a"

a',
a'.

or

ar

a'> A r

so that a r

>

Suppose that a
(1) if

:

## numbers has the

following properties

class

(2) if

:

class, so

## does every rational

(3) (4)

number greater than A every number a is less than any number A numbers A, a can be found in the two classes such
;

that

Such a
irrational.

## than an arbitrary rational fraction. classification defines a single number, rational or

is less

For any rational number r which does not belong to either must lie between the two classes, since any number less than a number of the lower class must also belong to the lower class and therefore r must exceed every number of the lower class similarly, r must be less than every number of the upper class. Hence, if a, A are any two numbers of r A the two classes a
class
;
:

< <
s is

a second rational number which belongs to neither class; then a<^s<^A. Hence \r s\ must be less than A a; but this is impossible, since by hypothesis A, a can be chosen so that A a is less than any assigned rational fraction.
that
classification

Suppose now

Consequently, not more than one rational number can escape if there is one such number, the classification may
;

## be regarded as defining that number; but

if

there

is

no rational
a Dedekind

number which
section,
148.

escapes classification,

we have obtained
irrational

## and have therefore defined an

number.

Algebraic operations with irrational numbers. The negative of an irrational number a is defined by means of the lower class A and the upper class a; and it is denoted -a. by
Tin reciprocal of
1

an

irrational

number
first

is

defined most

easily

by

147,

H8|
i

\l.<;i:i;i:

\n

OPEB kTIO
>-,il

li.-n

L/a

by the lower

.1

ami
t

tli.-

upp-r
tin-

class

ft.

Thus
,,f

if

th--

number
lower

'

ive,

In-

compl.-t.-

s|MM-ili,-;it

ion

th.I

will

he

-i\'-n
ih.-r

t! i-

who),-

of

.1

in
t

th-

class,

188 will

contain

only

definition

framed
t>

l'ir

when
al

tl

is

m
i

nurru
as
ti

always
or

i\i

anl
:

i^

i-.jual

<.r

i^

],..siiiv-

ive

it

is

(l.-nt-l

by

|o|.
'/X.

B|
ii

,-i

fco

be
/>'.

the

two

given
tin-

irrationals,

so

that

< <
Art.

.1,

making
the up],
o!'
1

## Tlh-n dassily a IIH-HI!MT <f tin+/* typical

b
o'

< <

rational
cl.i
<-,

nuin

lo\v.-r

nil.-

nl-\
it

iou.sly satisti.-s
s.-u i.sii.-s

,ndit i,,us

17.

To prove
///'

that

ronditinn

(4)

ami 8O

l.'tii

nuiiil.-r.
.

w-

not./

that

14. />>>_(, /
at

,..

u i_ (M _ H(
i/

/;_
147.
<-ach

ami, as .'XplaiiH-d
!

thr

iM'^innin^ of

Art.
A'
//

\\v
l.-ss

can tind

and

/>.

II
.1

BO &8 to
(r/

mak- J
-f/o
is
Lefifl

and

than

.',e:

and then
nunil
It

+/>')

than
I..-

t.

II.

Mice

our

classifica:

## tion dctin.-s a iinnilxT \\hich

.il.-d

may

rational or irrational

this

tin-

MUM
typ.-

<t+/3.

i'ollo\

DO thai
tin-

o+(
'

is

represented ly
is.

a)=0; for here the lower dan J.and th.- upper das- i,y A
<t.

That

(lie

all

and
is

tin-

upper class of
t

not
class,-.!,

numher

and

tln-r-

iticatioii.

In

## virtue of the relation

jual

,'*

/8)

= 0, w- may

detine ,<->'

t. tlie suni
>!><</

,+(

ft).

M
l-'or

't

i/

simplicity of statement,

We

<>mit

the

numl..-rs

from the lou.-r olasses; and then \v,- detin.- the jro(lu'.-t a/3 by usin- the tyj>e ,if, for tin- lower elass and A Ii for the &
spondine- upper claSS,
let
t-

To prove

that this

.1.

-tines

-.in-l,.
l.-sx

nun
tha

## denote an arbitrary positive rational fraction

372

IRRATIONAL NUMBERS.

[AP.

1.

then choose any rational number P which is greater than a+/3+l. Next find numbers A, a and B, b such that A a<^6 l ,B b<i l

where

el

= e/P.
}

The determination
Art. 147.

Now we

of A, a and B, b have

is

possible in virtue of

or

That

is,

AB-ab<6.
;

Thus the classification by means of ab and AB defines a single number which may be rational or irrational and this number is called a/3.
In particular, if /3=l/a, the product is equal to 1 for the lower class is represented by a/ A and the upper class by A/a.That is, the lower class contains all rational numbers less than 1
;

which escapes

is

1,

1.

Con-

equal to

## the single rational

number

classification.

Multiplication of negative irrational numbers is reduced at once to that of positive numbers by agreeing to accept the "rule of signs" as established for rational numbers.
Division.

In consequence of the relation (l//3)x/3 = l, we may define the quotient a//3 as equal to. the product ax(l//3). It is at once evident that any of the fundamental laws of algebra which have been established for rational numbers

remain true for irrational numbers. Thus, we have the following laws

For example,

let

## us prove the theorem a + )8 =

By
and

definition

we have

But a + b = b + a and A

+n = fl+Aj

so that a + j3
r<|ii;il.

and

/2

+a

are dHinrd ly

148, 149]

KONOION*

NUM
in a ^imii
intial iiili<--s

t"

and

of |M-^;H

if

## Inn-,, ..n tlith.-ii

t.

li.-

i-itli.

149. The principle of convergence for monotonic sequences whose terms may be either rational or irrational.

A monotonic sequenc
iiinnal

-n

in

tl.

niimi
defiuiteneSfl
tin-

;
'

that

the ^fiju-ncf
le8G

i^>

an

-main

than

lixed

nni

;lt

...<A.
i.-il

numl.er, one of
in

two
(a,

alt
IK-

HUM
to
Ol

occur;

eitJ

term

sequence ry term
;

tin-

will

t-ijual

!'

will l^e

[066

than

/,-.

## \\\> d.-linc tin-

afl
-.

tin-

<-la>s

nf

all

rational
(

//

\vliich
all

sati>,t'y

In-

tir-t

,iiliti<n.
<-.

tin*

class

tt)

as

<>t'

\\hirh

>atis|'y

lln-

96COnd

,mliti.n.

Ty]ical
!>'

!'

the C

are

tin-

rational nunilM-rs

which

the
it'T
It

Beqv

than
rl<-ar

.1.

\\liilc (II) contains .-vry i-ational nuinh.-r and possiMy sonic rational nuinhrrs ].-ss tlian J.

i^

that

tin-

d
\V.-

Aether
/-

<-.

.ntain

///

ra'

HUIII|MT>.

and

th-r-

which
call
i

dctini

## nuinl.cr ^. rational or irratinnal.

may

/,'

t'othc

\\]

and lower
\..\\

clfl
i-a
;

every
i--

ju-ctivdy. defined ly the se.jiie; i"ital numlter -Teater than >1 I'clon-'s
;

t<>

the

ujijier
th--

oil

same

tru-

And ter than any term .' nnmlter in-atimal y ^ivater than ft ry
,.
i

ter
r

:id
-',
:
:

.i.

and these
also

## than any term

<

th'.

than

any

tequentlj
rcecd
ft.
o'

the other liand. every rational nuinhcr lc>s than helon-- to the lower Now if t i- any
<

)n

inu^t

tiiei-e

will

l.e

rational iiuinl-

these nunil"
i.

than
i>,
f/,*
:

.-},

they nr.
}
e.

That

374
Hence, since

IRRATIONAL NUMBERS.
a n = am,

[AP.

I.

we have
That
is,

@ = a n = /3

e,

^ 7i>m, if n > m.

lim a n = ft.

such a sequence is afforded by the terminated decimals derived from an infinite decimal and it will be seen at once that the section described here is an obvious extension of the method used in
;

A good example of

## Art. 144 above.

Suppose next that the terms of the sequence, while still It increasing, do not remain less than any fixed number A. is then evident that if a m ^> A, we have a n A if 7i>m.

>

Thus

lim a n = oo
n >oo

## Exactly similar arguments can be applied to a decreasing

sequence.

As an example we shall give a proof of the theorem that any continuous monotonic function attains just once every value between its greatest and least values. Suppose that /(#) steadily increases from x=a to x=c, so that

b<d,
Then
is

if

d,

also

;

we

consider /{^(

+ e)},
less

which
,

this is

found to be

than

write then
<*!

= ( + = c, Cl

<!),

b 1 =f(a l )<l,

d =f(c )>l.
l l

On

## when /{J(a + c)}

is

greater than

I,

we

write

d =f(c )>l.
1 1

Continuing the process we construct two sequences (), (c,,), the first M never decreasing and the second never increasing; and c -a n = (c-a)/2 Also by the method of conso that (an ), (CM ) have a common limit k. unless it happens that at struction it is evident that f(an )<l<f(cn ) some stage we find /() = I, in which case the theorem requires no
;l

further discussion.

Now

since f{x)

is

continuous

we can

find
I

f(c n )-f(a n

)<,

if

n>v,

find v so that

## an integer v such are contained between

that
f(
,)

and /(CM ).

