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o

THE

ELECTRIC
IN

FURNACE

IRON

AND

STEEL

PRODUCTION.

BY
"

JOHN

B.

0.

KERSHAW,

RLO.

WITH

24

ILLUSTRATIONS

AND

A

LIST

OF

PATENTS.

NEW

YORK:

THE

D. 33,
MURRAT

VAN

NOSTRAND STRBET,
LONDON
AND

COMPANY,
27,WARRBN
:

8TRKET.

"THE

ELECTRICIAN"

PRINTING

AND

PUBLISHING

COMPANY,

LIMITED,
Salisbury Japan India
: :

Court,
"
" "

Fleet Nihonbashi

Street,
Tori

E.G.

Z, P. Maruya Thacker, Spink

Co., 14,

Sanchome,

Tokyo.

Co., Calcutta. Co., Madras.
"

Higginbotham
Australia:

George
Brisbane.

Robertson

Co., Melbourne,

Sydney,

Adelaide

and

[All Rights Reserved.]
1907.

B..cVjljws. 1.C" Fleet Street. Court. .. LTD.% J^^ 0-"U.J^^JijU \y^ VVL Printed and Published by "'THK BLRCTRICIAN" PRINTING AND FUBLISI1IN6 CO. Salisbury London. 2 "nd 3. '\H'i"\.Q"\ .

second and half of they the appeared year in that Journal were during also the 1906.A. of U. In view of the success which has attended and certain steel of the furnaces and processes it is for refining possible in iron by aid of electric heat. thought these that the tion collec- and publication prove branch a of articles more permanent the literature form may this useful contribution to of new of electro-metallurgy.PREFACE. the Author was invited by the Publishers of Trade Review of Cleveland. The articles were written. The present and industrial development is no of these new methods processes doubt the small and nificant insignitude mag- when compared iron with vast extent and of little methods the and steel that will industries. the world will upon and these new depend more more for . the to tribute con- to that paper a series articles upon electric furnace methods of iron and steel production. that however. " they at a published in The Electrician (London) later date. In May. it The be Author has doubt. the Iron 1906..S.

American and Canadian Patents. been added taining con- the dates and the more important English. " from water-power electric furnace then place the blast of and the will supplant furnace.IV. KERSHAW. C. Electricity take the generated coal. July 1st. The West Lancashire Laboratory. Waterloo. Liverpool. as the coal-fields of Europe and are gradually will exhausted. has with slight verbal alterations. 7OHN B. PREFACE. . its supplies America of iron and steel. furnace and other forms of refining The articles are reprinted they An in this volume in the form and order in which originally Appendix numbers of appeared. 1907.

Miscellaneous Furnaces Galbraitb. The Keller Furnace and Process 16-26 CHAPTER IV. The Kjellin Furnace and Prcciss 27-32 CHAPTER V. British and American Patents 67 The Colby Furnace and Process 68 . Huthenberg. 43-56 Conley. Yields and Costs 67-66 APPENDIX. Gin. CHAPTER VII. FAOB CHAPTER I.CONTENTS. and Processes Hiottb. The Stassano Furnace and Process 33-42 CHAPTER VI. Harmet. Girod. Historical Introduction 1-5 CHAPTER n. The HliROULT Furnace and Process 6-16 CHAPTER HI.

38-39 15 Stassano Furnace Type) 41 16 Conley Galbraith Furnace 44 17 Fnrnace 45 18 Gin Chamber Furnace Plan) 47 19 Gin Combination and Furnace 48 20 Girod Furnace (Section) (Plan) (Section) (Section) Furnace 50 21 Girod Furnace 60 22 Harmet Furnace 52 23 Hiorth Fnrnace 54 24 Buthenberg (Elevation) 55 . FIG.....36-37 14 Stassano Furnace Form with Three .. 9 Keller Fnrnace Type) for 23 10 Keller Furnace Smelting Works) 24 11 Kjellin Stassano Furr ace and Plan) Form) .. 30 12 Furnace 34 13 Stassano Furnace Form with Two Electrodes) Electrodes) .. PAGE 1 Siemens' Electric Crncible Fnrnace 2 2 Heroult Crucible Fnrnace (Section) (Section) (Charged) Furnace 9 3 Heroult Crucible Furnace 9 4 Heroult Crucible Furnace 12 5 Heroult Ore Smelting (Original (Second (Original Form) 13 6 Keller Furnace Form) Form) 18 7 Keller Furnace """ 19 8 Keller Furnace (Discharging) (Latest (Design (Section (Original (Botary (Rotary (Fixed (Section) (Section) (Sections Tilting and 21 " .ILLUSTRATIONS..

was chief these taminated being atmosphere of the uncon- products be combustion in : practically of steel controlled B. be designer of electric phesied pro- electric in the iron heating and would become of the importance Twenty in But steel industry any the progress late Sir work years direction the meantime elapsed indicated much before could William reported Siemens. or by aid in one Fig.110. In the year a 1879 the form late of Sir electric William furnace. earliest general for arrangement steel his and design of crucible furnace melting. INTRODUCTION. In 10 of this of London. 2. of cost upon Basing experiments that the estimate with this furnace in the William of results obtained claimed by furnace."^ to Siemens.hy degree the of heat obtained this heat current. 1879. the be On charge easily these crucible within furnace : could by the regulation of of that this electric earliest form grounds furnace of considerable future. . method Sir Siemens steel electric melting to a might be regarded furnace.CHAPTER I. this kg. of But not as equal in of heating case efficiency ton regenerative the gas since ton each coal the coke. out the in by important was carried by * No. furnace iron 1 shows patented he steel the was crucible with of the able comparative electric current ease melb hour. had of steel required lent equiva- one or the electric furnace other solid of advantages or in its favour of shared by that with furnaces the the could and the that using gaseous furnace that fuel.

for this ELECTBIC CbCCIBLE FUBSICE. and Qirod Hall. also connection. and of electricity for of heating the as purposes The of methods controlling so largo rents cur- arranging the electrodes to minimise .B THE ELECTRIC FURNACE. the brothers Heroiilt Cowles. and by of do Sweden. furnace these laboratory infor vrorks the the best electric use valuable relating gained. production carbide. used. and Acheson Borcbers and in America Kiliani the of . Moissan's must researches. ferro-alloys to and zinc. alu- Germany. grjphitc. famous become and motion was French of chemist's value of to work and with the electric In much furnace has classical trials importance. in bearing the upon application calcium electric cai heating borundam. by France in by iu tical pracminium. in Lavel Wilson . be mentioned although in this confined the kboratory.

from published the 1904. but not successful. experience gained immense development to aluminium being of service Heroult this work. Furnace at Steel is being operated in the at La Praz and in case Froges the France. Keller. designs of the in this furnace. lines. industry. in plant being designed for the industrial production of steel b2 . some Kjellin each of of success in Sweden. United at Remscheid each Germany. were Heroult France. attained degree new in the In special steels by Conley. were Ruthenberg. and In Gin the same and pig the starting point of his this in period and Stassano in Italy. electric furnace methods steel Early these Canadian become to to sufficient it worth to tance imporwhile to to for the Government of think appoint examine a commission their at experts and the proceed of much Europe working. and at Heroult to as 1905 of confined himself chiefly scrap same La Praz iron the production special steels. Syracuse States. these working of along had and electrometallurgists production America. furnace from the production of alloys in steels to was the a electric natural ore manufacture of his process. 3 their loss and the destruction were during out. the heating of the charge in furnace. with and of the also experimenting in had the iron applica. the Rossi tions method and of in Wilson the 1904 of heating. the process in France. end of report this commission. attracted attention metallurgistsin The Heroult in all countries.INTRODUCTION. work of Success and to attended the early experimental of ferro class Heroult. In 1899 also " worked who had Heroult patented the process the and of brought aluminium time into cessful suc- operation associated in Europe his name tion extrac- with about similar of same that " Hall patented and introduced to a process the and of and in America furnace A turned for his attention the utilisation of the electric steel.using process. and at Kortfors in Norway. heat high ment developdirectly by were Attempts were smelt this to iron aid so of electric made from about 1901 date. with various in the forms and Froges of Praz. the La the production of of special alloys were iron works large ber num- trials made at at Society Electro" metallurgique Fran^aise.

are Wilson still and in the Rossi methods of iron and of steel their into production experimental and stages may development. but it is not it is yet working process commercial basis. Gy singe in Sweden have process since been in 1901 considerable the and this and arrangements furnace in and made operation United of Switzerland. this Germany. trial furnace scale be and at undergoing in upon industrial it must have Plettenburg doubtful from Westphalia. This pro" Turin. trial at and without and success now having furnace process receiving government be Royal Arsenal.) " decided Unieux will is in upon are now use a give cess prois trial works (Loire). how- Northern the funds Italy. of the been further assistance as experiments. a J. the States England. able considerof a obtained value and stated to promise centre regards the building at new of the steel industries Sault Sainte Marie in Canada. and of but considered whether the furnace process their The and at yet emerged experimental stage development. have Sainte conducted ore. " and large have at firm of French to (Messrs. Stassano Darfo process in and furnace first received These trial at Bome ever.4 THE ELECTRIC FURNACE. from pig iron and scrap. in also The regarded and still experimental have been character. The Conley.500 Keller clear Tfie an for smelting Livet.p. with in the Canada. H6roult experiments furnace trials were recently smelting out at for of These of the mental experiCanadian carried the the Grovemment and the under results and iron personal charge are as H^roult been of up himself. at Kjellin process furnace with for in operated success. plant The to be operated furnace whether Gin by steam. and ore 1. utilise at This h. have the while at Sault been iron expense of M. Holzer at their Co. but possibly these others develop . syndicate The the exhausted any decided are promoting obtained. cess under must control. Marie. The Keller furnace upon and an process industrial a for steel scale at production Livet steel the same are being operated in and makers at Kerrousse France.

certain conjunction with the extended scale which upon it of the processes and steel are now being worked. The Kuthenberg tenour process recent appears have failed. should renderd important attention that iron manufacturers devote some to this new development of electrometallurgical industry. steel and several hundreds of Many of iron tons of tons have been produced electrical by furnace the more successful and tical prac- of these new processes in 1899. This since the mental experitaken in trials were commenced fact. 6 processes of some importance to at a later date. . judging from the of some reports thousands upon of it.INTRODUCTION.

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1863. will now heating. mining Normandy.. M. first erected in the in acting in H6roult as manager Neuhausen. of the ferro-silicon electric furnace of these ferro-tungsten for aluminium that and methods modified production. with It a thickly the lined a refractory attained corrosion with material within high temperature undue of softening dolomite The of the or by magnesite of the slag. and 23 was born Harcourt. suggested steel of to was the of success attempts in the distinct the iron him use electric furnaces heating and two industry. his process technical at " was only years he he patented was aluminium of the As in extraction. with be electric described the blast These furnace. This " manufacture. his attention and used ferro-chrome. 2 and 3. 1. furnace consists Figs. educated of and locally age in when 1887 engineer. steel one a tilting other a manufacture. in the for order pig-iron named. brick lining the rammed of consists brick. The is of Hiroult shown closed EUctrtcallp'heated in sectional shallow which the furnace This around elevation iron will tank stand without Crucible in Furnace. Paul Heroult. the bottom top lining the furnace. work have electric modified distinct from furnace the these for experiments. aluminium works M. of form and the Two resulted crucible form of it Europe turned stated 1899 to Chapter production a I.CHAPTER IL THE HEROULT FURNACE AND PROCESS. aluminium the from French its oxide in lie for inventor of the process was for in extracting Thury as a by electrolysis. on formed brick crushed of dolomite. The furnace is . hearth dolomite is openings.

any which permit of its charging dis- being tipped sideways purposes. rises slag formed on silicates and floats of the surface molten metal. then will arcs upwards with the the distance at " which command. other and current case passes the entirely by the The A method of materials of forming steel producing scrap. air blast allowed these become enter the furnace suitable of the point. and heating or also for the This In the be produced either the charge. 3. and and steel under scrap conditions oxidised and the and rities impuenter iron the the can slag. or electrodes and are arc allowed raised strike will enters touch surface limit and these of the of slag metal. one one as as the current voltage Two the be formed under of conditions current the while the charge slag or metal.therefore. and the mm. the and the further to heating the charge this occurs by allowing not electrodes beneath at some dip just An beneath is now slag. process is reality washing-out . mounted on two curved and and the the cogged held at bars. the to former case. moved vertical in cover direction are by use the gearing of the shown furnace Fig. escape latter the of can provided insertion gases in of top two on arc for electrodes. At for for desired side from an angle the for opposite discharge porting sup- lip there is an inlet air blast. in a very product obtained. arc point by combined by the lime of the and and of resistance the ore now heating. and lime in the in the requisite proportions and this is raised to quantities melting is placed furnace. resistance until heating only beneath is desired the the two electrodes the the lowered the they dip in this surface from same. By materials be pouring which off this it slag. but to into the metal it. also insulated solid framework 1*70 metres carrying and can two massive which in carbons. two and it leaves the same " in between these points the current will traverse slag and produce resistance When are heating. for Openings charging. and the The in this iron " furnace ore is as follows " : charge steel pig iron. one of to charge. These 360 be of the the square. either convey a electric horizontal current. or by renewing pure a form The once twice.8 THE ELECTRIC FURNACE. the or in length. effected the by are resistance to heating.

