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THE

ELECTRIC
IN

FURNACE

IRON

AND

STEEL

PRODUCTION.

BY
"

JOHN

B.

0.

KERSHAW,

RLO.

WITH

24

ILLUSTRATIONS

AND

LIST

OF

PATENTS.

NEW

YORK:

THE

D. 33,
MURRAT

VAN

NOSTRAND STRBET,
LONDON
AND

COMPANY,
27,WARRBN
:

8TRKET.

"THE

ELECTRICIAN"

PRINTING

AND

PUBLISHING

COMPANY,

LIMITED,
Salisbury Japan India
: :

Court,
"
" "

Fleet Nihonbashi

Street,
Tori

E.G.

Z, P. Maruya Thacker, Spink

Co., 14,

Sanchome,

Tokyo.

Co., Calcutta. Co., Madras.


"

Higginbotham
Australia:

George
Brisbane.

Robertson

Co., Melbourne,

Sydney,

Adelaide

and

[All Rights Reserved.]


1907.

cVjljws,

'\H'i"\.Q"\

,%

J^^

0-"U.J^^JijU

\y^

VVL

Printed

and

Published

by

"'THK

BLRCTRICIAN"

PRINTING

AND

FUBLISI1IN6

CO.,

LTD.,

1,

"nd

3,

Salisbury London,

Court,
B.C"

Fleet

Street,

PREFACE.

In

May,
the Iron

1906,

the

Author

was

invited

by

the

Publishers

of

Trade

Review

of

Cleveland,
of

U.S.A.,
the

to

tribute con-

to

that

paper

series

articles

upon

electric

furnace

methods

of

iron

and

steel

production.

The

articles

were

written,
second

and half
of

they
the

appeared
year

in

that

Journal
were

during
also

the

1906,
"

they
at
a

published

in

The

Electrician

(London)

later

date.

In

view

of

the

success

which

has

attended and

certain steel

of

the

furnaces

and

processes it is

for

refining possible
in

iron

by

aid

of

electric

heat,

thought
these

that

the

tion collec-

and

publication
prove branch
a

of

articles

more

permanent
the literature

form

may this

useful

contribution

to

of

new

of

electro-metallurgy.

The

present
and

industrial

development
is
no

of

these

new

methods

processes

doubt the

small

and

nificant insignitude mag-

when

compared
iron

with

vast

extent

and

of little methods

the

and

steel that will

industries.
it

The
be

Author

has

doubt,
that

however,
the world

will

upon and

these

new

depend

more

more

for

IV.

PREFACE,

its

supplies
America

of

iron

and

steel,

as

the

coal-fields

of

Europe

and

are

gradually
will

exhausted.

Electricity
take
the

generated
coal,
"

from

water-power
electric furnace

then

place
the blast

of

and

the

will

supplant
furnace.

furnace

and

other

forms

of

refining

The

articles

are

reprinted they
An

in

this

volume

in

the

form

and

order

in

which

originally Appendix
numbers of

appeared,
has

with

slight

verbal

alterations.

been

added

taining con-

the

dates

and

the

more

important

English,

American

and

Canadian

Patents.

7OHN

B.

C.

KERSHAW.

The

West

Lancashire

Laboratory,
Liverpool,

Waterloo, July

1st,

1907.

CONTENTS.

FAOB

CHAPTER

I.

Historical

Introduction

1-5

CHAPTER

n.

The

HliROULT

Furnace

and

Process

6-16

CHAPTER

HI.

The

Keller

Furnace

and

Process

16-26

CHAPTER

IV.

The

Kjellin

Furnace

and

Prcciss

27-32

CHAPTER

V.

The

Stassano

Furnace

and

Process

33-42

CHAPTER

VI.

Miscellaneous

Furnaces Galbraitb, Gin, Girod,

and

Processes Hiottb,

43-56

Conley,

Harmet,

Huthenberg.

CHAPTER

VII.

Yields

and

Costs

67-66

APPENDIX.

British

and

American

Patents

67

The

Colby

Furnace

and

Process

68

ILLUSTRATIONS.

FIG.

PAGE

Siemens'

Electric

Crncible

Fnrnace

Heroult

Crucible

Fnrnace

(Section) (Section) (Charged)


Furnace

Heroult

Crucible

Furnace

Heroult

Crucible

Furnace

12

Heroult

Ore

Smelting (Original (Second

(Original

Form)

13

Keller

Furnace

Form) Form)

18

Keller

Furnace

"""

19

Keller

Furnace

(Discharging) (Latest (Design (Section (Original (Botary (Rotary (Fixed (Section) (Section) (Sections Tilting
and

21
"
...

Keller

Fnrnace

Type)
for

23

10

Keller

Furnace

Smelting

Works)

24

11

Kjellin
Stassano

Furr

ace

and

Plan) Form)
...

30

12

Furnace

34

13

Stassano

Furnace

Form

with

Two

Electrodes) Electrodes)

...36-37

14

Stassano

Furnace

Form

with

Three

...38-39

15

Stassano

Furnace

Type)

41

16

Conley
Galbraith

Furnace

44

17

Fnrnace

45

18

Gin

Chamber

Furnace

Plan)

47

19

Gin

Combination

and

Furnace

48

20

Girod

Furnace

(Section) (Plan) (Section) (Section)


Furnace

50

21

Girod

Furnace

60

22

Harmet

Furnace

52

23

Hiorth

Fnrnace

54

24

Buthenberg

(Elevation)

55

CHAPTER

I.

INTRODUCTION.

In

the

year
a

1879

the form

late of

Sir electric

William furnace."^
to

Siemens,
In 10

of this of

London,
furnace iron 1 shows

patented
he steel the
was

crucible with of the

able

comparative
electric
current

ease

melb hour. this

kg.

or

by

aid

in

one

Fig.
earliest

general
for

arrangement
steel his

and

design

of

crucible

furnace

melting.
of
cost upon

Basing
experiments
that the

estimate with this furnace in

the William of

results

obtained claimed

by

furnace,
method

Sir

Siemens
steel

electric

melting
to
a

might

be

regarded furnace,
of But
not

as

equal
in of

heating
case

efficiency
ton

regenerative
the

gas

since
ton

each coal

the coke. had

of

steel

required

lent equiva-

one

or

the

electric

furnace

other solid of

advantages
or

in

its

favour of

shared

by
that with

furnaces the the could and the that

using

gaseous furnace that

fuel,
was

chief

these
taminated

being

atmosphere
of

the

uncon-

products
be

combustion
in

practically
of steel controlled

B,hy

degree
the

of

heat

obtained this heat


current.

the be On

charge easily
these crucible

within

furnace

could

by
the

regulation

of of that this

electric earliest form

grounds
furnace of considerable future. be

designer

of

electric

phesied pro-

electric in the iron

heating
and

would

become of the

importance Twenty
in But

steel

industry
any the progress late Sir work

years direction the meantime

elapsed
indicated much

before

could William

reported
Siemens.
out

the
in

by

important

was

carried

by

No.

2,110.

1879.

THE

ELECTRIC

FURNACE.

the

brothers Heroiilt

Cowles,
and Qirod

Hall,
in Lavel

Wilson
;

and

Acheson Borcbers and

in America
Kiliani the of

by

France
in

by

iu tical pracminium, alu-

Germany,

and

by
of

do

Sweden,
in

bearing
the

upon

application
calcium

electric
cai

heating
borundam,

production

carbide,

grjphitc,

ferro-alloys
to

and

zinc.

Moissan's
must

researches,
be mentioned

although
in this

confined

the

kboratory,

also

connection,

for

this

ELECTBIC

CbCCIBLE

FUBSICE,

famous become
and motion
was

French
of

chemist's value
of
to

work
and

with

the

electric
In much

furnace

has

classical trials

importance.
furnace

these

laboratory
infor

vrorks

the the best

electric
use

valuable

relating gained.
used,
and

of

electricity for
of

heating
the
as

purposes

The of

methods

controlling
so

largo

rents cur-

arranging

the

electrodes

to

minimise

INTRODUCTION,

their loss and


the

destruction
were

during
out.

the

heating

of

the

charge

in

furnace,
In 1899

also
"

worked
who had

Heroult

patented
the process the

and of

brought
aluminium time

into

cessful suc-

operation
associated

in

Europe
his
name

tion extrac-

with

about similar of

same

that
"

Hall

patented

and

introduced
to

process the and of and

in America furnace A

turned for

his attention

the

utilisation of the

electric steel. the La

the

production
of

of

special alloys
were

iron works

large

ber num-

trials

made

at at

Society

Electro"

metallurgique Fran^aise,
with various in the forms and

Froges
of

Praz,
the process

in

France,

designs
of the in this

furnace,

experience

gained
immense

development
to

aluminium

being

of

service

Heroult this

work.
work of

Success and
to

attended
the

early experimental
of ferro class

Heroult,
furnace

from the

production
of

alloys in
steels
to
was

the
a

electric natural
ore

manufacture of his process. heat

high

ment developdirectly by
were

Attempts
were

smelt this
to

iron

aid
so

of electric

made from

about 1901

date,

but

not

successful, and
at

Heroult
to
as

1905 of

confined

himself

chiefly
scrap
same

La

Praz iron

the

production

special steels,using
process. and In Gin the
same

and

pig

the

starting point

of his

this in

period
and

Stassano

in

Italy, Keller,
were

Heroult

France, lines,
some

Kjellin
each of of
success

in Sweden, these

working
of

along
had

and

electrometallurgists production America,

attained

degree
new

in the In

special steels by Conley,

the Rossi tions

method and of in Wilson the 1904

of

heating.
were

Ruthenberg,
with and of the

also

experimenting
in had the iron

applica.
industry.

electric

furnace methods

steel

Early

these
Canadian

become
to to

sufficient it worth
to

tance imporwhile
to to

for the

Government of

think

appoint
examine

commission their
at

experts
and the

proceed
of much

Europe

working,
end
of

report

this

commission,
from

published

the

1904, attracted

attention

metallurgistsin
The Heroult in

all countries. Furnace


at

Steel

is

being operated
in the

at

La

Praz

and in
case

Froges
the

France,
and
at

Kortfors in

Norway,
United

at

Remscheid
each

Germany,

Syracuse

States, in

plant being designed

for

the

industrial

production

of steel
b2

THE

ELECTRIC

FURNACE,

from

pig

iron

and

scrap; have the

while

at

Sault been iron expense of M. have

Sainte conducted
ore.

Marie,
with

in the

Canada,
H6roult

experiments
furnace trials
were

recently smelting
out at

for

of

These of the

mental experiCanadian

carried the

the

Grovemment and the

under results and iron

personal charge
are
as

H^roult been of up

himself,
able considerof
a

obtained
value and

stated

to

promise
centre

regards

the

building
at

new

of the

steel

industries

Sault

Sainte

Marie

in

Canada. The Keller

furnace
upon

and
an

process industrial
a

for

steel scale
at

production
Livet steel the
same

are

being

operated
in

and makers

at

Kerrousse

France,
"

and

large
have
at

firm

of French
to

(Messrs.
a

J. Holzer
at their

Co.)
"

decided
Unieux will is in upon
are now use
a

give

cess prois

trial

works

(Loire).
utilise
at

This
h.p.

plant
The

to

be

operated
furnace whether Gin

by

steam,

and
ore

1,500

Keller clear Tfie


an

for

smelting

Livet,

but

it is not

it is yet

working
process

commercial

basis. trial

furnace
scale be

and
at

undergoing
in

upon

industrial it must have

Plettenburg
doubtful from

Westphalia,
this

Germany,
and of

but

considered

whether the

furnace

process their The and


at

yet

emerged

experimental

stage

development.
Stassano Darfo process in and

furnace

first received These

trial at

Bome
ever, how-

Northern the funds

Italy.
of the been further assistance
as

experiments, syndicate
The the

exhausted any decided


are

promoting
obtained. trial at and

without and

success now

having

furnace

process

receiving
government
be

Royal

Arsenal,
This pro"

Turin,
cess

under
must

control. in

also The

regarded
and

still

experimental
have been

character.
at

Kjellin

process

furnace
with for in

operated
success,

Gy singe

in Sweden have process

since been
in

1901

considerable the

and this and

arrangements
furnace in and

made

operation
United

of

Switzerland,

the

States

England.
The

Conley,
are

Wilson still

and in the

Rossi

methods

of

iron

and of

steel their into

production

experimental
and

stages
may

development,

but

possibly

these

others

develop

INTRODUCTION.

processes

of

some

importance
to

at

later

date.

The

Kuthenberg
tenour

process
recent

appears

have

failed,

judging

from

the

of

some

reports
thousands

upon of

it.
steel and several hundreds of

Many
of iron

tons

of

tons

have

been

produced
electrical

by
furnace

the

more

successful

and

tical prac-

of

these

new

processes in 1899. This

since

the

mental experitaken in

trials

were

commenced

fact,
certain

conjunction

with

the

extended

scale

which upon it

of

the

processes and steel

are

now

being

worked,
should

renderd

important
attention

that

iron

manufacturers

devote

some

to

this

new

development

of

electrometallurgical

industry.

