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Saudi Aramco

Inspection Department

Training & Contractor Workforce Saudization Group

INSPECT NEW PIPING


PEW-405.01

The training materials contained in this module are the property of the Saudi Arabian Oil Company (Saudi Aramco) and are intended for the exclusive use of Saudi Aramco employees enrolled in advanced inspection training courses Any material contained in this manual !hich is not already in the public domain" may not be copied" reproduced" sold" given or disclosed to third parties or other!ise used" in !hole or in part" for purposes other than for use in Saudi Aramco#s $rofessional %ngineering Development &nit courses !ithout the prior !ritten permission of the Chief %ngineer of Saudi Aramco

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REVISIONS

DATE '()*+)*,

REVISION DESCRIPTION CO-$.%T% /%0ISIO1


S & 2AS3A" S CA0%" - A44AD

PAGE S! A""ECTED A..

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#OD$%E CO#PONENT O25%CTI0%S Terminal Ob6ective %nabling Ob6ectives I1T/OD&CTIO1 I1S$%CT $I$%S 1ominal $ipe Si7e $ipe 8all Thic9ness $ipe -anufacturing $rocesses Seamless $ipe %lectric /esistance;8elded $ipe (%/8) Submerged Arc;8elded $ipe Spiral;8elded $ipe <urnace;8elded $ipe $ipe -aterial $iping Class I1S$%CT $I$% <ITTI1>S %lbo!s'' Tees and Crosses /educers .aterals Couplings or 3alf;Couplings $ipe Caps and $lugs Integrally /einforced 2ranch Connections I1S$%CT $I$% 5OI1TS Threaded 5oints -aximum 5oint Si7e Seal !elding Thread %ngagement 8elded 5oints $reparation for 8elding

PAGE ' ' ' ( , , , : : : + + + + = ? '' '( '@ '@ ', ': '? '? '? 'A (* (* ('

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Cleaning %nd $reparation $ositive -aterial Identification $reheating $ost !eld;heat treatment 2utt;8elds Soc9et 8elds <illet 8eld <langed 5oints <lange Standards Types of <langes Types of <lange <acing >as9ets and >as9et Types Stud bolts and nuts 5ac9scre!s <lange Tolerances <lange 2olt;up $rocedure Causes of <lange .ea9age Safety of <langed 5oints Assembly I1S$%CT 0A.0%S I1S$%CT S&$$O/TS A1D /%ST/AI1TS >eneral >uidelines Types of Supports /igid Supports <lexible or /esilient Supports Types of /estraints Stops += >uides += Anchors I1S$%CT COATI1> I1S$%CT I1S&.ATIO1 Insulation Components Insulation

(' (' (( (( (: (= @* @' @( @, @, @= ,* ,, ,+ ,+ ,= :( :@ :: := := :A +' +, ++

+A =' =( =( =( iii

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5ac9et =+ Adhesives and Sealants Accessories Insulation types 3ot Insulation systems Cold Insulation systems types I1S$%CT C/OSS;CO&1T/B $I$%.I1%S Components &ses ?, &nderground $ipelines Aboveground $ipelines Submarine $ipelines %C%/CIS% ' I1S$%CT $I$I1> %C%/CIS% ( I1S$%CT $I$% <ITTI1>S %C%/CIS% @ I1S$%CT $I$% 5OI1TS %C%/CIS% , <.A1>%D 5OI1TS" >AS4%TS D ST&D 2O.TS %C%/CIS% : I1S$%CT $I$% S&$$O/TS D /%ST/AI1TS %C%/CIS% + I1S$%CT I1S&.ATIO1 ?, ?+ ?A A* A( A: A? '*' '*, =? =A ?* ?' ?' ?@ ?@

%C%/CIS% = I1S$%CT C/OSS CO&1T/B $I$I1> D A$$.ICA2.% COD%S D STA1DA/DS '*+ >.OSSA/B ADD%1D&- 2 D%TAI. O< 3%A0B 8%.DI1> 2OSS ADD%1D&- C I1S&.ATIO1 I1S$%CTIO1 C3%C4.IST '*? ''= '(*

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OBJECTIVES

O&'ECTIVES Ter(ina) O*+ecti,e


&pon completion of this module" the $articipant !ill be able to inspect ne! plant piping using the appropriate references" tools" and eEuipment" and according to applicable Saudi Aramco and industry standards

Ena*)ing O*+ecti,eIn order to accomplish the Terminal Ob6ective" the $articipant !ill be able toF $erform inspection on ne! plant piping $erform inspection on ne! cross;country pipelines

Note:

This training material has been developed using the latest available versions of appli able !audi "ram o and industr# standards. $o%ever& these do uments are regularl# updated. Therefore& it is the responsibilit# of the 'nspe tor to ensure that he is ondu ting his inspe tions a ording to the latest& updated version of these do uments.

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INFORMATION

INTROD$CTION
$iping systems are li9e arteries and veins in the oil industry $iping systems comprise of pipes" flanges" bolting" gas9ets" valves etc They also include pipe hangers" supporting elements and other items necessary to prevent over pressuri7ation and overstressing of the pressure containing components 3ence" one can say that pipe section !hen fitted !ith valves and other mechanical eEuipment and properly supported by hangers and supports are called piping The function of piping systems is to safely contain and convey fluids from one location to another The follo!ing are general types of piping systems used for Saudi Aramco pro6ectsF $lant piping Cross;country pipelines

$lant piping is used !ithin the boundaries of a process plant" such as a petroleum refinery or chemical plant $lant piping transports liEuids or gases from one item of plant eEuipment to another" or bet!een plots !ithin one plant area $lant eEuipment consists of items such as compressors" furnaces" heat exchangers" pressure vessels" pumps" and storage tan9s Cross;country pipelines are used outside the boundaries of process plants They convey liEuid petroleum" petroleum products" liEuid;gas mixtures" or natural gas Depending on the application" these pipelines connect plants or facilities such as !ellheads" >OS$s" $umping or compressing facilities" Oil termination and shipping facilities" /efineries and chemical plants" Temporary storage facilities" >as treating" >as metering and regulation" >as mains" >as service to end users The $iping Inspector shall be 9no!ledgeable on all aspects and components of a piping system including the follo!ingF $ipes <ittings 5oints 0alves Supports and hangers Insulation

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INFORMATION

<urthermore" the Inspector shall also be reEuired to inspect cross;country pipelines includingF &nderground pipelines Aboveground pipelines

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INFORMATION

INSPECT PIPES
$ipe is a pressure;tight cylinder used to convey a fluid or to transmit a fluid pressure and conforms to the dimensional reEuirements ofF AS-% 2@+ '*AS-% 2@+ 'A8elded and Seamless 8rought Steel $ipe Stainless Steel $ipe

The Inspector verifies that the pipe conforms to the pro6ect specification and design dra!ings The follo!ing five items should be verified for the pipeF 1ominal pipe si7e (1$S) $ipe !all thic9ness (Schedule number) -ethod of fabrication $ipe -aterial $iping Class