Thus we can

\f(k)-l\<

if

n> v

and therefore, as
it is

in Art.
is

## clear that there

= f(k) l. From the method of construction and this is also evident only one value such as /
1

(6),

#.

149, 150]

LIMITS

150.

i

are less
M.
1

tli.it

all
il

tli.-

than SOUL..mil

iiiiinl

l.-t

p be a

smaller
ater

inn
'I'll. -ii
i!'

icfa

that
i

an

intiiiity <f

tennfl

tlian
it

p,

we

is

evideni

an

intinit
id
/'
:

y or
iii

a finite
tl,

number
r

lall

beta
'

case

we

\N

in

the

latr-

\Y<

bains

gee are
i

.-at

the

in tin-

diagram.

P J

Then

the
lees
'/
(

<!'

/>.,.

/>....

never
1

1-

anl
t'-nniiK'S
]

th.-

sequence

which may
article
/'
i.

irratinnal,

ID

tin-

la>t

Thru the

limit
i!'
-

a.
i-

## because an arhitrarily small

ff,

p*(Pp)
:

-'

sequ< * n

U M
n

the

>aiin'!'

increasea

]Miti\e

numli.T.

we can

tin.l

//

/'

G'-fe.

Conse.|uent ly am

vn

"i"

## Thus we can .letennine ami we can its limit

:

the

bermfl

<>f

the

Bub-aeqtience 1'p'iii (" ..) which has G a certain stage after which all are less I'f + e: than thus no >e,juenn.
a

find

convergent

sab-sequence
s/H-tr

can

have
;>
//

Inn

ber

thai.

tlmt

a
/'

A qut
It'

DO

such

numl.ei-

afl

can
of
80
if
/

be

l'"Un<l

in

ar-'uinent.

th.-r.

;iiml)er8

the
('

sequence

ater

than
flu a

at

naMe numher.

JO.

On

## the other hand,

\\ill
IK-

no such numl>er as

can be
_^r.

found, there

only

rm^
1

than

.V.

however
lim "
B

consequeni

376

IRRATIONAL NUMBERS.

[AP.

I.

sequence has a
All the

For the sake of uniformity we may say even then that the maximum limit, which is, of course, oo
.

foregoing discussion can be at once modified cc ). establish the existence of a minimum limit (g or
151. The general principle of convergence stated in Art. 3
is

to

both

## necessary and sufficient

n >oo

the terms being rational or irrational. In the first place, the condition is obviously necessary for if lim an = I, we know that an index in can be found to correspond
;

to

e,

in such a

way
|

that
l
\

Thus

is

fixed so that

sufficient

for let

be

or

## n > m, am -Je<a n <am + Je, if n > m.

a n -a m
Je,
if

<

Then
has a
index

it

finite

follows from the last article that the sequence (a n ) maximum limit G so that an infinity of terms fall
;

between

G
is

Je
6r-fje.
,

and

Also

ap

Je

it

follows that
;

## +f a m \e<^a n < + Je, G e < an <C (r +

e,
a,,,

- f e < aw <

<

<x

< ap +

Je,

since

>

>
7?i.

w..

if ?i
if TI

> m,
>>

e,

Thus a n -+G and consequently the sequence is convergent. Of course in this case g G, the extreme limits being equal
in a convergent sequence.
Various proofs of this general theorem have been published, sonic icing much shorter than the foregoing series of articles. But on
1

apparently

of the shorter investigations it will be seen that. in all cases the apparent brevity is obtained by avoiding the definition of an This virtually implies a shirking of the whole difficulty irrational number. for this difficulty consists essentially* in proving that (under the condition

## examining the foundations

of Art. 3) a sequence
*

may

## be used to define a "number."

I. A. 3, 14) says: "As the truth of this theorem and exclusively on an exact definition of imitituml inn.', naturally the first accurate proofs are connected with the arithmetical theories of irrational numbers, and with the associated revision and improvement of the

Pringsheiin (Encyklopiidie,

rests essentially

LIMIT1

"I

MI MIII

152.
I.

<>
i

th>-

Inn

,.

<',,
.

--lim

,.

."

second

</

SUJ.J.M-.:i

tirM

i>

linit.-

ami

-'jUal

to /: th.-n
foiiinl

if
t

## arl.itrarily small j.o.xim,. Eractl

u

so

i/t

---

</+*

inoe

(''

'',.

i'-e><^-^..,<'',. -''-,<<' + *
Chaii^tllfll
/'

to

/'

!.

/*

+'2. .../'+/'

ni'l

ali

tin-

\Vr

tillil

(/-cHl*,,-!*, .,,)<",<-".,,

<(/ + f
as
/>
~ s.
;

..

p ).

N>w

n-.Niilt

w-

ol.tain

()

ly hypoth-

Hi-nci-.

sine

positive,

we,

h.-r.

-/
or

if

//

>
\\-

..

liini",,

'')

/.

On

if

tin*

limit

i^

can timl
,

so that

>
how-\,-ibefore,

.V.

if

>

lar^r
re
timl

!i

## ctly the same aixr um-nt as

..+*).

which
or

1.

A'.

if

/>

>

m,

Thus
is

linn,/,,
in*

AJ-

x
that, \\ith tht-

ditliciilty in
D
"11

'\ti'inliii.

llir

iii

t>n

'

;"-""-'.

378

IRRATIONAL NUMBERS.

[AP.

I.

This theorem should be compared with the theorem (L'Hospital's) of the Differential Calculus, that:

//
then

lim0(X) = 0,
X>x>

limbec) = 0,
<f>'(x)/\{s'(x),

lim 0(aj)/^r(aj)=lim

X->oo

provided that the second limit exists and that \^'(x) has a constant sign for values of x greater than some, fixed value. II. If b n steadily increases to oo then
,

n+l~n

provided that the second limit exists* For if the second limit is finite and equal to I, as in I. above, we see by a similar argument that it is possible to choose

so that

(l-e)(b n

bm )
is

< an - am <
positive,

(I

+ e) (b n - b m

),

if

n>m.

Thus, since b n

Now,

since b n -+ x

we have

and

lim
n^-

(i

+ e)

= +
i

e.

And

so

we

find

But these extreme limits are independent of m, and therefore and so the inequalities can only be true if each of also of e the extreme limits is equal to I. Hence
;

lim (a n /b n) =
Similarly,
if

1.

the limit

is

oo

we can
),

find

m, so that

a n -a m

>N(b n -b m
be.

if

n > m,

however great

may

Thus
*

i
for the case b n =n.

152
1

LIMITS
tinliat
-

an.l

limit

of

t!

on

lh-

is

N, OS

Jim

'

-I---'

and

lli.

Thus

Inn
imilarU
tli:it

with

tin-

'
I

| *

Cf M

'

'/

"~~
1

(.It.

-o*
IVIM
(

-o w
tinI'nllov

1

<>rem

LI

I'

## >ill'T. -Altai's) of tinincreases steadily

)

f<>

s_

tt-ifl,

./,

/A

'^1:
/,</

tin

it

d,,>

second
..ut
i.f
|il,

//'///

It

|tr<'l>,illv

n-t

nl mi

tliis

iiiijxirtant

theorem,
>of .*

he extemU'tl

f"i-in

Ban-value

tln-'-i-.-ni

\\-.-

have

and

>>(

')-'>(,,)

is

j.ositiv.-.

Tin:

to a limit

-lin,.se

a so

tl

')

Ami

fr'lii

hn
if

.....

\vai(U

tin-

;n -iiniriit

])i-

Similarly,

that
</>(a-)-</>(a)

>()],

Ex.1.

If

,-r+...+

^=
iiin.laiiirntal

(^+ i ) p
+i_ n p+i-

A
limit
..f
tl

ilus.

H.'

lin.

JL,
liiu" 6.

ami 80

380
Ex.
2.

IRRATIONAL NUMBERS.
If
.

[AP.

I.

a n = lo7?
n + i-

=n
\

we have
so that
if

bn+ i-b n

n
161.)

lim

=0.
,

(Compare Art.
find

Similarly,

a n = (logw) 2

b n = n, we

^
which tends to

result.

+1)

< | log (

+ !),

by the previous
that

Thus
Similarly

\irn[(\ogn)*/n]

= Q.

we can prove

Ex.
3.

If

a n =p n
a n+l
n

bn

= n,

we have
and hence

lini(a n+1

Thus

,
.

or

=ao,

ifjo>l,
2.

(Art. 161).

Of course Ex. 3
Ex.
exist.
4.

is

## only another form of Ex.

(a n )

Even when

In this

case, the

and (6 W ) are both monotonic, lim n /6 n need not theorem shews that lim (a n+l - a n )/(bn+l - b n ) does
given by

not

exist.

An

example
o

is

Here

fl

## and so steadily increases Then we have

if

q>(p + l)'/(pbn+1

1).

^.iiz. o
n+ i-o w

jo-1
1,

= j-l. -b
n

p-l

while
Since

lim(aw /& w ) = 2-

Theorem

II.

Ex.

5.

If

ow

we

see that

1 /(

Thus

oscillates

between

and

5,

although

Again,

if

we

find

152, 153

\l-.l

!--

1. 1.