CHAPTER

IL

THE

HEROULT

FURNACE

AND

PROCESS.

M.

Paul

Heroult,
aluminium

the from

French its oxide in lie for

inventor

of

the

process
was

for in

extracting Thury
as a

by

electrolysis,
and
23
was

born

Harcourt, mining

Normandy,

1863,

educated of and

locally
age in when 1887

engineer.
his process technical
at
"

was

only

years

he he

patented
was

aluminium of the As in

extraction,
first erected in the in

acting
in H6roult

as

manager Neuhausen.

aluminium

works M. of form and the Two resulted crucible form of it

Europe
turned

stated 1899
to

Chapter
production
a

I.,

his

attention and used

ferro-chrome,
of the

ferro-silicon electric furnace of these

ferro-tungsten
for aluminium that and methods

modified

production, suggested
steel of
to

was

the
of

success

attempts
in the distinct the iron

him

use

electric furnaces

heating
and
two

industry.
work have electric modified

distinct from furnace the

these
for

experiments,
steel

one

tilting
other
a

manufacture,
with be electric described

the

blast These

furnace,
will
now

heating,
in the

for order

pig-iron
named.
This
"

manufacture.

1.

The is of

Hiroult shown closed

EUctrtcallp'heated
in sectional shallow which the furnace This around elevation iron will tank stand without

Crucible in

Furnace,

furnace consists

Figs.

and

3. with

It

thickly
the

lined

refractory
attained corrosion with

material within

high

temperature

undue of

softening
dolomite The of the

or

by magnesite
of

the

slag.
brick

lining
the rammed of

consists

brick,
hearth dolomite is

openings.
on

formed
brick

crushed of

dolomite,
the
bottom

top

lining

the

furnace.

The

furnace

is

THE

ELECTRIC

FURNACE.

mounted

on

two

curved

and and the the

cogged
held
at

bars,
any

which

permit

of

its charging dis-

being tipped sideways


purposes. At for for

desired side from


an

angle
the

for

opposite

discharge
porting sup-

lip there

is

an

inlet

air

blast, and
the
mm.

also

insulated solid

framework 1*70
metres

carrying
and
can

two

massive which in

carbons,
the
or

in

length,
These

360 be of the the

square, either

convey
a

electric horizontal

current.

moved

vertical in
cover

direction
are

by

use

the

gearing
of the

shown furnace

Fig.

3. for

Openings charging,
escape latter the of
can

provided
insertion gases

in of

top
two
on
arc

for

electrodes, and heating


or

also

for

the This In

the
be

produced
either

the

charge.

effected
the

by
are

resistance
to

heating.
the
to

former

case,
or

electrodes
and
are arc

allowed raised strike will


enters

touch

surface limit and these

of the of

slag

metal,

then will
arcs

upwards
with the

the

distance
at
"

which command.
one
one as as

the

current

voltage

Two the

be

formed

under of

conditions

current

the while the

charge

slag

or

metal,
two

and

it leaves

the

same

"

in between

these

points

the

current

will

traverse

slag

and

produce

resistance When
are

heating.
resistance until

heating

only
beneath

is desired the

the

two

electrodes the the

lowered
the

they dip
in this

surface from
same. one

of
to

charge,
other

and

current

case

passes the

entirely by the
The A method of

materials of

forming
steel

producing
scrap, and the The

in this iron
"

furnace
ore

is

as

follows
"

charge

steel

pig iron,

and

lime in the

in

the

requisite proportions
and this is raised
to

quantities melting

is

placed

furnace,
arc

point by combined by
the lime of the and

and of

resistance the
ore now

heating.
rises

slag formed
on

silicates

and

floats of

the

surface

molten

metal,
the

and

the

further
to

heating

the

charge
this

occurs

by allowing
not

electrodes
beneath
at
some

dip just
An

beneath is
now

slag, but
to

into

the

metal

it.

air blast

allowed these become

enter

the

furnace

suitable of the

point,
and

and steel

under scrap

conditions oxidised and

the and

rities impuenter

iron

the the
can

slag. By
materials
be

pouring
which

off this it

slag,therefore,
or

by renewing
pure
a

form The

once

twice,
in

very

product

obtained.

process

is

reality

washing-out

THE

H"ROULT

FURNACE

AND

PROCESS.

10

THE

ELECTRIC

FURNACE.

process, the

in which with

the

slag

acts

as

solvent.
occurs

The
without the silicon

fact any

that

all

heating

this type

of furnace

actual
duces con-

contact to enter

between

the

carbon

electrodes

and
no

metal
or

also

purity
the

of the
or

products, since
steel from raised
a

carbon
the of
an

can

into

iron
has

the
to

electrodes.

When

iron

in the

crucible

been

the

requisite degree
amount

purity
iron steel

by

this

washing-out
in carbon carbon method of

process,

calculated

of

alloy high (of known


A similar

is added, (carburite)

and
the

the

resultant

contents)

is

tipped
when in the
to

into

casting ladle. ferro-alloys,the


of

is followed

making

requisiteweight
or

alloy,high
added

percentage
contents

the metal
crucible

element

desired, being

the

of the

just before
The

tipping.
furnaces of "nished the
or

crucible 3 tons of 20

usually employed
steel
current

for and

this
two

process

produce
per
at

per

charge

charges
amperes shows

day
120

hours,
pressure,

required being 4,000


kw. The
:
"

volts

480

following

test

the

average
Iron

composition
over
""

of this
cent.
"

steel

99
0*60

per
"

Silicon
....

0*03 0*003

per
"

cent.
"

Carbon

Manganese One of
at

0*15
fi n

Phosphorus Sulphar

0007
..

"

"

the La

test

luns

made the

by

the

Canadian steel

Commission
furnace gave

of the

experts

Praz
:
"

with

Heroult

following
The of
to

results
was

charge
ore,

piade up
246 lb. of

of

3,307 lb. of

iron

scrap, made

830

lb.

iron

and time

lime, being purposely


for

small When

reduce

the had

requisite
at
care a

finishing the charge.


state
remove

the

charge
off the

arrived every left

tranquil molten
was

the all

slag
of

was

poured
from
now

and metal

taken

to

this
was

in the spar

the

crucible.

new

slag
lime

formed
15*5 it

by adding
lb., and
was

following
15*5 lb.

materials: When
a

551b.,
been

sand melted

fluor

this
new

slag had

likewise similar This

poured off,and
in

charge
was

of

slag

forming
in the

mateiial furnace.

weight
the

and

constitution

placed
after its

formed

finishingslag, and
was

removal
mass

1*5 lb. of and the

ferro-mangacere
was

added

to

the The

molten total

crucible for

tipped
the

for

discharge.
was

time

required

finishing

charge

4^

hours

and

12

THE

ELECTRIC

FURNACE.

tipping
cent,

crucible
of

furnace,
these
two

metal dreaded H4roult


at

containing

leas than

001

per

of each

impurities.
steel
Praz and

As

already
are

etated,
in in

the

making

furnace
in

and

process
at

operation
Sweden,

La
at

Frogea,
in

France,
while

Kortfors,
Halcomb

and

Remscheid,
New of

Germany,
have tojis of

the

Steel
a

Co., of Syracuse,
for

York,
80

recently
steel
shows
a

constructed

plant
H^roult

the

production
and

per
the

day

by

the

furnace
in

process. The is

Fig.
cost

H^roult

crucible

furnace with all

operation.
accessories

of

2,500

kg.
as

tipping

furnace

the

given

by Heroult

Fio.

4."

Thb

HSboult

Blbotbic

Cbhcible

Fcbnacb

Chaboed.

"2,000,

while

another

^1,000
The

would electrodes material.

he

required
are

for

the

trode elecretort

making
coke,
costs

plant.
tar
as a

made

from

using
Id.
ton.

binding

The
with

finished
coke

electrode
at

per

kilogramme

at

La

Praz,

"2

per

metric 2.

The
of

HSrouU

Smelting

Furrtace in is

and

Process.
"

The
in

original
Fig.
of 5.

form
The

this

furnace
of the

is shown furnace

sectional the

elevation

principle
ore

continuous
to
a

supply
column of

the

half-fused

and

fluxing

materials

coke,

THE

HEROULl

FURNACE

AND

PROCESS.

13

maintained resistance
ore

at

"

red

heat

by
in

means

of is the

an

electric

current

and

heating. fluxing
the

A,

Fig. 5,
are

channel
the

by

vbich

the

and of

materials

supplied
is the
away fluxes
B
are

to

vertical
which hot
zone

reducing
the coke
pass at

zone

furnace,
The heat gases the

while

shaft from before solid

by
the

ia up the

charged.
A

passing
ore

and

thus

and

these

arrive blocks

vertical

shaft,

G,

and

carbon

which
atl and

functionasolcctrodea.thecurrent
J.

terminals

being
to

placed

The

electric this
at

current
a

passing
heat,
and

from
as

through
mass

the
of
ore

coke
and

maintains

red

the

pasty

Fto.

5.

"

The

H^bodlt

Blkcthic

Ohb

Skcltiho

Fubhacs

(Fust
it is The the its
to

Fobm).

lime heated

passes

between the
ore

the

carbon

blocks

F
more

and

likewise

by
of of

current

and in

rendered

fluid.

liquid
hottest passage metallic

charge
zone

and

lime

its later

descent

through during
reduced
off

the
the

furnace

(Z) spreads
the iron

out, and
oxide is is
run

through
iron hole which
D.

hot collects

coke,
in

the

hearth

and

by

the

tapping

This the

experimental
of

fumaee

has

been

somewhat and the

simplified smelting

in

light

moreextende

d experience

furnace

14

THE

ELECTRIC

FURNACE,

used La

in

the

trial

runs

for of
an

the iron

Canadian box and with of open


a

Commissioners square
at

at

Praz,

consisted

only

cross-section,
the

lined bottom acted block

with

refractory casing
was

material

top.

The which

of the
as one

provided

carbon

plate,
a

electrode of

of the square the open


was

circuit,the

other
3 ft.

being
in

movable and

of

carbon

cross-section, top
varied divided of the

length,
The

in placed vertically between the

furnace. hand and and


as

distance The

electrodes

by
ore

regulation.
coke,
also that
was

charge, consisting of finely


in the upper space between the fresh
was

placed
the lower the

two
ore

electrodes,
was

around in the
are

electrode, and
of of the the furnace
runs

added The furnace

part
details

reduced. with
to

following
:
"

made

this 0'50 and

3,280
of

kw.-hours, equal
iron
E.H.P.
was

E.H.P.-year.
the power of

The used

total
was,

put out-

pig

2,1301b.,
per
ton

fore, thereAt

0-47 per

-year

(2,0001b.)
cost
was

pig

iron.

"2

electrical-horse-power-year, the
for the iron

of the

electrical

energy lOd.

required
per In the
was

smelting operation
produced.
in America of in

therefore

18s.

ton
a

of

pig

Paper

read

1904,
iron

M. in

H6roult the

stated

that

profitable production only


feasible under

pig

electric which

furnace did
not

certain

conditions the and of


a

obtain of has been

in most the

countries, and

therefore furnace

tion practical applicaprocess in

H^roult
to

smeltiog
the

Europe
tons

confined

production

few

hundred
at

of
at

pig iron, chiefly for experimental


La

purposes,

Froges
the for
a a

and

Praz,

in

France.

However,
report
furnace

publication

of

Canadian trial of

Expert
the been small

Commissioners'

pived
in

the

way and for

Heroult made furnace

smelting by
the
was

Canada,

grant
the

having
a

Canadian erected
at

Government Sault
ores was

purpose, and
at

Sainte

Marie,

mental experiplace

smelting
in

of Canadian under the

commenced of

that

February,

1906,

superintendence

M.