No(ina) Pipe Size


1ominal pipe si7e (1$S) is a dimensionless designator of pipe si7e It indicates standard pipe si7e !hen follo!ed by the specific si7e designation number !ithout an inch symbol <or 1$S '( and smaller" the pipe has an outside diameter greater than the si7e designator 3o!ever" for 1$S ', and larger" the pipe diameter !ill be the same as the si7e designator in inches <or example" for a 1$S (" the Inspector should verify that the pipe outside diameter is ( @=: in <or 1$S ', pipe" the Inspector shall measure an outside diameter eEuals to ', in The inside diameter !ill vary depending on pipe !all thic9ness ( or schedule number)

Pipe Wa)) T.ickne--

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INFORMATION

$ipe !all thic9ness is expressed by the term schedule The inspector chec9s the schedule number" such as :" :S" '*" '*S" (*" (*S" @*" @*S" ,*" ,*S" +*" ?*" ?*S" '**" '(*" ',*" '+* A schedule number indicates the approximate value of the expression '*** $)S" !here $ is the service pressure and S is the allo!able stress" both expressed in pounds per sEuare inch ($SI) The higher the schedule number" the thic9er the pipe is The suffix GSH is added to schedule number to differentiate bet!een stainless steel from carbon steel

Pipe #anufacturing Proce--eA description of pipe should include the manufacturing process 8hen the engineer is selecting material" the pipe manufacturing process !ill help him determine the potential overall Euality of the pipe The $iping Inspector verifies that the pipe is manufactured using one of the follo!ing five processesF Seamless pipe %lectric resistance;!elded pipe (%/8) Submerged arc;!elded pipe Spiral;!elded pipe <urnace;!elded pipe

Sea()e-- Pipe
The Euality of the manufacturing processes varies" !ith seamless pipe having the probability of fe!est defects and furnace;!elded pipe the !orst 2ecause there is no seam in the seamless pipe" the 6oint Euality factor is ' * (/efer to $%8;,*( *( for more information on %6)

E)ectric Re-i-tance/We)ded Pipe ERW!


>enerally %/8 pipe are cheaper and faster to produce than the seamless pipes because the production process reEuires less energy and the forming machinery#s last longer The dimension control of %/8 could be close to perfect 3o!ever" manufacturing Euality controls and inspection procedures to identify defects are very critical to insure high Euality pipes The nature of manufacturing of %/8 pipe could lead to gross defects in the !eld seam !here lac9 of fusion is al!ays possible

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INFORMATION

SA%S;.;'@+ prohibits the use of %/8 pipe for ha7ardous service for plant piping %/8 pipe is acceptable for pipelines

Su*(erged Arc/We)ded Pipe


The submerged arc;!elding process is the most common for manufacturing carbon steel pipe %lectric resistance;!elded pipe and submerged arc;!elded pipe are high;Euality pipes that are suitable for most services -ost cross;country pipelines consist of one of these t!o types of pipe Since they contain a longitudinal seam" ho!ever" they may not be as high a Euality as seamless pipe The 6oint Euality factor for these t!o processes is usually ta9en bet!een * ? and' *" depending on the piping design code" the material specification" and the degree of inspection

Spira)/We)ded Pipe
Spiral;!elded pipe is used primarily for cross;country pipeline services" !here the specifications and !eld details that are used result in a 6oint Euality factor of * =: to ' * $er SA%S;.;'@+" for plant piping conforming to AS-% 2@' @ and at permanently manned facilities" spiral;!elded pipe shall not be used in sour gas service unless it is stress relief heat treated in a furnace at '':*I< for one hour Spiral;!elded pipe may be used for sour liEuid lines

"urnace/We)ded Pipe
<urnace;!elded pipe is generally the lo!est cost (and lo!est Euality) pipe that fe! oil industries permit using in their facilities The Euality of the !elded 6oint is not as high as in the %/8 or SA8 processes Saudi Aramco %ngineering Standards SA%S;.;'@+ prohibits the use of furnace;!elded pipe for ha7ardous services

Pipe #ateria)
$ipe for plant applications shall be seamless or single;longitudinal seam submerged arc; !elded and conform to one of the follo!ingF A$I Spec :." >rade 2 through C+* AST- A:@" Seamless >rade 2" blac9 (not galvani7ed) AST- A'*+" >rade 2

$ipe for cross;country pipelines shall conform to one of the follo!ingF %lectric /esistance 8elded (%/8) pipe in accordance !ith *';SA-SS;*@@ or A$I :." %lectric 8elded .ine $ipe or Spiral;!elded pipe in accordance !ith *'; SA-SS;*@:" A$I .ine $ipe If *';

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INFORMATION

SA-SS;*@: pipe is not available" A$I :. or AST- A'*+ pipe may be used" provided it meets the chemical composition and hardness test reEuirements that are specified in *'; SA-SS;*@: <or !et" sour service" the pipe must be seamless" or conform to *'; SA-SS;*'+" Sour" 8et Service .ine $ipe" for !elded pipe

Piping C)a-A document indicating the dimensional material specifications of pipes" fittings and valve types is called piping class %ach class represents distinct features such as pressure; temperature conditions" corrosion resistance and strength abilities or combination The $iping Inspector verifies the pipe class" !hich is designated by ,;alpha;numeric fields containing one or t!o characters each as follo!s "ir-t "ie)d The first field defines the pressure rating and consists of one or t!o numeric characters /efer to SA%$;.;'*:" paragraph = ( ' Second "ie)d The second field defines the pipe material and consists of t!o alpha characters /efer to SA%$;.;'*:" paragraph = ( ( T.ird "ie)d The third field defines the corrosion or erosion allo!ance and consists of one numeric character /efer to SA%$;.;'*:" paragraph = ( @ "ourt. "ie)d The fourth field defines the service and consists of one alpha character /efer to SA%$; .;'*:" paragraph = ( , An example of a complete piping line class designator is J@CS'$J This designator specifies an AS-% pressure class @**" carbon steel piping system !ith ' + mm corrosion allo!ance designed for general hydrocarbon process service

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INFORMATION

INSPECT PIPE "ITTINGS


$ipe fittings are used extensively in process plants as !ell as other piping systems They serve the overall process in many aspects" such asF Change the flo! direction 2ring t!o or more pipes together Divert a single flo! into t!o branching flo!s or more Alter the pipe diameter Tap the process for temperature or pressure readings Terminate a pipe There are several !ays or techniEues for connecting a fitting to a pipe <or the most part" the Inspector should be familiar !ith the follo!ing techniEues Threading Soc9et;!elded 2utt;!elded