THE H"ROULT FURNACE AND PROCESS. ! i .

000 kw. being the of the just before The tipping.the of is followed making requisiteweight or alloy. furnaces of "nished the or crucible 3 tons of 20 usually employed steel current for and this two process produce per at per charge charges amperes shows day 120 hours.. was time required finishing charge 4^ hours and . of iron scrap.. required being 4. When iron in the crucible been the requisite degree amount purity iron steel by this washing-out in carbon carbon method of process. calculated of alloy high (of known A similar is added.. weight the and constitution placed after its formed finishingslag.10 THE ELECTRIC FURNACE. and was following 15*5 lb. (carburite) and the the resultant contents) is tipped when in the to into casting ladle. ferro-alloys. state remove the charge off the arrived every left tranquil molten was the all slag of was poured from now and metal taken to this was in the spar the crucible. " " the La test luns made the by the Canadian steel Commission furnace gave of the experts Praz : " with Heroult following The of to results was charge ore. the in which with the slag acts as solvent. " steel 99 0*60 per " Silicon . " Carbon Manganese One of at 0*15 fi n Phosphorus Sulphar 0007 . occurs The without the silicon fact any that all heating this type of furnace actual duces con- contact to enter between the carbon electrodes and no metal or also purity the of the or products.high added percentage contents the metal crucible element desired. piade up 246 lb. being purposely for small When reduce the had requisite at care a finishing the charge. 0*03 0*003 per " cent. of and the ferro-mangacere was added to the The molten total crucible for tipped the for discharge. and was removal mass 1*5 lb. A new slag lime formed 15*5 it by adding lb.307 lb. iron and time lime.... The : " volts 480 following test the average Iron composition over "" of this cent.and in charge was of slag forming in the mateiial furnace. pressure. materials: When a 551b. since steel from raised a carbon the of an can into iron has the to electrodes. of of 3. made 830 lb. process. been sand melted fluor this new slag had likewise similar This poured off.

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000 The would electrodes material. 4. " The in original Fig. have tojis of the Steel a Co. crucible of furnace. 80 recently steel shows a constructed plant H^roult the production and per the day by the furnace in process. of 5. tar as a made from using Id. while Kortfors. The of HSrouU Smelting Furrtace in is and Process. in France. ton. "2. steel Praz and As already are etated. of Syracuse. in in the making furnace in and process at operation Sweden. Halcomb and Remscheid. "2 per metric 2.. costs plant. form The this furnace of the is shown furnace sectional the elevation principle ore continuous to a supply column of the half-fused and fluxing materials coke. cost 4 H^roult crucible furnace with all operation. while another ^1. tipping cent.000. binding The with finished coke electrode at per kilogramme at La Praz. New of Germany. for York." Thb HSboult Blbotbic Cbhcible Fcbnacb Chaboed. accessories of 2. these two a metal dreaded H4roult at containing leas than 001 per of each impurities.500 kg. as tipping furnace the given by Heroult Fio.12 THE ELECTRIC FURNACE. . The is Fig. La at Frogea. he required are for the trode elecretort making coke.

A passing ore and thus and these arrive blocks vertical shaft. The heat gases the while H shaft from before solid by the ia up the charged. and from as B G through mass the of ore coke and maintains red the pasty Fto. and oxide is is run through iron hole which D. Fig. 13 maintained resistance ore at " red heat by in means of is the an electric current and heating.thecurrent J. F and carbon which atl and functionasolcctrodea. hot collects coke. liquid hottest passage metallic charge zone and lime its later descent through during reduced off the the furnace (Z) spreads the iron out. in the hearth and by the tapping This the experimental of fumaee has been somewhat and the simplified smelting in light moreextende d experience furnace .THE HEROULl FURNACE AND PROCESS. lime heated passes between the ore the carbon blocks F more and G likewise by of of current and in rendered fluid. G. fluxing the A. 5. are channel the by vbich the and of materials supplied is the away fluxes B are to vertical which hot zone reducing the coke pass at zone furnace. " The H^bodlt Blkcthic Ohb Skcltiho Fubhacs (Fust it is The the its to Fobm). 5. terminals being to placed The electric this at current a passing heat.

consisted only cross-section.-hours. in of Ottawa.) cost was pig iron.H. and therefore furnace tion practical applicaprocess in H^roult to smeltiog the Europe tons confined production few hundred at of at pig iron. was E. in that of pig iron made with .P. Dr. being in movable and of carbon cross-section. used La in the trial runs for of an the iron Canadian box and with of open a Commissioners square at at Praz. was around in the are electrode. also that was charge. in America of in therefore 18s. hand and and as distance The electrodes by ore regulation. coke. The which of the as one provided carbon plate. iron M. the power of The used total was. However..280 of kw. Paper information about 55 the superintendent the Canadian to of mines Club trials. in H6roult the stated that profitable production only feasible under pig electric which furnace did not certain conditions the and of a obtain of has been in most the countries. equal iron E. with to following : " made this 0'50 and 3. in France. read some a Haanel.1301b.the other 3 ft. the lined bottom acted block with refractory casing was material top. and at Sainte Marie. chiefly for experimental La purposes. 1906. thereAt 0-47 per -year (2. the for the iron of the electrical energy lOd. a electrode of of the square the open was circuit. Froges the for a a and Praz. recently Toronto. per ton fore. required per In the was smelting operation produced. Haanel 150 runs before giving states relating tons these were Dr. mental experiplace smelting in of Canadian under the commenced of that February. top varied divided of the length. and of of the the furnace runs added The furnace part details reduced.14 THE ELECTRIC FURNACE.H.-year. put out- pig 2. The in placed vertically between the furnace.0001b. "2 electrical-horse-power-year. ton a of pig Paper read 1904. report furnace publication of Canadian trial of Expert the been small Commissioners' pived in the way and for Heroult made furnace smelting by the was Canada. consisting of finely in the upper space between the fresh was placed the lower the two ore electrodes. grant the having a Canadian erected at Government Sault ores was purpose. Heroult himself. superintendence M.P.

stated cost electrodes lower H6roult Sainte the Report. 15 this experimental hematite furnace. made which with in is produced and in Canada. furnace per can produce are good pig for use ton. were made had with ordinary but. roasted briquetted in a which Sault cent. duced that ores M. pyrites sulphuric to 6 containing said to of at titanium oxide. be Chapter . is and also unsuitable as in the in and ordinary it3 favour. are found Marie. for and the financial upon the aspect claims VII. the Canada. writer's will own opinions given in the Heroult process. cent. after got in into good working from in order. fact from Sault electric cost of ton. to arise awaited from Marie. ore. the which smelting only 5s. and to be utilised the Heroult to electric these may will that the be smelting Further the industrial them with that at information relating which experiments. to sulphur. exceptional a required flourishing The electric development of profitable and smelting of this made industry. burnt ores claimed from up ores another acid per little point works. various Canadian localities magnetic were high Wood sulphur charcoal contents. not used place were of also coke. question. titaniferous blast The furnaces. at estimates Marie at that a good cost pig "2 iron per can be The pro. he has for iron H^rouIt ditions con- imagines found. nickel- Experiments iron ores. evident be interest. and whole large These quantities yielded per the hood neighbourcontaining of 4*5 Sainte of on metal of have per The nickel the the only are 0*006 cent. been was results since claimed most promising. was utilised. developments Sault for Sainte it in is expected therefore M. than that yield at of metal and per the in horse-power estimated Commissioners' greater of the 1904 obtained was La than Praz. which can are be in other of value present furnace. The first the trials furnace ores.THE HMOULT furnace AND PROCESS.

( i .

the Keller. correspondence from recent however. process 1904. with issues the of information M.p. and siderable con- 1. The steel size experiments with at electric first furnace out at methods of iron but and the creased. following Keller for description iron and steel has devised of the This by Canadian has duction probeen report upon. inthe production of the furnace the were carried current Kerrousse. where The included 960 have to other the (Morbihan).000 tons ferro-alloys tons by works tons of ferro-silicon. heatfor works experimental the trials electrical total various types of their of this at purpose surplus used. The for many French years firm in of the Keller. two at place. is water of these developed. of f of ferro-chrome amounts erro-manganese.P. and German technical journals. and it was here Keller the that furnace pert ex- Commission witnessed the In process of in the operation furnaces in and the March.CHAPTER IIL THE KELLER FURNACE AND PROCESS.800 silico-spiegel. obtained by and personal facts taken inventor. electric the ferro-chrome and when of iron in alloys by aid attention of furnace furnace. they steel turned similar manufacture In the by of methods ing. Leleux of " Cie. had been engaged ferroof the to production other 1900 and calciupa of iron their carbide. this power of The large (water Livet Isere available was a 15. Commissioners been largely by drawn supplemented. power) works extent at being Kerrousse 600H. French by English.000 firm power of h. silicon. in of 1904 output 3. . for these as used and required ultimately were experiments at were transferred the Canadian and to larger works Livet.

." Keller's furnace are first patents 1900. where into the ofT hearth at of the molten was run state C. its descent. I. while further molten by into it was refined by heat before casting pig. wards down- materials their progrejs by aide of currents patsing The on from ore the was electrodes reduced to shown metallic furnace the on either iron in in the iron electric the column. for an iron-smdlting eleetrically-lieated 6 dated Fig. blast boU- appearance The shaft iron design was resembled into the the of slow ordinary vertical coke and furnace. which shows in the general and ore arrangement of this eirlieat furnace. with were the requisite heated in lime. The Keller Iron-Smelting Furnace. charged amount shaped and the A.18 THE ELECTRIC FURNACE. and the D reaching slag passed B.

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material of the The to current passes to electrode through in the base the the be reduced. be that it was estimated the of could of produced energy second for used Keller and expenditure cost 2. reverse and through to charge in the second When direction that just described. block bars F shaft is also provided by The carbon electrode trically E. thick copper passing hang for outside vertical the shaft. which in has been of iron designed by this their the and The smelting by the is shown Fig. and The base movable of each either horizontal vertical with a direction. electric The Keller form the and form total furnace ore oi "i. some details of at concerning this earlier it . 7. each on B. of iron-cased horizontal and shafts.800 B. the current pass to B partly by metal of the The external conductor and the as partly by fills up. two a type. From copper in the carbon to electrode the other base furnace. in is of being the of Canadian at Commissioners The furnace trials resistance process consists below Livet. starting carbon furnace of the from the charge and the between the blocks base. the external shaft the to this it passes electrode by conductor.T. and electrodes The two-thirds used length for within refractory canal material by liningthe shafts lateral In consists the of burnt the dolomite (magnesia) is introduced ends of the and tar. necessary be stated and into a further h. G. the molten in the lateral canal.p. shafts municating com- by are a lined massive in with refractory material. carried this proportion diminishes. one electrodes. of electric resistance be this the will and reduced collects lateral now heating molten hearth has state caused and portions metallic the to charge be to on the the iron formed. but that worked that 375 for 1 ton of furnace time steel type and in erected it with at a Kerrousse.20 THE ELECTRIC FURNACE. in the shafts total current electrodes and are by external as conductor gradually and raised raw the charge are is reduced melts.U. As this type of furnace it is not it may was has been displaced by to enter one which is described below. fresh materials charged into . A as Fig. into of each shown shaft in and 7. electhe connected horizontal of their Keller canal. A canal. slung or chains. finally flows The electric canal from the CD. 0. block is provided with carbon a electrode.

" Ebluer Fubsace DiBCHABaiKOi. canal Any to as temporary is in overcome stoppage use the lateral due cooling showD by the 7 at J. is The amount electrode low two carbon conBumed in charge the small. electrodes employed bad working furnace. 8. The external the or conductor to between worked the two enables block furaaoe be in continuously. of a supplementary electrode Fig. days only lost . " the haw vertical electrodes shaft. Fia. of to (56 in.) square. (34 in.M. The four thus vertical carbons electrodes of square cross of this furnace the are each formed electrode 1 '4 metres of sections.) per length. owing In 15 the E.THE KELLER FURNACE AND PROCESS.F. composite and produced in being SSO mm.