Heroult

himself. Dr. read


some
a

Haanel, Paper
information about 55

the

superintendent
the Canadian
to

of mines Club trials.

in of

Ottawa, recently Toronto,


Haanel 150
runs

before

giving
states

relating
tons

these
were

Dr. in

that

of

pig

iron

made

with

THE

HMOULT

furnace

AND

PROCESS,

15

this

experimental
hematite

furnace.
ore,

The

first the

trials furnace
ores,

were

made had

with

ordinary

but,

after

got
in

into

good

working
from in

order,
various

Canadian localities

magnetic
were

high
Wood

sulphur
charcoal

contents,
was

utilised.
not

used

place
were

of also

coke,
made

which with in

is

produced
and

in

Canada. nickel-

Experiments
iron
ores,

roasted

briquetted
in
a

which Sault
cent,

are

found Marie. and whole

large
These

quantities yielded
per

the

hood neighbourcontaining

of 4*5

Sainte of
on

metal of have

per The

nickel the the

only
are

0*006

cent, to

sulphur.
been
was

results since

claimed

most

promising,
than that

yield
at

of

metal and

per the in

horse-power
estimated
Commissioners'

greater
of the 1904

obtained
was

La than

Praz,
stated

cost

electrodes

lower H6roult Sainte

the

Report.
duced
that
ores

M.
at

estimates Marie
at

that
a

good
cost

pig
"2

iron per

can

be The

pro. fact from

Sault electric
cost

of

ton.

the which

smelting
only
5s.

furnace per

can

produce
are

good

pig
for
use

ton,
is

and also

unsuitable
as

in

the in and

ordinary
it3 favour. titaniferous

blast The

furnaces,
burnt
ores

claimed from up
ores

another acid per little

point works,
cent,

pyrites

sulphuric
to 6

containing
said
to

of
at

titanium

oxide,
which
can

are

be in

other

of

value

present
furnace.
and
to

be

utilised

the

Heroult
to

electric these
may will that the be

smelting

Further the industrial them with that


at

information

relating
which

experiments,

developments
Sault for Sainte it in is

expected
therefore M.

to

arise awaited

from

Marie,
evident

be

interest,
he has for iron

H^rouIt
ditions con-

imagines

found,
the

Canada,

exceptional
a

required flourishing
The electric

development

of

profitable

and

smelting
of this made

industry.
question,
for and the

financial upon the

aspect
claims VII.

writer's
will

own

opinions given
in

the

Heroult

process,

be

Chapter

CHAPTER

IIL

THE

KELLER

FURNACE

AND

PROCESS.

The
for many

French
years

firm in

of the

Keller,

Leleux of

"

Cie.

had

been

engaged
ferroof the
to

production
other 1900 and

calciupa
of iron their

carbide,

silicon,
electric
the

ferro-chrome

and when of iron in

alloys

by

aid attention of furnace

furnace,

they
steel

turned similar

manufacture In the

by
of

methods

ing. heatfor works

experimental
the

trials electrical total

various

types
of their

of

this
at

purpose

surplus
used,
this

power of The

large
(water

Livet

Isere available

was

15,000
firm power of

h.p.

power)
works
extent at

being
Kerrousse
600H.P.
two

at

place.
where The included 960

have
to

other the

(Morbihan),
is

water

of these

developed.
in of 1904

output 3,000
tons

ferro-alloys
tons

by

works
tons

of

ferro-silicon,
and
siderable con-

1,800

silico-spiegel,
of f

of

ferro-chrome

amounts

erro-manganese.

The
steel size

experiments

with
at

electric
first

furnace
out at

methods

of

iron but

and the creased, inthe

production
of the furnace the

were

carried
current

Kerrousse,
for these

as

used

and

required ultimately

were

experiments
at

were

transferred the Canadian and

to

larger

works

Livet,

and

it

was

here
Keller the

that furnace

pert ex-

Commission

witnessed

the In

process of

in the

operation
furnaces

in and the

March,
process

1904.

following
Keller for

description
iron and steel has

devised
of the This

by
Canadian
has

duction probeen

report
upon.

Commissioners
been

largely
by

drawn

supplemented,
correspondence
from
recent

however,
with issues the of

information
M.

obtained

by
and

personal
facts taken

inventor,
the

Keller,
French

by

English,

and

German

technical

journals.

18

THE

ELECTRIC

FURNACE.

I.

The

Keller

Iron-Smelting

Furnace."

Keller's
furnace
are

first

patents
1900.

for

an

iron-smdlting eleetrically-lieated
6

dated

Fig.
which

shows
in

the

general
and
ore

arrangement

of

this

eirlieat

furnace,
blast
boU-

appearance The
shaft iron

design
was

resembled
into

the the
of slow

ordinary
vertical coke
and

furnace.

charged
amount

shaped
and the

A,

with
were

the

requisite
heated
in

lime,
wards down-

materials

their

progrejs

by
aide
of

currents

patsing
The
on

from
ore

the
was

electrodes reduced
to

shown metallic
furnace the

on

either iron in in the iron electric

the

column.

its descent,

and the
D

reaching
slag passed
B, where
into

the
ofT

hearth
at

of

the

molten
was run

state

C, while
further

molten

by

into

it

was

refined

by

heat

before

casting

pig.

20

THE

ELECTRIC

FURNACE.

As

this

type

of

furnace it is not it may


was

has

been

displaced by
to
enter

one

which

is

described

below,

necessary be stated and

into
a

further
h.p. some

details of
at

concerning
this earlier

it ; but

that worked that

375 for 1 ton of

furnace time steel

type
and in

erected
it with
at
a

Kerrousse,
be

that it

was

estimated the

of

could of

produced
energy second for used Keller and

expenditure
cost

2,800

B.T.U.

electric The Keller form the

and form

total furnace
ore

oi "i. which in has been

of iron

designed by
this their the and The

smelting by
the

is shown

Fig. 7,
in is of

being

the of

Canadian
at

Commissioners The furnace

trials resistance

process consists below

Livet.
two
a

type,

of

iron-cased horizontal and

shafts, A
canal, 0.
each
on

B,
shafts

municating com-

by

are
a

lined massive
in

with

refractory material,
block

is

provided

with

carbon
a

electrode, G, slung
or

chains, and
The base

movable
of each

either

horizontal

vertical with
a

direction. block bars F

shaft

is also

provided
by
The

carbon

electrode

trically E, electhe

connected horizontal of their Keller canal.

thick

copper

passing hang
for

outside

vertical the shaft. and

electrodes The

two-thirds
used

length
for

within

refractory
canal

material

by

liningthe

shafts

lateral In

consists the

of burnt the

dolomite

(magnesia)
is introduced ends of the

and

tar.

starting
carbon

furnace of the from the

charge
and
the

between

the

blocks

base,
one

electrodes.
material of the

The
to

current

passes
to

electrode

through
in the base the

the

be

reduced,
From copper in the

carbon
to

electrode
the other

base

furnace. the external shaft the


to

this

it passes

electrode

by

conductor,
reverse

and

through
to

charge

in the

second When

direction

that

just

described. of

electric resistance
be this the will and reduced collects lateral
now

heating
molten hearth

has
state

caused and

portions
metallic

the
to

charge
be

to
on

the the

iron

formed,
into

of each shown

shaft in

and 7.

finally flows
The electric

canal from the

CD,
A

as

Fig.
the

current

pass

to B

partly by
metal of the The

external

conductor and the


as

partly by
fills up, the

molten

in the

lateral

canal,
carried

this

proportion
diminishes. in the shafts

total current electrodes and


are

by

external
as

conductor

gradually
and

raised
raw

the

charge
are

is reduced

melts,

fresh

materials

charged

into

THE

KELLER

FURNACE

AND

PROCESS.

"

the haw

vertical electrodes

shaft.

The

external the
or

conductor
to

between worked

the

two

enables block

furaaoe

be
in

continuously.
canal

Any
to
as

temporary
is in
overcome

stoppage
use

the

lateral

due

cooling
showD

by the
7 at J.

of

supplementary

electrode

Fig.

Fia.

8.
"

Ebluer

Fubsace

DiBCHABaiKOi.

The
four thus

vertical carbons

electrodes of
square
cross

of

this

furnace the

are

each

formed electrode
1 '4 metres

of

sections,

composite
and

produced
in

being

SSO

mm.

(34 in.) square,


of
to

(56 in.)
per

length.
is

The

amount

electrode
low
two

carbon

conBumed
in

charge
the

small,

owing In 15

the

E.M.F, electrodes

employed
bad

working

furnace.

days

only lost

2^

THE

ELECTRIC

FUBNACE.

400

mm.

(16 in.)
that the

of

their

original length,
in these furnaces

and will

M.

Keller last 20

mates esti-

electrodes

days

before The
to

requiring
cost

renewal.
manufacture
ton

of their fr. of

is estimated

on

these

figures

be Two

3*85
sets

(3s.) per

of iron
were

produced.
carried white of of in
out

experiments
this

by

the

sioners Commis-

with

furnace,
and the
use

grey,

and carbon

mottled added energy coke

pig
to

iron the

being charge

produced,
of
ore

the

influence

upon The

consumption
of charcoal failed. of the the In and

electrical

being
also

determined.

place

of

was

tried, but
The
ore

this used

experiment
in these and

trials

Keller coke the and

furnace

was

only
jaws

roughly
of the

crushed

mixed
set

with
2 in.

lime,
of the

the

crusher

being
ore
were

to

first

run

furnace
were

15,943

kg.

of

charged,
while

9,868 kg. of pig iron


run,

produced 13,310kg.

in 55 of

hours,
ore were

in the and

second

lasting48 hours, pig


iron
were

used

6,692 kg. of

produced.
The
was

energy
e.h.p.

used

per year

ton

of

pig

iron
E.H.P.

produced
year

in

these

trials

0*476

and

0-226 with

respectively,the
of 308
h.p.

lower

figure being

obtained

the smaller

furnace

capacity.
Basing
their
E

estimate
H.P.

of

cost

on

the

mean

of

these

two

figures (0*350 pig


cost

year)
produced

the in

Commissioners the 8s. Keller 3d. per

calculated furnace
ton. at at
a

that total

iron

could

be

(exclusive of royalty)
these has and trials

of "2.

Since M. Keller

by

the his

Canadian

Commissioners
with the the

Livet
n.P.

continued has him

experiments
himself control and that of the that

1,000

furnace,
process contents is
ore.

satisfied

electro-thermic
and carbon

gives

complete
iron

silicon the metal from

of the
to

pig

produced,
in for the the

produced
the
same

equal

that

obtained claimed Keller be

blast

furnace

It is also in the

electro- thermal that the

method of

of production silicon

furnace
at

percentage

and A

carbon

can

varied

will.

2,000

H.p.

furnace hours

for has
on

production
been

of

20

tons at

of grey the

iron nace fur-

castings per being

24

since the

erected

Livet,
In

constructed

four-hearth

type.

this

tj pe

THE

KELLER

FVRNACE

AND

PROCESS.

S3

of

furnace

(see Fig. 0) four

shafts and

connect

witfa
occurs

central this

canal,
central

and

the

tapping

of

the

slag

metal

from

84

THE

ELECTRIC

FURNACE.

chamber

while

the

escaping Fig.

gases
shows

are
a

also

employed

to

heat

the
a

descending
Keller hours worked
;

charge.

10

still
tons

larger scheme
of

for per

furnace but
out
H.P.

plant producing project


a

100 paper A

pig

iron
not

24

this upon would this

is

on

only,
water

and

has

been

practicalscale.
required
and
to

power necessary

producing
electric would

12,000
current

be

provide

the

for

scheme,

five

four-hearth

furnaces

be

installed.

maim

Fio.

10.

"

Proposed 100

Arrangement
TONS
OF

of

Keller
in

Furnace 24
h

fob

Producing

Pio

Iron

iubb.

Although
at

many and

hundreds

of tons Keller

of iron

have

been

produced
furnace wiiter in the himself

Kerrousse
not

at Li vet, the

iron-ore firm
so

reduction
far
as

has

been and

adopted by
for this of
reason

any

outside
it must

the

is aware,

still be

considered M. Keller

experimental stage recognises that,


iron Brazil
ores

its

development.
it will with be which in

if

adopted,
of coal

countries
to

possessing them. Chili,

but New

lack

smelt

and

Zealand

being

named

in this

respect.

THE

KELLER

FURNACE

AND

PROCESS.

25

II.

The

Keller

Steel is shown

Rejining

Furnace.

"

^The
at

Keller

steel-

refiningfurnace
In the later

in sectional the Keller

elevation

B,

see

Fig.

6.

designs
has 6 it

of not

iron-producing plant
much modification.

the As with

refining
shown

furnace

undergone
of
a

in

Fig.

consists and

fixed

chamber
two

lined

refractory basic
electrodes In

material

heated

by
the

massive in the

carbon furnace.
to

suspended verticallyabove
design
the the
to

metal has

principle and
it from

this

refining refining
are same.

furnace furnace. allowed This

little In
to

tinguish dis-

H^roult

the

Keller beneath

furnace, however,
the the

electrodes touch away


use

not

dip
of and

slag,but
current

only
into

the

method

leading
metal

and the

from of
a

the

molten

slag

beneath of
a

it involves

higher E.M.F., and, therefore,


energy per
ton

larger expenditure
; but
as

of

electrical for this

of

metal is less the purities im-

refined

compensation produced
steel

it is claimed

there with of the

danger

of the of the

being
the

contaminated

electrodes, while
to

consumption

carbons

is

reduced, owing
of the

these

being

little

exposed

to

the

oxidising

properties
In later

slag.
this furnace is is

modifications and of the

provided

with
as

tilting
in the
to out
more

mechanism,
Heroult
the

slag

poured
A of the

off,exactly
further

type

refining furnace.
is the and
use

resemblance
for

Heroult

procedure
the

slag

washing
or

the

impurities of
of

iron,
material

in the before

addition the

of two

charges

slagging

refining operation

is

completed.
A trial
run

with

this

furnace
but

was

made
to
was

at

Livet time

by only

the
one

Canadian

Commissioners, poured
off, and
was

owing
run

lack

of

slag

was

the

stopped

before

the fore therein that

refining operation
be based upon

completed.
the results is
so

No

conclusions but the of

could

obtained,
similar
to

furnace

principle and
separate
trials

operation
of it
were

that

H6roult

practicallyunnecessary. plant pig


iron
at

Although
for the

the

Keller of of

Livet and

has

been

used
not

chiefly
to

production
for that

castings,and

any

great

extent

steel,a Keller
at

electric furnace
of Messrs. Holtzer

refining
" 50

plant

has

been

installed This

the

works

Co.,
tons,

Unieux,

France.

refiningfurnace

weighs

about

26

THE

ELECTRIC

FURNACE.

rests

on

steel

cradle,

and

can

be

tilted

for

discharging
set

poses. pur-

1,500

H.P.

steam-driven

generating
and the iron
to

will

supply
in this

the

necessary will

electric

be

energy, into

refined

furnace

be

run

it,

in

the

molten

condition,

from

Siemens-Martin

furnace.

current

of

20,000
that

amperes

at

60

volts

will

be

employed, charges
of

and

it

is

expected
per

an

output
hours will

cf

three

or

four

tons

each

day
first

of

24

be

obtained.