MM

\.

## l/2(-f 1); and 00

I,,,,;

tt-s

mill,:-

a drlimtr limit.

Ex.
.saiilx

6.

It'

!">

ii. .t

II

neces-

Tim*

aw =

ii

&.-<
ntlv
!

=
)

luit

.-

= 1.
\\ln-n \fr'(x)

In

lie

same M
"ii-id.-i
-

.inn

may

fail

chang*

intiiiitrU
'riiu>
.

/+! +>

^('
for
\\hi.-li
.

\v,-

tin.

i
|

-(),

\vliii-

Ms.-illat.-s

bet

and
Ex.

;i>

7.

<

'"ii-i<tfi-

tin-

and

|>i"\f that

Mm

= l,
.,-)=!+<,.

wl.iK-

Mm.

153.
y,,

An

extension of Abel
'
'

Lemma.
r -{-,.,
i

,/, /,

ran '*"

.\

,,

/,

rn

-f- //

-\-

Ii

''.,4-

'V

~^~

~^~

"

,
'

\\i'itf

.1,,

'',,,

A =
,

'',,

''j

.-1

((

ami

/'

/'
.
,

=
/>',

!> {t

-}-/',.

/>'
,

= '/,,-f-Cj = + +
/'

-f~

~f

'>!

4-

'

Then
\

^(Vo-^) 4-4
(

/*,(
'",

'-,

4-

-f />,

.i(v n .i~
% 1

'>-',)-

-...

+ ^^

('

H-i-v n )+^
re all

//'

]n.>iti\ 6,

We
//

'MII
.1

nl.tain

;in

n]|n-r

lin,

in
,

and

//.I

in

jla--

..f

/;

0,

382

IRRATIONAL NUMBERS.

[AP.

I.

where H,

Hm
B
l

^ ->, -pJi + n/

respectively.
. . .

Bn

ana

f or

/Bm Bin+l
,
,

...,

\-A-m

-"-?n+i

Bn\ "'
V^

i,

are
all positive.

(VQ

(t^

v 2 ),

(f ri-i

vn ) and f

Thus

and,

we

## replace J. r by its value in terms of obtain,* since m by definition,

if

we

H^H

+a +
1

...

+a r>

"

i^ 'i

~T

In like manner

we prove

that

where

h m are the corresponding lower limits of Br/A r Secondly, suppose that the sequence (v n ) steadily increases. In the numerator of v x ), (v x f 2 ), n the factors (V Q
A,
.

( v n-i~ vn) are a ^ negative, while v n is positive, so that the value of the numerator is increased by writing

hA r
and
/i

in place of
in place of

w -4r

Br Br

(r
,

l),

we must put

Hm A n

in place

of

Bn

= k m (a
and, since h m

## + .+a n v n + (Hm - h m )A n v n + (h - h)(A Vm - " r - - am vm

. .

tn

llt

),

^h,

the

negative

this again will not be decreased by omitting terms in the last bracket. Hence, since the

denominator

is positive,

(Hw - h m } A n vn 4- (h m - h) A

in

v in

*The numerator
which
is

is

actually
+' 0,1?!

av
less

+ ... + a m r m - (a

-f-

^+

..

+ a m )v

153,154)

Till

1.

Mil-

Similarly,

w-

timl

n _
'/'A*

II,,,

1'

m )A n vn

+(H-H m )A Mvm
.(
is

ilir

'')

tli-

## -iv a t.-t in the

i

than

/-.

ll.-i-,-

K-tors

while
!

vw are

Thu^

iln-

numerator of

Xn

is

greater
/'| .!.,(

tlian
I

'-',)+...-!-.

+/',,,M.

'

,)+...

+ //
= y/
-...+"

^4)+

+4i
-...-"

/'

x.i,,.'-,,.-'/.

'-...th<-

Hriir-

we deduce,
V

l-y

an ar--um-nt similar to

<
we

//

Similarly,

find

av +a
Ex.
l'i-..v
(

v l +...+a n v n
divi-r.Lr/

iha;

be

provided that
154.
It

-. ....
...

+ 6,,

[.Ins-

Other theorems on
t'n>ni

limits.

follows at onre

Theoivm

II.

of

Art.
to

1">2.

that

if

->
Thus
l.y

ha-

definite
8m

limit.

fcendfl
6
/

the same
\f a
-

limit.

writing
<i

=a

+Oj+...+a
I

that

as

iin

if,

fh>-

fi>

lim

(r/

-|-

/.,+ ...-!*"

I' 1

t!

;ivj,

monotonic

l\it it

saves

troul)K' to i-xjiiniiu-

it

lirr-.

384

IRRATIONAL NUMBERS.
limit

[AP.
first

I.

with
..._!

= 1,

a-j,,

= 0,

may

exist,

when the
,

does not

thus

## although the sequence

{a n ) oscillates.
III. If all the terms of a sequence (an ) are positive, lim if (an+l /a n ) is definite, so also is lim an ; and the two limits are the same. [CAUCHY.]

THEOREM

and

For,

if

lim (a?l+1 /a w )
,

is

finite

and equal

to

(not zero),

we

## can write a n = c n l n so that

lim(c n+1 /c n )=l,

Thus we can

find
1

m, so that

/c

e,

if

n ^ m.

By

multiplication,

we

obtain

so that

c w (l-e) w
c

<

cn cw

<c m (l + e)
<c, n
(l

tt
.

Hence

m (l-e)<
n >oo

+ e).

Now
so that
1 e
i

limcm
lim c n

=l

## (see Ex. 4, p. 17),

^ lim cn ^ 1 +

e.

of e;

these extreme limits are independent of and therefore e is arbitrarily small, so that the inequalities can only be true if each of these limits is equal to 1, or if

Now

and

lim<v = l.
Thus
But
if

lim

n
oo

,

).

<-i>

we can
t

find
if

m,

so that
*

n +il<*>n>N
be.
a> n (f

n^m,
m

however great
or

may

Hence, as above,

in>

>l

ai>^[
But
n

w /JT]i.

lim K,/JV']

=1

(Ex. 4,

p.

17),

so that

lim a n

J\r.

This

minimum
is

limit

is

and

independent of

m and therefore

oi

## arbitrarily great, so that

wr must have

Lim On*

a oo.

154]
h.-n

HEOREMfi
1

LIMIT-

Mm
tli.-

can be reduced to

th.

|,rt-\

ioni

:n _"!in.-Mt

to

proTi

r:il

lim
.ilnl

/.,".

');
',+iKX-,

alsi.

it

'
.

tod

reaaes to

Ex.

1.

lit.:

ft

n*,
,:,t

'

Thus

lit.,

result can

rig's

fonnuhi

f(.|'

(SIT

\.

Ex.2.

To

liiul

HIM

[(//<

l)(// <

+ 2)...(

!*

tixed,

ami

tin,,

/'+
i.-u

tin-

limit

ajruin
\\t-

is

Ex.

3.

Similarly

find that
l

HIM

[(/<

-<,

I\".

O.
]

90

that

Thm

p n ->0,

'/

tin-

-iv.'ii

ezpreaaion tuk.^

ill.-

f..nn

"^^'/i + .-.-f
Now, My
li"

Pi+

4
"'

-f...

+r
that

the r.-ult at

tin- iM-^iniiinir

## 'lii^ artid.-. \\,- SIM-

/,-fV,, -f ...-I-.

386

IRRATIONAL NUMBERS.
to

[AP.

I.

## and consequently we have only

prove that
-

lim -(Piq+piq*-i + tv

+Mi) =
we can
and

Now,
which
JUL

since

pn

q n both tend to

0,

find a constant

is

greater than \p r
\p r

and

\q r \;

further,

we can

find

so that

\<e/A,

qr\<e/A,

ifr>//.

Then,

if

>

2/z,

we have
\<e,
if

## \p r qn-r + i\<A\q n - r+l

r^$n, n-r^$n> p,
p..

and

\p rq n - r +i

\<A\pr \<e,

if

'

^n
x

whento
f
It'
.

an//
.

tin'

iipp.-r

## and lower limit-.

!'

.1

:md
I',,

are

Pm/Bm
BO that

P
A,,,
/

lini
si
i

&,-, We
1'n -in

can tind
<

01

<:

II

+ e.

and

we have

>

(/-,)-,/-/,,'/;<;;<(/+.)+(//-/.
BO
in-.|uality,
\v.
tli.-it
it'

u.-

tak-

th-

linii'

last

tind

/- t
I!*
-ii
a

inn/; ^n
/

I...,;!"

/-he.
<t'

;|

arliitrarily small,
t<
:

each

limits

in

HUM

!)

.Mjual

In likr

manner,

it'

l n
'

>

,

tind

so that

\'.

""'

"""
'.'

>.V-(.V-A
i'ruin

Sine.-

*'

"

-s_

\v-

tind

\in(QJCn )^
and
<

!>

in-retises,

we have

//,-,//

-,//-/,
( fi

<^<*.+
N<.\v.
li\-

hvpoth
a
//

',"

< A'

0,,

/.

\vhnv

A"

is

QODSU

fcei

than unity.