2^ THE ELECTRIC FUBNACE. (16 in. of cost on the mean of these two figures (0*350 pig cost year) produced the in Commissioners the 8s.868 kg. but The ore this used experiment in these and trials Keller coke the and furnace was only jaws roughly of the crushed mixed set with 2 in. of produced.thermal that the method of of production silicon furnace at percentage and A carbon can varied will. Keller last 20 mates esti- electrodes days before The to requiring cost renewal. of charged. produced year in these trials 0*476 and 0-226 with respectively. place of was tried.h.310kg. The was energy e. process contents is ore.692 kg. Keller 3d.) that the of their original length.000 H. 2. and carbon mottled added energy coke pig to iron the being charge produced.P.) per of iron were produced.943 kg. 400 mm. satisfied electro-thermic and carbon gives complete iron silicon the metal from of the to pig produced. furnace hours for has on production been of 20 tons at of grey the iron nace fur- castings per being 24 since the erected Livet. in 55 of hours.P. manufacture ton of their fr.H. ore were in the and second lasting48 hours. Basing their E estimate H. of ore the influence upon The consumption of charcoal failed.the of 308 h. and the use grey.000 furnace. lower figure being obtained the smaller furnace capacity.p. used per year ton of pig iron E. carried white of of in out experiments this by the sioners Commis- with furnace. produced 13. continued has him experiments himself control and that of the that 1. lime. of is estimated on these figures be Two 3*85 sets (3s. in these furnaces and will M. In constructed four-hearth type.p. of the the crusher being ore were to first run furnace were 15.P. at at a that total iron could be (exclusive of royalty) these has and trials of "2. of the the In and electrical being also determined. Keller by the his Canadian Commissioners with the the Livet n. this tj pe . of pig iron run. in for the the produced the same equal that obtained claimed Keller be blast furnace It is also in the electro. pig iron were used 6.p. Since M. per calculated furnace ton. while 9.

THE KELLER FVRNACE AND PROCESS. central and the tapping of the slag metal from . 0) four shafts and connect witfa occurs a central this canal. S3 of furnace (see Fig.

000 current be provide the for scheme. " Proposed 100 Arrangement TONS OF of Keller in Furnace 24 h fob Producing Pio Iron iubb. but New lack smelt and Zealand being named in this respect. Keller experimental stage recognises that. maim Fio. water and has been practicalscale. gases shows are a also employed to heat the a descending Keller hours worked . 10. required and to power necessary producing electric would 12. chamber while the escaping Fig. Chili. still be considered M. Although at many and hundreds of tons Keller of iron have been produced furnace wiiter in the himself Kerrousse not at Li vet. of coal countries to possessing them.P. the iron-ore firm so reduction far as has been and adopted by for this of reason any outside it must the is aware. . five four-hearth furnaces be installed. 10 still tons larger scheme of for per furnace but out H. it will with be which in if adopted. plant producing project a 100 paper A pig iron not 24 this upon would this is on only. iron Brazil ores its development.84 THE ELECTRIC FURNACE. charge.

exactly further type refining furnace. refiningfurnace weighs about .F. see Fig. therefore. 25 II. tons. to suspended verticallyabove design the the to metal has principle and it from this refining refining are same. poured off. furnace furnace..a Keller at electric furnace of Messrs. while to consumption carbons is reduced. this furnace is is modifications and of the provided with as tilting in the to out more mechanism.but current only into the method leading metal and the from of a the molten slag beneath of a it involves higher E. but as of electrical for this of metal is less the purities im- refined compensation produced steel it is claimed there with of the danger of the of the being the contaminated electrodes. France. plant pig iron at Although for the the Keller of of Livet and has been used not chiefly to production for that castings. 6. Heroult the slag poured A of the off. owing of the these being little exposed to the oxidising properties In later slag. Holtzer refining " 50 plant has been installed This the works Co. energy per ton larger expenditure . the As with refining shown furnace undergone of a in Fig. similar to furnace principle and separate trials operation of it were that H6roult practicallyunnecessary. material in the before addition the of two charges slagging refining operation is completed. designs has 6 it of not iron-producing plant much modification. the the electrodes touch away use not dip of and slag. and was owing run lack of slag was the stopped before the fore therein that refining operation be based upon completed.and any great extent steel.THE KELLER FURNACE AND PROCESS. however. is the and use resemblance for Heroult procedure the slag washing or the impurities of of iron.. The Keller Steel is shown Rejining Furnace. consists and fixed chamber two lined refractory basic electrodes In material heated by the massive in the carbon furnace. " ^The at Keller steel- refiningfurnace In the later in sectional the Keller elevation B. allowed This little In to tinguish dis- H^roult the Keller beneath furnace. Unieux. the results is so No conclusions but the of could obtained.M. and. A trial run with this furnace but was made to was at Livet time by only the one Canadian Commissioners.

pur- A 1. of electric refining of the depend at very largely upon the success or otherwise installation Unieux. from a Siemens-Martin furnace.26 THE ELECTRIC FURNACE.000 that amperes at 60 volts will be employed.500 H. A current of 20. and can be tilted for discharging set poses. The electric furnace probably modern iron first be as an accessory there is appliance little doubt in the and steel works. into refined furnace be run it. This is the trial of the electric steel-refining and the future furnace in an up-to-date will steel works in France. charges of and it is expected per an output hours will cf three or four 8 tons each day first of 24 be obtained. the trial and in the writer's mind that at Unieux will be followed by for similar installations in other works where high-class steel tools and motor-car work is produced.P. and it is prising sur- that its practical will application most so long adopted delayed. rests on a steel cradle. in the molten condition. The use of molten iron from the Siemens-Martin furnaces as charging was material for the electric refining furnace is a step that advised by the writer some years has been ago. . steam-driven generating and the iron to will supply in this the necessary will electric be energy.

28

THE

ELECTRIC

FURNACE.

fact

that

Messrs.

Siemeiis
the

"

Halske,
and
are

of

Berlin,

have

purchased
and

the patent

rights of
that for

furnace

process
now

for

Germany
a

Austria,
furcace proves achieved

and

Messrs.

Krupp
of

erecting
steel
at

Kjellin
also has

plant
that
a

production
EjeDin

ciucible and

Essen,
that

the

fuinace

process iron and and

is

one

permanent
shows
in
a

position in
sectional

the

steel
of

industry.
the
furnace

Fig.
erected
of
a

11

elevation

plan

there

1901-1902. of which is

The the
core

furnace is CC
;

practicallyconsists
the

transformer

primary

is the the AA. plied multi-

coil

DD,

which is the

supplied
molten metal

with

alternating current,
in the that coil furnace of
were

and

secondary
The
current

metal is

annular in the

channel

in the number
runs

roughly
iu the

primary

by
The

the

of turns the

fiist in

with

experimental
270

made

at

Gysinge

March,
in

1900,
24

kg.
with per the

of steel
a

excellent of 78

quality
kw.
This

being produced
was

hours hours

power

input
ton
a

equal

to

6,912 kw.

metric process
same

of steel.

In order
was

to

improve
and

the

efiSciencyof

larger furnace
trial hours -hours the
runs

erected,
furnace

in November 600-700

of the

year, per 24 kw. but

with
an

this
penditure ex-

yielded
of 58

kg.

of

steel
to

with per

kw., equivalent
was

2,141

metric
was

ton

of steel.

This with

an
a

improvement,

inventor results

convinced be
at

that,
In
was

larger furnace,
the

still better

could mill
to

achieved.

August, 1901,

sulphite wood-pulp
the
at
new owners

Gysinge
the

destroyed by fire,and
of the of
water

decided

devote

whole in

power
a

this

place

to

steel A

manufacture,

place
of

erecting

wood-pulp
of

mill.

larger Kjellin type
of

furnace, capable
and this commenced of

containing 1,800 kg.
work
in per

steel,was
furnace
an

erected,

May,
24

1902.

This with

produces 4,100 kg.
of 165

steel and
a

ingots
current

hours,

expenditure
amperes in

kw.,

approaching
energy
ton
sumption con-

30,000

the

secondary,
965 kw.-hours
are

circuit. per

The metric

is therefore

of

steel.

Only

800

kg. to 1,000kg. being

of metal
act
as

poured

at each

casting, the
current

remainder
to

left in to the

conductor
alternator.

for

the To of

and

avoid

stopping

turbine
the form

or

this

molten and

metal
steel

left in the
scrap
are

furnace,
added
to

proper

quantity
new

pig

iron

the

charge, the proportion

THE

KJELLIN

FURNACE

AND

PBOCESS.

29

being
is the

calcalated

to

yield steel
in the but oxide

of the finished

desired
steel
more

compositioD.
than

There in the scrap of in the the

always

less carbon

is contained
to

charged
th'it the
to

material,
rust
or

rather of and

silicon,owing
in the the

fact
is

iron that the

pig

and acid

reduced

metallic is also

iron,
reduced

silicic

furnace

lining

by

carbon

present

charge.
The

tapping
a

of

the

furnace but
a

was

originally
has

effected
since

by
been The floor

making

hole

in the and the
raw

wall,

tilting furnace
is from in
now

constructed,

casting charge
material is

poured.
the 11

charging
above the

of

the

done

working
at

furnace,
the

the

covers

shown and scrap

Fig.

BB

being
in the

taken
annular The

off,and

pig

iron

steel

being placed
in 1903 in volts

ring.
furnace since deseribed
above and and in
seen

has

been

operation
it
was

at

Gysinge

May

1902,

February by
at

visited
An
to

by the Canadian

experts
of 90 of

them

operation.
was

alternating current
the the

amperes the

3,000
this

supplied

primary charge

circuit

furnace,
contained
7 volts.
was

being transformed
annular

in
to
a

of molten

metal
at

in the

ring

current

of 3,000 air space of

amperes

The

DD,
the

in

Fig. 11,

found

to

keep down
to

the
ing coolployed em-

temperature

primary
this draft

coil ; and of

in addition

the be

produced
for when this

by

air, water
loss

could

also

purpose. of
to

The the

of

heat is

by radiation, "c, 1,400^C.,
the 45*5
was was

the

temperature
the inventor
was

furnace 80 him

mated esti-

by
the The furnace

equal
by

kw., and
to

efficiency of
per
cent. to

calculated
of

be

temperature

the

steel

when

tapped

1|600"C.

1,700"0.
It of the may be

remarked

that

the

figures given

on

pp.

2 and these in

3

Canadian

Commissioners'
the

Report

do

not

agree the

with

calculations, since

discrepancy
circuits

between of

energy
amounts

the
to

primary
270" 21
=

and 249

secondary
kw.

the
the

furnace
current

Assuming
30,000
amperes

that and

in the

dary seconas

circuit

was

not

3,000
two

amperes, circuits

stated

in the

report, the

losses

between

the

are

270-210"60kw.

11.30 THE ELECTRIC FURHACB. therefore second case kw. Three the runs were made at were with the on furnace Feb.-houra kw.040 . The 833 consumption per of energy ton in of the first and case was. in the " 1. following figures : " Fio. 1904. 8 in the and presence and of the Commissioners Gysinga obtained 9.-hours. " SicTioNAii Elevation un" Plan of Ejbluh Fdbnace. metric ingots.

of iron province are of Norrand and for steel The to land. by this a licences of to a granted Works. with year. Sulphur Phosphorus The and the steel materials bar of for in 0-008 " " 0 010 " 0*010 " raw each case were best Swedish pig iron Walloon iron.000 tons will ba erected by the . this Krupp arranged from type. electric energy The "2 of per electrical a horsepower of the "830. cent " Charge 0*417 0145 0*008 No. and The patent rights have have been sold Kjellin furnace Siemens and firm. an use for creation furnace power of iron industry project a with Kjellin of where and from process. The cost of producing to steel per by ton this of process was estimated by Mr.. capacity The owned and owners be Swedish patents for Kjellin process are by the Metallurgiske have been Patent Aktiebolaget. of Stockholm. cent. the where of extensive the electric the the aid deposits energy of the found. to proportion being varied according the type of required to casting.000 lb. per 647. Harbord at be "7 2. per annum steel works producing Stockholm 500. work Ss a Germany and of Austria to Messrs. not owing unexpected successful. furnace Messrs. the covers near transmission the a Falls point Gothenburg. cost was erecting stated to furnace about the Kjellin type furnace and of 600 h. 31 The steel produced in : " these runs were found to have the following composition Carbon Silicon Charge 1*082 0-194 No. to erect Halske. at company to the new the Gysinge firm to prominent to a English Calcium steel bide Car- works. erected now latter to erect place has worked it is intended of the larger furnaces for and plant. per 546. with these scrap steel from previous charges. under licence A the Berlin project is also under discussion in Stockholm in the ore for the velopment de- of the Tralhatta Waterfall. experimental satisfactorily. a Attempts the Canadian were produce low carbon but soft steel to were made by culties diffi- Commissioners. and Swiss A small Company furnace and works the at G urtnellan.p.THE KJELLIN FURNACE AND PROCESS. French with at Voiron.

will be available for this iron and early in the year has 1908. A . An experimental metallurgical home of Kjellin department English steel furnace also been installed in the of the University of Sheffield. \ company ment owning is the Kjellin have patents.r. It is \ expected new 10.32 THE ELECTRIC FURNACE.000 steel centre 15. The Swedish Govern- I reported agreed that to given the its sanction to this scheme. ^ and to have to develop to Tralhatta Waterfall.000 H. the the industry.