This

is

the

trial

of

the

electric

steel-refining
and the future

furnace

in

an

up-to-date
will

steel

works

in

France,

of

electric

refining
of the

depend
at

very

largely

upon

the

success

or

otherwise

installation

Unieux.

The

use

of

molten

iron

from

the

Siemens-Martin

furnaces

as

charging
was

material

for

the

electric

refining

furnace

is

step

that

advised

by

the

writer

some

years has been

ago,

and

it

is

prising sur-

that

its

practical
will

application
most

so

long adopted

delayed.

The

electric

furnace

probably
modern iron

first

be

as

an

accessory there is

appliance
little doubt

in

the

and

steel

works,
the trial

and

in

the

writer's

mind

that

at

Unieux

will

be

followed

by
for

similar

installations

in

other

works

where

high-class

steel

tools

and

motor-car

work

is

produced.

28

THE

ELECTRIC

FURNACE.

fact

that

Messrs.

Siemeiis
the

"

Halske,
and
are

of

Berlin,

have

purchased
and

the patent

rights of
that for

furnace

process
now

for

Germany
a

Austria,
furcace proves achieved

and

Messrs.

Krupp
of

erecting
steel
at

Kjellin
also has

plant
that
a

production
EjeDin

ciucible and

Essen,
that

the

fuinace

process iron and and

is

one

permanent
shows
in
a

position in
sectional

the

steel
of

industry.
the
furnace

Fig.
erected
of
a

11

elevation

plan

there

1901-1902. of which is

The the
core

furnace is CC
;

practicallyconsists
the

transformer

primary

is the the AA. plied multi-

coil

DD,

which is the

supplied
molten metal

with

alternating current,
in the that coil furnace of
were

and

secondary
The
current

metal is

annular in the

channel

in the number
runs

roughly
iu the

primary

by
The

the

of turns the

fiist in

with

experimental
270

made

at

Gysinge

March,
in

1900,
24

kg.
with per the

of steel
a

excellent of 78

quality
kw.
This

being produced
was

hours hours

power

input
ton
a

equal

to

6,912 kw.

metric process
same

of steel.

In order
was

to

improve
and

the

efiSciencyof

larger furnace
trial hours -hours the
runs

erected,
furnace

in November 600-700

of the

year, per 24 kw. but

with
an

this
penditure ex-

yielded
of 58

kg.

of

steel
to

with per

kw., equivalent
was

2,141

metric
was

ton

of steel.

This with

an
a

improvement,

inventor results

convinced be
at

that,
In
was

larger furnace,
the

still better

could mill
to

achieved.

August, 1901,

sulphite wood-pulp
the
at
new owners

Gysinge
the

destroyed by fire,and
of the of
water

decided

devote

whole in

power
a

this

place

to

steel A

manufacture,

place
of

erecting

wood-pulp
of

mill.

larger Kjellin type


of

furnace, capable
and this commenced of

containing 1,800 kg.


work
in per

steel,was
furnace
an

erected,

May,
24

1902.

This with

produces 4,100 kg.


of 165

steel and
a

ingots
current

hours,

expenditure
amperes in

kw.,

approaching
energy
ton
sumption con-

30,000

the

secondary,
965 kw.-hours
are

circuit. per

The metric

is therefore

of

steel.

Only

800

kg. to 1,000kg. being

of metal
act
as

poured

at each

casting, the
current

remainder
to

left in to the

conductor
alternator.

for

the To of

and

avoid

stopping

turbine
the form

or

this

molten and

metal
steel

left in the
scrap
are

furnace,
added
to

proper

quantity
new

pig

iron

the

charge, the proportion

THE

KJELLIN

FURNACE

AND

PBOCESS.

29

being
is the

calcalated

to

yield steel
in the but oxide

of the finished

desired
steel
more

compositioD.
than

There in the scrap of in the the

always

less carbon

is contained
to

charged
th'it the
to

material,
rust
or

rather of and

silicon,owing
in the the

fact
is

iron that the

pig

and acid

reduced

metallic is also

iron,
reduced

silicic

furnace

lining

by

carbon

present

charge.
The

tapping
a

of

the

furnace but
a

was

originally
has

effected
since

by
been The floor

making

hole

in the and the


raw

wall,

tilting furnace
is from in
now

constructed,

casting charge
material is

poured.
the 11

charging
above the

of

the

done

working
at

furnace,
the

the

covers

shown and scrap

Fig.

BB

being
in the

taken
annular The

off,and

pig

iron

steel

being placed
in 1903 in volts

ring.
furnace since deseribed
above and and in
seen

has

been

operation
it
was

at

Gysinge

May

1902,

February by
at

visited
An
to

by the Canadian

experts
of 90 of

them

operation.
was

alternating current
the the

amperes the

3,000
this

supplied

primary charge

circuit

furnace,
contained
7 volts.
was

being transformed
annular

in
to
a

of molten

metal
at

in the

ring

current

of 3,000 air space of

amperes

The

DD,
the

in

Fig. 11,

found

to

keep down
to

the
ing coolployed em-

temperature

primary
this draft

coil ; and of

in addition

the be

produced
for when this

by

air, water
loss

could

also

purpose. of
to

The the

of

heat is

by radiation, "c, 1,400^C.,


the 45*5
was was

the

temperature
the inventor
was

furnace 80 him

mated esti-

by
the The furnace

equal
by

kw., and
to

efficiency of
per
cent. to

calculated
of

be

temperature

the

steel

when

tapped

1|600"C.

1,700"0.
It of the may be

remarked

that

the

figures given

on

pp.

2 and these in

Canadian

Commissioners'
the

Report

do

not

agree the

with

calculations, since

discrepancy
circuits

between of

energy
amounts

the
to

primary
270" 21
=

and 249

secondary
kw.

the
the

furnace
current

Assuming
30,000
amperes

that and

in the

dary seconas

circuit

was

not

3,000
two

amperes, circuits

stated

in the

report, the

losses

between

the

are

270-210"60kw.

30

THE

ELECTRIC

FURHACB.

Three the

runs

were

made
at
were

with

the
on

furnace Feb.
8

in the and

presence and

of the

Commissioners

Gysinga
obtained

9, 1904,

following

figures

"

Fio.

11.
"

SicTioNAii

Elevation

un"

Plan

of

Ejbluh

Fdbnace.

The
833

consumption
per

of

energy
ton

in of

the

first and

case

was,

therefore second
case

kw.-houra kw.-hours.

metric

ingots,

in

the
"

1,040

THE

KJELLIN

FURNACE

AND

PROCESS,

31

The

steel

produced

in
:
"

these

runs

were

found

to

have

the

following composition
Carbon Silicon

Charge
1*082 0-194

No. per

546. cent
"

Charge
0*417 0145 0*008

No.
per

647.
cent.

Sulphur Phosphorus The and the steel materials bar of for in

0-008
"

"

0 010
"

0*010
"

raw

each

case

were

best

Swedish

pig

iron

Walloon

iron, with
these

scrap

steel from

previous charges,
to

proportion

being

varied

according

the

type

of

required
to

casting.
a

Attempts
the Canadian
were

produce

low

carbon but

soft

steel
to

were

made

by
culties diffi-

Commissioners,
not

owing

unexpected

successful.

The

cost

of

producing
to

steel per

by
ton

this of

process

was

estimated

by

Mr.

Harbord
at

be

"7

2,000 lb., with


year.

electric

energy The

"2 of

per

electrical
a

horsepower
of the "830.

cost
was

erecting
stated
to

furnace about the

Kjellin type
furnace and

of 600

h.p.

capacity
The owned and
owners

be

Swedish

patents

for

Kjellin

process

are

by

the

Metallurgiske
have been

Patent

Aktiebolaget, of Stockholm,
by
this
a

licences of
to
a

granted Works,
at

company

to

the

new

the

Gysinge
firm

to

prominent
to
a

English
Calcium

steel bide Car-

works,

French with
at

Voiron,

and

Swiss A small

Company
furnace
and

works the

at G urtnellan.

experimental satisfactorily,

erected
now

latter
to erect

place

has

worked

it is

intended of the

larger furnaces
for

and

plant.
and

The

patent rights
have have been sold

Kjellin furnace
Siemens
and firm. work Ss
a

Germany
and of

Austria

to Messrs. to erect

Halske,
furnace

Messrs. this

Krupp

arranged
from

type, under

licence A

the

Berlin

project

is also

under

discussion

in Stockholm in the
ore

for

the

velopment de-

of the

Tralhatta

Waterfall,
of iron

province
are

of Norrand and for steel The


to

land,
the

where of

extensive the electric the the aid

deposits
energy of the

found,
an

use

for

creation furnace power

of

iron

industry project
a

with

Kjellin
of where

and from

process. the

covers near

transmission

the
a

Falls

point

Gothenburg,
per
annum

steel

works

producing
Stockholm

500,000

tons

will

ba

erected

by

the

32

THE

ELECTRIC

FURNACE.

company
ment

owning
is

the

Kjellin
have

patents.

The

Swedish

Govern-

reported agreed
that

to

given
the

its

sanction

to

this

scheme,
^

and

to

have

to

develop
to

Tralhatta

Waterfall.

It

is
\

expected
new

10,000
steel
centre

15,000

H.r.

will

be

available

for

this

iron

and

early

in

the

year has

1908.

An

experimental metallurgical
home
of

Kjellin department English


steel

furnace

also

been

installed

in

the

of

the

University

of

Sheffield,

the

the

industry.

CHAPTER

V.

THE

STASSANO

FURNACE

AND

PROCESS.

The the aid

Stassano of

furnace

and

process heat the then

for is

smeltiDg
the oldest

iron of

ore

by

electrically-generated
in these

those been Italian

described

chapters,
who 1898.
were was

first

patent

having
in the

granted Artillery,
The

to

Stassano,
in

captain

April,

early experiments
the results of these

made

at

Rome looked

in

the

year
as

1899,
mising, proand

and,

having
formed scale of

been
to

upon the furnace

company
an

was

exploit
operations,
for

process of

upon

industrial
h.p.

plant
at

capable
Darfo and in the Dr.

utilising 1,500
Italy.
furnace Goldschmidt it for this the

being

planned
was

erection

Northern Stassano Hans

This
was

plant
seen

partially operation

completed,
in
an

in

there

1901 official

by

of German

Essen,
Patent

who

prepared
Office. The

report
trolling con-

upon

company its

development
the furnace

unfortunately
or

exhausted had the become

financial

resources

before commercial in the

process and The


to

success

from ceased

point

of

view,

operations
Government,
on

a*)

Darfo ever, how-

following
with the

year. inventor
at

Italian

arranged
work Canadian with the

carry

the

experimental
and the in in

process

the

Royal
the of
as

Arsenal,
furnace the furnace had the

Turin,
at

Commissioners 1904. time before the The

inspected refractory
roof

this had

place
fallen

March,
some

their

visit, and,
for
to

there

been

some

delay

in
were

obtaining
not

materials

its

repair,
the

Commissioners in

able

themselves with the

witness Stassano

furnace furnace

operation. however,
at

The

experiments
continued

the Forni

are,

being
and

by
to

Termoelettrici
recent

Stassano

Turin,

according

the

most

information

kindly

given

by

34

THE

ELECTRIC

FURNACE.

Major
of

Stassano

to

the
h.p.

author,
is
now

plant

of

four

furnaces
at
h.p.

capable
this

utilising a,300
plant
smaller the
is
to

under
furnaces
H.P.

construction of
100

place.
and
one

The
two of

include
of
one

two

1,000
H.P,

each,

furnaces
and

200 of

and

respectively,
being
letter of

larger
type.
the

the of

smaller

furnaces

the
1

rotating 1906)
were

At
two

the

date

Major

Stassano'a
bad been

(July

1,

only
in

smaller

furnaces

completed

and

regular operation.
Stassano in any and furnace is not,
to

The

the

author's
and
on

knowledge,
this still
account

in

operation
the furnace

other
process

place
most

than be

Turin,

regarded

as

in

the

Fia.