II.-nc.-

A ',//

-/,
(

_
-A
tind

then,
jn.st

A'
<

-/-^
II
>

as c2)

is

d.-dur,-d

fmn,
in,,/;'
i'.

,.

we

from

that

/-C-Vv'-lk
I'rniii

/-frJA'as

## which the same

result

.ll-.vv-s

388

IRRATIONAL NUMBERS.

[AP.

I.

in the first case the series 2c n diverges more slowly than 26 W while in the second case 2c M diverges more rapidly than S6n but the final condition excludes
It is instructive to note that
, ,

series

which diverge

too fast.

It should be noticed that if sn tends to a definite limit, Theorem V. is an immediate corollary from Theorem II. of Art. 152 for then both fractions have the same limit as sn
;
.

The applications

of
'

most interest
b

arise

when

= \=...=b n = l,

and then we have the result: // 2c n is a divergent series of positive terms, then
Co

+ Ci+.-.+c*
second limit exists

n+ 1
and

provided that

either (1) that c n c or that increases, decreases, n steadily subject to (2) steadily the restriction
the

nc n
where

<K(c + c

+...+c n ),
arises

is

a fixed number.
from applying the

Ex. 1. A specially interesting application theorem of Frobenius (Art. 51) to the series

where

,

Here
so that

it is

## evident that the series must be written in the form

if

= ao> -4q>-i ^o = o> ^i = o> A =a -}-a A +i = aQ + a ..., and so on. A v =a + a + ...-}- ant Generally we have c + c + ... + c, _i^v<c + c + ...+c n we have Thus, if 8n = aQ +a + ...+a A + A! + ...+A V =s co+ 5 c + + *n-icw_i + s(v - c - c - ...-c,,_
>

Co

Co

1l1

--

if it exists,

is

given by

## which we have proved to be the same as

provided that the last limit
exists.
1

Ex.

2.

6-0

+ 0! +

..

c,,

= (w + l)

;2

(w

+ 1) 3

etc.,

for

which

may be taken

as

2,

3 respectively.

155

## THEOBEMfi "\ LIMITS

re.--.

Th us we have the
lin.
x
1

<*+...) = K">
n
ae

*+*> +

+*
"*"**

an-

tr* + 0^r

r +...) =

I'

*'j*

Ex.

3.

Hut

if

wt \M

\e c

= 2,
our
-

Thai

i>,

## that we have no right

<

lint

'

(*o
;

+ .+ *)
...

""I

;ls

matter of

fact

particular
t.-iul^

SMJ.
I

can

roved to oscillate as j.
[H.\

to
4.

(oompti

!>.

489).
tO 8
,,f
tl.

Ex.
liv

We

can n>1.

tlii>

tin-., i, -in

taking x,,=

Then,

in

tli-

notation

rt

=jy,

'1
i

oonvergea,
:niot

\\\-.
i

.res.

Thn-

aj)]ioa<-h

anv

limit

"tln-i

tlian xero.

Ex.5,
an-i

w
/

/;('' \6
;

;^')=/ i*i/
...

+ /;
that

fl

Irt

A,,

/',.

/;..

th. MI

].!-o\,-

)'
i,

in

CMC
1

x, lut that

/'

'

ly applying Art.

that

*1:

pi

worth whiK-

bo

;i

ce

1.

v.

Iii
.

fa.-t
i:;:;i

the
in

loth
the

an<l

11

'"Is in

the

first

sequence, and

"n.l.
is

t This

is

tlic

## only point in the proof at \\ln.h care

necessary.

390

IKRATIONAL NUMBERS.

[AP.

EXAMPLES.
Irrational Numbers.
1.

(1) If

is

a rational

(a + 1)

2
,

prove that

(2) If

where

a,

p n qn
,

and that
Thus
if

p,

## -Aqn2 = (a2 -A)

n
.

an approximation to *JA, p n/q n is a closer approximation. [The approximation p s /q s is the same as that used by Dedekind (see
is

Art. 145).]
2.

(1) If a, b, x,

?/

are rational

(i)

x = a and

?/

= &,

or

(ii)

## <J(l-ab) and ^/(l-.r?/) are

[Math. Trip. 1903.]

## (2) If the equations in x, y^

ax + %bxy + cy = 1 = la have only rational solutions, then 2 J[(b-m) -(a-l)(c-n)] and ^(<^
2
1

3.

If a

is

irrational

and

a,

b,

c,

is

## not equal to bc\ then

aa + b and
-are irrational
4.

Any

numbers, except when a = in the former. irrational number a can be expressed in the form

a
where a
is

a
,
,

any assigned positive integer and c 1? c 2 c 3 ... are positive integers less than a. Thus, in the scale of notation to base a, we may write a as a decimal For example, with a = 2, that
in the

is,

binary

scale,

we

find

^2 = 1-01 10101000001....
If %, a 2 a 3 is an infinite sequence of positive integers siuli ... 7 n can be found to make (a^^... a,,) divisible by JV whatever the integer N may be, then any number a ran bo e\|n vssrd in the form
5.
, ,

that

''
!

+...,

cH

<a

1.
1

Iii

ordri

(hat

.-

Th.thii-.

rettliotiOO

th

mu>t
find

hi-

.i

r
L
->~>T^7

~1

t9J-^\ --fl -r 1 -J )
dtln.u^h

'

and
e|ual
6.

so
'

thr

sum

to

intini!

If

we can determine a

d;

such that

linn

^0,
'/..a.
;

"
i

/,

is

thr

int.-i;,.|

to
K.\.

th-'ii

,i.

niu-t

!<

irrational.

Aj.ply

sjM-cial

cast-

of

S)

to

thai \\hi-n

il

an tind an
nun:
[

intr^i-i

\ mcb
M
\v-

thai

.V-

.)/

ii

.,

any assigned
intt-^ral

pl.-as.-.

v.li.-i,-

.I/

j^

tlu-

pait of ^o,

Fr

tin-

first

part.

n..i-

that

'

'

<

7.

The sums of

!
\\lifr-/-.
'/

t'or

anil

inti-_rcrs,

aiv irrational

numl.r!
[Ki-

[For simi
p.

## -.\t-nsions, ser (Jlaisln-r,

/'

->\.

1."-.

1SU.J
.1

8.

If

i-

th-:

illation

of

!_

-urh that

>
\

~K^'
Thai
if

podtive integera.
h

can

find

s-i|i;.

that

when
oi

/'

ifl

iln-

n.-an-st

integer to

eu/ M

//-

n\bcr

degree

i:

""
wln-i.
.

"'

than

It'.

ly taking

it-ncc

9,[

.in

pio\ r that

Li

392
9.

IRRATIONAL NUMBERS.
Suppose that a
is

[AP.
is

## an irrational number which

converted into a

continued fraction

and p n /q n

is

write further

where

A n = an +
sin
|

a n+ i
\

+
a, i+2

. . .

if

man

> Kj Qn +\
n +i;