The the aid Stassano of furnace and process heat the then for is smeltiDg the oldest iron of ore by electrically-generated in these those been Italian described chapters. and. at Commissioners 1904. at The experiments continued the Forni are. operations Government. in a captain April. how- following with the year.500 Italy. for to there been some delay in were obtaining not materials its repair. on a*) Darfo ever. were was first patent having in the granted Artillery. utilising 1. being and by to Termoelettrici recent Stassano Turin. mising. furnace the furnace had the Turin. a plant at capable Darfo and in the Dr. The report trolling con- upon company its development the furnace unfortunately or exhausted had the become financial resources before commercial in the process and The to a success from ceased a point of view. Patent who prepared Office. having formed scale of been to upon the furnace a company an was exploit operations. The to Stassano. THE STASSANO FURNACE AND PROCESS. however. for process of upon industrial h. the Commissioners in able themselves with the witness Stassano furnace furnace operation.CHAPTER V. time before the The inspected refractory roof this had place fallen March. in an in there 1901 official by of German Essen. according the most information kindly given by . furnace Goldschmidt it for this the being planned was erection Northern Stassano Hans This was plant seen partially operation completed.p. inventor at Italian arranged work Canadian with the carry the experimental and the in in process the Royal the of as Arsenal. who 1898. proand and. some their visit. early experiments the results of these made at Rome looked in the year as 1899.

Stassano in any and furnace is not. form Fig. 12 shows this earliest what of furnace the inventor designed the by fixed being is called by . being letter of larger type. construction of 100 place. the the of smaller furnaces the 1 rotating 1906) were At two the date Major Stassano'a bad been (July 1.P. only in smaller furnaces completed and regular operation. earliest of one stage electric of their industrial development.34 THE ELECTRIC FURNACE. some Stassano and furnace process however. design. more worth attention as study and by electro-metallurgists.000 H. is now a plant of four furnaces at h. author. furnaces and 200 of and respectively.p. Stassano.p. this still account in operation the furnace other process place most than be Turin. regarded as in the Fia. each. can especially very pure iron steel be produced the by it." Tbe Stassano Furnace. 12. to The the author's and on knowledge. of iron features and in As the oldest and the furnace some methods steel production the possessing and peculiar are.P. Eoilieet form. Major of Stassano to the h. and one The two of include of one two 1.300 plant smaller the is to under furnaces H. capable this utilising a.

.

13. " along A. B.TEE ELECTRIC FURNACE. . Beotion Flo. Fdbhacs with Staesamo BoTutY Two Cabboki.

that iron and represented steel furnace in was efBciency mental experi- per The produced at these trials of the Stassano of furnace carbon Daifo ally exceptionas pure. 27 Tbe absorbed consisted furnace was rated at at 80 kw. 13. limestone 135. The the of reduction current of the charge was completed increased in to a two hours. Fdbnace with Stabbano Botihi Two Carbons. was equivalent to 4-3 e.p. -hours it per kilogramme a of iron. electric being at 100 gradually volts. one as a result his study could of be the made that metric 30 ton (1.000. and limestone following 160.H. charge of kgs. or 97. in a estimated. tions: propor- 1. 13224 E.200 obtained watt-hours. towards and maximum 1. carbon additions 120.'hours. the percentage traces being foijnd reduced in Eome low of of as 0'04. and only metal.000 amperes then the end correspondingly of the reduced The and power increased consumed again.) of steel of sleel per 24 plant producing tons . capacity. and the product weighed 308 kge.p. of silicon being the finished Goldschmidt proccEs. ore amperes coke 80 volts." Flan. and Goldschmidt of 61 calculated cent.TEE STASSANO FURNACE AND PROCESS.000 of Iron ore. This Sectional Fia. The in the and normally 70-25 1.H.000kg. was operation.

at the low coat of electrical horEe-power report Staseano the company and was Although GoldBchmidt's of favourable at to the tinued con- operation was the and plant Darfo. equal to The "1. 14. hours "3. The modified Stassano been more form for the of rotating furnace Italian War This which at was erected Ecems by to Major have The Office furnace is in Turin. in per this estimate was taken year.38 THE ELECTRIC FVRNACE. Either iron steel be made in this . " SrissANo Botakt FurnjIob for Tbreb-phase WoHEiKa. 14. the works venture not a succesp. power 6d. 20m. method. 16b. is lued to before by hydraulic cuirent cylinJers of 400 actuated at by 90 can A three-phase the amperes or volts work furnace. has three carbon Fig. the per Stassano ton. by 158. to financing to this was obliged go into liquidation ecII the furnaces and Fia. two. at a cost of 76.. the furnace of electrodes place of distance as these apart and length of the arcs being water ngulated pressure. shown in successful.

Seotionsl Fig.THE STASSANO FURNACE AND PROCESS. fob .! Wobkinq. 14. Ihbee-fba)." Stabfako Botaay Fdhkacb EUTation.

amperes. of eteel. production. satis fied the tion applica- this According of the authority. ton per Arcs. Consumption arcs. Stasis to has. 10 kg. however. Electrodes. furoace amount as de"ired.p. per energy of consumption steel.500 kg. the raw materials to being chosen and their At calculated the furnace iron Director according is used and of for the product desired. the of this The furnace Forni Cost difference.P. sano distinct improvement pointed melting from out upon that than and results. diameter. at order. to the since it will possible lequired ever.h. they of the furnace to to same perfectly purpose. per 24 hours the furnace consumes has a capacity for energy each in volts 2. been Turin by the Termoelettrici of furnace.- kw.450 brick. two taking 2. 15 cm.. to 1 *85 e. at 150 4-900 four amperes in volts. type. 5 tons. in of electrodes. current and when arrange the other energy. shell)from 1906. of of 625 of the steel of and charge the kg. 850 current kw-hours at a of electric of form phase The pressure 80 between 1*36 phases. therefore. which Stassano fr. inventor of this gives the following has : " estimate erected the 1. Lining. an keep machinery it will full load be necessary to essential to condition two of economical furnaces the in work" operate that one of these be combination. magnesite Major lead to at use Stassano notable or believes in that the use of four electrode be s will to economy arcs. lower metallic when state the consumption much the scrap when has reducing explained for at iron cause its ores. with years' experience. -hours a kilogramme hours. each 1*50 metres each in length and number. per 25.000 H. shall is taking maximum furnace taking In its minimum to requirement reduce of electrical order of still further iron and the energy is consumption now par ton finished steel. how- one two according amount of heat In " the various to stages of the the electrical reduction process. after two Eoyal Arsenal that. Turin making In mild a steel for shot letter states for (i.000 4 to Oatput Carrent. dated April 12. day. to 15 kg.e. the steel the are scrap. three steel. equivalent the Darfo power is.40 THE ELECTRIC FURNACE. Stassano experi- .

.THE STdSSdUO FURNACE AND rSOCESS.

-hours kilogramme obtained to iron No. in consumption Paper Major furnace being in contributed Stassano erected upon and gave the Faraday figures for at Society the work April. 4 tons day and weak feature this for at furnace was the wear th e refractory the renewal lining of Stassano 10 fr. by any iion his company Turin.P. No details of the with method of work with this furnace. produced.-hours was kilogramme be 2 yield hours. following iron made are figures showing from the the ore. consumption 1*1 and this for refining by this pig varied electric kw. yet into writer's The of hands. however. carbon has fixed hearth the of electrodes for heating charge of metal by radiation. .P. hours energy per to between iron per to kilogramme 1*5 of The and the 1*76 furnace steel or produced. come or the the results obtained it. chemical in the composition type of the directly : " rotating Stassano furnace The and lowest In a power 4*22 consumption per in these runs varied of run between 7*00 the KH. 5.42 THE ELECTRIC FURNACE. on stated of . 15. per himself ton estimated of the cost of these metal produced.H. have. This steel three resembles in and respects a ordinary with Maitin two or refining pairs arc furnace. of the are 1906. being of per iron. equivalent The of 24 tear E. mentiDg furnace with the new type some of furnace the shown in Fig. 200 an some H.P. "When of 1*3 which in use improvement scrap furnace of yet the published.

.

S.A. hindered its probable financial difficulties progress. furnace. T/ie Galhmth Furnace. a of the iron Galbraith eands.44 THE ELECTRIC FURNACE. FlO. 9a. of U. and at reduced charge the of then falls and on to the is It hearth of the furnace the beltthat C. resist an in July.p. where heating electrode of reduction E. and 4d' the that per steel ton. 17 is for a sectional New elevation Zealand the 1905. ingots The Furnace at could produced this by cost "2.. 16. of in ce-h eating furnace. at An furnace. " Fig." TSB CotlUY FCBVACE.000 of h. Elizabeth furnace purchased were by Electric for of New York. this be for has estimated 100 toD fumaoe type would require it were a 5. in the to " graphite the bars being by the employed electric to convey of ore generated These current are and coke. principle. completed been by shaped ring a plates. these No the and further details utilisation it is of the of practical development the that echemes for Conley furnace have been have "published. designed smelting with experimental demonstration furnace This number circuit the mass occurred Loughborough. resistance heat is a England. and and plants designed erection Town Massena. patents Co. graphite bar@ called Incandes- .

. " ELEVATION Incandescents IN Section. with feed-box supplies a constant of iron-sand a pre-determined Feed Box amount of coke or mts^xsrcsm' ^^^^^^M^- Electrical is with on nection con- made faces these both and the sides. drawn " Three-tieb to Experimental SECTIONAL '* Galbraith" SSOWINQ Eleotric 4AND Furnace 5-BaB (not ** SOiLE). and is whether Galbraith the funds required Zealand for the in development with of a the process in New connection large water-power scheme have yet been raised. in of very a and this." s =3 I Line of " ceptors" Intertectors Pro- or between " -' each cent/' "Incandes- Base Block I I Groimd Level Fig. of leaves molten at the nace fur- the bottom stream shower and the metal. it or is claimed. that from of one and the to are ironthe coke in the from powdered the a state to falls bottom in its descent the mixed top the the tower. 45 cents" fixed sand other In in in and a the tower patent or claims column covering in such a this manner furnace. front "Incauin back all descents. 17. . stream operating furnace.e. charcoal at to the furnace. i. The demonstration was the furnace process writer borough Loughunaware not successful.MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND FURNACES.

a chambers the which has refining operation the is is carried required composition tapped.000fr. In narrow this heating being in which of or effected canal by was method. in of 1905 to capital of 900. in the " M. itself for form the the has the furnace the the bent not a crois-section of ore canal and was convenient introduction scrap. hours. in a Paper contributed the that Faraday one Society London. with walls short- in had April. of success otherwise installation to Plettenberg. The use sp3cial narrow feature channels of the to earlier type the of furnace was the ing heat- of contain metal the during resistance upon the process. been to admitted a of the the difficulties met base to find material and for furnace and sufficiently refractory circuits between the non-conducting and chambers. Fig. various views refining form from of this of type. 1906. designed 60. details yield furnace would per No or have of the yet been published concerning at the M. patents formed take over the relating have at to all branches made for in electro-metallurgy. The in the of this current volts. Gin. T^ assisted carbide the Cria Furnace. place in the attained steel last to in which the heating of the and refining The processes in the separate narrow portions channels furnace. the When heating in metal of the connecting out. and steel been the with Gin latterly himself very subject production. but Gin. A volume metal withdrawn volume of to the chamber a replaced by from that equal canal heated high temperature of metal the leading is quantity into equal farthest to withdrawn also 18 charged gives to at the chamber of a from furnace a the tap-hole. out large number A of patents company have taken in his Proc^d^s name. therefore modified be^n take occurs designed. prevent canals . named Society a des Gin was pour la Metallurgie Electriqne.200 kw. and of the Gin iron and arrangements steel furnaces been trial Plettenberg Germany. and is the certain of an quantity finished from metal it. a French of has electrometallurgistwho aluminium devoted and a development in iron the and calcium to industries of France.000 be amperes 350 tons utilise 120 24 7..46 THE ELECTRIC FUBNACE.