Note: (ore information on onne tion te hni)ues %ill be given later in the (odule. There are many types of pipe fittings Some are standard typesK others could be proprietary controlled by patent regulations 1onetheless" one of the duties of a Saudi Aramco Inspector is to confirm that the fittings used for the pro6ect are sourced from an approved manufacturer per SA%S;.;'*' The t!o primary design standards that are used for pipe fittings areF AS-% 2'+ A" <actory;-ade 8rought Steel 2utt;8elding <ittings AS-% 2'+ ''" <orged Steel <ittings" Soc9et;8elding and Threaded

AS-% 2'+ ''" <orged Steel <ittings" Soc9et;8elding and Threaded" contains a basis for pressure)temperature ratings for these piping components Threaded fittings are designated as $ressure Class (***" @*** and +*** Soc9et;!elded fittings are designated as $ressure Class @***" +***" or A***

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INFORMATION

The follo!ing table summari7es the pipe schedule that corresponds to each fitting pressure class for rating purposesF

Rating of T.readed and Socket We)d "itting-

The Inspector shall also be able to differentiate bet!een the standard types of fittings" such as (See also <igure ')F %lbo!s Tees .aterals Couplings Caps D $lugs Stub;ends

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INFORMATION

"igure 01 #o-t Co((on T2pe- of "itting-

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INFORMATION

E)*o3%lbo!s are used to change the direction of a pipe run Standard elbo!s change the direction by either ,:I or A*I .ong;radius elbo!s have a bend radius of ';')( times the nominal pipe si7e" and short;radius elbo!s have a bend radius eEual to the nominal pipe si7e The long;radius elbo! is more commonly used Short;radius elbo!s are normally only used if there is a space restriction for the piping system layout <or butt;!elded elbo!s" the Inspector should verify the !all thic9ness" !hich should be identical to that of the ad6acent pipe sections" since it is normally made from comparable material 3o!ever" the thic9ness at the crotch" inner section" shall be thic9er than the nominal !all thic9ness and at least '*L for grade 2 as reEuired by *(;SA-S;**: Small;bore elbo!s" ( inches and smaller" are usually forged and very thic9 The Inspector verifies that street elbo!s" one end !ith female threads and the other end !ith male threads (<igure (C)" !ill not be used as per the reEuirements of SA%S;.;'*: Additionally" reducing elbo!s are not permitted The Inspector chec9s to verify that no drain" vent" or other branch connection to elbo!s is present

"igur e 41

T2pe- of E)*o3-

Tee- and Cro--eAs sho!n in <igure @" tees provide for the intersection of three sections of pipe A straight tee has eEual diameters for both the run and branch pipe connections A reducing;outlet tee has a branch diameter" !hich is smaller in si7e than the run diameter A cross is a special type of tee" !hich permits the intersection of four sections of pipe A cross is rarely seen in process plant applications As sho!n in <igure @" crosses are a special type of fittings that combines flo! from three directions into one or visa versa

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INFORMATION

Tees and crosses are mostly used in plant utility piping" such as instrument air or 1itrogen lines Tees are designed !ith extra thic9ness in the area !here the branch connects !ith the run The extra thic9ness provides reinforcement to compensate for the strength reduction that is caused by the hole cut in the run The Inspector should verify that no street tees (!ith male threads) are used per SA%S;.;'*:

"igure 51 Variou- T2pe- of Tee- and Cro--e-

Reducer/educers change the diameter in a straight section of pipe" and are either of the concentric or eccentric type (See <igure ,) The centerlines of the large and small diameter ends coincide in a concentric reducer" !hereas they are offset in an eccentric type %ccentric reducers simplify the support point structural design of hori7ontal pipe runs by 9eeping both pipe diameters at the same bottom;of;pipe elevation The !all thic9ness of a reducer !ill typically be identical to that of the ad6acent pipe sections" since they are made of comparable material

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"igur e 61

Socket Set Reducer-

%atera).aterals are special types of tees as sho!n in <igure : In this case" the branch connection enters the header at an angle" normally ,:I A lateral is used in situations !here it is necessary for the t!o flo! streams to combine in a less abrupt transition than provided by a standard A*I tee

"igur e 71

T.readed Coup)ing-

Coup)ing- or 8a)f/Coup)ing<igure + sho!s various types of couplings" full or half" !hich are primarily used to ma9e an attachment bet!een a @?;mm (';')( in ) or smaller diameter pipe and a larger diameter header A coupling is also sometimes used to connect t!o small diameter pipe sections" rather than butt !elding them together

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"igure 91 T.readed and Socket/We)ded Coup)ing-

Pipe Cap- and P)ugAs sho!n in <igure =" pipe caps are used to close off the end of a pipe section This is analogous to the head on a pressure vessel A pipe cap rather than a blind flange is used in situations !here it is 9no!n that the pipe end !ill not have to be opened The !all thic9ness of a butt;!elded pipe cap !ill typically be identical to that of the ad6acent pipe section <or ( inch;diameter piping and smaller" a threaded or soc9et !eld cap may be used Also" a pipe plug serves the same purpose in a threaded or soc9et; !elded piping system" !here the plug !ill close the coupling or the !elding boss The Inspector verifies that caps and plugs are properly tightened to preclude any lea9age Additionally" the Inspector must chec9 that the plug is of the round;headed type as opposed to a hexagonal or sEuare type per the reEuirements of SA%S;.;'*:

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INFORMATION

"igure :1 Cap- and P)ug-

Integra))2 Reinforced &ranc. ConnectionA !elding outlet fitting" or integrally reinforced branch connection" sho!n in <igure ?" is another method of fabricating an intersection bet!een t!o sections of pipe This type of forged fitting is designed such that all the reinforcement reEuired to strengthen the opening is contained !ithin the forged fitting itself The hole is cut in the header pipe and the fitting is then !elded to it A !elding outlet fitting is often a less expensive alternative to a butt;!elding tee" and is often used as a substitute It also may be the preferred option !hen designing branch connections into large;diameter headers for high pressure or high;temperature conditions" rather than using !elded;on reinforcement pads &sing <igure A of SA%S;.;''*" the Inspector should be able to chec9 the selection of branch fittings for ne! construction based on header and branch si7es The type of branch fittings are classified as follo!sF /egion 'F /egion (F %Eual tee /educing tee

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/egion @F /egion ,F /egion :F

/educing tee or branch !eld !ith reinforcing pad or full encirclement sleeve 8eldolet or branch !eld !ith reinforcing pad 8eldolet" soc9olet" threadolet" or !elding boss per SASD A%;*@+'=: and A%;*@++,@ (See Addendum 2)

<or example" the Inspector notes that a (H branch is connected to a ,H header <rom <igure A (or Chart ' in SA%S;.;''*)" he finds out that the branch connection should be a reducing tee The Inspector must also chec9 that the follo!ing items related to branch connectionsF A maximum tolerance of M @ mm from design dra!ings for the location of connections shall not be exceeded per SA%S;.;@:* The lateral transition of branches and connections from the centerline of the run shall not exceed M ' : mm per SA%S;.;@:* 2ranch connections" , inch and smaller" including drain and vent valves and drip legs of all si7es" shall be located at a minimum hori7ontal distance of +'* mm ((, inches) from any fixed obstruction per SA%S;.;@'*

