If the value of something is increased by x % then decreased by y % then resulting effect in percent : + x + y + xy/100 The Salary of a or!

er is first increased by 10% and thereafter decreased by "%# \$hat is the overall change in percent# overall change % + 10 & " + '+10('&"(/100 % + )#" % 'increased( use '+( sign for increment and '&( sign for decrement# * shop!eeper mar!s the price of goods +0% more than the real price# ,e allo ed a discount of 10%# \$hat profit or loss did he get.rofit or loss the shop!eeper get: +0 & 10 + '++0('&10(/100 % + /% 'profit(
Example 3:

The side of a square is increased by 30%. Find the percentage increase in area.

Solution:

ncrease in area ! 30 " 30 " #30\$#30\$%&00 ! '(%.

Example ):

f the radius of a circle is decreased by *0%. +hat percent change in area,

Solution:

percent change in area: - *0 - *0 " #-*0\$#-*0\$%&00 ! -3'% #decreased\$

Example .:

f the price of a shirt is increased by &.% than decreased by &.%. +hat is percent change,

Solution:

% #decreased\$ Example ': The length of a rectangle is increased by )0% and breadth is decreased by )0%. Solution: percent change in area: )0 .percent change : " &.&.\$%&00 ! .*. Find change in area. Solution: percent increased: *0 " *0 " #"*0\$#"*0\$%&00 ! ))%#increased\$ f the price of the comodity is increased or decreased by r% then reduction in the consuption so as not to increase the expenditure : r &00" r x &00 Example &: f the price of the sugar fall do1n by &0%. " #"&. 0y ho1 much percent must the householder increase its consuption so as not to decrease the expenditure. Solution: . 0y 1hat percent should the number increased. .)0 " #-)0\$#")0\$%&00 ! -&'%#decreased\$ Example /: if a number is increased by *0% and again increased by *0%.\$#-&.*.

.30 x &00 ! )*% Example ): f the price of petrol is increased by 30 percent5 by ho1 much petrol a car o1ner must reduce his consuption in oreder to maintain the same budget. Solution: 03s salary is less than that of 2 : *.&0 x &00 ! &&.&&% Example *: f 23s salary is *.% more than 0 then ho1 much percent the 03s salary is less than that of 2. &00 " *.increase in consuption : &0 &00 . ! *0% 4 Example 3: f 23s salary is 30% less than that of 0 then ho1 much percent is 03s salary is more than that of 2 Solution: 03s salary is more than that of 2: 30 &00 .

n second year he deposit *.% of increased amount find the left amount in the loc6er. Solution: original sum ! 3'00x&00x&00x&00 #&00-&0\$#&00-*0\$ ! 9s . T1o years ago in the first year he deposited *0% of the amount in his loc6er. Example &: 2fter reducing &0% from a certain sum and then *0% from the remaining 5 there is 9s 3'00 left then find the original sum.000 Example *: 2 man had 9s ):00 in his loc6er. Solution: .Solution: reduction in consuption : 30 &00 " 30 x &00 ! 300%&3% Shortcut 3: x% of a quantity is ta6en by the first5 y% of the remaining is ta6en by the second and so on5 7o1 if 2 is the amount left then find the initial amount : initial amount ! 2x&00x&00x&00 #&00"x\$#&00"y\$#&00"8\$ 1here 2 is the left amount.

0\$#&00-30\$ ! **.0% of the remaining are in English 30% of the remaining are in french5 the remaining '300 boo6s are in regional language5 total no of boo6s 1ould be.0% mar6s5 gets *0 mar6s more than the minimum required mar6s to pass the examination. Solution: Total no of boo6s ! '300x&00x&00x&00 #&00-*0\$#&00-.\$ !4 2 ! 9s /*00 Example 3: n a library *0% of the boo6s are in hindi 5 . Then the maximum mar6s for the examination are .left amount : ):00 ! 2x&00x&00x&00 #&00"*0\$#&00"*. Solution: .00 Shortcut ): Shortcut ): 2 candidate scoring x% in an examination fails by 3a3 mar6s5 1hile another candidate 1ho scores y% mar6s gets 3b3 mar6s more than then the minimum required pass mar6s.% and fails by 30 mar6s5 1hile another candidate 1ho scores . Find the maximum mar6s for the examination. ! &00#a " b\$ y-x Example &: 2 candidate scores *.