12."

Tbe

Stassano

Furnace.

Eoilieet

form.

earliest
of
one

stage
electric

of

their

industrial

development.
of iron features and
in

As

the

oldest
and

the

furnace
some

methods

steel

production
the

possessing
and

peculiar
are,

design,
some

Stassano and

furnace

process

however,
more

worth

attention
as

study
and

by electro-metallurgists,
can

especially

very

pure

iron

steel

be

produced
the

by it.
form

Fig.
Stassano,

12

shows this

earliest what

of

furnace
the inventor

designed
the

by
fixed

being

is called

by

TEE

ELECTRIC

FURNACE.

Beotion
Flo. 13.
"

along A, B,
Fdbhacs
with

Staesamo

BoTutY

Two

Cabboki.

TEE

STASSANO

FURNACE

AND

PROCESS.

27

Tbe absorbed consisted

furnace

was

rated
at

at

80

kw.

capacity,
The
in the

and

normally
70-25

1,000
of Iron
ore,
ore

amperes coke

80

volts.

charge

of

kgs.

and

limestone

following
160,

tions: propor-

1,000,

limestone

135,

carbon

additions

120.

The
the of

reduction
current

of

the

charge

was

completed
increased

in
to
a

two

hours,

electric

being
at 100

gradually
volts,
towards
and

maximum

1,000

amperes

then
the end

correspondingly
of the

reduced
The

and
power

increased
consumed

again,
was

operation.
or

97,200
obtained

watt-hours,

13224

E.H.p.'hours,

and

the

product

weighed

308

kge.

This

Sectional Fia.
13."

Flan.
Fdbnace
with

Stabbano

Botihi

Two

Carbons.

was

equivalent

to

4-3

e.H.p.

-hours
it

per

kilogramme
a

of iron, and

Goldschmidt
of 61

calculated
cent.

that iron
and

represented
steel

furnace in
was

efBciency mental experi-

per

The

produced
at

these

trials

of

the

Stassano of

furnace carbon

Daifo

ally exceptionas

pure,

the

percentage
traces

being
foijnd

reduced
in
Eome

low of of

as

0'04,

and

only
metal.

of

silicon

being

the

finished

Goldschmidt
proccEs, in
a

estimated,
one

as

result

his

study
could

of
be

the
made

that

metric
30

ton

(1,000kg.)
of steel

of sleel
per
24

plant producing

tons

38

THE

ELECTRIC

FVRNACE.

hours
"3.

by
158.

the
per

Stassano
ton.

method,

at

cost

of

76.

20m.,

equal

to

The
"1. 16b.

power 6d.

in
per

this

estimate

was

taken
year.

at

the

low

coat

of

electrical

horEe-power
report
Staseano the company
and
was

Although

GoldBchmidt's
of

favourable
at

to

the

tinued con-

operation
was

the and

plant

Darfo,

the

works
venture

not

succesp, to

financing
to

this

was

obliged

go

into

liquidation

ecII the

furnaces

and

Fia.

14.

"

SrissANo

Botakt

FurnjIob

for

Tbreb-phase

WoHEiKa.

The

modified
Stassano been
more

form for the

of

rotating furnace
Italian War This

which
at

was

erected
Ecems

by
to

Major
have The

Office furnace is in

Turin,
shown
in

successful.
has three carbon

Fig.
two,

14. the

furnace
of

electrodes

place

of

distance
as

these

apart

and

length

of

the

arcs

being
water

ngulated
pressure. is lued
to

before

by

hydraulic
cuirent

cylinJers
of 400

actuated
at

by
90
can

three-phase
the

amperes
or

volts

work

furnace.

Either

iron

steel

be

made

in

this

THE

STASSANO

FURNACE

AND

PROCESS.

Seotionsl Fig. 14." Stabfako Botaay Fdhkacb

EUTation. Ihbee-fba),! Wobkinq.

fob

40

THE

ELECTRIC

FURNACE.

furoace
amount

as

de"ired,

the

raw

materials
to

being

chosen

and

their At

calculated the furnace iron Director

according
is used and of for

the

product

desired.

Turin

making
In

mild
a

steel for shot letter


states

for (i.e.,

shell)from
1906, the

steel the
are

scrap.

dated

April 12,
after
two

Eoyal

Arsenal

that,
with

years' experience, they


of the furnace
to to
same

perfectly
purpose.

satis fied

the

tion applica-

this

According
of

the

authority,
per 24 hours

the

furnace
consumes

has

capacity
for energy each in volts

2,500 kg. of
of 625 of the

steel of

and

charge
the

kg.
three

steel, 850
current

kw-hours
at
a

of

electric of

form

phase
The

pressure

80

between 1*36

phases.
per

energy of

consumption steel, equivalent


the Darfo power

is, therefore,
to 1 *85
e.h.p.-

kw. -hours
a

kilogramme

hours,
sano

distinct

improvement pointed
melting
from
out

upon that than and

results.

Stasis
to

has, however,
lower metallic
when
state

the

consumption

much the

scrap

when has

reducing explained
for
at

iron
cause

its ores,

the

of this The furnace Forni


Cost

difference. inventor of this

gives

the

following
has
:
"

estimate erected

the

1,000

H.P.

type, which
Stassano
fr.

been

Turin

by

the

Termoelettrici
of

furnace,
per

25.000
4 to

Oatput
Carrent,

day,

5 tons. at 150

4-900 four

amperes in

volts.

Electrodes,
diameter.

Consumption
arcs, each

1*50 metres each in length and number, 15 cm. in of electrodes, 10 kg. to 15 kg. of eteel. ton per

Arcs, two

taking 2,450
brick.

amperes.

Lining, magnesite

Major
lead
to at
use

Stassano
notable
or

believes in

that

the

use

of

four

electrode
be

will

to

economy
arcs,

production,
to the

since

it will

possible lequired
ever, how-

one

two

according

amount

of heat In
"

the

various
to

stages of the
the electrical

reduction

process.
at

order,
an

keep

machinery
it will

full load be necessary


to

essential
to

condition
two

of economical furnaces the in

work"

operate
that
one

of these be

combination,
current

and when

arrange the other energy.

shall is

taking

maximum

furnace

taking
In

its minimum
to

requirement
reduce

of electrical

order of

still further iron and

the

energy is

consumption
now

par

ton

finished

steel, Stassano

experi-

THE

STdSSdUO

FURNACE

AND

rSOCESS.

42

THE

ELECTRIC

FURNACE.

mentiDg
furnace

with

the

new

type
some

of

furnace the

shown

in

Fig.

15.

This steel three

resembles

in and

respects
a

ordinary
with

Maitin
two
or

refining pairs
arc

furnace,
carbon

has

fixed

hearth
the

of

electrodes

for

heating

charge

of

metal

by

radiation.
No details of the with method of work with this

furnace,
come

or

the
the

results

obtained

it, have,

however,

yet

into

writer's
The of

hands.

following
iron made

are

figures showing
from the

the
ore,

chemical in the

composition
type
of

the

directly
:
"

rotating

Stassano

furnace

The and lowest In


a

power 4*22

consumption
per

in

these

runs

varied of
run

between

7*00 the

KH.P.-hours

kilogramme
obtained
to

iron No.

produced,
5. in

consumption Paper Major


furnace

being

in

contributed Stassano erected upon and gave

the

Faraday figures
for
at

Society
the work

April,
of the
are

1906,
200
an

some

H.P.

by
any iion

his

company

Turin,
"When of
1*3

which in
use

improvement
scrap furnace of

yet
the

published. consumption
1*1 and this

for

refining
by
this

pig
varied

electric kw. hours

energy per
to

between iron per


to

kilogramme
1*5 of The and the 1*76 furnace

steel

or

produced,

being
of per iron.

equivalent
The of 24
tear

E.H.P.-hours
was

kilogramme
be
2

yield
hours.
on

stated
of
;

tons

day
and

weak

feature

this for
at

furnace

was

the

wear

th

refractory
the renewal

lining
of

Stassano 10 fr. per

himself
ton

estimated
of

the

cost

of

these

metal

produced.

44

THE

ELECTRIC

FURNACE.

and
at

reduced

charge
the
of

then

falls and

on

to

the is It

hearth

of

the

furnace
the beltthat

C, where

heating
electrode
of

reduction
E.

completed
been

by

shaped ring
a

plates,
this be for

has

estimated

100

toD

fumaoe

type

would

require
it
were a

5,000
of

h.p.,
9a.

and 4d'
the

that per

steel
ton.

ingots
The
Furnace
at

could

produced
this

by

cost

"2.

patents
Co.
Elizabeth

furnace

purchased
were

by

Electric for

of

New

York,
and

and

plants

designed

erection

Town

Massena,
of

U.S.A.
these

No the
and further

details utilisation
it is

of the of

practical development
the
that

echemes

for

Conley

furnace

have

been have

"published,
hindered
its

probable

financial

difficulties

progress.

FlO.

16."

TSB

CotlUY

FCBVACE.

T/ie

Galhmth

Furnace.

"

Fig.

17

is for

sectional New

elevation Zealand the


1905.
a

of

the
iron

Galbraith
eands.
at An

furnace,

designed

smelting
with

experimental

demonstration

furnace
This number circuit the
mass

occurred

Loughborough, principle,
resistance heat is
a

England,
resist
an

in

July,

furnace,
of

in

ce-h eating

furnace,
in the
to
"

graphite
the

bars

being by
the

employed
electric

to

convey of
ore

generated
These

current
are

and

coke,

graphite

bar@

called

Incandes-

MISCELLANEOUS

METHODS

AND

FURNACES.

45

cents" fixed sand other In

in in and
a

the
tower

patent
or

claims column

covering
in such
a

this
manner

furnace,
that from of
one

and the
to

are

ironthe

coke

in

the from

powdered
the
a

state to

falls bottom

in its descent the mixed

top

the

the

tower. stream

operating

furnace,
with

feed-box

supplies a

constant

of iron-sand

pre-determined
Feed Box

amount

of

coke

or

mts^xsrcsm'
^^^^^^M^-

Electrical is with
on

nection con-

made faces

these both and the

sides, i.e.,
front "Incauin

back all

descents,"

=3

Line

of

"

ceptors" Intertectors Pro-

or

between
" -'

each

cent/' "Incandes-

Base

Block

Groimd Level

Fig.

17.
drawn

"

Three-tieb
to

Experimental
SECTIONAL

'*

Galbraith"
SSOWINQ

Eleotric 4AND

Furnace 5-BaB

(not
**

SOiLE).
"

ELEVATION

Incandescents

IN

Section.

charcoal
at

to

the

furnace,
in of very
a

and

this, it
or

is

claimed,
of

leaves molten
at

the

nace fur-

the

bottom

stream

shower and the

metal.

The

demonstration
was

the

furnace

process writer

borough Loughunaware

not

successful, and

is

whether Galbraith

the

funds

required
Zealand

for

the in

development
with

of
a

the

process

in New

connection

large

water-power

scheme

have

yet been

raised.

46

THE

ELECTRIC

FUBNACE,

T^
assisted carbide the

Cria Furnace. in the

"

M.

Gin,

French of has

electrometallurgistwho
aluminium devoted and
a

development
in iron

the

and

calcium
to

industries of

France,
and steel been the with Gin

latterly

himself very

subject

production,
out

large

number A

of patents company

have

taken

in his Proc^d^s

name.

named

Society
a

des

Gin
was

pour

la

Metallurgie Electriqne,
in of 1905
to

capital of 900,000fr.,
patents

formed

take

over

the

relating
have
at

to

all branches made for in

electro-metallurgy, and
of the Gin iron and

arrangements
steel furnaces

been

trial

Plettenberg

Germany.
The
use

sp3cial
narrow

feature channels

of

the
to

earlier

type
the

of

furnace

was

the
ing heat-

of

contain

metal
the

during
resistance upon

the

process, In
narrow

this

heating being
in which of
or

effected canal

by
was

method. itself for form the the has

the

furnace

the the

bent
not
a

crois-section of
ore

canal and

was

convenient

introduction

scrap,

therefore

modified

be^n
take
occurs

designed, place
in the attained steel last
to

in

which

the

heating
of
the

and

refining
The

processes

in the

separate
narrow

portions
channels

furnace. the When

heating
in metal of the

connecting
out.
a

chambers the

which has

refining operation
the is

is carried

required composition
tapped,
and is the

certain
of
an

quantity

finished from metal it.


A

volume

metal

withdrawn volume of
to

the

chamber
a

replaced by
from that

equal
canal

heated

high temperature
of metal

the

leading
is

quantity
into

equal
farthest

to

withdrawn

also 18

charged
gives
to at

the

chamber of
a

from furnace
a

the

tap-hole.