"igure ;1 Integra))2 Reinforced &ranc. Connection-

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"igure <1 Se)ection of *ranc. fitting per SAES/%/00=

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INSPECT PIPE 'OINTS


As discussed earlier for pipe fitting connections" the Inspector should be 9no!ledgeable on the main pipe 6ointing methodsF Threaded 5oints 8elded 5oints <langed 5oints

T.readed 'ointA threaded fitting has pipe threads machined into its bore The fitting is scre!ed into matching threads on the pipe end Threaded fittings are easy to install and useful in areas !here freEuent maintenance mandate assembling and dissembling process freEuently It has been the general industry practice to avoid threaded connections as much as possible in flammable and toxic services As per SA%S;.;''*" threaded 6oints should be avoided in any service !here revi e orrosion" severe erosion" or cyclic loading may occur <or threaded 6oints" the follo!ing items needs to be confirmed by the InspectorF -aximum 6oint si7e Seal !elding Thread engagement

#a>i(u( 'oint Size


In ha7ardous services" the Inspector should confirm that the maximum si7e of threaded connections is no more than 'N inches for standard fittings and valves (;inch 6oint connections may be used !hen reEuired for maintenance" minor field modifications of existing piping systems" and to match threaded specialty devices such as scraper signals and access fittings for corrosion monitoring In non;ha7ardous services" the Inspector should confirm the maximum si7e of threaded connections is no more than @ inches for standard fittings and valves" and , inches

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maximum on special items such as fire hydrants unless a larger si7e is approved by the assigned Chairman" $iping Standards Committee for the specific applicationF

Sea) 3e)ding
AS-% 2@' @ defines seal !elding as a !eld intended primarily to provide 6oint tightness against lea9age in metallic piping In Saudi Aramco" seal !elding is reEuired for threaded 6oints in flammable and toxic services per SA%S;.;''* 8here seal !elding is reEuired" the seal !eld shall be a fillet !eld going from the outer diameter of the female part" and it should be smooth !ith slight concavity as allo!ed by AS-% 2@'" to the male part covering all exposed threads !ithout undercut The Inspector should chec9 that no $T<% (Teflon) tape or 6oint compounds are used in threaded connections reEuiring seal !elding The limitations on seal !elding are given as belo!F Seal !elding of all threaded 6oints up to the first bloc9 valve is reEuired in the follo!ing services and applicationsF All hydrocarbons 2oiler feed !ater" condensate" and steam systems utili7ing AS-% Class @** and higher flange ratings Toxic materials such as chlorine" phenol" hydrogen sulphide" etc Corrosive materials such as acid" caustic" etc Oilfield chemicals (e g " corrosion inhibitors" emulsifiers" electrolytes" etc ) $iping !hich is sub6ect to vibration" !hether continuous or intermittent

Seal !elding is not reEuired for the follo!ing services and applicationsF Thermo%ells 2ar stoc9 plugs do!nstream of a seal;!elded bloc9 valve Special devices such as access fittings and scraper signals 5oints !hich reEuire freEuent disassembly and are located do!nstream of a seal !elded bloc9 valve" e g " sample connections Instrument piping do!nstream of the primary instrument isolation valve $ipe union ring threads and 6oints !ith elastomer o;rings

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INFORMATION

Threaded 6oints" do!nstream of a seal !elded root valve" !hich discharge directly to an open drainage system or to the atmosphere %xtended body valves !ith integrally reinforced !elding end per A$I STD +*(

T.read Engage(ent
A minimum thread engagement must be maintained to insure integrity of the threaded connection and to preclude possibility of lea9age The minimum length of the engaged threads pipe shall meet the reEuirements of AS-% 2' (* ' for taper pipe thread The minimum number of engaged pipe threads shall meet the reEuirements of the follo!ing table T.read Engage(ent Re?uire(ent- for Taper Pipe T.readNu(*er of T.read- Engaged
+ = ? '*

No(1 Pipe Size ')(J D @),J 'J through ';')(J (J through @J ,J

We)ded 'oint8elding is one of the primary !ays of 6oining pipe 8elded 6oints represent the ultimate in safety and reliability As discussed in $%8;,*( (8elding Inspection I)" !elding should be carried out using a Eualified procedure and !elders Included in the standard procedure are base;metal specifications" electrode" 6oint preparation" !eld position" !elding process" techniEues" electrical details" preheat and interpass temperatures" and post;!eld heat treatment reEuirements The Inspector should follo! the same seEuence for pre;!elding and !elding inspection as detailed in $%8;,*( and $%8;,*@" respectively Specific information related to pre; !elding and !elding inspection for piping 6oints !ill be briefly discussed in this module" such asF $reparation for !elding Cleaning

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INFORMATION

5oint preparation $ositive -aterial Identification $re;heating $ost !eld heat treatment

In addition" this module !ill briefly discuss the standard reEuirements" including AS-% 2@'" for the three types of !elding 6oints i e butt;!elded" soc9et" and fillet 6oints

Preparation for We)ding


2efore any !elding is done" the specific details of ho! it !ill be carried out" i e the !elding procedure must be specified and demonstrated to achieve acceptable results %ach of the AS-%)A1SI 2@' Codes" plus modifications contained in SA%S;8;*'' or SA%S;8;*'( as applicable" specify !elding procedure Eualification reEuirements 8elding procedure Eualification demonstrates that the approach specified for doing the !eld !ill achieve acceptable results !hen properly applied The next step is to Eualify the particular !elders and !elding eEuipment to carry out the specific !elding procedure 3ere again" the relevant AS-%)A1SI 2@' Code plus Saudi Aramco reEuirements must be met SA%$;@(, specifies ho! to register certified !elder and provide 5CC The result of these t!o steps is that both the !elding procedure" and the individuals and eEuipment executing it" have been confirmed to produce acceptable results

C)eaning
Internal and external surface to be thermally cut or !elded shall be clean and free from paint" oil" rust" scale" or other material that !ould be detrimental to either the !eld or base metal !hen heat is applied If such items are not cleaned" they could mix !ith the !eld metal at elevated temperatures and result in poor Euality !elds

End Preparation
The ends of the components to be !elded must be set to the correct geometric shape suitable for the materials" !all thic9ness" and !elding process involved 5oint design shall comply !ith the follo!ingF 8hen !all thic9ness ratio of 6oined pipes is less than or eEual to ' :" 6oint design details shall comply !ith the respective AS-% 2@' design code