qn
|

<m<q

sin q n air

## = sin (ir/Qn+i) = (1 + e n )7r/$, i+ to oc. i , to zero as n tends ## [HARDY, Proc. Lond. Math. ## Soc. (2), vol. 3, p. 444.] Monotonic Sequences. lies between the two preceding monotonic sequences. two compounded (2) If a sequence of positive numbers (a n ) is monotonic, prove that the sequence (bn ) of its geometric means is also monotonic, where 10. ## (1) If in a sequence (an ) each it is term ## terms, shew that of (3) If <?!, c2 , ..., cp ## are real positive numbers, and if ## prove that the sequence the same 11. is (ju, n +i//^n) steadily increases; ## and deduce that true of //,. If Sn = ' where ar its is positive and independent of ^, shew that if 2a r is convergent, gives the value of lim n (see Art. 49). Conversely, if lim n exists, shew that 2a r converges, and that its sum sum is Apply 12. ## equal to the limit of Sn . to Ex. 12, taking k = l and to Ex. 6, Ch. XL, taking & = 2. ## Apply Cauchy's theorem (Art. 1 [~n n- 1 n-2 , ## 152, II.) to prove that 1 , where C is Euler's constant (Art. Prove also that for all values of 11). n, the expression lies between and 1. ## [Maf/t. Tri[>. 1!H>7.] 13. Apply Stolz's ## theorem (Art. 152, ( II.) to prove that if Inn +!- + A -"J=, H where A.>-1, - then +A -T-. 1. 1 IIPLE8 [If /' (] th.-n th.- L'iven expression can !" \\ \\here /'.. Th. -ii /-, increases with //, if 1-fA i> p.. -in !L' -li.-u in which we iven ret Quasi-monotonic Sequences. <iiven a seq' , N.-t tin- ^reateM index for which ## are all less than nil.-:'M /, ) m-ti>n of iiii>niit<iiiii- is nut ami dm-- m.t t.-inl t" inl'ir tii.n f"i- th'- decrwuing case. 14. \ it -I'lasi-moii., toni.iiiuit . si-ijin-iin- OOHV61 wliirli if si-(|MMK itli.-i divf-ri^ to oo or than any trrni nf th- >c|uence. f diverged t" / or converges to a limit (in.i ## great i-r than any ## t.-rni <.f \}\< ## tln-n tin- s<-ou<'n<-- is quasi-m .jua-i-nioiiotonic ami in<Tf;i>in'_r \ s'i|iiciic.'- ## ,-an ny .on\n-^rin liaving a comnion limit. IK- ## sul i-dividt-d into two Q ## Illustrations of i|iiasi-iiionotoni<- seqaenoet 4 (-!)"/>, \vh.-n-. in tinfirst ly a n = n 2 + (-l)";^, ,nt. ,, =! ## -{2 + (("H \i:i.v.) two. Infinite Sets of 15. irlti<-li Numbers. need to For some <<> ]>ur|>"-,,^ ,t' analysi- \\.- Beqilrli' 't'tcli i-all>11 Prove that th countable, r.-al nund>< and [For -a-h if /,, Of, ' ... i-- an\ B6C] write t.-i'in as an intinit.- decimal '0* iff*. <'.. ## Tlicn considci- the infinit-- d-'cimal 7= in It \\ hich clear th.r all / -lit i,.n ,t" i< to tin- exhaust ## the u-al nuinl<- .nd 1.] 394 16. IRRATIONAL NUMBERS. [AP. Given any infinite set of numbers (&) we can construct a Dedekind by placing in the upper class all rational numbers greater than any number &, and in the lower class all rational numbers less than some section number k. ; This section defines the upper limit of the set prove that this upper limit has the properties stated on p. 12 for the upper limit of a sequence. Frame also a corresponding definition for the lower limit of the set k and define both upper and lower limits by using the method of continued ; ## bisection (as in Art. 150). 17. The limiting values of an infinite set of numbers consist of numbers A such that an infinity of terms of the set fall between A-c and A + e, however small e may be. Given an section infinite set of numbers of the (k) we can k, by placing but a in the upper ## class all rational than all finite number than an the terms limit construct a Dedekind numbers which are greater and in the lower class all of terms set ; rational numbers limit less infinite number k. This section defines is maximum of the ## prove that the a limiting value of the set, in accordance with the definition given above and further that no limiting value of the set can exceed the maximum limit (compare Art. 5, p. 13). Frame a corre; maximum ## sponding definition for the minimum limit and ## state the analogous properties. Goursat's Lemma. 18. Suppose that an interval has the property that round every point of the interval we can mark off a sub-interval such that a certain inequality Then is satisfied for every point Q of the sub-interval. divide the whole interval into a finite number of parts, such that each part contains at least one point (P) for which the inequality \Q', P} is denoted by {$, P}

we can

satisfied at

lies. every point Q' of the part in which not if either half does the interval satisfy the condition, original [Bisect If we continue the process, one of two and so on. bisect it again
;

alternatives

must occur

either

we

## shall obtain a set of sub-divisions

which

satisfy the condition, or else, however small the divisions may be, there is always at least one part which does not satisfy the condition. in the latter, we have an In the former case, the lemma is proved
;

infinite

sequence of intervals
b H+ i-a n +i

(, &),

\vlin-.-

y,.

..l.tainril
is

iy

divi.linur (".

ii;

## easy to see that limits as i< trmls t> intinit

iiion.t,ni.-,
iict-d

ami
!

BO liavr

limit>
;

n-a

f|ual.

have gone
Supjxisi' that in
\v.-

at

prrst-nt

hut

we m\v

intr<du.-f

//// sMl-iiivi-j,,n

Qto -ul-int<-i-\
n thf iippn-

aU
c>

,j

denoi
// ...

and

b-w.-r
-

liin.-

## function in th- intn \al

then

it
i

nn;

il.lr

t. tind

a-

1
ill

//

W r <,
that
//,.

modes

of <livisic.ii

..t'

th.-

int.

leea

thai
luivo
iiulio;it-.l

only

the

rc.-t.ui-;.

latin

hciiiu'

<lttel
an.

th.

for

IT

410
Under

LOGARITHMIC FUNCTION.
this condition

[AP.

we have obviously

so that

= liin Km Sn = lira sn = A

(-)

(),

sa}*.

## Then, just as above, we prove that for any mode of division

and by Riemann's
Thus
It
is

condition,

S-o- <e,

if

yj r

<8.

Km2 = J=limcr.
App.
for (see easy to shew that a continuous function is integrable - a), if r <S. Thus we find I.) we can find 8 so that <o r c/(b rj
;

Ex.

22,

<

2i7 r a> r

<,
is

because

^r) r

= b-a.
;

It

two

also easy to extend the definition of integration to a function of let us consider the meaning of variables, say .r, y

///(.r,

y)dxdy,
a' to
6'.

If

6,

we

divide

(a, 6)

## into 2 m equal parts

== 2jtl IL, vifj., v i

and y from

and

(a', '&')

we

## obtain two sums

*^m, n

&m, n

^'^fJ.,

/u,

v>

are the upper and lower limits in a sub-rectangle or n is Then, just as above, we see that Sm n decreases if either 'TV,*. and s m>n have each a limit when thus increased, while s m<n increases ,,,,

where

H^

and A M

wi, T&

Further,

tend to infinity in any manner (see Ch. V., Art. 31). if f(x, y) is continuous we prove as above that

Km S
Now we
/

nlt

= lira s Mi n
\

F, say.

## have, from the definition of single integrals,

Cb
I

m and

Km
*oo

lira \ M >-oo

Sm>n )=
/

dx
dy

fb'
\

f(x,

y)dy

Km ( Km SW) B ) =
>

\m^ao

(* ''

'

(* /(a?,

>each other.

and

therefore to

EXAMPLES.
1.

,[For
If

we have

log(2) =

J*^,
1

we take

to 1J,

from \\ to

1J, etc.,

we

find that

Il.'l

111 W

2.

t.-h

th.-ii

gra]

3.

If

>i, t

-*l as

tends to

prove tint
'.

Dcdll.T

th;,t
l

...+o
\\hi.'h
(

,f

tin-

t\v.

<>na
1>r

(*'

'

l.-j.-n

ithin-

ami

ii"t.-

that

181.]
5.

If
if

/'

is

nmnrrirallv

l-ss

## than a lixed number A,

iiuU'|H-i.

and

.og

(l

<

then
1 log( \

lim.r

+ i + _L_
/'
//

l"u

/'

/'

/'

log?i

=
Art
6.
1-2

(1).]
t.

Tsc the

last

t-xain.!!-

>h.-\v

that

if

'|
.

I-

tormi

1" converges
,

if

/x>l,and

..thorwisr diverges.

iiat

tin-

_] )-<"+!)
is

div.-i^riit.
7.

Compare
".

Art
that .-

IS,

If

>

pfov
'2,

-(l+./-)!lg(l

+
1906.]

## [Write log (!+./) =

8.

and

UM

th.-

'-e'f
to

> 2^

if

is

Provt- that

as

rank's fr..m
1

-1

x,

tlu-

funrti..ii

_1
-

log(l-fj-)
iitinuous

fr'in

to 0.

412
[From the
continuity
is

LOGARITHMIC FUNCTION.
;

[AP.

dislast example, we see that the derivate is negative only possible at # = 0, and when \x\ is small we find that

_J_ -l_l-.a
log(l-Kr)
the series converging
9.
if

12"*"

|.r|<l.]

Shew how

to determine

so that
,

e*>Mx y

\tx>X,

which
(since

satisfied

But

## by taking #>21ogJ/' andlG.V-.

are unnecessarily large.]

10.

161.]

is

## not a rational function of x.

[Apply Art.
11.

by means

when

is the largest number which can be expressed algebraically of three 9's ? Estimate the number of digits in this number written in the ordinary system of numeration.

What

12. Arrange the following functions in the order which they tend to infinity with x
:

x*,

# l0 **,
the

(log

a?)*,

(logo?)'

10 **) 8
,

(logtf)

10 * 10

10

**,

**.

Indicate

position

of

each

of

these

functions

in

between

the

members
13.

If

we assume
to be

suppose n

x
| \

we

find

Deduce

that,

if

is

positive,

14.

series.

Shew

that

(-1W
i

/
i

1
2
v,

1\*
a/ ill
get

(nl)

[If the

product on the

left is called

we
a?
,

^- V = -^- =
Taking
v

dv

e*-l

+ 2! + 3! +
,

= 0,

## get at once, since o

ii.
I

LMPLE8

vre find

tin-

idmtit

whi.-h
15.

i-

rly.J

Sh.-u

that.

.iH

*-*<),

G^-r!
16.
If

v
-'""

-,

=
(l
' .

11).

|.|-..\i-

<x
[It

<

'-

will

be seen that

Xwhirli give*
17.
tin-

X-J

_ [

_Mc_
-.'

\
}_

0/4 ( W

result.]

good

a|)ii-.'.\iin:iti.n

t. the

fuii<-ti.. n
1

..f

K\.

16

l>y

taking

the

ermr

in

wliieli

is

<.f

tlie
.

'il.-i
1

(I""

[A.

L"i><;K.]

[Aj.j.ly
18.

Kuler's

:)).]

I'I-MV.

that

(/<

):

I=^Y^_ J !\fl
.

n-f2

T 8!

[Dill'eiviitiutr,

and

l...tli

-id.- irdu-,- t.

19.