Fig.

various

views

refining
form from

of this of

type, designed 60,000


be amperes 350
tons

utilise 120 24

7,200 kw.
The

in the

of this

current

volts. hours.
details

yield

furnace

would

per No
or

have of the

yet

been

published concerning
at

the M. of

success

otherwise

installation
to

Plettenberg,

but

Gin,

in

Paper

contributed

the that

Faraday
one

Society

London,
with walls short-

in had

April, 1906,
been
to

admitted
a

of the

the

difficulties met
base
to

find

material
and

for

furnace

and

sufficiently refractory
circuits between the

non-conducting
and chambers.

prevent

canals

MIS0ELLANEOU3

METHODS

AUD

FURNACES.

48

THE

SLECTBIC

FURNACE.

Another
ill

type
This three

of

furnace

which ia called
a

M.

Gin

has

designed

is shown and

Fig.

19, of

form

combination and

furnace,

it

consists

parts:
and

(I)

melting

oxidising crucible,
and

(2)

deoxidising
chamber.
not

recarburetting
electrodes the
enter

chamber,
the

(3)
from

a,

final

mixing
and
are

The
in of

furnace

above

shown

figure.

The
current
are

electrodes

chamber
the
to

(1)

are

connected
of chambers

to

one

of

the

terminals,
in

and

electrodes the
to

(2) and
The
"

(3)

connected from

parallel
electrodes

other the

terminal.

current
a

pasaee

the

metal

through

layer

of

Fia.

19.^{bw

Foim

of

Gik

Furnace.

CouemATioH

Tiltimo

Ti'pe.

scoriffi," the
and
then

resistance the

of

which
in
can

causes

the

generation connecting
to

of

heat,

through
slagging
attain the

metal

the
be

narrow

channels.
in

Different

materials

added

each

chamber,
final

order The

to

composition

desired

in
case

the

product.
rests
on

furnace
bo

is held
that the

together
furnace
can

by

metal

which the

rollers,

be

tilted chambers

for

removal and

of is
so

slag

or

metal.
that

The

channel

between
at

(2)

(3)

placed
This

it is uncovered

the

moment

the
from

tapping

begins.
with

prevents

the

metal

of chamber

(2)

mixing

that

MISCELLANEOUS

METHODS

AND

FURNACES.

49

of chamber furnace

(3) during
opposite
chamber every

the

tapping operation.
the the metal of

By

the tilting

in the
to

direction

chamber

(2)

is in of

transferred chamber metal


manner.

(3),and
position

slag is always
furnace. The

retained transfer in
a

(1) in
from

of the

chamber

(1) to

chamber

(2) is

effected

similar

The

writer

is not

aware

that

this

furnace

has

yet received
the
cessfully suc-

practical trial, but


H^roult steel under in

its

great

similarity in
proves and that

principle to
operate

refining
proper the

furnace conditions canal and

it will

management. type
of

It differs

principle
the

from

chamber
"

furnace,
use

in of

that
to

resistance the in the


was

of the of the

scoriae

ue.^

the

slag
to

"

is made molten

convey

heat

electric

current

the

metal,
of the

whereas metal

earlier

designed

furnaces is

the
to

resistance

itself of

employed.

This
some

likely

raise

important
As

questions
the power
no

patent validityat

future steel in

date.* these for two

regards
types
of

required
very
own

to

produce
figures

furnace M. Gin's

reliable

are

available

publication.
of

estimates and

give

power per
tons

consumption
ton

between
a

640kw.-hours

720kw.-hour8

of
annum.

steel,for
With year,
ton

plant
ore

designed
15fr. then per works In

to ton

produce
and
out

30,000
at

per per

at cost

power

80fr. and

kilowatt per that

the

between calculations furnace

82fr.

83fr.

of iron from

finished
is
a run

steel.
into the

these

it is assumed

the

refining
of the Canadian in

in the

molten

condition,

blast

furnace The furnace


no

ordinary type.
Commissioners when
were

not

able to

see

M.

Gin's

operation

they

visited

Europe,

and, therefore,

independent figures are


The Oirod Furnace.
to
"

available.
Paul Soci6te Girod

M. the

occupies

the

post

of

electro-metallurgist lurgique,
and who
own

Anonyme
and This
at

Electro-M6tal-

works

at Albertville

Ugine

in

France, chiefly
steel 1905,
that of

also at in

Courtepin
the

in Switzerland. of
this

company

is

occupied
*

manufacture

special ferro-alloysfor
at the

In

reply
of of

to

criticisms American

upon

point raised

September,
Qin stated

Meeting
the
use

the the

Electro-ohemical
a

Society, M.
was

slag

as

heating

medium

covered

by his

patent

Febroary,

1897.
E

so

TffE

ELECTRIC

FUSNACE.

maken,
Girod which

ferro-tuDgsten
has
has also devised

being
a

their

chief
furnace
at

product;
for

but

M.

special
to

steel

refioiug
works,
sectional

been

submitted rfsults.

trial furnace

the

Albertville shown
in

with

successful

The

is

Pio.

30."

StcnoNiL

Bletatiok

of

OntoD's

Pdbbxce,

Fio.

21."

Sectional

Plan

of

Oibod's

FDanACi.

elevation furnace
lined

in Fig. 30, is

and

in

sectional is mounted
cover

plan
on

in

Fig.

21.

The and is

cylindrical in shape,
mc^eaia
this brick.
pass

trunnions,
of

with

The

is made

silica brick
all

and

through

several

carbon

electrodes,

of which

52

THE

ELECTBIC

FURNACE,

The

Harmet

Furnace,
et

"

M.

Haimet
St.

was

connected when

with H^roult and

the
was

Fondeiies, Forges developing


furnace his

Acieries,

Etienne,

electro-thermic below is

steel-refining furnace,
to

the

dcecribed
to

reported

be

due

to

M,
at St.

Heroult's

attempt
The The
one

introduce furnace

his process is shown

of steel

refining

Etienne.

Haimet

in sectional

elevation

in

Fig. 22.
to

general plan ccmpiises

three of the

parts, each
ore

corresponding
molten metal.

phase

of

the

treatment

and

In

'"::MM^y^Mm

'

/,

"..-"".""-" """"""".."".".""" :"" ".: """fT'^-Cv:


" ' " "

1;
^f^TJ ?'!r"

Fia.

22.-" The

Habmkt

Furkacb,

the the

first shaft

(A)

the

ores

are

fused,

in

(6) they
materials

meet

with this the the is

pre-heated reducing
and
are

and the

slagging
metallic
out.

from in

column,
final
ore

reduced

to

state, while
The

(C)
of

refining operation
and metal

is

carried and

progress while and heated also

through (A)

(B)

is continuous, of the
ore

(C)

tapped
materials

intermittently.
in A from
B

The

heating

other gases

and and

is effected

largely by

the

escaping

C,

but

resistance

heating is

employed,

MISCELLANEOUS

METHODS

AND

FURNACES.

63

carbon of the A

electrodes
and B in

being placed

at

suitable and

points
The
out

in the

v/alls of

(see 2, 2, 2, 2, 6, 6, U
the

15).
carried

heating by
massive

metal

refining

crucible

is
the

carbon

electrodes
a

passing through
of the

top of the
passes back therefore

crucible, and
from
to
a

carrying
electrode electrode. of with the and M. in
an

current

which electricity

the

one

through
The the

slag

and

metal is

the

other

complete
and
to

furnace H^roult the the

tion combina-

Keller

furnaces heat
raw

already
the
waste

described,
gases for lime

attempt

utilise of

of

preliminary
ore.

heating

materials"

coke,

Harmet furnace

has

calculated with and


an

that

one

ton

of steel between
cost at

can

be

made and per


are

this

expenditure
has estimated coke alone.

of the

2,500
29.24fr.

3,600
ton

E.H.P.-hours,

for

electric power

and

These

estimates and
must

based

solely
with

upon
some

theoretical
reserve. aware

calculations,

be

accepted
The
are

writer in
were

is not

that

the

Harmet

process that years

and

furnace of the

now

operation, although
carried
out at

it is stated
a

trials ago.

furnace The

St. This

Etienne furnace

few has and

Hiorth

Furnace, F.

"

recently
is

been

patented
similar in in

by

Hiorth,
and

of

Christiania,
to

somewhat described of the


new

principle
lY.

design
23

the

Kjellin

furnace

Chapter
which
one

Fig.

is
two

sectional
or
more

elevation
furnaces
core

design
by
is the

provides
transformer and
at

for

being

served

coil.
as

The

iron

of the B
;

transformer

D-shaped,

is mounted S. A
to current

shown of 90

at

the
at

primary
3,000

coil volts

is indicated pressure into


a

amperes is said
to

is

supplied
of

this

coil,and
at

be

transformed

current

3,000

amperes which in 78 be the per

70

volts
case

in

the

secondary
by
the the nace. furof
as

circuit
mass

of the of metal An

transformer,
contained

in this annular

is formed G of

channel and The


a

efficiency of
are

cent.,

temperature
is built

2,000"0.,
a

reported

to

attained. The
to

furnace which oxidation


screen

hollow iron

brickwork is covered the

cylinder,D.
by lids, L,

channel

contains of K the

the metal

prevent
The

during
to

refining operations.
coil S from
the heat

is provided walls

protect the

radiated

by

the

64

THE

ELECTRIC

FURNACE.

of the when

furn"ca.

is the

spout

by

which

the

metal

ia

tapped

ready

for

discharge.
to

There

is little

distinguish
but

the
the
and

Hiorth

furnace
made
it

up for

to

Ihia

point
the

from

the

Ejellin type,
on

provision swinging
ia
a

rotating
into

electromagnet
shown

its

axis,

round feature the

the

position
Hiorth

by
and

the may

dotted
be

-lines,
held
to

peculiar

of the
for

design,

substantiate

claim

novelty. By
furnaces

utilising
it is

this claimed

plan
that

in

the

construction

of

transformer
is

continuous
upon

operation
the from electrical the

attained,

and the

that

the

capital expenditure
It
is not

portion

of

plant

is reduced.

clear,

drawing,

how

FlQ.

23.-7THC

HiDBTB

Fduiacb.

the

furnace
centre

design

allows round

for

the
on

removal

of without

the

coil

from

the
to

by swinging
walls,
would
The and

its aris
be

destruction this
it

the

furnace

it may the
to

doubted

whether
for is also Hiorth

plan
the
to

in

practice

offer

advanti^es
the

claimed

by

inventor. raise
ever

similarity
of

Kjellin furnace
should scale the
;

likely
furnace far
on a as

questions
be

patent
upon
an

priority
industrial has
not

operated
is aware,

but,
worked

so

the

writer scale. The in

the

furnace

yet been

large

Bulhenberg
24,
a

Fumaee.

"

The
of
at
a

fiuthenberg
photograph

furnace
taken

is shown from
an

Fig.

reproduction
furnace erected

experimental

Lockport,

N.J., in 1902,

and

siiscellAneous

methods

and

furnaces.

65

described

by
for

the

inventor
1903. of
two

in

the

issue

of

Eiectro-chemkal

Induiiry
The current,
amount

February,
consists

furnace

magnetic
ore,
ore

rolls

carrying
with
a

an

electric

between
of carbon

which
is is

the The

mixed
is

calculated
to

fed.
crushed

picked
The
are

over

free of

it the

from

gangue,
are

and
within

before

use.

poles
driven
revs,

magnet
small The
water

the

bronze
at

rolls, which
a

by
mio.
are

motor

and
carry
a

worm-goaring
current

speed

of
at

per

rolls

of

700

amperes of

50

volta, and
holds
narrow a

cooled.
the crushed

The

magnetic

action
ore

the

rolls
in the the

bridge
gap.

of

particles of
current

and
one

coke

The

electric

passes

from

roll to

other

through

Fid.

24."

Thb

RuTBiNBEBo

Fdrsace.

this

crushed

ore

and

coke
of

before
the

the rolls

latter and

is carried

wards downinto the

by soaking
The

the

revolution

dropped

pit
metal
in
an

below.

produced
open-hearth

in

this

way

requires
before

smelting
it
can

and be

fining re-

steel

furnace

placed
is really
the iron

upon
one

the
of
to
ore

market.

If successful, with

therefore,

the

process of

agglomeration
the metallic in the his
state.

partial

reduction

oxide

The reduction
means

inventor of
waste to

original specification claimed


ore

the further

agglomerated
gases, but

in
this

special chamber
of

by
does

of appear

furnace

part

the

patent

not

have

been

developed.

66

THE

ELEGTRIG

FURNAGE.

As

regards
be

cost,

Kiithenberg
by
his process

stated

that

one

ton

of

steel

could

produced
hours,
and

with

an

expenditure
was

of

only
at

500

kw.

an

experimental
Electric

plant
Co.,
The

erected

the

works

of

the

Cowles

Smelting
claim.

at

Lockport,
attracted

N.