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INFORMATION

8hen !all thic9ness ratio of 6oined pipes is greater than ' :" end preparations and geometry shall comply !ith AS-% 2'+ (: J2utt 8elding %ndsJ /efer to <igure '@ for graphic details of 6oint design per AS-% 2@' , 8hen the !all thic9ness of the fitting or pipe at the !elding end exceeds the !all thic9ness of the matching pipe resulting in an uneEual external and)or internal diameters" the !elded 6oint design shall comply !ith <ig ,@, ? +(a);(() of AS-% 2@' , (See <igure '@)

%nd preparation is acceptable only if the surface is reasonably smooth and true" and slag from oxygen or arc cutting is cleaned from thermally cut surfaces Discoloration that remains on a thermally cut surface is not considered to be detrimental oxidation

Po-iti,e #ateria) Identification


An alloy is used (including !elding filler materials)" such as chromium" nic9el" or molybdenum" to enhance mechanical or physical properties and)or corrosion resistance of the material (pipes" fittings" valves" etc) In order to verify conformance for the use of alloys and their respective constituents" SA%S;A;(*+ reEuires positive material identification ($-I) be conducted on the alloying elements $-I is a physical evaluation or test of a material to confirm that the material that has been or !ill be placed into service is consistent !ith the selected or specified alloy material Typically" the alloys reEuired to be verified are listed in the follo!ing table

&a-ic A))o2 Carbon;-olybdenum" -anganese;-olybdenum" and Chromium;-olybdenum steels 1ic9el steels /egular carbon grade stainless steels .o!;carbon stainless steels Stabili7ed stainless steels 1ic9el;based alloys Copper;based alloys

E)e(ent- to *e Verified Chromium and -olybdenum 1ic9el Chromium" 1ic9el" and -olybdenum Chromium" 1ic9el" -olybdenum" and Carbon Chromium" 1ic9el" -olybdenum" Titanium and 1iobium 1ic9el" Iron" Copper" Chromium" and -olybdenum Copper" Oinc" and other elements specified in purchase order or SA-S catalog description

Pre.eating
This is used" along !ith heat treatment" to minimi7e the detrimental effects of high temperature and severe thermal gradients that are inherent in !elding The necessity for preheating and the temperature to be used shall be specified in the engineering design

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and stated by procedure Eualification The follo!ing identifies specific benefits of preheatingF Dries the metal and removes surface moisture" !hich" if present" !ould result in porosity of the !eld metal /educes the temperature difference bet!een the base metal and the !eld to reduce the cooling rate of the !eldment" lo!ers the !eld hardness to reduce residual stresses" and reduces cooling)shrin9age stresses 3elps maintain the !eld pool molten for a longer time to permit maximum fluxing and separation of impurities 3elps drive off absorbed gases (such as hydrogen) !hich could contribute to !eld porosity

The Inspector should revie! specific preheat temperature reEuirements as specified in AS-%)A1SI 2@' Codes based on the base metal ($ or S numbers)" !eld metal (A number) and !all thic9ness that are being 6oined (See <igure '') As per SA%S;8;*''" The preheat temperature shall be established over a minimum distance of =: mm on each side of the !eld Note: *or more information on pre-heating& refer to Welding 'nspe tion +ourse PEW40,.

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"igure 001 Pre/.eat te(perature- AS#E &5015!

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Po-t 3e)d/.eat treat(ent


$ost !eld heat treatment ($83T) is used to avert or relieve the detrimental effects of high temperature and severe temperature gradients that are inherent in !elding" and to relieve residual stresses that are created by bending and forming The follo!ing summari7es the principal reasons for $83TF Stress relief is the most common reason for specifying $83T" and is the only consideration for the reEuirements that are specified in the AS-%)A1SI 2@' Codes /esidual stresses !ill remain in the pipe and result from shrin9age as the !eld and ad6acent pipe metal cool do!n from elevated !elding temperatures /esidual stresses !ill also remain after bending or forming processes If these residual stresses are too high" they can lead to premature failure of the pipe AS-%)A1SI 2@' Code reEuirements specify !hen $83T is reEuired to relieve these residual stresses and bring the pipe to an initial stress;free state $83T is also reEuired to reduce fabrication stresses to minimi7e the potential for stress;corrosion crac9ing in certain process environments" such as caustic" amines" and !et 3(S After !elding the normal grades of stainless steels (i e " those that are not stabili7ed !ith alloy additions)" it is necessary to heat;treat the material to restore maximum corrosion resistance $83T is reEuired to prevent caustic embrittlement of !elded carbon steel pipe that handles al9aline solutions Caustic embrittlement is a form of stress corrosion !here the residual stresses due to !elding are sufficient to cause failure $83T is sometimes necessary to reduce !eld hardness in certain materials -inimi7ing !eld hardness reduces the tendency to crac9" especially in certain process environments such as caustic or !et 3(S

Specific heat treatment temperature and procedure reEuirements are specified in the appropriate AS-%)A1SI 2@' codes based on the pipe material and !all thic9ness being 6oined (See <igure '() In case of !elded components of varying thic9nesses" the Inspector should use the higher thic9ness value for $83T determination Note: *or more information on PW$T& refer to (etal Te hnolog# +ourse PEW-401.

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"igure 041 Re?uire(ent- for Po-t 3e)d .eat treat(ent AS#E &5015! &utt/We)d2utt;!elds are made bet!een t!o components !hose edges are in close proximity 2utt;!elded 6oints in piping systems are primarily of the single;0 configuration and are !elded from the pipe outside surface .arger diameter pipes" !hich can be accessed from the inside !ill often be !elded from both sides using a double;0 type of 6oint preparation The 6oint preparation and the procedure that is used ensure that there is complete fusion bet!een the edges of the components being 6oined 5oint designs per AS-% 2@' @ or 2@' , sho!n in <igure '@ or applicable combinations of these 6oint design details are typically used for ends of eEual thic9ness The transition bet!een ends of uneEual thic9ness may be accomplished by taper; grinding the thic9er pipe to match the thinner" or by using !eld metal to provide a smooth transition per AS-% 2@' @ or 2@' , as sho!n in <igure ', A prefabricated thic9ness transition section of not less than one;half pipe diameter in length is another means to ma9e the change bet!een pipe thic9nesses Component ends may also be trimmed to allo! for fitting a bac9ing ring (See <igures ': a" b) A bac9ing ring is a material in the form of a ring !hose primary function is to support molten !eld metal 8here component ends are trimmed" the Inspector should verify that the remaining net thic9ness of the finished ends is not less than the minimum reEuired !all thic9ness for the service conditions An alternative to a bac9ing ring is the consumable insert A consumable insert is a pre; placed filler metal that is completely fused into the root of the 6oint and becomes part of the !eld <igure @(? @ ( of AS-% 2@' @ sho!s typical bac9ing rings and consumable inserts (See <igure ':) AS-% 2 @' @ reEuires that bac9ing rings be removed !here the resultant crevice associated !ith bac9ing rings is sub6ect to corrosion" vibration or severe cyclic condition (para @'' ( @) In case of orifi e flanges" SA%S;5;'** reEuires that flanges be !eld;nec9 (as opposed to threaded or flanged) !ith an internal bore to match the pipe ID If bac9ing rings are used" then the Inspector has to verify their removal and confirm that the butt !eld is ground flush at the root inside the pipe per SA%S;5;'** 8hen it is impractical to remove the bac9ing ring" consideration shall be given to !elding !ithout bac9ing rings or through the use of consumable inserts It is permissible to si7e pipe ends to be of the same nominal si7e to improve alignment if !all thic9ness reEuirements are maintained

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8here necessary" !eld metal may be deposited inside or outside the component to permit alignment or provide for machining to ensure satisfactory seating of rings or inserts 2utt;!elds !ill al!ays be used to !eld pipe ends together" to !eld butt;!eld;type flanges or fittings to pipe ends" or to !eld the edges of formed plate together !hen plate is used to manufacture pipe

"igure 051 Accepta*)e &utt/We)ded 'oint De-ign for E?ua) Wa)) T.ickne-AS#E &5016!