Shew

that the

Mqn<
= e-,
3

= e'\

<-

Ifl

t<

infinity
tliat

tl

ni.-nil.er of

tli-

ial

scale.

20.

I'mve

2(loj

convergee

it'

-i

or

it"

ami

and

<.tli-i\\i>r

APPENDIX

III.

GAMMA-FUNCTIONS.
164.

## Infinite integrals: definitions.

range is infinite or the subject of integration tends to infinity at some point of the range, an integral maybe conveniently called infinite* as differing from an ordinary
If either the

integral
differs

very much in the same way as an infinite series from a finite series. In the case of an infinite integral, the method commonly used to establish the existence of a finite integral will not apply,

as will be seen

We

:

..

## Secondly, if the integrand tends to infinity at either limit

ff
f(x)dx when this limit
a
a

of Art. 163.

f(x)dx

{00

exists.

fb f(x)dx
as equal to the limit
lim
6->0 J (t+8
[

f(x)dx

(S

> 0)

when
*

## this limit exists.

Following German writers (who use uneiyentlich), some English authors have used the adjective improper to distinguish such integrals as we propose to call The term used here was introduced by Hardy (Proc. Lond. Math. ^ infinite.
(ser.
1),
is

vol.

which

34, p. 16, footnote), and has .several advantages, not the least of the implied analogy with the theory of injinite series.

[164]
If

DEF1NITIO]
tinoi'

int'"_;!-an'l

tendfl

t"

intii.

point
li\il.- ral
i

within

tin-

ran-.-

in

to
tli-

i^ral

into fcwo,

ami
I

.-uM
liml
i-

## il-tim- tin- int

ly

liml
,-"'.
il,,.
t

>

But
a
tin/

in

n-rtain proLL-niv
intinitf.
liin
\vliil.|

\\

limit^ in tintli-

la*-:

ln.th
tinitr

two
limit

int.'-raU tends to
:

tinit-

\v.-

then

r\ /,-)^=ii.It

' :

-i-

['/(./) //*].
bend
tinu^..!'

is

at

one,-

.-viilmt

tliat
aii-1

tin-

temuj
definitiona
Exs.
1

OA

## apply t> these

>

%-

ftr

^=

liiM

IA

;='

JO

A-.
,

n/.
/"fr

"/./

di-

,^

"
I

-T+lim
pi
!

K)-'-5

i-*o 2

n J-a X
=
\\hfic
in
tinla>t
i\\..

5_o\.

i("
int.

(s
>u])jisf
/

and

/<

shnuhl

ik.-d

that

in

tin-

la-t

CMQ ^- ihoold
8

ml to a
Maik,
<

tlffuiiu-

limit

BI

doea

so.

1.

1.

j..

-.Ml.

416
Exs.
(of

INFINITE INTEGEALS.
divergence and oscillation).

[AP. in.

dx
diverges
l

and

/*
I

sm.vdx
.

oscillates,

dx x

,.

diverges

and

Jo x*

am

\xj

oscillates.

It

of

infinite

## integrals are fundamentally different.

An

infinite integral of

## one type can always be transformed so as to belong to the

other type; thus, if /(#)-> oo as x->b, but where in the interval (a, b), we can write
.

is

continuous

else-

=7 b

a x

or

a-\-b -

## and the integrand

1

in

is

everywhere

finite.'

Ex

f
Jo

d-^

-*-/2 )

-^

reversing this transformation it may happen that an integral to oo can be expressed as a finite integral.

By

rao

Ex.
if

When

= !/,

r\

ar'd-x
still

becomes
J^
if

%'- d%,

which

is

a finite integral

5^2

(both integrals

converge

2>s>l).

It is also possible in many cases to express a convergent infinite integral of the second type as a finite integral by a change of variable. Thus we have

o(l

x 2 y*
latter integral is finite if f(x) is (0, 1) (for definition see Ex. 23, p. 395).

by writing x = sin
finite in

0,

and the

the interval

## Kronecker in his lectures on a transformation is always

theoretically true,
*

it

is

## possible, but although this is not effectively practicable! in all cases.

of f(x)

Care must be taken in applying this kind of transformation when the infinity is inxide the range of integration. Here it is usually safer to divide

t If

/()-*

oo

as

-a,

we can

write
;

</;.

and introduce

as a

new

Jm

variable.

and
/

## express a divergent integral in the form

164,165]
165.

m-:n \rrioNa

Special case of monotonic functions. Although. as we have pointed out in tin- last
i

art

for
ilif

case of

an
,,f

infinite

integral.

can

obtain

direet

definition

tin-

when

f(x)dx
tli.-n

tin-

function f(x)
c;

x greater than

w-

cMnsi.lri-

only
i'alls

tin-

iiit.-^ral
j

/
in-

rul.-s.
'I'ln-n
let
/:
:

un.l.-r

tin-

ordinary
fcluefl

.'',,(='),

be a seju-!
1.

to

liave,

(*+,-'
Thus,
ii'

>'
I

/ -'

>

Jx*
tin-

integral

/<.')</./

to

the value

/.

:,)^I^"
<

-'

)f

th>f

two
tin-

MM-ii-s

in

(I),

tin-

srconil

vii-tut-

COnVi

the

"

the

contains
it'

only
-J-"

j>ositi\e

tei-ms.
< '

The
i--

tii-st

need

not

conver-v,

./

instance, \\ith

and

/()=]
l.e

./-.

it

## sufficiently rapid: will l>e found that

every

t'-nn
-\-i-r.

in
l.y

ti

Hw.

taking Xn to
l>

a
,<

}.i-operly
.

chosen function of
easily en^un- the
|.n>vr that
i^

some parameter
Convergence
the
t

(as

well as of
io

we can
.

of

lli
have
a

## (1); and we can also

limit

\\

common
this

he

to

tend t"
to
/.

ZrO ly varying//:
Miple.
si

common
(1).

limit

must

in

a^

is

independent of

//

and

eijiial

to A, say:

then

.r n

## = r+nlt and we have

>

-A[/(c)+/(+A)4
i

+ ...].

,-,

418

INFINITE INTEGRALS.

[AP.

III.

hf(c),

to

with h

hence

q,

## In like manner, if xn+1 /xn is independent of = cq n we have say, so that xn

,

n and

equal to

and

Thus we can again infer the convergence of the from that of the second, and we see that

first

series

/-co

Ex.

1.

Consider

h X)

xn =nh.

We

have then

7=

x~*dx,

/oo

(where s>l).

n
,

and we get

by applying one
Ex.
r
/

3.

It can

be proved
oo

sin

as

,

r<*>
I

<t

cos xf(x)dx =

liiu

r ),

sin

**

the

sum

is

then

//

A
+

-",

(if

A = 7r/2w),

and from
For

this

we can

find

"log sin #.

M)

(2/<)

. . .

2]

=
Ji!." 27i

f* log
2.

n ~( n ~

x ) io

=166.

TT

log

Tests

of convergence

for

infinite

integrals

with a

is positive,

rA

values of
increases

x,

it

is

clear

lor

with X;

165, 166]
t

integral

;,,/(

.1

\.

In

practic.-

tin-

usual

ni.-t!i."l
<

!'

applying
is

thlfl

ted

nppi-al to tin!'

positive

in the case of

WM

ii'

## positive function also

[

which

't(x)dx COIIN.T^,--,

tlii-n

/(./)</./

converges
than

if

any
tixrd
nuiiili'-!

rat--

for

valu.-s

of

iC

M>me

(Le
I

<[
is

ami

tliis

la.st

rxpn-ssion

in<l-j.'nl.-nt

of \.

Thus, suppose
[">;'

we ooond
;

'.\\hereaispoArt.
'

_Mii\.\v.-

fr.iin
'

I'll

## :il'.v-. \v.- lind that

./^e'l^-^O a JT-^OO,

>n that

eu

I'-t.-riniiH'

A-**
iind tlion
i-=.r^e"
-,
1

<l,

if
if

./->c,

ar

<e~i a
/

-',

r>c.
is

1.

".

Ait. i;i)

e~^*dx

## convergent, and conse-

/
If

.^e~

in write A'=e*, we

fin.l

tliat
l

\-fA'-(
th
(a
*

\t.\'.

n '/./-

i<

.-(.nvcr^nit.

be niultijilifd
iiinic

tc.

;u

l.y

th.-

;ii<l

of

scale of

inlii,:

Timfluif

",/

a <ni>/ a

rU

Ii

one

"/'

///

'l
/
fi'dl
J

,<>o

->,

J(
I'm<l

Tin- coinparisoii
h'

t.-st

I'un-

as follov
iln-n

G
is
j

Iwaya

.:nl
]

<;<

80 also

at

any

rate

at't.-r

crrtain

valur

422

INFINITE INTEGRALS.
(see the small

[AP.
if

III.

is

positive, c can

be

/?

may
Jc
/

be.

Now
and

with

Thus
I

y&e^dx
it is

also diverges.

If

a=0,

By changing

the variable,

fi=

I.

Joe a

an index

## a^iO, such that one of the conditions - a) (1 a (i) f(x) J5(loga;y a-

>

(ii)

/()>

4
J

>

BxPer",

or a

= 0, /3^-l,

is satisfied.