Solution: profit or loss percent made : ( x *0 . =o1 much profit or loss did he made. Find profit or loss percent. Solution: >rofit or loss made : && x && ..*.%&& %. Shortcut /: . Then profit or loss made by the <ender: axd-bxc bxc x &00 Example &: f a man purchase && orange for 9s &0 and sell them &0 for 9s &&.&0 x &0 &0 x &0 x &00 ! *&% Example *: 2 boy buys orange ( for 9s &' and sell them && for 9s *0.0 . ! *00 Shortcut ': f 3a3 articles are bought for 9s 3b3 and sell them 3c3 for 9s 3d3.&& x &' && x *0 x &00 ! *.aximum mar6s ! &00#30 " *0\$ .

2t 1hat price must he sell it to gain .%./0 x #&00 " . ! '30 Shortcut :: @ost >rice#@>\$ ! more amount#9s\$ x &00 Aifference in profit Example &: ..Selling >rice#S>\$ ! gi<en#9s\$ x &00 #&00 " ?\$ #&00 " gi<en\$ Example &: 0y selling a horse for 9s . Find @>. =ad he sold i for 9s &: more 5 &:% 1ould ha<e been gained.ahesh sold a boo6 at a profit of &*%.%.\$ &00 . Solution: @> ! &: x &00 ' . Solution: S> ! ./0 a trader loses .

Find @ost >rice.#-/\$ ! &' =ence5@ost price ! ') x &00 &' ! )00 principle ! more money x &00 T x more rate Example &: 2 sum 1as put at S at a certain <alue for * years5 had it been put at 3% higher rate5 it 1ould ha<e fetch 300 more 5 find the sum. Solution: sum ! 300 x &00 *x3 ! .&\$ #n& .000 Shortcut &0: Time ! gi<en time#n* . Solution: =ere difference in >ercent is ( . t 1ould ha<e fetch ') more. =ad he be able to sell it at a gain of (%.&\$ .! 300 Example *: 2 man sold a horse at a loss of /%.

=o1 many man are needed to complete the 1or6 in )0 days.&\$ *-& ! *& Shortcut &0: Time and 1or6 : m& x d& x h& x 1* ! m* x d* x h* x 1& 1here 5 m& 5 m* ! number of men or 1omen gi<en d& 5 d* ! number of days gi<en h& 5 h* ! number of hours gi<en 1& 5 1* ! any 1or6 gi<en Example &: &' men can do a piece of 1or6 in &0 days. Solution: t! )#: . Solution: t! /#) .&\$ *-& ! *: Example *: 2 sum of money double itself in / years 5 in ho1 many years it 1ill become ) times of itself. .Example &: 2 sum of money double itself in ) years 5 in ho1 many years 1ill it become : times of itself .

f : men lea<e the Bob 5 ho1 many trees 1ill be cut in &* hours. or #/m " .*m "('b m ! *b no15 #/m " &0b\$ x days ! #&*m " &'b\$ x . Example 3: f &* men and &' boys can do a piece of 1or6 in . days and &3 men and *) boys can do it in ) days5 ho1 long 1ill / men and &0 boys ta6e to do it. Solution: here 5 )0 x : x 1* ! 3* x &* x '0 !4 1* !/* hence /* trees 1ill be cut.Solution: here 5 m& x d& ! m* x d* !4 &' x &0 ! m* x )0 !4 m* ! ) hence ) men are required.%3 days f t1o <alues are respecti<ely x% and y% more than a third <alue5 then the first is &00 " x &00 " y x &00 of the second Example &: . Solution: m& x d& x h& x 1* ! m* x d* x h* x 1& . Example *: )0 men can cut '0 trees in : hours.#&*m " &'b\$ ! )#&3m " *)b\$ '0m " :0 b ! .m\$ x days ! '0m " )0m days ! &00%&* ! *.

x &00 ! :0% .% of a third number5 1hat percentage is the first of the second. Solution: *0 *.0% more than a third 5 1hat percentage is the first of the second Solution: &*0 &.0 x &00 ! :0% Shortcut &*: f 2 is x% of @ and 0 is y% of @ then 2 is x y x &00 % of 0 Example &: T1o numbers are respecti<ely *0% and *.T1o numbers are respecti<ely *0% and .