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"igure 061 Accepta*)e &utt/We)ded 'oint De-ign for $ne?ua) Wa)) T.ickne-- AS#E &5016!

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"igure 071 T2pica) *acking ring- and con-u(a*)e in-ert- AS#E &5015! Socket We)dA soc9et;!elded;type fitting attachment is designed !ith a recess in its end to permit the pipe to be inserted The Inspector should confirm that the pipe is !ithdra!n approximately ' : mm (')'+in ) from the bottom of the recess The gap is needed in order to provide space to permit differential thermal expansion" !hich occurs during !elding and normal operation %xperience has sho!n that !ithout this gap the potential to develop crac9s in the fillet !eld is very high due to !eld contraction It should be noted that this gap should be provided prior to !elding only 1evertheless" if the Inspector notes that the gap has closed after the completion of !elding and no crac9s have developedK then there should be no !orries The axial gap shall be maximum of @ mm and minimum of ' : mm as per <ig @(? : ( C of AS-% 2 @' @ code (See <igure '+)

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"igure 091 #ini(u( 3e)ding di(en-ion- for -ocket 3e)ding co(ponentAS#E &5015!

Similar to threaded 6oints" the Inspector should verify that the maximum si7e of soc9et; !elded 6oints in ha7ardous services is 'N inches for ne! construction (SA%S;.;''*) The Inspector should allo! for a maximum 6oint si7e of ( inches in ha7ardous service for maintenance" minor field modifications of existing piping systems" and !hen necessary to match existing eEuipment connections <or sour service" the Inspector should not allo! soc9et;!elded 6oints to be used 3o!ever" in case they could not be avoided" the maximum si7e of soc9et;!elded 6oints shall be ' inch (SA%S;.;''*) >enerally" soc9et !elded 6oints should be avoided in any service !here crevice corrosion" severe erosion" or cyclic loading may occur

"i))et We)d
A fillet !eld consists of an angular !eld bead that 6oins components positioned normally at a A*I angle to each other <illet !elds may be concave to slightly convex in shape The si7e of a fillet !eld is stated as a leg length of the largest inscribed right isosceles triangle as sho!n in <igure '=

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"igure 0:1 Size of fi))et 3e)d AS#E &5015!

In piping systems" fillet !elds are only used for slip;on flanges (<igure '?)" soc9et !elds" and for !elding attachments to piping components (e g " reinforcing pads" supports" etc )

"igure 0;1 "i))et 3e)d- for -)ip/on f)ange- AS#E &5015!

")anged 'ointA flange is used to connect a pipe section to a piece of eEuipment" valve" or another pipe in a !ay that !ill permit relatively simple disassembly Such disassembly may be reEuired for maintenance" inspection or operational reasons <lange assembly is normally used for pipe si7es above @? mm (';')( in ) 1$S There are several standard types of pipe flanges A flange assembly consists of (See also <igure 'A)F

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T!o flanges A gas9et to provide a seal bet!een the flanges 2olting to 9eep the assembly together

"igure 0<1 ")ange a--e(*)2


One flange is attached to each of the items being 6oined <or example" a flanged valve may be installed in a piping system" and the pipe ends on each side of it !ill also have flanges A gas9et is a resilient material that is inserted bet!een the flanges and seated against the portion of the flanges called the GfaceH or GfacingH The gas9et provides the seal bet!een the fluid in the pipe and the outside" and thus prevents lea9age 2olts compress the gas9et to achieve the seal" and hold the flanges together against pressure and other loading There are several types of flanges" flange attachment methods" flange facings" and gas9et types The Inspector must be familiar !ith the follo!ing items as it relates to flanged 6ointsF <lange standards Types of flanges Types of flange facing Types of gas9ets

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Stud bolts and nuts 5ac9scre!s <lange bolt;up procedure Causes of flange lea9age Safety of flanged 6oint assembly

")ange StandardSaudi Aramco uses industry standards to define !hich flanges to be used in piping systems $iping is typically si7ed and purchased to meet standard diameters 2ecause standard pipe si7es are used" it is practical to have standard flange si7es and dimensions to assist manufacturer to reproduce Eualified flanges The Inspector should be familiar !ith the follo!ing industry and Aramco standardsF AS-% 2'+ : flanges A$I;+*: flanges -SS flanges AS-% 2'+ ,= flanges Saudi Aramco Special <langes" as specified by standard dra!ings listed in SA%S;.;'*A and *(;SA-SS;*''

T2pe- of ")angeT.readed ")angeA threaded flange has pipe threads machined into its bore (See <igure (*) The flange is scre!ed to matching treads on the pipe end Threaded flanges are used only for small diameter piping systems" up to :* mm (( in ) 1$S These flanges are used at locations !here pipe disassembly may be reEuired for maintenance" field modifications" or to match specialty fittings and valves

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"igure 4=1 T.readed f)ange-

Socket/We)ded ")angeA soc9et P !elded flange has an oversi7ed bore that is partially machined into the end opposite the face (See <igure (') The pipe is inserted into the soc9et and the flange fillet is !elded to the pipe outside diameter

"igure 401 Socket/3e)ded f)ange-

&)ind ")ange A blind flange is a flat metal plate that is used to bloc9 the flo! in a piping system (See <igure (() The flange is not attached to the pipe" but bolted to a mating flange It is used !hen a pipe end must be bloc9ed from flo!" but there still must be a means of internal access

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"igure 441 &)ind f)ange-1


S)ip @ on ")angeA slip P on flange has an oversi7ed bore It is slipped over the pipe outside diameter and pro6ects slightly beyond the pipe end (See <igure (@) The flange is then fillet !elded to the pipe outside diameter" and also bet!een the flange bore and the pipe end A slip on flange is lighter (i e " uses less material) and reEuires less !elding to the pipe 3o!ever a slip on flange is not suitable for high temperature" cyclic" high pressure or external loading situations