These conditions are analogous to those of Art. 11 for testing the convergence of a series of positive terms; and, as there remarked, closer tests can be obtained by making use of other terms in the logarithmic scale (although such conditions are not of importance for our present purpose). But one striking
feature presents itself in the theory of infinite integrals which has no counterpart in the theory of series. integral

An

f(x)dx
limit

may

Naturally,

zero.

is

## function, for lim /(&)

()

obviously necessary in
.

all

oscillatory cases of

convergence; but

method.

1
l-i...

IS,

## Consider a curve which has an infinite series of

/>'/,

x,

of

to suppose steadily increasing height; then, it is quite possible that their widths are correspondingly decreased in such a AV.-IV

166
1

TESTS OF
the
(|ii,

'

ONI

Bl

that

t'.nn

oonvergeni

series;

ntly
i

in

1
i

(a>/3>0).
.c
ft

~ a
,

itli

It'll

its

Xiaj.l
..f

to

tin-

fr
.

\\hi<-h

./

is

.-i

multiple

r,

we have

(n+1)

thai

f '
this
it

is

evident that
|

/'(./)</./

.'..iivrrL't-s

.,r

';th;r

/> 2(/?+l)
</>(#),

or
to

a^2(/?+l).
oc

And

^eiu-rally,

if

( A% )

with

*, tin-

integral

r
J
l

44>

+v
if

^rs
diverges.

if l\/i(/< -f 1)

## [VK*)P converges and divrr^-s

-00'

Ex.

/"*

o^dor

1.
-/0

converges

"i

divergee according as

l+j<r\*inx\

a>(j+l
Ex.
With
2.

or

a^j8+l.

[HAUI.Y.*]

/"</,(

.nrergM with

-^|^^]

and diverges
[IIAK..Y.]

-''
irff)

Ex.
with
I'

3.

/"<(*)-Jo
M/
'

ih

1
^

jfefi

diverges

()

:r
.

[1M-

Hois RBTMOSI..]

111

spit.-

!'

tin-

last

rrsuh,
''I'/

\v,

can
tl>

i'1-ov.-

(a.s

in

Art.
i

86) that

decrease*,
<jence of
I

l)

Accessary for

t/<>

.Messenger of Math>

mm iX

April

1JX-.

111.

424
For here we have

INFINITE INTEGRALS.

[AP.

III.

is less

thus for convergence it is necessary to be able to find A so that than e for any value of p greater than A.

(/x

- A)/(/x)

Hence lim #/(#)=() is necessary for convergence. But even so, no such condition as lim {x log x)f(x) = is necessary in general (compare Art. 9); but it is easy to shew that if (for instance) xf(x) is monotonic, then
x\ogxf(x) must tend to 0. More generally, if <f>(x) tends steadily to x and f(x}l<f>(x) is monotonic, then f(x)<j>(x)l<f>(x') must tend to zero thismay be proved by changing the variable from x to <(#). [PRINGSHEIM.]
;

## It is perfectly easy to as to apply to integrals in

* so modify all the foregoing work which the integrand tends to infinity,

say at x = 0.

The
than

results are

The integral

Jo

is less

1),

where either

(i)

a>0
hand,

or

(ii)

a=

0,

/3<

1.

On

the other

## the integral diverges

when

where
167.

(i)

a<0

or

(ii)

(),

/3^-l. we
consider

Examples.
illustrate the last article,

To

two simple

cases.

It is easy to see that the integral converges, so far as concerns the upper limit, by applying the tests of the last article. There is an apparent difficulty at the lower limit,

## because of the factor

I/a);

but since

the difficulty
*

is

apparent only.
results directly by writing
l/.r

## Or we may obtain the

for

.r

in the integral.

166, 167

425
f
'

tin-

intt-'n-al

i.s

liui

(<

-<

l-*J

dx x
X

nid

"
J
l>y
ri
\

J, 5

{"

the

Benoe

nr

int.-

Inn

* <-*

But
l>y

CM
I

e~*

lirs

between
"

tin-

\alu.-s

i'..unl

1\-

r-j,i,i

'

and ly

'"'
:

tli->,.

valn-s an-

g-'lno-/

and

both
H.

ul'

wliicli

tend to lo^
liin

as o kendfl to ^- z

0.

=
=

1(.

->oJ

and aceordin.
f

(e~

e~ tx )

1.

iider
c

(Ae-

J*<-

^ + (v--

///*
,

/.

//,

## are positive and

A
It

may

sh.-wn as above

tliat

tin-

integral converges

cnnditions aiv

NOW
fi

J3
!'

VJl

OJ*

-rJ6
,-\

In \irtu--

the r(,nditi<'n

1J./=O,

it

is

now

idrnt

that

B
f
I (l

*
'

:=
,1.1.
|

Thu>
and BO

= "'J 2(^
I
l

.;

1.1-

Jo

426
3.

INFINITE INTEGRALS.
similarly that,
if

[A P.

III.

p > n,

where

2^A ra r = 0.
L
'

(k = Q,

1, 2,

...,

1)

168. Analogue of Abel's Lemma. If the function f(x) steadily decreases, but is always positive, in an interval (a, b), and if \<f>(x)\ is less than a fixed number A in the interval, then *
}

f(x)<p(x)dx<Hf(a),
i

where H, h are

the

r*

the integral

as

ranges from a

to

b.

## For, assuming that f(x)

is

differentiate,

we have

J=
Now,

we
in

since /(&) is positive and f'(x) is everywhere negative, obtain a value greater than J by replacing x(&) an d x^) the last expression by H, and a value less than J by
h.

replacing

## f(x)dx <J<Hf(b)-H\ f(x)dx -h\ Ja Ja

or
Similarly, if interval (a, c)

hf(a)<J<Hf(a).

Hv /^ are and H h
2,

the limits of the integral x() in the interval (c, b), we find 2

n the

- H, ( f(x)da> - H2
Ja

[f(<e)da> Jc

or
*If f(x) should be discontinuous at x = a, /(a) denotes the limit of/(#) as r tends to a through larger values.

167, 168]
\\

AN

\l.(M,i

i;

OF

Mil

IMA
is

li

that

if

y
iiinii

nunilM-r.

## an- th- upjM-r

as

ranges from

,/

to

and from

to

>>.

ivsjM-rtm-ly. th.-n

|7
\Vln-u
/'./)
is

Uf()

<

/yj

/'('')-/('>

+ >).>f(c).
fco

complex,
p.

formula.ol>tainr<l

ronvs|,oiilin(gee results
/'

of
1.

Art.
i,

80 can be
()":

li>07,

hut

th.-sr

an-

not

u.-.-j.-.l

foi-

oiu-

j)i-f>i-nt

p
on
p.
i^<;
is

<t

ineijuality

iMjui\'alent
first
Itet

to

the
is

Of

Mean
-I.

Value.
p.
:V.t~>
i

To
,i--i;n

see thi>,

note
\alue

that

\(^>

ri.htiniK.us.

in

inter\al (o,

''o.

Thus the

ine,,uality

## ween A, // at least oner t<. Bonnet's theorem

'

the

^/('Oxtfo)' ul "' iv
i

= =
,

''

this

liy

i>

true f..ran\

monotonic

writing

!/('')- ff(b)

f"
\

^hu-

we

find

the

t'oini

comnK.nly quoted

V
BOM
value of
,,

<}>(

>(l>)l^

cannot

le determined,

Mee

equa

## Although the restriction

importance here.
as th
\.-t
it

t!

l.e
.-t

ditl'erential.le

i>

of

little

i-

h---i

ic.illy

de.-iral.le

to establish

-udi results

\Ve shall tln-ivfore ni; with the greatest generality possible. a second proof, based on one due to Pringsheim*, in whuh we me nothing aln.ut the existei
in;
:

.

|]

part-

l.y

inserting

j...

and wri

then we ha\e
=

where

'<K),

p.

'209;

this

paper contains a

equality on
vol.

j>.

4-t'..

Another
i>.

}>roof

## baa been given

i.\

H.ir.iy,

MtMtny

.SO,

HHMi,

1".

428
Hence,*
(1)
if

INFINITE INTEGRALS.

[AP.

III.