MIS0ELLANEOU3 METHODS AUD FURNACES. .

in and electrodes the to (2) and The " (3) connected from parallel electrodes other the terminal. with prevents the metal of chamber (2) mixing that . final mixing and are The in of furnace above shown figure. final order The to composition desired in case the product. be tilted chambers for removal and of is so slag or metal. not recarburetting electrodes the enter chamber. of form combination and furnace. 19. The current are electrodes chamber the to (1) are connected of chambers to one of the terminals. and (2) a deoxidising chamber. in Different materials added each chamber.48 THE SLECTBIC FURNACE.^{bw Foim of Gik Furnace. it consists parts: and (I) a melting oxidising crucible. Gin has designed is shown and Fig. rests on furnace bo is held that the together furnace can by a metal which the rollers." the and then resistance the of which in can causes the generation connecting to of heat. that The channel between at (2) (3) placed This it is uncovered the moment the from tapping begins. CouemATioH Tiltimo Ti'pe. 19. scoriffi. through slagging attain the metal the be narrow channels. the (3) from a. Another ill type This three of furnace which ia called a M. current a pasaee the metal through layer of Fia.

use in of that to resistance the in the was of the of the scoriae ue.* these for two regards types of required very own to produce figures furnace M. the occupies the post of electro-metallurgist lurgique. 83fr. of the whereas metal earlier designed furnaces is the to resistance itself of employed. and. Gin's operation they visited Europe. the the metal of By the tilting in the to direction chamber (2) is in of transferred chamber metal manner. into the these it is assumed the refining of the Canadian in in the molten condition. and who own Anonyme and This at Electro-M6tal- works at Albertville Ugine in France. of estimates and give a power per tons consumption ton between a 640kw. but H^roult steel under in its great similarity in proves and that principle to operate refining proper the furnace conditions canal and it will management. M. 49 of chamber furnace (3) during opposite chamber every the tapping operation.for With year.^ the slag to " is made molten convey heat electric current the metal. therefore. independent figures are The Oirod Furnace.-hours 720kw. Gin's reliable are available publication. that of also at in Courtepin the in Switzerland. of iron from finished is a run steel. 1897. The retained transfer in a (1) in from of the chamber (1) to chamber (2) is effected similar The writer is not aware that this furnace has yet received the cessfully suc- practical trial. E . Commissioners when were not able to see M. to " available. then per works In to ton produce and out 30. was slag as heating medium covered by his patent Febroary. type of It differs principle the from chamber " furnace.MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND FURNACES. steel. blast furnace The furnace no ordinary type. and kilowatt per that the between calculations furnace 82fr. (3). Qin stated Meeting the use the the Electro-ohemical a Society. chiefly steel 1905.000 at per per at cost power 80fr. of this company is occupied * manufacture special ferro-alloysfor at the In reply of of to criticisms American upon point raised September. ton plant ore designed 15fr. Paul Soci6te Girod M.and position slag is always furnace.-hour8 of annum. This some likely raise important As questions the power no patent validityat future steel in date.

for but M. 21. of with The is made silica brick all and through several carbon electrodes. trial furnace the Albertville shown in with successful The is Pio. 30. 21. sectional been submitted rfsults. is and in sectional is mounted cover plan on in Fig. elevation furnace lined in Fig. 30. The and is cylindrical in shape." StcnoNiL Bletatiok of OntoD's Pdbbxce. pass trunnions.so TffE ELECTRIC FUSNACE. maken. mc^eaia this brick. of which ." Sectional Plan of Oibod's FDanACi. special to steel refioiug works. Girod which ferro-tuDgsten has has also devised being a their chief furnace at product. Fio.

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-"". but resistance heating is employed. the the first shaft (A) the ores are fused. to general plan ccmpiises three of the parts.". in A from B The heating other gases and and B is effected largely by the escaping C. 22. electro-thermic below is steel-refining furnace. Forges developing furnace his Acieries. of the ore (C) tapped materials intermittently. Haimet in sectional elevation in Fig."".-" The Habmkt Furkacb. . phase of the treatment and In '"::MM^y^Mm ' /. while The (C) of refining operation and metal is carried and progress while and heated also through (A) (B) is continuous.: """fT'^-Cv: " ' " " 1.""" :"" ". at St.. was connected when with H^roult and the was Fondeiies. Haimet St.52 THE ELECTBIC FURNACE. in (6) they materials meet with this the the is pre-heated reducing and are and the slagging metallic out.. Heroult's attempt The The one introduce furnace his process is shown of steel refining Etienne. 22. to the dcecribed to reported be due to M. each ore corresponding molten metal. Etienne. ". et " M.""-" """"""". The Harmet Furnace. final ore reduced to state. from in column. ^f^TJ ?'!r" Fia.

channel contains of K the the metal prevent The during to refining operations. contained in this annular is formed G of channel and The a efficiency of are cent. 3.24fr. transformer D-shaped. of with the and M. gases for lime attempt utilise of of preliminary ore.000"0. design 23 the Kjellin furnace Chapter which one Fig. and of Christiania. as The iron of the B . 2.MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND FURNACES. 2. This Etienne furnace few has and Hiorth Furnace. A to current shown of 90 at the at primary 3. of the 2. F. be accepted The are writer in were is not that the Harmet process that years and furnace of the now operation.000 amperes which in 78 be the per 70 volts case in the secondary by the the nace. 2. temperature is built 2. coil S from the heat is provided walls protect the radiated by the . for electric power and These estimates and must based solely with upon some theoretical reserve. in an current which electricity the one through The the slag and metal is the other complete and to furnace H^roult the the tion combina- Keller furnaces heat raw already the waste described. 6. The to furnace which oxidation screen hollow iron brickwork is covered the cylinder. " recently is been patented similar in in by Hiorth.H. a reported to attained.-hours. 63 carbon of the A electrodes and B in being placed at suitable and points The out in the v/alls of (see 2. furof as circuit mass of the of metal An transformer.. L.and at be transformed current 3. is two a sectional or more elevation furnaces core design by is the provides transformer and at for being served coil. 6. is mounted S. U the 15). heating materials" coke. aware calculations. and from to a carrying electrode electrode. furnace The St. carried heating by massive metal refining crucible is the carbon electrodes a passing through of the top of the passes back therefore crucible.500 29. by lids. Harmet furnace has calculated with and an that one ton of steel between cost at can be made and per are this expenditure has estimated coke alone.P.000 coil volts is indicated pressure into a amperes is said to is supplied of this coil. although carried out at it is stated a trials ago.D.. to somewhat described of the new principle lY.600 ton E.

A is the spout by which the metal ia tapped ready for discharge. drawing.. and the that the capital expenditure It is not portion of plant is reduced. how FlQ. By furnaces utilising it is this claimed plan that in the construction of transformer is continuous upon operation the from electrical the attained.-7THC HiDBTB Fduiacb. The in the furnace yet been large Bulhenberg 24. " The of at a fiuthenberg photograph furnace taken is shown from an Fig. would The and its aris be destruction this it the furnace it may the to doubted whether for is also Hiorth plan the to in practice offer advanti^es the claimed by inventor. 23. round feature the the position Hiorth by and the may dotted be -lines. raise ever similarity of Kjellin furnace should scale the . reproduction furnace erected experimental Lockport. to There is little distinguish but the the and Hiorth furnace made it up for to Ihia point the from the Ejellin type. clear. held to peculiar of the for design.J. in 1902. of the when furn"ca. and . a Fumaee. on provision swinging ia a rotating into electromagnet shown its axis. substantiate claim novelty. the furnace centre design allows round for the on removal of without the coil from the to by swinging walls.64 THE ELECTRIC FURNACE. worked so the writer scale. likely furnace far on a as questions be patent upon an priority industrial has not operated is aware. N. but.

" Thb RuTBiNBEBo Fdrsace. If successful. ore rolls carrying with a an electric between of carbon which is is the The mixed is calculated to fed. this crushed ore and coke of before the the rolls latter and is carried wards downinto the by soaking The the revolution dropped pit metal in an below. with therefore. amount February. poles driven revs. and holds narrow a cooled. produced open-hearth in this way requires before smelting it can and be fining re- steel furnace placed is really the iron upon one the of to ore market. are a motor and carry a worm-goaring current speed of at 4 per rolls of 700 amperes of 50 volta. 65 described by for the inventor 1903. of two in the issue of Eiectro-chemkal Induiiry The current. but in this a special chamber of by does of appear furnace part the patent not have been developed.siiscellAneous methods and furnaces. of particles of current and one coke The electric passes from roll to other through Fid. the crushed The magnetic action ore the rolls in the the bridge gap. crushed picked The are over free of it the from gangue. which a by mio. 24. consists furnace magnetic ore. are and within before use. . the process of agglomeration the metallic in the his state. partial reduction oxide The reduction means inventor of waste to original specification claimed ore the further agglomerated gases. magnet small The water the bronze at rolls.

. has not 1903. and to substantiate this plant of much notice. realised but further development hopes. J. The company but it is financing the trials has since gone the liquidation. at Lockport. of the had their report little upon it was tinctly dis- as they found reduction or ration agglomethe ore occurred. by 1903. As regards be cost. was of the process this the inventor's In July. and furnace reported be made that further trials of process writer does will at Niagara likely to Falls. attracted N. in 1902. therefore. three perimental ex- plant Canadian at Lockport and visited of the Commissioners. but the process is interesting worthy the on account of its novel features. and it is. unfavourable. an experimental Electric plant Co. was visited by the a large number steel makers in January. the either in the gap between rolls or afterwards in soaking into pit..66 THE ELEGTRIG FURNAGE. study of electro-metallurgists. and with an expenditure was of only at 500 kw. . Kiithenberg by his process stated that one ton of steel could produced hours. The not consider that these are result in financial success. The erected the works of the Cowles Smelting claim.

of the the finished total costs the variations of per steel. furnaces Comparisons and yields only be different processes . course. furnace in for the the and different steel ton methods working contribute The of production. A very electric large number methods of figures of iron for and the yields steel and costs of the been furnace production and is and the have published in during search the of last correct six years. process due and will to modifications in furnace made to methods In the between conducting pages of the an design. and based in however. . YIELDS AND COSTS. and into other costs are raw materials" without lime and are charged On the furnace the when and any preliminary of is electric heating.of the figures upon the trial electric of all the power cesses. different electric varis^tions and iron cost of localities. power and hand. process iron is worked ore. as molten in are pig the many of iron electric furnace these raw material there in the furnace.CHAPTER VII. extremes intermediate values. discriminate following figures between will attempt and costs be weight and made those for of little value. practical to metallurgist somewhat variations common information of statistics likely by the be dismayed which basis is necessary are are by the found mass great to a on reducing these figures of comparison. as a highest reduction coke " in those process. sumption con- electric cases power in the the and which are. lowest consumption the process total conducted from the solely blast Between as a refining is used two process. to It remember. that these actual cost that do not many possess of of the the figures value or only weight estimates. proin the to Again.

000 lb. and 3 and 4 per similar containing cent." 882 kw.-hoars kw. the the same authority : " figures being given I. " stsel. of nickel. Grey pig-iron Ferro-nickel 2. per pig from ore..0001b. 3 grey iron. product and from we Taking have : " above for the following figures Heroult process 1. and 4 trial a steel for structural in purposes. in No. high iron carbon between silicon. Production Scrap charged Electrodes.306 kw.-hours ^2. l.) Commissioners. steel produced adapted and in No.) " (HaanelJ (Haanel.-hoars kw. (a) Steel " H^ROULT from type Furnace Pig Iron with per per and and Process.-hoars metric short of 2. per Sfceel from open-hearth ore. Trial No.342 kw.0001b. of the above of other but these results. 2.342 The iron No.) Trial Trial No. cold into crucible of Furnace Carbon ton Trial No. Germany .204 lb. 1. 2. Steel furnace cold molten from pig and sorap. steel quality 2 a of steel soft produced was in No. of (Goldscbmidt. No. ton. ton.-hours 329 per 2.693 kw.-hoar ton 2. No. ton. 3. (Eichoff . trial produced 2 a a in No. 1 trial in was closegrainei and grey in pig.-hoirs 2.-"653 short ) ." k^. Commissioners.) a 3.) in This the trial was made at the Kemschied was works stated. in for the the order The followed furnaces in processes 11.-hours 2.-2. 4. . " 3.-hoars short short short (Canadian Commissioners.204 lb." 2. figures are have been published and for the the from for Heroult mere are estimates therefore of the lack weight this each They the mean omitted values the comparison. to after with Chapters in brackets VI.68 THE ELECTRIC FURNACE. quality of steel produced (c) Pig not Iron per per per Production. Trial Trial Trial No." 864 kw.) (Canadian TrialNo." 360 kw. 1.000kw. No. A large number process. ton.000 kw.-hoars per per short ton. (Canaiian (Canadian I trial .-hours per metric ton of 2.000 lb. Open Hearth (6) Sted Production from Scrap malted over-oxiditted an Furnace. when are the similar conditions in character and under and which a the trials were carried out fair will comparison be dealt is possible. . 1. The in No.080 kw. " 1.-h)arj per 2. Commissioners. 2. 4.0001b. 3. was not 3 a stated hard tool dead in No.