"igure 451 S)ip/on f)ange%apped ")angeA lapped flange (nearly identical to a slip;on flange) is not physically attached to the pipe It is slipped over a pipe stub that has a flared end" and the stub is !elded to the ma6or pipe section The flared pipe end has a machined face !here the gas9et is seated (See <igure (,) The bolting holds the flanges and gas9ets together 2ased on SA%S P .; '*A" Saudi Aramco prohibits the use of lap P 6oint flanges in severe cyclic conditions

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"igure 461 %apped f)angeWe)ding @ Neck ")angeA !elding P nec9 flange is the strongest of the standard flange attachment types The end of the flange is butt !elded to the end of the pipe The flange bore is si7ed to match the pipe bore (See <igure (:) A !elding P nec9 flange is the most !idely used in refinery services because of its greater strength and ability to be used at high temperature and cyclic service It is the heaviest and reEuires the most !elding

"igure 471 We)d/neck f)angeT2pe- of ")ange "acing


The area of a flange !here the gas9et is positioned is called the face or the facing The three primary flange facings are the flat face" raised face and ring 6oint Any of the flange attachment types that !ere described above" except for the lapped flange" may use any of these facings The facing for a lapped flange is located on the flared pipe stub end not on the flange ")at/"aced ")angeIn the flat;faced flange" the area !here the gas9et is located is at the same elevation as the surrounding flange surface There is no change in elevation in proceeding from the flange inside diameter to its outside diameter (See <igure (+) This provides uniform @=

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flange contact !ith the gas9et over a large surface" and limits local flange bending that is caused by bolt load A flat face is typically used only for cast or ductile iron flanges" !ith relatively lo!; strength material" or !hen a steel flange must mate to such a flange -inimi7ation of flange bending is necessary for cast iron" ductile iron" or other relatively lo! strength materials" but not for steel flanges Therefore" there are fe! applications for flat;face flanges in refinery or petrochemical services because there are relatively fe! applications !here such lo!;strength flange materials are acceptable Sheet;type gas9ets that extend from the flange inside diameter to the outside diameter (i e " full face) typically are used !ith flat;face flanges The Inspector should confirm that a flat;faced flange !ith a full;face gas9et is used !hen one or both of the mating flanges are cast iron" aluminum" plastic" or any other material that could be over stressed by the bolt load (SA%S;.;'*A) In addition" flat;face flanges are used for highly corrosive service !here contact of fluid !ith flange facing must be avoided

"igure 491 ")at faced f)ange


Rai-ed/"ace ")angeThe area !here the gas9et is located is higher than the surrounding flange surface" typically by ' : mm (')'+ in ) This raised;face portion of the flange has a specially machined" serrated finish that is suitable for the typical gas9et types used in process plant applications (See <igure (=) Any gas9et type" other than a ring type" may be used !ith a raised;face flange The raised face results in much less contact area and higher gas9et contact stresses as compared to a flat face The gas9et is compressed and sealed only in the area of the raised face The Inspector should chec9 that the raised surface has smooth machine finish" @ (;+ , micrometer AA/3 (arithmetic average roughness height)" usually specified for use !ith spiral;!ound gas9ets The Inspector chec9s for any ridges" scratches" unevenness of

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the raised face since this !ill result in possible 6oint lea9age The Inspector should also verify that the face is free of dirt A raised;face flange is used for a very broad range of services" and is the most common type used in Saudi Aramco plants

"igure 4:1 Rai-ed/faced f)ange

Ring/'oint ")angeA ring;6oint flange face consists of a groove that is machined into the flange end (See <igure (?) The Inspector should verify that the sealing surfaces of the groove are smoothly finished to +@ micro;inch surface roughness The Inspector also verifies that the surface is free of any detrimental ridges or tool mar9s The presence of such surface defects !ill result in a lea9ing 6oint" since a very smooth contact surface is reEuired to achieve a lea9;proof" metal;to;metal seal A solid metal ring type gas9et is inserted in the groove The ring;6oint flange is used for the most severe service applications !here the other possible flange face and gas9et combinations !ill not provide acceptable performance Typically" these are high; pressure and)or high;temperature services 2ased on SA%S;.;'*A" a ring;6oint flange is reEuired for steel flanges of Class A** and higher" for design temperatures over ,?*IC (A**I<)" or for under!ater pipelines in Class @** and higher

"igure 4;1 Ring +oint f)ange

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Ga-ket- and Ga-ket T2peThe gas9et provides the seal in a flange assembly The Inspector must be familiar !ith the four general gas9et types that are typically used in pipe flanges for process plant and pipeline applicationsF Spiral !ound gas9ets Solid metal ring gas9ets Sheet gas9ets Insulating gas9ets ($i9ote9)

The Inspector must verify that the gas9et type" rating" and dimension per pro6ect specification and service conditions 3e chec9s for damage particularly in the seating element Spira)/Wound Ga-ketA spiral;!ound gas9et is manufactured by alternately !inding strips of metal and soft filler material around a mandrel (See <igure (A) -ost spiral;!ound gas9ets that are used for piping applications are supplied !ith an outer metal guide or retaining ring The retaining ring outside diameter is typically si7ed to 6ust contact the flange bolts" and thus serves as a gas9et alignment aid The retaining ring also acts as a compression limit stop to prevent over;compressing the gas9et material during flange bolt;up An inner retaining ring may also be supplied The Inspector should be familiar !ith selection reEuirements based on SA%S;.;'*A for spiral;!ound gas9ets $er SA%S;.;'*A" spiral;!ound Type @'+ stainless;steel gas9ets !ith a flexible graphite filler and a carbon steel guide ring are used !ith raised;faced flanges in most services This includes most process hydrocarbon and steam services In an oxidi7ing environment" the maximum use temperature is limited to ,:,IC (?:*I<) <or operating temperatures belo! ;,:IC (; :*I<)" the guide ring shall be Type @*, stainless steel

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"igure 4<1 Spira)/3ound ga-ketThe Inspector must also inspect the proper storage reEuirements for spiral !ound gas9ets $er SA%$;@:'" the Inspector must verify that gas9ets are stored flat especially for si7es (, inches and larger #eta) Ring/'oint Ga-ket-etal ring gas9ets come into t!o basic shapes" an oval cross section and an octagonal cross;section (See <igure @*) The octagonal ring seals by surface !edging contact !ith the flange groove" and the oval ring seals by line contact Therefore" the oval ring is some!hat more tolerant of slight flange misalignments than the octagonal ring" and still provides a tight seal In addition" the same bolt load !ill result in a higher local gas9et contact stress and thus a potentially tighter 6oint !ith an oval ring <urther" an octagonal ring cannot fit into older ring;6oint flanges that have a round bottom groove