J.,

in

1902,
and

to

substantiate

this

plant
of

much

notice,

was

visited

by
the

large

number

steel

makers

in

January,
has
not

1903,
realised

but

further

development hopes.
was

of

the

process this

the

inventor's

In

July, by

1903,
three

perimental ex-

plant
Canadian

at

Lockport
and

visited

of

the

Commissioners, unfavourable,
of the had

their

report
little

upon

it

was

tinctly dis-

as

they

found

reduction

or

ration agglomethe

ore

occurred,
the

either

in

the

gap

between

rolls

or

afterwards

in

soaking
into

pit.

The

company but it is

financing

the

trials

has

since

gone the

liquidation,
and furnace

reported
be made

that

further

trials

of

process writer does

will

at

Niagara
likely
to

Falls.

The

not

consider

that

these

are

result

in

financial

success,

but

the

process

is

interesting worthy
the

on

account

of

its

novel

features,

and

it

is, therefore,

study

of

electro-metallurgists.

CHAPTER

VII.

YIELDS

AND

COSTS.

very electric

large

number methods

of

figures
of iron

for and

the

yields
steel

and

costs

of

the been

furnace

production
and is and the

have

published
in

during
search

the of

last
correct

six

years,

practical
to

metallurgist
somewhat variations
common

information of statistics

likely by
the

be

dismayed
which basis is necessary
are
are

by

the found

mass

great
to
a

on

reducing

these

figures

of

comparison.
to

It

remember,
and based in

however,
that these actual
cost

that do
not

many possess of

of

the the

figures
value
or

only weight

estimates,
.of the

figures

upon the

trial electric of all

the power

cesses. proin the


to

Again,
different electric

varis^tions
and iron
cost

of

localities,
furnace in for the

the and

different steel
ton

methods

working
contribute The of

production,
of the the finished total
costs

the

variations of

per

steel.

sumption con-

electric
cases

power in the the

and which

are,

course,
as a

highest
reduction coke
"

in

those
process,

process iron

is

worked
ore,

and into other


costs
are

raw

materials" without

lime

and

are

charged
On the

furnace the when and

any

preliminary
of is electric

heating.
power and

hand,
lowest

consumption
the process

total

conducted from the

solely
blast Between

as

refining
is used
two

process,
as

molten in
are

pig
the many of

iron electric

furnace these

raw

material there in the

furnace.

extremes

intermediate

values,
process

due
and will

to

modifications in furnace made


to

methods In the between

conducting
pages of

the
an

design.
discriminate

following figures
between will

attempt
and
costs

be

weight
and made

those for

of

little

value. furnaces

Comparisons
and

yields only
be

different

processes

68

THE

ELECTRIC

FURNACE.

when
are

the similar

conditions in character and

under and

which
a

the

trials

were

carried

out

fair will

comparison
be dealt

is

possible.
in for the the order

The followed

furnaces
in

processes 11. to after

with

Chapters
in brackets

VI., the
the
same

authority
:
"

figures

being given

I. (a) Steel

"

H^ROULT from
type

Furnace Pig
Iron with per per and

and

Process.

Production

Scrap

charged
Electrodes,

cold

into

crucible

of Furnace

Carbon ton

Trial

No.

1."
2."

882

kw.-hoars

metric short

of

2,204 lb.
of

(Goldscbmidt.)
(Canadian

TrialNo.

l,000kw.-hoar

ton

2,0001b.

Commissioners.)
Trial Trial No. No. 3.
"

1,000 kw.-hoars
kw.-hoars

per per

short

ton. ton.

(Canaiian (Canadian
I trial
;

Commissioners.)
Commissioners.

4.-"653

short

)
;

The in No. steel

quality
2
a

of steel soft

produced
was

in No.

was

not 3
a

stated hard tool

dead in No.

steel

produced
adapted
and

in No.

; and

4 trial a steel

for

structural
in

purposes. Open
Hearth

(6) Sted

Production

from Scrap

malted

over-oxiditted

an

Furnace, Trial No. 1." 360

kw.-hours

per

metric

ton

of

2,204

lb.

(Eichoff .)
in

This the

trial

was

made

at

the

Kemschied
was

works stated.

Germany

quality

of steel

produced
(c) Pig

not

Iron per per per

Production, ton. ton. ton.

Trial
Trial Trial

No.
No. No.

1. 2.

"

3,080 kw.-hours 2,306 kw.-hoars


kw.-hoars

short short short

(Canadian

Commissioners.)

"

(HaanelJ
(Haanel.)
a

3.-2,342

The

iron No. trial

produced
2
a a

in

No.

1 trial in

was

closegrainei
and

grey in

pig, in
No.
3

grey

iron, high
iron

carbon between

silicon, and
3 and 4 per

similar

containing

cent,

of nickel. A

large number
process, of the above

of other but these results.

figures
are

have

been

published
and

for the the from for

Heroult

mere
are

estimates therefore of the

lack

weight
this each

They
the
mean

omitted
values the

comparison. product
and
from
we

Taking
have
:
"

above for

the

following

figures

Heroult

process
1. 2. 3. 4. Steel

furnace
cold molten from

pig and

sorap."

864

kw.-hours
329

per

2,000 lb.
per

Sfceel from

open-hearth
ore.
"

stsel."

k^.-h)arj per

2,0001b.

Grey pig-iron
Ferro-nickel

2,693 kw.-hours ^2,342


kw.-hoirs

2,000 lb.
per

pig

from

ore.

2.0001b.

60

THE

ELECTRIC

FURNACE.

burning Kjellin
of

out

of

the and

impurities
process direct
are

as

in

the

latter

process.

The

furnace
or

not

adapted
ores.

for the No in

production
yet
cold

pig

iron made

steel

from

the for

trials have

been

using

molten

pig

charging

place

of

materials.

Taking

the

average
"

of

the

figures given above,

we

have

the

following yield :
1. Steel from

oold

pig

and

Borap."

866

kw. -hours

per

ton

of

2,0001b.

IV.

"

The
Steel

Stassano from

Furnace
and metric metric metric Lime ton. ton. ton.

and

Process.
Cold.

(a)
Trial Trial Trial No. No. 1. 2.
"
"

Ore, Coke
per per per

charged

2,866 kw.-hoors 3,155 kw.-hoars


kw.-hours

(Goldschmidt.) (Neumann.) (Stassano.)

No.

3.-3,230 of

No trials

details
are

the

character The of the

of

the of

iron the

produced product

in

these

available. the

purity

depends

largely

upon

purity

materials

used.
Cold,

(b) Steel from


Trial Trial No. 1. 2.
"

Scrap
per per

charged
ton. ton.

1,360 kw.-hours 1,200 kw.-hours the

metric metric

(Stassano.) (Stassano.)
steels

No.

"

No these the
arc

figures relating to
trials and
are

character

of the the

produced

in of that

available. closed H^roult averages

Owing
furnace furnace. of the the

to

high

temperature
to

the

product

is similar

obtained

in the the
:
"

Taking following
1. ton 2. Steel of

above

figures

we

have

the

from

ore,

coke

and

lime

charged

cold."

2,804 kw.-hours

per

2,0001b.
from scrap

Steel

charged
Gin

cold."

1,164 kw.-hours
and

per

ton

of

2,000 lb.

V.
So trials far
as

"

The writer

Furnace

Process.
results

the

is aware, and process

no

practical
been

based
and

on

of this

furnace in M. the Gin

have voluminous

published,
papers based
on

the

figures given prepared


theoretical furnace and

somewhat
are mere

and

reports

by

estimates
reason

study
the

of Gin

data.
process and

For
are

this less

the

figures
than

for

important
will be

those
"

previously
for

dealt
Steel
to 618

with,
from

only

one

estimate
680

given
metric

namely,

molten
per

pig iron."
ton of

kw.-hours

per

ton, equivalent

kw.-hours

2,000 lb.

YIELDS

AND

COSTS.

61

VI. This

^The
"

Girod

Furnace have upon Scrap


per per ton

and

Process. actual
:
"

furnace

and
are

process based from

received the result

trial,and

the

following figures

Steel No. No. 1 trial." 2 trial.


"

charged
ton. ton.

Cold,

1,060 kw.-hours 1,440


kw.-hours per

metric metric of

Mean."

1,136 kw.-hours details


are

2,0001b. the steel

No trials

of

the

character

of

produced

in

these

available.

VII. (a) Steel from


ore

"

The
in
raw

Harmet
combined materials

Furnace
reduction and heated

and

Process.
of furnace,
the later

ore

refining type by
tcaste

and

other

beiiig

heat

from

the

stages No.
No. Mean. per ton

of the process.
"

1 estimate. 2 estimate.
"

1,837
"

kw.-hours

per per

metric metric

ton. ton. to

2,646 kw.-hours
per metric

2,242 kw.-hours. 2,000 lb. the have

ton, equivalent

2,038 kw.-hours

of

Combining
we

results the

set

out
"

above

for

purposes

of

parison, com-

following :

VII. Harmet.

Steel scrap

from and
. .

pig (cold) Do. (hot)


Pig iron from ore,cokeand
lime Steel

"

"

"

"

(cold)
ore, and

from

coke lime Nickel from


ore

2,038
.

(cold)

pig
. .

All

results

are

given

in

kilowatt-hours

per

ton

of

2,000 lb. of steel

These from and 800

figures
and

show

that,

as

regards

the

manufacture the

scrap Keller

pig iron, charged


all the 60

cold,
in

H^roult, Kjellin neighbourhood


furnaces The with have of
an

furnaces while

yield

results and

the

kw.-hours,

Stassano per
cent,
are

Girod

energy

consumption
furnaces
and

higher.
able to deal

H6roult
more

and

Keller

processes

impure

62

THE

ELECT

mc

FUHNACE.

mateiials electric
arc

tlan
as a

the
soarce

Ejellin fvrraces,
of heat

sicce
a

the

use

of

the
perature tem-

produces
and

much

higher
enables

than

induction the
raw

heating,
to

this and

all the in the

impurities of
slags.
On the

iron

be the

oxidised

removed and the

the

other

hand,
of carbon the and

Kjellin

furnace and

process

gain by
of The heat

absence

electrodes material of

by

generation
furnace.

entirely
of and

within

contained
are

in the thus

costs

operating
this

maintenance the

greatly
upon of of

reduced,
raw

saving
It

balances

higher expenditure
that each of

materials. will be

is, however, adapted


that both for the and

probable
the
arc

type
steels furnace and

furnace

found and the

production
type

special quality, (represented by


induction will the future. The and
are

of crucible

Heroult

Keller

furnaces)
and steel

the naces) furof

type
attain

(represented
a

by

the

Kjellin
the

Hiorth

permanent

position in

industry

figures given
are

for the into

energy the

consumption
in the

when

the

steel

scrap

charged

furnace

molten
that

condition the Keller from

hardly
Gin

comparable,
were

since

it is evident conditions It has

and those

trials

made Heroult

under

dissimilar been
to

obtaining

in the 433

trials.
are

calculated raise certain


1 ton

by
of

Neumann iron
to

that the iron

kw.-hours

necessary therefore into

molten is
a

state, and
in this
power

it is condition

that
fining re-

when

the

charged
reduced

the

electric

furnace,
per

consumption
be obtained. process be
too

of 400 The
at

kw.-hours

ton of steel produced

should

figure given
Kemschied
but
"

byEichoflfforthe workingof
namely,
under
hours This 320 kw.-hours conditions of steel of
"

the Heroult

may
a

possibly

low,
of

working
410 kw.-

these per
ton

power

consumption
should
cent,

only

produced
50 per that in the

be the

attainable.
electric the power
quired re-

reduction is
so

in

important
work

it is evident iron and

development industry
At in

of the

electric
near

furnace
must

steel lines.
a

future

proceed along
at

these

Kemschied,
open-

in

Germany,
furnace

and is

Syracuse,

in

America,
for
an

Wellman

hearth
of
raw

being
to

employed
obtain

the

preliminary heating
product
The
next
as

the

metal,

in order for the

over-oxidised

material

electric

refiningfurnace.

step

YIELDS

AND

COSTS.

63^

will
to

be

to

dispense
the

with

this it

intermediate
runs

furnace molten crucible writer

process, condition furnace


"

and from for

transfer blast final

pig iron, as

in the electric The

the the this

furnace,

directly to

the

refining operation.
some

present
he

prophesied
to
see

development

years

ago,

and

still expects

it

realised. The furnace iron above. appears these


or

figures
is

for

the

power
to

consumption
the
are ores

when and
to

the

electric

employed
in
one

reduce

produce
those

pig

steel For
to

operation

less

hopeful
the power and

than

given

pig-iron production

consumption
2,700 kw.

lie between for 300

2,300 kw.-hours
the kw. materials and 500

hours,
a duction re-

figures being
of between

charged
kw. before It

cold,

and

being possible, if the

raw

materials action the the


raw

are

partially melted
electric power with
can

bringing
is

under

the ever, howor

heating

of the

current.

improbable, producing
of

that steel and hours section


a

electric
ores,
even

required

for

iron the

from other per

preliminary heating
be It reduced will would be have with this for
not

ore

materials,
ton

below shown
to

2,000
in the

kw.final
at

short

of

metal. that power

of this low
cost

chapter
to

be

obtained

very

render

competition
on

the basis.
ore

ordinary

blast

furnace The

procedure practicableeven
use

of in

the

electric writer's

furnace

iron

reduction

is,
any very

therefore,
industrial

the

opinion,
at
some

likely

to

undergo
under

development
conditions. electric furnace
ore

present,
cases

excepting
it may prove

special
use

In

possible, by
iron
or

of

methods,
which methods

to
are

manufacture otherwise

its

alloys
and find iron

out

of

deposits
the
new

unworkable,
course,

in these

cases

of

heating will, of
to

early application.
sand
use.