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So trials far as " The writer Furnace Process.-hoars kw. 2. 3.200 kw. -hours per ton of 2. " No these the arc figures relating to trials and are character of the the produced in of that available.0001b.-hours (Goldschmidt. molten per pig iron. Steel of above figures we have the from ore. equivalent kw. " " Ore.0001b." 2.) (Stassano. for the No in production yet cold pig iron made steel from the for trials have been using molten pig charging place of materials. No.164 kw.) steels No.60 THE ELECTRIC FURNACE. ton.230 of No trials details are the character The of the of the of iron the produced product in these available. ton. Cold. (b) Steel from Trial Trial No. from scrap Steel charged Gin cold. . 1. Steel from oold pig and Borap. the purity depends largely upon purity materials used. IV. 1. coke and lime charged cold. 1.) No.360 kw.-hours per ton. process and For are this less the figures than for important will be those " previously for dealt Steel to 618 with.-hours the metric metric (Stassano. burning Kjellin of out of the and impurities process direct are as in the latter process. ton. 2. closed H^roult averages Owing furnace furnace.-hours 2.804 kw. The furnace or not adapted ores.866 kw. " The Steel Stassano from Furnace and metric metric metric Lime ton. V. results the is aware.-hoors 3. and Process.-hours and per ton of 2.) (Stassano.155 kw. and process no practical been based and on of this furnace in M. of the the to high temperature to the product is similar obtained in the the : " Taking following 1." 866 kw. (a) Trial Trial Trial No.000 lb. the Gin have voluminous published." ton of kw. we have the following yield : 1.000 lb. papers based on the figures given prepared theoretical furnace and somewhat are mere and reports by estimates reason study the of Gin data.-hours per 2. ton 2. Cold. " Scrap per per charged ton.-3. from only one estimate 680 given metric namely." 1.) (Neumann. Taking the average " of the figures given above.-hours 1. Coke per per per charged 2.

.038 . (a) Steel from ore " The in raw Harmet combined materials Furnace reduction and heated and Process.000 lb. Stassano per cent.000 lb.646 kw.060 kw.and the following figures Steel No. are Girod energy consumption furnaces and higher. 2 estimate. the have ton. charged all the 60 cold. the steel No trials of the character of produced in these available. Steel scrap from and . of steel These from and 800 figures and show that. 2. Mean. from coke lime Nickel from ore 2. in H^roult. ton. " 1 estimate." 1. (cold) pig . Kjellin neighbourhood furnaces The with have of an furnaces while yield results and the kw. (hot) Pig iron from ore.-hours details are 2. VII. equivalent 2. All results are given in kilowatt-hours per ton of 2. This ^The " Girod Furnace have upon Scrap per per ton and Process. " charged ton.440 kw.-hours.136 kw. Harmet. as regards the manufacture the scrap Keller pig iron. to 2.-hours. . pig (cold) Do. Cold.038 kw. ton. 1 trial. able to deal H6roult more and Keller processes impure .YIELDS AND COSTS.-hours of Combining we results the set out " above for purposes of parison. of furnace. " 1.-hours per per metric metric ton.-hours per metric metric of Mean. and . com- following : VII.-hours 1." 2 trial.cokeand lime Steel " " " " (cold) ore.-hours per metric 2. 1. No.242 kw. the later ore refining type by tcaste and other beiiig heat from the stages No. 61 VI.0001b. per ton of the process. No.837 " kw. actual : " furnace and are process based from received the result trial.

will be is. furnace and is Syracuse. per consumption be obtained. adapted that both for the and probable the arc type steels furnace and furnace found and the production type special quality. of carbon the and Kjellin furnace and process gain by of The heat absence electrodes material of by generation furnace.-hours necessary therefore into molten is a state. however. of working 410 kw. of heat sicce a the use of the perature tem- produces and much higher enables than induction the raw heating. for an Wellman hearth of raw being to employed obtain the preliminary heating product The next as the metal. and in this power it is condition that fining re- when the charged reduced the electric furnace. a future proceed along at these Kemschied. On the iron be the oxidised removed and the the other hand. to this and all the in the impurities of slags.62 THE ELECT mc FUHNACE. open- in Germany. in order for the over-oxidised material electric refiningfurnace.- these per ton power consumption should cent. step . are calculated raise certain 1 ton by of Neumann iron to that the iron kw. in America. The and are of crucible Heroult Keller furnaces) and steel the naces) furof type attain (represented a by the Kjellin the Hiorth permanent position in industry figures given are for the into energy the consumption in the when the steel scrap charged furnace molten that condition the Keller from hardly Gin comparable.-hours ton of steel produced should figure given Kemschied but " byEichoflfforthe workingof namely. process be too of 400 The at kw. only produced 50 per that in the be the attainable. electric the power quired re- reduction is so in important work it is evident iron and development industry At in of the electric near furnace must steel lines. mateiials electric arc tlan as a the soarce Ejellin fvrraces. were since it is evident conditions It has and those trials made Heroult under dissimilar been to obtaining in the 433 trials. raw saving It balances higher expenditure that each of materials. under hours This 320 kw.-hours conditions of steel of " the Heroult may a possibly low. (represented by induction will the future. entirely of and within contained are in the thus costs operating this maintenance the greatly upon of of reduced.

directly to the refining operation. and still expects it realised.-hours the kw.YIELDS AND COSTS. if the raw materials action the the raw are partially melted electric power with can bringing is under the ever. which methods to are manufacture otherwise its alloys and find iron out of deposits the new unworkable. by iron or of methods. improbable. The attempts ores smelt New are Zealand and the The titaniferous trials of the of America furnace to examples process led as of this Sault similar H6roult are and have at a Sainte Marie in Canada the reported is to for the be to result. any very therefore.300 kw. for of these plant be which used erected the come out- trials is to for the like that smelting of nickel-iron ores. with low abundance In of countries and Switzerland. course. cases excepting it may prove special use In possible. sand use. producing of that steel and hours section a electric ores. 63^ will to be to dispense the with this it intermediate runs furnace molten crucible writer process. ore ordinary blast furnace The procedure practicableeven use of in the electric writer's furnace iron reduction is. of to early application. electric furnace ore present. lie between for 300 2. it is . and being possible. before It cold. at water-power be developed very cost. industrial the opinion.final at short of metal. condition furnace " and from for transfer blast final pig iron. that power of this low cost chapter to be obtained very render competition on the basis.000 in the kw. in these cases of heating will. appears these or figures is for the power to consumption the are ores when and to the electric employed in one reduce produce those pig steel For to operation less hopeful the power and than given pig-iron production consumption 2. even required for iron the from other per preliminary heating be It reduced will would be have with this for not ore materials. ton below shown to 2. some present he prophesied to see development years ago.700 kw. as in the electric The the the this furnace. and not production Norway can of ordinary pig-iron. howor heating of the current. The furnace iron above. a duction re- figures being of between charged kw. at some likely to undergo under development conditions. materials and 500 hours.

and processes two heavily of ning run- handicapped costs. to But the iron here. Costs. be at smelting industry not day established the " writer are does not deny but " conditions present and favourable be so to its early development 20 or they hardly likely to for another 50 years. repairs. expenditure and a upon these items the The of furnaces have is processes using induction since of the the methods heating striking advantage nil. can. special conditions industry will be a required render the of the coalfields than at financial to success. The furnaces reliable figures and than for the costs of iron in working and steel the various electric are processes those in than for production section based actual the cost less this mates esti- given the cases preceding they are of on article. the in the electric writer's methods smelting will therefore. may costs greater electrodes and in the and aggregate than are. management are capital and The in the are and be of largely unknown is charges. the costs of production by others as given by the various furnace designers. and who . and outlay furnace In upon electrodes tear structure is small. again.but important on electrodes. highest these furnaces processes heating.again. yet realised. and fluxes. that established.64 THE ELECTRIC FURNACE. depreciation. alloys in is electric the time are it is in the production specialsteels the the electric to occur refining furnace within the will the next some greatest That likely iron years. and the wear here. undergo of that few development. and with such interest power various of course. and opinion. repairs using by the arc of course. possible. the if iron a native and iron-smelting industry might lime are be of be ore found in the locality will and water-power. since rather The cost practicallyall upon figures coke be obtained from work. the statement given below. of for items tric electhe as of ore. it is with unlikely the Until that able compete in the are in price product the ordinary of blast furnace and open more market. lime. Europe America furnace nearly of iron little and gress proan exhausted present. and obtained exactitude processes localities.

000 lb. and ton of (a) Steel from scrap. since mostly based which are on figuresfor sess pos- consumption value actual and trials. " lacking I.'-"i per "2. but the variables that attempt processes numerous to institute comparisons costs. VIII. and VI. "3. per ton). ton of from at "2 Ores. Conley 7s. Furnace per ton of ore Process. even as estimates.YIELDS AND COSTS. (a) Steel from (b) Fig Iron at 5s.) and Stassano "3. per ton. per and 14s. 66 have reported in the upon their working. Harmet 2s. horse-power-year. Process.000 kg. SUelfromSorap.000 kg. per ton. " electrical horse-power-year at 6s. 3d.000 kg. electrical horse-power-year. from " The and ton of ore Process. (electricpower at 168. (electricpower at 12s. Process. per 2. Steel from " ^The "1.) and " Keller Ore8. per ton)." Steel from The "1. and ore (Electric power III. Furnace per ton of Process. per Furnace ton. 1. per The above figures are show such wide variations that. future at reason opinion has upon been of these end of electric the are and steel processes the given power a the previous section.^"Q. from 15s. 5d. 3d. per electrical horse-power-year Gin Furnace 48. 2. scrap. per 2. (Electric power IV. at "2 per per Furnace ton of 2. and at molten pig. :.000 lb.) (Ore II. 1. 8s. 3d. V. ore. exolusive H^ROULT Scrap. 16s. at Pig iron "1.) The Kjellin 168. as attempting the to opinion and to the comparative it is cost working electric iron steel processes therefore . since is for this iron between the various are an the basis of these It too and the conflicting. Steel from " The "2. and VII. ore. 1. Furnace ton of Process. per electrical horae-power-year Girod 3s. of this are set down in the no order is followed made on first section chapter. " in those given below Process. 5d. " at "2 "2 per per electrical ton. they In of misleading form an and unsatisfactory." The ore. steel "2." per 8s. " Furnace "2. of cost of (Electric power (b) Pig Iron from Ores.0001b. and Process. Furnace ton.000 and lb.

) the advantage refining furnace. 3. have in order supplied with be For furnace as extraordinarily low blast at of "A the compete it can the duced prothe in a modern furnace. sorap ore. (k"ld. of coke smelting practiceonly pig reduce iron required are quired re- of to produced. In manufacture to assume of that of steel crucible steel. the and important iron and upon future development the whole industry. to reduce it is the necessary oxide fuel of saved In are to remember iron that best per ore coke is still required the is the the the metallic blast state.. balance are prospects than of coke those in upon to to for the for the the electric electric is too power.000kw. that the cwt. present on market side of price the As of coke (17s. ore. coke and lime. the electrical given first section year we chapter. the of The saving by exceed the electric 9-5 furnace or method the smelting cannot. Od. cost electric be horse-power-year in fact. of coke show much the 8s. the electric regards that to smelting processes.500 kw. 2. have molten cold following 2s.-hoars).66 THE ELECTRIC FUMACE. and Steel Steel from from iron 6d. purposes. (400 kw. the consumptions Ta^leI. and At 3 tonis the of eoke it are is customary consumed 2^ per ton produced.CiJ.-hours). electric be present. -hours). 5d. charged best between hot. and this in total coke 6'5 cwt.therefore. average costs : " Taking power horse-power in at "2 the scrap. 5s. and (800kw. at refining smelting small The the to brighter since the saving latter large expenditure would. which pig and In to scrap these have of a converted it is higher-priced products. however. . Fig iron the from ore. therefore. very branches most likely to effect steel widely employed. 4. 123. therefore. 6d.15s. Pig from ooke lime. the iron and rule to the application is steel the industries Kkely by restricted general steel are refining into be processes. the electric is. pig.- hours). charged (2. better to in rely the upon the figures of this and for the power consumption. figure and are localities few of where in the to this certainly number. and furnace for that the only used modern ton in heating 16 of cwt. 1. at present price These considerations processes processes.

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tube water capacity. Philadelphia. every lbs.148 8*57 of volts.. of 1001b. of and 28 of of 181 kw. in physical details are published the report these taken. kw. could be primary f consisted turns copper in. 1907 . were (see p. of large electric The plant furnace is now being the considered works by was this firm. f in. the resulted furnace and satisfactorily. of 190 trough deep and working maximum at capacity current The amperes The for the available crucible was 15.APPENDIX. inside circulation. The annular was crucible. Colby U. tried the of in inductive Mr. the and is patented It has Colby. of hour molten Ingots materials in to poured to and metal from fresh left 27*5 then added the 100 these the 37-5 furnace. method working this furnace was similar to that used Kjellin of were Furnace 90 lb. had a 14^ 8 in. These tion installa- Henry trials are Disston said a Sons." Jane. of experimentally " to America works Messrs. and the maximum The fusion power of the utilised kw* stated to added the metal be completed a in 30 minutes. in. .A. 40 was ingot metal. and refining operation required similar time. 29). America. THE The in been the COLBY furnace in the FURNACE is of name AND PR03ESS. for the and was 24^ 6f outside by height. have at Tacony. hours Working were under used per was conditions.* '' Eleotro-Chemical Industry. outside maximum with a diameter. inside diameter The lbs. the contents of which formed in. original by the used at Tacony of manufactured was Induction Furnaca The and A Co. The but from no ingot chemical which metal or was stated to tests be are dense and homogeneous. Edward at near type A. diameter. current cooled 540 of by amperes internal at of 240 volts employed fridquency 60. in in..S. the secondary.