/r+1 =/(.rr+]
Jr-r

),

but in virtue of the decreasing property of f(x\ [/(#)-/r +i] the last integral and is less than (fr fr+i), so that
(2)

is

positive in

<(fr-fr+i)A(b-a)/n,
<j>(x)\<A and xr +i-xr =(b-a)ln. the equations (1), bearing in mind the inequality
n _l
rxr+l

because
see that
(3)

(2),

we

J-Zff+il J XT r=0

$(x)dx = Rn where because If Rn < 4 (6 \ )(/ -/) < ~ (b - )/ fn =f(b) is positive. now we apply Abel's Lemma r=0 ## (Art. 23) to the r+l sum we ## obtain the limits hf- and 1 .fi^ for it, because f x T^r+l ## and the sequence /i, /2 ...,/ Thus, from (3), we find , is decreasing. (4) A/i-^-)/P<^<^/i+^-)/f /! =/[ where If + (5 - )/] now we ## take the limit of (4) as n tends to infinity, we obtain the desired result, t In exactly the same way we can make the further inference that if lies between a, b, and to if c, H^ ## A x are the upper and lower limits of I , ^ (.r )././ as ranges from a while ZT2 ## h 2 are those as f ranges from c to 6, then In case /(a;) ## should be discontinuous at xr +\, we define fr +\ ; as the limit of f(x) when x approaches ar r+ i through smaller values of exist in virtue of the monotonic property of /(.<) ## this limit will fit that /* , -. ## will be seen that the condition |0(#)|<-4 is by no means t't> essential, and it ; may for ## be broken at an infinity of points, provided that \<j>(x)\dx con- verges ## we can then make a ## division into sub-intervals, for each of whirh than any assigned number. But Pringsheiin has proved / that it is only necessary to assume that (f>(x) and f(x) x (x) are integrablc in the interval (a, l>) compare Proc. Loud. Math. Soc. vol. 6, 1907, p. tii?. \<f>(x)\dx is less ; 168, 169 429 1 169. ## Tests of convergence in general. in- the genera] be I AppK <,//// fral J and -!n,t for tl Convergence <>f tin- /i we oam find nieh j T '//. f /in "//'/ e 18 ni'ftifi'" HoW( vet which can tin- t'ollo\\ 1. iii ' . I'm- inlinit. .--ral ## test for con- usually r-|laci-l l>c in iff j.i'act a]>plic<l more <|uickly. ## ly BOm The thn-.- DMTO chief t'-sts are Absolute convergence.* i The literal .' will certainly converge it' I/O/ ' converges, .<' <!>' I Jf i'.iit naturally in tin- ## analogy h.-twccn Midi is intc^i-als lut.-ly / ## <|uitc convergeni aeriea the values of a function. if not c(,ni])l-tr. since th.-r.- and absois no In particular, |/(#)|< //'(.'). wli-- Readily decreases will coii\> ## :icivascs. tin- integral J /'(')'/./ 2. Abel's test. Infinite integral wh ' ''hinnjii m,t absolutely) and Suppose tonic \lr(.i'} //N>- >e). /)'/./ that J ,/,(. ;id that i> inonotit function, such that *fr(x) <.l: it th- that ## tt-nds t. sonic limit if if i Thus, i-/ * we wri -.-. thai tnd 'I'lit ahsohitil.y B( -. is clearly pointed out ami /'A 430 decreases to ; INFINITE INTEGRALS. and it is [AP. III. obviously sufficient to prove the Joo a f(x)<j>(x)dx. Now, ## by the analogue of Abel's IJ1 Lemma (Art. 168), we see that ## < Hf(() < Hf(a), <j>(x)dx where is ## the upper limit to x when of I X ranges from <j)(x)dx, to '. Now, ## in virtue of the convergence so as to we can determine f/< make and then ## so that the integral f(x)<f)(x)dx converges. Hence 3. also f I Ja \}r(x)<t>(x)dx converges. Dirichlet's test. infinite integral which oscillates finitely becomes convergent after the insertion of a monotonic factor which tends to zero as a limit. An ## Here again we have I f^' J f(x)$(x)dx

< Hf(),
constant independent of ^; * so that e, and con-

and

we can
/QO
I

find

#/()<

Although the

Ja

f(x)(h(x)dx

is

convergent.

## almost immediately suggested by the tests

of Arts. 19, 20, yet it is not clear that they were ever given, in a complete form, until recently. Stokes (in 1847) was certainly aware of the theorem (3) in the case <(#) = sin .r (Math, and Phys. Papers, vol. 1, p. 275), but he makes no reference to any extension, nor does he indicate his method of

The first general statements and proofs seem to be due to Hardy proof. his argument is somewhat (Messenger of Maths., vol. 30, 1901, p. 187) diflerent from the foregoing, and is on the lines of the following treatment of the special case <(.?;) = sin ./.
;

;

remains

less

number G

thus

we have

169
1

\\i.
.

MI;K

III.L;

In tin-

i>.

--sci

the figure.

i.ly

in

almost

intuitively

-\

id.-nt

that

tin-

aivas

.,f

tin-

r

alt-

in

and

.sim-e

-in
;

## positive in tin- integral,

it

tliis

lies
s

U-t
oo
.

fl

TT)

so that

tends to zero as

to

Further,

vdx--Jf(x+**+lir)KD
It

which

i>

wave.
follows that
f*
/

luiis

sin

is

c.n\ t-rgent,

by applying

## th- th.-MUMii of Art. 21.

In general,

if

<f>(.r)

method.

usiiiL'

i>iriehlet'>

changes sign infinitely often we can apply a similar t->t (An. ^>) to establisli th.- ronvergence of

If

tin-

intro-ranil

tends
tin-

JO,
.!'

lor

convergence and
tin'/

tr-.t

/'"/

Th>

'!/

8UJj
././

flu

## <'<>n>; r< jence

><!,

is

fl.-

fix

if

Ib

ivherc

///.-

any

;>ox//?>v

*/
I

|/

,ii

/'.>

/A.

'//.

It

is

i>M>vil,l,.

to

write

nut
l>ut

con-.^jioinliii^-

nioliticat inns
ci

of

Altai's

in

## and Dirichlet's tests ; practice and an- (oetl

such

t.-sts

are not

to tin-

ingenuity

<>!'

tlu

432
Ex.
1.
/
!

INFINITE INTEGRALS.
__ctr,
1(
/

[AP.

III.

.-dx

converge absolutely

if

p>

and so does

( Jo
/oo

^<foif 0<<1
x^
/*oo

Ex.

2.

*-^.(lx,

</>(#)

if

0<p<l
cos tfcfo?

and generally

sin .rcr,
test,

</>(#)

I

if
I

<j>(x)

I

Cb

For
I

7a
3.

sin x dx

cos

cos b

fb
/

2,
|

cos x

dx

sin b

- sin
|

2.

Ja

Ex.

/(*) =
-"*, (logj?)-*
;

## test are given

by
[HARDY,
I.e.]

= (sina?)-*, <^(d7)

log(4cos%).

## 170. Frullani's integrals.

As a simple and

interesting example

of the

tests

of the

## last article, let us consider the value of

x
pco

where

<f>(x) is

such that

<j>(x)dx oscillates

between

finite limits

{or converges).

## Then, by applying Dirichlet's or Abel's

test,

we

see that

x
is

convergent and

is

equal to

'

if

a "5

>as x tends to
0,

THUS
and
if
<f>(x)

X
tends to a definite finite limit
,

finite

integrand;

In the same

way we

if

## For examples, take 0(.) = coso5 or

sina;.

170, 171

Tin-

foniH-r

in!'

<'\aliiat'-<|

IT

,j,(

>

tends to

M x tend

is

X
\\hi<-h
th.\.-ilu.-

J.
.f

03

by

means

of

l-Yullani's

integral

may
1

be

Tli.'

integral
a
i

f.

.iiml
<>f
1

in

AM.

|ii7

ill

i>

particular case of

formula

i<l

a U..
i.r
1

thai

>n8

and

l.y

Hai'

171.

Uniform convergence of an

infinite integral

i
tin-

lue

!'

^-\

lor

wliidi

tin-

in.-(|iiality

^^
JA
Lfi

<6,
as

(\>\$),
.f

function
!:).

w.-ll
iliat

e.

In

-nee

witli

Art.

we Bay
it'

tin-

intf^r.al
.f
//

converges uniformly in

fr
if
t!

all

vahu-s

in tlir intn-val

r-iii,

than
pendent of
interval

a
//.

i'linction
T.iit.
.

A' if),

wliicli

d.-pt-nds

on
tin

but

is

inde-

which

]>art

icuK-n-

vahif //,
f

:.

## to be a point of non-uniform convergence

Ex.
1.

tin-

int-^ral.

(if

-"

tin-

intc^i-.-il

i)

unit'
1

kc

-\'u

t.

Ex.
0,

^=
II flirt'
>/

=0.
.rnJ.

is

/via/,
v,.l.
:;:?.

I'.nu.

,,.

11:;.

3e

ilM
*.

t.

Papers, vd.

I.

j..

l.s.

434

INFINITE INTEGRALS.

[AP.

III.

we have usually in practice uniform convergence which is similar to the general test for convergence (Art. 169): The necessary and sufficient condition for the uniform convergence of the integral
But, just as in the case of series,
to introduce a test for
r
I

Ja

f(x, y)dx,

in an interval of valuer of
,

y, is that

we can find

a value of

independent of

y,

such that
e,

f(x,

y)dx

where
small.

'

## has any value greater than f

and

is arbitrarily

The only fresh point introduced is seen to be the fact that must be independent of y. The proof that this condition is both necessary and sufficient follows precisely on the lines of Art. 43, with mere verbal alterations. But in practical work we need more special tests which can be applied more quickly the three most useful of these tests are
:

1.

Weierstrass's test.
(a, /3),

the

function

where M(x)
the integral

is
I

of y.
I

Then, if

Ja

M(x)dx

## converges, the integral

Ja

f(x,

y)dx

is

absolutely and uniformly convergent for all values of y the interval (a, /3).

independently of

y,

so

that

M(x)dx
Joe
I

is less

than

e;

and therefore

\ J

f(x,

y)dx

f J

f J

M(x)dx
and

<

e.