The

attempts
ores

smelt

New
are

Zealand

and

the The

titaniferous trials of the

of

America furnace
to

examples
process led
as

of this Sault similar

H6roult
are

and have

at
a

Sainte

Marie

in Canada the

reported
is to for the be

to

result, for
of these

plant
be

which used

erected

the

come out-

trials is to for the like that

smelting

of nickel-iron

ores,

and

not

production
Norway
can

of

ordinary pig-iron.
with low abundance

In of

countries

and

Switzerland,
at

water-power

be

developed

very

cost, it is

64

THE

ELECTRIC

FURNACE.

possible,again, that
established,
the if iron

native and

iron-smelting industry might


lime
are

be of be

ore

found

in

the

locality
will and

water-power.
to

But the iron

here, again, special conditions industry


will be
a

required

render the of the coalfields than


at

financial
to

success,

it is with

unlikely
the Until

that

able

compete
in the
are

in

price

product
the

ordinary
of

blast

furnace and

open
more

market.

Europe

America furnace

nearly
of iron little and gress proan

exhausted

present, the
in the

electric writer's

methods

smelting

will

therefore,
and

opinion, undergo
of that few

development,
alloys
in is electric the time
are

it is in the

production

specialsteels
the

the

electric
to
occur

refining furnace
within the will the
next
some

greatest
That

likely
iron

years. be
at

smelting industry
not

day

established the
"

writer
are

does
not

deny

but
"

conditions

present
and

favourable be
so

to

its

early development
20
or

they

hardly likely to

for

another

50

years.

Costs.

The furnaces
reliable

figures
and than

for

the

costs

of iron in

working
and steel

the

various

electric
are

processes those in than

for

production
section based actual the
cost

less this mates esti-

given

the
cases

preceding
they
are

of
on

article, since
rather The
cost

practicallyall
upon

figures
coke be

obtained

from

work. of for items tric electhe


as

of ore,
can,

lime,

and

fluxes, and
with such interest

power various

of course, and

obtained

exactitude

processes

localities,but

important
on

electrodes, depreciation, repairs,


management
are

capital
and
The in the
are

and be of

largely

unknown is

charges,
yet
realised.

may
costs

greater
electrodes and

in the and

aggregate

than
are,

repairs using by
the
arc

of

course,

highest
these

furnaces

processes

heating,

and

processes
two

heavily
of
ning run-

handicapped
costs.

expenditure
and
a

upon

these

items the

The of

furnaces have is

processes

using

induction since of the the

methods

heating

striking advantage
nil, and
the
wear

here,
and

outlay
furnace In

upon

electrodes

tear

structure

is small.

the

statement

given

below,

the

costs

of

production
by
others

as

given

by

the

various

furnace

designers, and

who

YIELDS

AND

COSTS.

66

have

reported
in the

upon

their

working,
of this

are

set

down

in the
no

order
is

followed made
on

first section

chapter, but
the variables
that

attempt
processes
numerous

to

institute

comparisons
costs, since
is for this iron

between the

various
are
an

the

basis of these
It

too

and the

conflicting.
future
at

reason

opinion
has

upon been

of

these end of

electric the
are

and

steel

processes the

given
power
a

the

previous section, since mostly based


which
are on

figuresfor
sess pos-

consumption
value

actual

and trials, :;
"

lacking
I.
"

in those

given below
Process.
exolusive

H^ROULT Scrap,
"

Furnace
"2.

and ton of

(a) Steel from


scrap.

16s. per

2,0001b.

of

cost

of

(Electric power (b) Pig Iron from


Ores,
"

at "2 "2

per per

electrical
ton.

horse-power-year.)

(Ore II. (a) Steel from (b) Fig


Iron

at 5s. per

ton.)
and

"

Keller
Ore8,'-"i per "2.

Furnace
ton of

Process.

2,000 lb.
ton of

from
at "2

Ores." per

8s. per

2,000 lb.
and
ore

(Electric power III.


"

electrical horse-power-year

at 6s. per

ton.)

The

Kjellin
168. at "2 per per

Furnace
ton of 2,000

and lb.

Process.

SUelfromSorap,^"Q, (Electric power


IV." The
ore,

electrical

horse-power-year.)
and

Stassano
"3.

Furnace
per ton of
ore

Process.
at

Pig iron
"1.

from

15s. 3d.

1,000 kg. (electricpower


at

168. per

electrical

horse-power-year
Gin Furnace
48. per

and

14s. 5d. per

ton).

V.
steel
"2. from

"

The

and ton of
ore

Process. 1,000 kg. (electricpower at 12s. per ton).


and at

molten

pig, "3.

8s. per

electrical

horae-power-year
Girod
3s. 3d.

and

VI."
Steel
from

The
"1.

Furnace
per ton of

Process.

scrap,

1,000 kg.
and

VII.
Steel
from

"

The
"2.

Conley
7s. 3d. per

Furnace
ton.

Process.

ore,

VIII.
Steel from

"

^The
"1.

Harmet
2s.

Furnace
ton.

and

Process.

ore,

5d. per

The

above

figures
are

show

such

wide

variations

that,

even

as

estimates, they
In of

misleading
form
an

and

unsatisfactory.
as

attempting
the

to

opinion
and

to

the

comparative
it
is

cost

working

electric iron

steel

processes

therefore

66

THE

ELECTRIC

FUMACE.

better

to in

rely
the

upon

the

figures
of this and

for

the

power

consumption,
the electrical

given

first section year


we

chapter.
average
costs
:
"

Taking
power

horse-power
in

at

"2 the
scrap,

the

consumptions

Ta^leI.
1. 2. 3.

have
molten cold

following
2s. and

Steel Steel

from from iron

6d. (400 kw.


5s.

-hours).

sorap
ore,

pig,
and

(800kw.-hoars). (k"ld,15s.
6d.

Pig

from

ooke

lime, charged

(2,500

kw.-

hours).
4.

Fig iron the

from

ore, coke

and

lime, charged best between

hot, 123. 5d.CiJ,000kw.-hours).

In

manufacture
to
assume

of that of steel

crucible

steel, however,
and At 3 tonis the of eoke

it
are

is

customary
consumed

2^

per

ton

produced.

present
on

market side of

price
the As

of coke

(17s.) the advantage refining furnace.


the electric

is,therefore,

the

electric

regards
that
to

smelting

processes,
to reduce

it is the

necessary oxide fuel of saved In


are

to

remember
iron that best per
ore

coke

is still

required

the is the

the the

metallic blast

state, and
furnace for

that

the

only

used modern
ton

in

heating
16 of
cwt.

purposes. of coke

smelting practiceonly pig


reduce iron

required
are quired re-

of
to

produced,
ore.

and

this in

total coke

6'5 cwt.

the of

The

saving

by
exceed

the

electric 9-5

furnace
or

method the

smelting cannot, therefore,


of coke show much the 8s. Od. that the

cwt.,

at

present

price

These

considerations processes processes, balance


are

prospects
than of coke those in upon
to to

for the for the the

electric
electric is too power.
at

refining
smelting
small The the
to

brighter

since the

saving

latter

large expenditure
would,
cost

electric be

horse-power-year

in

fact, have
in order

supplied
with be For furnace
as

extraordinarily low
blast
at

of "A the

compete
it
can

the duced prothe in


a

modern

furnace, figure

and
are

localities few of

where in the
to

this

certainly

number. electric be

present, therefore,
the iron and rule
to

the

application
is

steel the

industries

Kkely
by

restricted

general
steel
are

refining
into be

processes,

which

pig

and In
to

scrap these have of


a

converted it is

higher-priced products.
very

branches
most

likely to
effect steel

widely employed,
the

and

important
iron and

upon

future

development

the

whole

industry.

APPENDIX.

THE The in been the

COLBY furnace in the

FURNACE is of
name

AND

PR03ESS.

Colby
U.S.A.. tried

the of in

inductive
Mr. Edward
at
near

type
A. the

and

is

patented
It has

Colby.
of

experimentally
"
to

America

works

Messrs. These tion installa-

Henry
trials
are

Disston said
a

Sons,
have

at

Tacony,

Philadelphia.
the

resulted furnace

and satisfactorily,

of

large

electric The

plant
furnace

is

now

being
the

considered
works

by
was

this

firm.

original
by
the

used

at

Tacony
of

manufactured
was

Induction

Furnaca
The and A

Co.,

America,
of

and
28

of of

181

kw. tube
water

capacity.
f in. inside
circulation. could be

primary f

consisted

turns

copper

in. outside maximum with


a

diameter,
current

cooled 540 of

by
amperes

internal
at

of

240

volts

employed

fridquency

60. The annular


was

crucible,

the

contents

of

which

formed
in. in.

the

secondary,
diameter,
had
a

14^
8 in. in

in.

inside

diameter The
lbs. for the

and
was

24^ 6f

outside

by

height.
of 190

trough

deep

and

working
maximum
at

capacity
current

The amperes The for the

available

crucible

was

15,148

8*57 of

volts.

method

working

this

furnace

was

similar

to

that

used

Kjellin
of
were

Furnace 90 lb.
were

(see

p.

29).
every lbs. of hour molten

Ingots
materials in
to

poured
to

and metal from

fresh
left 27*5

then

added

the

100 these

the 37-5

furnace. kw. hours

Working
were

under used per


was

conditions,
of

1001b. 40
was

ingot metal,

and

the

maximum The fusion

power of the

utilised

kw* stated
to

added
the

metal

be

completed
a

in

30

minutes,

and

refining operation

required

similar

time. The but from


no

ingot
chemical which

metal
or

was

stated

to tests

be
are

dense

and

homogeneous,
in

physical
details
are

published

the

report

these

taken.*

''

Eleotro-Chemical

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.

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1907.

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Prof. J. A. Ewinp^, M.A., B.Sc, F.R.S., Professor of Mechanism in the University of Cambridge. Applied Mechanics 38a pages, 173 Illustrations. 6d. nett. Third Issue. xos. Edition, Second METALS.

'

^After an introductory chapter, which attempts to explain th" which account is given of the methods are usually terminology, an the magnetic then quoted, showing the to measure employed quality of metals. Examples are A chapter and cobalt. for various results of such measurements specimens of iron, steel,nickel features of induction Magnetic Hysteresis follows, and then the distinctive by very weak and on by very strong magnetic forces are separately described, with further description of experimental numerical results. The influences of Temperature and ot Stress aremethods, and with additional The is given ot discussed. account conception of the Magnetic Circuit is then explained, and some method of treat moat. best elucidated are by making use of this essentiallymodem experiments which

Synopsis

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Fisher"

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ITS
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No. 41. 42.

Subject.
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No.

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rent Cur-

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Separation
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"

on twenty on introductory exercises, six exercises ma^ettsm, and six on the statical electricity or alternating on electricity applications. Nothing is done like this they are that in a simple course considered relativelyunimportant currents, for the reason well as difficult." ";r/ra^://"-0m as Preface,

"c. telegraph,

There

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Soddy"
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CONTINTS.

Telegraph Engineer.
I. II.
"

Chapter
"

"

Remarks on Testing Apparatus, of Current, PotenMeasurements tial, and tance. ResisBattery


"

Chapter VII.
" "

"

Measurement

of Inductive

Capa*

city.
VIII.*-Localisation IX. Localisation
"

of Disconnections.

of Earth

and

Con*-

" ,t

III. IV." V. VI."

"

t"

Natural and Measurement sistance. Measurement Corrections Insulation


numerous

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Tests.

tacts.

Re*
" "

X.
XI."

"

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Test8" of Localisation Cable Testing during

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Manufacture, Working.
XII.
"
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an^

"

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D.Sc.,

ELECTRICITY
4s.

THROUGH
AND
by
Prof.

F.R.S.

6d.

nett.

Thomson
ORiiANIC
I

and
homson,

Bloxam"
with G.

BLOXAM'S
Experiments.
Bloxam. Re-written

INORGANIC
and Revised

CHEMISTRY, F.R.S., and Arthur


"

J.

M.

Eighth

Edition,

i8s. td.

"THE

ELECTRICIAN
I,
2

PRINTING

"

PUBLISHING

CO.,
E.G.

LTD.,

and

3,

SalisburyCourt, Fleet Street, London,