November.ISHING Fleet at Court. a " ==il Co. and E"C. I"ondon.I"D. Sausbury PRINTING "PUBI. i I/)ndon: "THE I. - tNCLUDINQ - - - "Cl)c BY Ckctrician WELL KNOWN " Series AUTHORS. Airoad* 1 KI^ECTRICIAN" " 3. 1907.. And Home . ail Booksellers Street. f f f CATALOGUE OF Selected Standard ELEGTRO-TEGHNIGAL BOOKS..

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and the " fundamental ideas Fisher" THE POTENTIOMETER of Electrical of the AND Measurement. J. which are no longer in p^eneral work is summarised in some not described are detail so as to give a fair idea of our . CURRENT. regard to the practical part of the subject. and that.A. Fleming" clotb " 2". (2) Practice and (3) Costs. understanding.been engaged in the practicalwork and Extension of Submarine Cable service. is and consequently no apology o"Fered for subject from Cooper" Down" TABLES 5"^^'* THE ELECTRICIAN" PRIMERS.Down. xos. LTD. while dealing with the main and similar its construction. nett. the book is indispensable. STUDENTS' GUIDE TO SUBMARINE and Edition^ Fourth By H.Ex. page ii. necessary is added A vtduable and to the New Answers set of Questions and Enlarged Edition. Ewinp^. Every part of the mnk bron^t the of equipment and working of the costs has been The treatise and latest availaDle deals with Steam.G. Primary realised. 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THEIR Fully Illustrated. . the As far as possible. of the Economics the only existing treatise on throughout the world. It has also been knowledge thought well to devote a chapter to Carbonup to the present Cells. and Notes. use capabilities.M. BATTERIES: W. be sufficient for the " " " *' Fisher CABLE and Darby" TESTING.) By W. whether for electrical of every electrical should be in the hands It is a treatise which supplyor for electric traction.* Telegraph Testing in the Eastern Company's embodied for the their oi those in the have use experience in a Guide Telegraph Service w4io desire for the examinations which the Cable to qualify themselves recently Companies nave To those desirous of entering the Cable instituted. will add to the usefulness of the subject. post free. and 3. New (A Edition ite Universal The System Preparation. "MOTrvB PowBR is a handbook of modem Gbarino Machinbrt" Elbctrical AND FOR of It o"Fers to the reader electrical engineering practice in all parts of the world. THE CENTENARY A. dd. and then the distinctive by very weak and on by very strong magnetic forces are separately described. Standard to the importance Owing have been dealt with at some use len^h. Edition. Batteries form a CONSTRUCTION Price zo9. Gas^ Oil given. Wh. Fisher J. means a with that of America. easily manipulated. this subject. The influences of Temperature and ot Stress aremethods. A. F. Examples are A chapter and cobalt. By R. Professor of Mechanism in the University of Cambridge. steel. as it constitutes engineer Power and Motive Gearing for Electrical Machinery. Its accuracy of measurement method owes undoubtedly. z. nett. the Author has drawn on Cells of the book. engiby it are " " universal instrument in "universal" and it might be well termed a use. Aose batteries which are in generaluse. 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a history of the Coherer Telegraphic Developments. mounted 6d. strength of cuxrent. By F. of other of Hertz and Coherer Waves while Chapter III. TO SPECIAL By Wm. 6d." ACROSS and New WIRES. post free. Manufactory. 9d. S. post ficee 5s. horse- May" MAY'S (x)The number TABLE. 3d. gives Details Signalling to Tele9:raphy.I. Elster Researches Scale. " 7s. 6d. the treatment of faulty electric light and power conditions of the problems are. concerning the most properties of explosives. and strength of current board. linen. post free. G. faults while in electric of the cable low compared with the resistance itself. treatment endeavour. and the difficulties and dangers incurred serves an as easy introduction to the study of electricity ^without at least a of which no rudimentary knowledge has been official trained. . working a complete Ram" ^ THE INCANDESCENT By Gilbert S. 2s. LAMP Fully Illustnated. of incandescent economies lamps. of Colliery Managers. Austria. 6d. and diameter Showing of the Relations section of belts . THE Phillips" AND to BIBLIOGRAPHY OF X-RAY LITERATURE RESEARCH. Nazo Ready. 2s. potentisH. 2s. 2 " PRINTING " PUBLISHING CO. LTD. D. . . MANUFAC- has endeavoured of a The Author information to ^ive such course as with little mathematical considerable and to present that information as experience in Lamp-makmg. equally comprehensive seldom localised before in telegraph cables are however. post free. post free. In preparation. For the pocket. price as.I. linen. An for persons ELECTRIC LIGHT J N6 PLANT. For office use. but it also explosives. of the Filament. Fleet Street. In Chapter IV. . 8d. 2s. (2) The width of belts ." the ** Photo-Electric Geitel. he has acquired in the Raphael"THE LIGHT LOCALISATION Raphael. information in administrative Bngineers and others occupations engaged by affording concise the classification and kinds of apparatus.. Mounting. on 2s. 8d.E. 6d.Min.. including of M. Sizes of Filaments. Full Work. Capping. Germany duction of electric arc carbon The book details candles. post free. Hints. nett. Very fully illustrated. approvM and the bMt known of preventing accidents The in the use ot them. Hertz Branly. 2d. Pntchard and Bohemia in the prowith those manufacturers to compete of Frauce. dealt with fully in several "THE ELECTRICIAN I.price 2s. and it has been the Author's matter subject. Second Enlarged Edition.E. Price IN ELECTRIC in telegraph cables has been Although cables has never hand-books and pocket-books. and as a separate existed in technical literature. is fully illustratedfand gives technical and for the establishment of carbon factory. Charles the localisation of faults 7s. Pritchard. to adequately fill a gap which has hitherto systematically. in strong case. (2) the sectional their candle-power. Ram. the Literature Historical Price Index and accorately compiled Ready Reference Being a carefully Edited an on RSntgen X-Rays. Sealing-in. printed on cardinch. post mounted 6d. tiieir resistance has become of This fact alone the contrary almost entirely changes the method Kght work always obtains.( 8 ) SIGNALLING Lodge" SPACE WIRELESS WITHOUT TELEGRAPHY. Testing. F. loss of potential. By Sir Oliver J. May" MAY'S TABLE OF ELECTRIC CONDUCTORS. the relations between diameter :"(x) the sectional area. " Practical 5s. The of insulation various methods working have been collected and discussed. Particular devoted be considered attention mining can now adequately to the problem of safe shot to present the firing in coal mines. edges and suspender. by Charles E.Assoc.. EiJiausting. E. AM. Flashing. 8d.C. 2s. Tke edition The new forms a complete Illustrated Treatise on Hertzian Wave of the interesting Lecture Notes delivered bv the Author before the Royal Institution. Bv MANUFACTURE OF ELECTRIC LIGHT of a Carbon A Practical Guide O. may MAINS. and length of conductors . Phillips. and 3.Nat. subject that experience and recent " Maurice" THE SHOT-FIRERS BELTING of revolutions and sauare HANDBOOK. by dealing with the required in ttie latter case. post free is. square per with metal Price free. . May" in MAY'S OF POPULAR INSTRUCTOR FOR THE MENT MANAGE- charge training. in an The been discussed manner. nett. M. (3) the of conductors. . Carbonismg. Right. embellishment The Subjects dealt with include : ^The Filament : Preparation as possible. printed on square pcir square For the pocketf cardboard. Price 8s. nett. as. Efficiencyand Duration. zs. 2d.E. London. Principle is given. form the first chapter of the book. Researches Maurice" ELECTRIC WITH BLASTING APPARATUS AND SIVES. office use. EXPLO- REFERENCE COLLIERY PRACTICE. and the work with respect to Cfoherer Phenomena Laxge on a Chapters are also devoted to " Communications and of Drs. the propertiesof in daily work. Professor before Hughes' or Early Observations Branly. to the Establishment Price illustrated.Sc. Maurice. very different in the two cases . on 2s. The aim is to prove of this book itself a useful work of reference to Mine Managers.S. London. indispensable Handbook of Electric with slight technical particularly those Lii^ting Plants. Measuring the Filaments . Pritchard"THE CARBONS. AND Price ITS TURE. in strong case. 1894. and Relation betwe"tn Light and Power. Showing of conductors. Price 5s. between" power. Salisbury Court. BuUv in preparing this work for publication was The British to enable object of Mr. Lodge. velocity pulleys and velocitv (3) The thickness ana of belts . with metal edges and suspender. With or work by the Editor. (4) The section of belts For at different strains inch. and an attempt has been made made most the research reliable information have on possible.. Issue. more Pocket size. OF New FAULTS Edition." on X-Ray Retrospect and a Chapter. and diameter strength of current area." and the Photo-Electnc of Prof. in the Application to The second chapteris devoted June. 6d. post free. work means gives not only an and safe explanation of the construction application of blasting appliances. .R.. M. Glass Making and Blowing. testing durinjg^ these be considered tests aa to belong to the subiect.

yet to avoid mathematics.( Raphael" AND 9 ) WIREMAN'S. . from the Standpoint Disintegration Theory. abroad. elsewhere mines rapid spread of electrical ^ demand for a practical book the much had of power. intention of its Editor collect in a handy and useful foim to such was Tables. There are three Soddy" with Extract RADIO-ACTIVITY of the a : An By Elementary Fredk. or "radio-activity. By Henry By Albion M. Sayers. matter constitute work groundenergy of every philosophical of science. as well as continuous Che and fall of pressure the of lamjis or conductors is from the number horse-powerof motors made the elaboration clear without of clock-face diagrams or al^braical exercises. "c. six exercises ma^ettsm. 6d. LINESMAN'S "THE MAINS ELECTRICIAN" SUPERINTENDENT'S for the Mains POCKET-BOOK. which practice en the electrical transmission Shaw" A FIRST-YEAR AND COURSE OF PRACTICAL ISM MAGNET- strator Lecturer ELECTRICITY. and conductors decided. When the preparation of this Pocket-Book Editor's Notb. and to treat the whole subject of erectinc and that the tables. A Manual and the the Wiring Contractor Superintendent.. pose free.I. Work has been In fact. has achieved that of and in its main the position of a descriptive to passed from philosophical science. I sought to make the and meter voltthis in such A. Nothing is done like this they are that in a simple course considered relativelyunimportant currents. ELECTRIC Over MOTIVE POWER Price xos. by F. ^00 pages. results so far attained discovezy in of the The discoveryof this Che . diagrams ana laying electrical and conducting systems in sucn a manner in charge of such letterpressmight be useful to engineers work. In this book the of element Author which nett. The and has created work in collieries. and those occupiedin designing networks. and foreman." has proved to be the beginning science.. . for the reason well as difficult. which many for university intermediate in the student of at least the rudistudents. gd. of only eight course independent position.Becquerel's new new property perty proof a new of self-radiance. essential is alone dealt and three-phase svstems axe practical information given .r/ra^://"-0m as Preface. Raphael. as a work also are some simple applications of the subject e. Ready. 2 PRINTING " Fleet PUBLISHING CO. the original was commenced. including those fbc subscribers' instruments the British Post Office exchaage on system in Liondon. In addition and other detailed information to the tables. for the connections of telephones are Diagrams given in Section D. geometry. " ^ Sayers" SncU" BRAKES Illustrated* FOR TRAMWAY Now CARS. 3d. ing class oftechnical this primitive mathematical students who have not training.and to full Table of from. in and but in of which the development physics chemistry have played equal parts. Salisbury Court. contained advisable on Underground Mains. the influence of these generalisations on allied branches of extreme the present interest that It would time.Sc. as well as to the wireman. _ *"THE ELECTRICIAN" I. acquire maintained until. M. T.E. . of power. Treatise MA. as skilled or unskilled artisan^ primary school has not been supplemented or tory the laboraknowledge of electricityin their daily work. telegraph. The in all departments and those interested object of tne book lias been to give to Students of science a connected account of the main data by which and chief experimental the arguments have been achieved. on subject of transmission Though there was no single work dealing with the question in a suffioiently comprehensive and yet practical to be of real use manner to the mechanical adapted or was mining engineer.s novelties ammeter as possible. 2s. A of the Pocket-Book. ducts* as in the section iunction boxes. the relations between and the ultimate Since Dalton. students. it has been deemed to add a chapter briefly describing the various for public distributing networks. and six on the statical electricity or alternating on electricity applications. 6s. Edited Wireman. is. 2s. E. Central Station Engineers. either the treatment for specialists. systems employed In this. It was to extend covered greatly the area by the book. nett . and power regarded as subservient of lighting.A. E. for a good book inquiries have been received many dealing with the laying of underground fore. . .g. would to This has the Electric as Light Wireman been the carried out in Section however. . nett.6d. two of calculating the sise of current and single pluise. instructions to cables. " on twenty on introductory exercises. extended Index. the section jointer.G. 5s. LTD. stumbling on hand. Price in Phvsics at University College. The suitable for schools Practical small books on are or Elementary Physics. SneU. Senior ^j P. 6d.E. on Underground compiled largely with view the a to meeting requirements of Mains Superintendents. they find they require some They enter and ask for an of the subject as aifect the arts and introduction fundamentals most to such of little use crafts. Charles New Price Bdition. Author's the 1896 of a Preface. and who even Their science.nett. and in some represented by the atom wapr associated with. or not. In general.. Shaw. which." ". Fully Illustrated. theregenerally. Instructions and be useful Memoranda in his work. 6d. important changes long awaited by the biologist and geologist. During past few years. all assume a knowledge of algebra. There and growcnents a larg^e trigonometry and mechanics. Nottingham. Street. will it foundation for as training as bojni in a a physical cannot. and the method with. and DemonB. nearly 350 illustrations. mathematical expressions are have the experimental work as quantitative attempting to avoid both these evils. Radio-activity has an ^ears. "c. give a coa-" M. a generalisations almost other exert influence branch of knowledge. post free 5s. at seem they must knowledge is a matter and in astronomy effect sooner later which have been or cosmology. freely introduce. London. has have attempted followed nected account remarkable series investigations Uranium. mere other) one qualitative experiments are blocks In the other to them.however. beeu written. it was to the question or wonc was fragmentary. and 3.^ the telephone. of Contents and " Soddy. with matters connected with insulated mains. xxs. D. On the to Aiese (or any hand. on must a profound every has been locognised that there is a vast and hitherto It almost unsuspected store of energy bound the unit of elementary matter of in. 3s.. post free. the Author's aim has been of the to give a sound digest theory and will be of use to the practicalengineer.

. and considers Ihe best and most recent for the detection and practice as regards the electrical tests in use localisation of faults. DRUM AND ARMATURES PRACTICE). illustrations. concluding. testing section and details of 'boardshippractice have been prepared with the object and in the cable services who hope of helping men looking further into these are branches. D.( w ) TELEPHONE Telephony" An BRITISH POST OFFICE SERVICE. Young. Prospectuses. work BATTERIES T. INTERNATIONAL BERLIN. Price 7s. Grovemment Departments Strongly bound . ".S. 1903). 255. of Earth and Con*- . M.M. deals the Autnor and Manufacture with briefly seepages. very rally Ulnstrated. 8vo. 6d. by (Eastern Telegrajph Co. 2zs. October-November. and tance. board ship when removing in different vessels Young" the ELECTRICAL By J. Geo. is of considerable undcoiaking of the National Telephone Compacy MINUTES TELEPHONE OF OF THE THE THE THE INQUIRY. into Officially accepted Translation English. " *'THE ELECTRICIAN I 2 " PRINTING " PUBLISHING CO. THE INTERNATIONAL SERVICE Text with TELEGRAPH CONVENTION ANI" " London^. COMMUTATORS FuUylUustrated. R. Central and other Exchanges "f the British Post Office Telephone Service in uie London The area. It gives a detailed teclmical summary of modem marine practice in Manufacturing. interleaved or REGULATIONS. nett. Wade's in The scope work the whole covers class of apparatus embraced imjportant construction The tile tiieory. ready. 6d. with the International and. nett. AT 3s. of Mr. 6d. in French Final Protocol Additional and Service Undertaking. EC. OF F. Wilkinson" By This H. PROCEEDINGS Price 3s. X2S. ready. London). 6d. INQUIRY. 6d.B. fully Batteries or Accumulators. CABLE-LAYING "c. 8s. PORTSMOUTH gd. Telegraph Engineer. nett. AT 6d. Now THEIR MANUFACTURE ByE. is pub* and lished under the authority of H. major portion of the book treats of an tile accumulator purely from the point of view appliance which fulfils an important voA in electrical definite purpose and engineering practice. ResisBattery " Chapter VII. THE xs. Localisation " of Disconnections. cha|"tsr (X.. P.) gives a complete description of all modem contains 865 illustrations and a very copious index: Weymouth" (THEORY post free. Cloth 6s. SUBMARINE Wilkinson. Over Edition in 400 pages and aoo AND REPAIRING.Sc. Metropolitan descriptions of the various exchanges are complete.E. G. and the various difficulties that occur to the beginner. work cable post free. D. Price zos. AND Weymouth. Regulations at. of Current. II. of Conductor 6i Insulation for Conduction Tests.and whose manufacture. Working. (demy iolio).R. is. are Is the Appendices tables and curves to Telegraph Engineers given. or just as fully as those of a generator a boosThe electrical accumulators.E. Salisbury Court. everyday work oi lliis book Very fully illustrated. 6d.B. " . and officiallyrevised of H. Fleet Street. Sennission 6d. 265 Illustrations. " " " Measurement of Inductive Capa* city. lliompson. " " Laying an^ " and of interest Submarine Localisation Cable Testingduring and Repairs. s." V. Testing and Repairing a SubThe Telegraph Cable. abroad leather.. is accepted as official by Postmaster-General. post free xzs. London . XI. . (foolscapfolio). The complete Official Fr-mca in parallel columns.*-Localisation IX. Twisaday English Translation (India CfHce. has been made translation. ENGI6d. and tibese ot the Post Office Tmnk description of the Exchanges interesting information Telephone] Services. XII. M.I. VI. tion. ruled paper. Re* " " X. Postage per copy : U. givinr much concerning iUostrated Metropolitan Exchanges. by C. up-to-date theory and practice in all that concerns CONTINTS. RADIO-TELEGRAPHIC CONFERENCE^ . nett. By F.M. foolscap. tacts." " Corrections Submarine Test8" of Localisation Cable Testing during sistance. the Theory of Secondary Price xos.Wade. I. Derign. and use of the secondary battery. in cloth. (London Revision. Neilson R. PotenMeasurements tial. Ntv) describes the procedure on used and the mechanical gear preparation. J. and the illustrations show the disposition ot the plant and the types of all the apparatus used. illustrated In this work an descriptionis given of the Trunk. Measurement Corrections Insulation numerous Fault Current. Postmastep"General. nett. VIII." " t" Natural and Measurement sistance.t III. post free Thompson" FROM ELECTRIC By Pxoi PRODUCTION S. nett" and very with the Chemistry. nett. drawn specially Price ivbmerged fault or break in a^ a for this purpose . Neilson. 6d.K. Re- Manufacture. Elton embodies TESTING FOR TELEGRAPH NEERS. 6d. LTD. on application. nett . IV. English of the complete Proceedings This this Conference. of the early acquisition by the Post Office of the In view this work interest.. NITRATES Ready shortly. : Wade" AND In this SECONDARY USE. the British nett concerned. 4TMOSPHERE. ' and 3. Coiutmction post Bree. which by Mr. Laying. use properties The be understood most transformer. " Chapter " " Remarks on Testing Apparatus. Radio-Telegraphic Conven1906. Now Price 2S. THE HULL post free MINUTES TELEPHONE PROCEEDINGS Price xs.

" InTMEfiYOLUKES. 6d. S.eil. in R.i"cb.I. Mti ' A-nklko: Edited ThMt sn. 25 oople* "" aor Ma. LIGHTING POWER and TELEPHONY. ENGLAND. XHK or oU BetttuOeri 1 28. oompleta ' oon" In til SO .} OF y :: ::B lolopbOByi" m.itett. Il^ce3d. below.(Ifwntbjii V(if Hntbj port. COMPANY. I0l"phono SbU BlcliMiuM . Plica et. SAUBBUBY LONDON. by oTm Mr. . pott free.. 100 oopies of one Sd. THEORY PrlcaSs. ELECTROLYSIS and MISCELLANEOUS .iffenM at iTom* and Abroad. ooplM 100 ooplM "" "-" ipiM [oen ibe " Prlmere MMiited " 0 of than fl of Hurted (doC taa ttuu 1' FrimeT) for tt "THH BIiBOTRICIAM " PBIHBBS ar" PabUahsd ditto OS. "il" COOPER. f oim abore '."THE ELECTRICIAN" By -W-awlouB PRIMERS B. FLEET " PUBLISHING STREET. I2E VOL II. Telsphoiis Ocannl Reader in bli oompre- Ml*c*naBtcu"i~ 1 be of deslm c"HUiill"d (U wbere tiCDlM' Uir itudf iubjeoi li (Thfl Jlgwa Six in par*ntlietet of U17 "" tnduote Primer oi -""" the : of IllvelTaliimt.ea.) Is. price PoMase And In J 1 complete .nett.iM"tlTee.. The MA. "-' 12 coplee '-n Is. d/VoLlll. prUe diime Jtu" 6d. APPLICATIONS ELECTRICITY. ELEOTRIO ELECTRIC ELECTRIC TRACTION. CollMaon. .So." sepamta caa GLOSSARY and be obtaioed sepBritelr. paiMEBS W.Stt.t. or "THE ELECTRICIAN" 1 B and PRINTING COUET.) \rlca SIngIt Capla of att SlHfli Ci TELEGRAPHY. M Primer) tor at 1"".."d. M. TB. deacribed.E.. eitnpetTaliinie. {35 Primira.E..) Prleo4t.. Ltd. axtra.. Mcepiu 7". 9a.nett. u VOL m 9d.[f"itprlii* of tmglt Copies II .

and Forei|ni House ItleCtriC Tramways. Electrical and Offices. Hobart" By H. Statistical Statements.. Connections. "c. neering specialities.. post R. M. Hopkinson. 6d. 8s. Lord Sir Sir Kelvin. Omamentad extra.K..O. ^ving technical of the of Distribution. Wilson Sibmbns. Thomson. Continuous*current and Motors Dynamos .. nett. Lodgb.. G.B. Sir Sir If with extra. Rolling Stock. Manufacturing Supply Houses. CLE. Set of ELECTRICIAN" TABLES. A valuable Equipment. ". "THE iramways. Price Or W. "c.R. post free 4s. of Undertakings principal Electricity Supply and South America. Col.C. post free 2S. Kingdom.S. to given as to Track..A. Hbrmann Hblmholtz. 1903. ad. "c. ELECTRICITY tions IN concerning MINES. extra* ELECTRICITY Useful and SUPPLY. James W. BA. " card. Fleet Street.B. gd. "c. Periodicities. Ayrton. von Lord Raylbiqh. Generating Plant. Price TABLES and VIIL"Colonial Foreign Electricity Supply Works. System the of the Connections to Mains.M." case la and . complete as Price of each Station. C. SmITH..) Prof. 8d. Local Authorities. V. post TABLES IV. each . Alexander C.( WIRELESS Fttll G. C. India mounts 4s. by into EngUsh Translated Conference.D." giving full particulars ing containand Supplying Both Lighting and Tramways.A.. TABLE m. Supply Station Engineers. 6d. Sub-stations. danger from is now ready. Rolling Stock. . Office Authorities. TABLE of Statistics. H. will find these for Reference Publications of great value ELECTRICITT UHDE"TAKBR8 for LU^hting. rent Alternate-cur- Woods" Place -^THER in the Universe. STEEL-PLATE ad. 11. IBC. for Stations similar information to Table a Combined Lighting and Tramway Price Load. M. and VL" with Eleotric their own Tramways Power including those former full Houses are particulars as information is included 2d. POWOr discussions TraUSquestions relating to ElCCtriClty Supply upon information and mission. * IS. Sir Tohn Pender. Line of the and United Railways which buy their Power. Price 2s. EC. PRIMERS. Mains. J. WINDINGS Hobart.Ch. LTD. F. Frequency..forms the most Complete and Useful Contractors' Engineers' and Group of Statistics ever prepared for Central Stations. I. "c. Crompton. of these Tables also obtain of single copies of any Purchasers for same. and 8vo.. R. Sec likely The whole set The complete " The in which enables facturers Manuin a form To is prepared comparison to be readily made. framed in 5s. .. 2s. Woods.C. xs. Olivbr J. compilation for exporters of engi Feeders. Anderson. E. Parshall TRIC and MACHINES. OfEcially accepted free Ss. Post free 6s. Parshall and H. fcc " ELECTRICIAN I. by PRECAUTIONS for :" INSTRUCTIONS Prices dealing to be adopted with BROKEN ditto . Electricity Works with I.. ELECTRICIAN** PORTRAITS. 2S.. and particulars ^ will be sentpost free for 7s. Line Equipment. Preece. of ^ther B. C.. For both the cases Equipment. Central Japan. regard Kingdom. 3s. 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