"igure 5=1 #eta))ic ring ga-ket-

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/ing;6oint gas9ets are typically softer than the flange grooves Therefore" the gas9et" rather than the groove" !ill deform slightly under the applied bolt load A variety of ring materials are available to suit the particular service needs The most common materials are iron or soft steel" ,;+L chrome" and stainless steels A solid metal ring;type gas9et is used only !ith ring;6oint;type flanges The Inspector should be familiar !ith SA%S;.;'*A selection reEuirements for ring;6oint gas9et" as follo!sF The soft iron" octagonal ring;6oint gas9ets shall be used !ith AS-% 2'+ :" -SS; S$;,," or Saudi Aramco standard ring 6oint flanges <or AS-% 2'+ : ring;6oint flanges in corrosive services" a lo!;carbon steel" and octagonal ring;6oint gas9et !ith a 2una;1 rubber inner 0;Type guard and outer molded;on ring guard shall be used <or A$I +A flanges" lo!;carbon steel" octagonal" pressure energi7ed ring;6oint gas9ets in accordance !ith A$I +A Type /C shall be used

S.eet Ga-ketThe most common material used for sheet gas9ets is compressed asbestos 3o!ever" there has been increasing concern regarding the ultimate availability of sheet asbestos gas9ets due to potential !or9er health and materials disposal issues Asbestos gas9ets !ill no longer be available !ithin several years" and the use of asbestos should be avoided !henever a suitable substitute is available Several alternative sheet gas9et materials have been introduced in recent years (See <igure @') -any of them use synthetic fibers rather than asbestos" along !ith an elastomeric binder The binder is a larger percentage of the sheet material in these synthetic fiber gas9ets" and thus is a more significant factor in determining acceptable applications 1on;asbestos sheet gas9ets that utili7e synthetic fiber !ith a binder !ill typically have a lo!er maximum operating temperature than a compressed asbestos gas9et Of eEual importance is that they !ill have much less fire resistance than an asbestos gas9et" so that greater flange lea9age could be expected should a fire occur in the vicinity of a flange !ith a synthetic fiber sheet

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"igure 501 S.eet t2pe ga-ketAnother non;asbestos sheet;gas9et material is composed of flexible graphite The higher Euality flexible graphite sheet gas9ets employ a stainless steel sheet insert !ith the flexible graphite for increased strength This gas9et material has exhibited excellent corrosion resistance in most process plant applications" and has provided good performance at elevated temperatures Sheet gas9ets may be used !ith flat or raised;face flanges The Inspector should be familiar !ith SA%S;.;'*A selection reEuirements for sheet gas9ets" as follo!sF Compressed synthetic fiber sheet gas9ets !ith an oil resistant binder" ' + mm (* *+@ in ) thic9" may be used for Class ':* flanges in non;ha7ardous services up to (@*IC (,:*I<) An example of their use is in lube oil piping Synthetic rubber gas9ets" AST- D','? Class CS-" shall be used for all acid services except nitric acid and oleum <or nitric acid and oleum" AST- D','? Class <4- elastomer shall be used for flat;face flanges %lastomeric material" @ mm (')? in ) thic9" !ith a Shore A durometer hardness of bet!een :* and +*" shall be used for full;face gas9ets for plastic flanges <or !et chlorine or hypochlorite services" the elastomer shall be AST- D','? Class CS-

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In-u)ating Ga-ket- Pikotek! Insulating gas9ets are used in case for connecting flanges of dissimilar metals" such as" a stainless steel flange to carbon steel flange" or a Cu;1i flange to carbon steel flange This is done to prevent possibility of galvani orrosion The insulating gas9et acts as a barrier bet!een the t!o dissimilar metals In order for proper insulation to be effective" the gas9et shall be used in association !ith isolating bolt sleeves and !ashers The reEuirements for these types of gas9ets are specified in SA%S;.;'*: and SA%S;.;'*A The most often used type of insulating gas9et is the $i9ote9 gas9et The $i9ote9 gas9et is mostly made up of Teflon seal" glass reinforced epoxy laminated to a @'+ stainless steel core The Inspector should verify that for untreated !ater services" such as sea!ater" ra! !ater" 8asia !ater" etc " use of the $i9ote9 or any approved eEual" must be concurred by the Operating Department

Stud *o)t- and nut2olting for flanged 6oints (See <igure @() shall be selected in accordance !ith AS-% 2'+ : and AS-% 2'+ ,= The Inspector must chec9 the material suitability per SA%$; @:' for the service temperature and compatibility !ith flange material SA%S;.;'*A reEuires materials for process and general services be AST- A'A@ >rade 2= stud bolts !ith AST- A'A, >rade (3 nuts for service temperatures from minus (* to plus ,:*IC -aterials for lo! temperature services shall be as follo!sF Stud bolts conforming to AST- A@(* >rade .= !ith nuts to AST- A'A, >rade , or = shall be used for bolt service temperatures from minus '? to minus '*'IC AST- A@(* >rade .=- studs and A@(* >rade =- nuts may be used for lo! temperature services from minus '? to minus =@IC &nder certain circumstances" !ith approval by the Chairman of $iping Standards Committee in CSD" AST- A'A@ >rade 2= bolts !ith A'A, >rade (3 nuts may be used at bolt service temperatures as lo! as minus @*IC" and A'A@ >rade 2= bolts !ith A'A, >rade =- nuts may be used at minus ,:IC

-aterials for upper intermediate temperature services shall be as follo!sF AST- A'A@ >rade 2= or 2=- studs !ith A'A, >rade = or =- nuts for services up to ,:*IC AST- A'A@ >rade 2'+ stud bolts !ith A'A, >rade = nuts" for bolt service temperatures from ,:* to :'*IC <or higher temperatures" contact the -aterials %ngineering &nit in CSD

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INFORMATION

-aterials for sour services shall be as follo!sF Standard Euenched and tempered AST- A'A@ >rade 2= stud bolts !ith (3 nuts shall be used for sour !et services !hen the bolting is (a) not directly exposed to hydrogen sulfide" (b) not buried or insulated" (c) not eEuipped !ith flange protectors" or not deprived of direct atmospheric exposure AST- A@(* >rade .= stud bolts !ith >rade , or = nuts can be used under the same conditions Stud bolts conforming to AST- A'A@ grade 2=- !ith nuts to A'A, >rade (3shall be used under conditions of (a) direct exposure to sour environments or !hen the bolting !ill be (b) buried or insulated" or (c) eEuipped !ith flange protectors" or other!ise deprived of direct atmospheric exposure AST- A@(* >rade .=- bolts and >rade =- nuts can be used under the same conditions Steel machine bolts conforming to AST- A@*= >rade 2 may be used on flat; faced cast;iron or non;metallic flanges in non;sour environmentK nuts shall conform to AST- A:+@ >rade D This bolt)nut combination may be used in sour services !hen the >rade D nuts are not resulfuri7ed" and the flange materials are deemed suitable by the -aterials %ngineering &nit of -%DCCD in CSD Such bolting may be 7inc coated or preferably 7inc;aluminum (>alvalum) coated <or fluid temperatures belo! minus ,:IC" the selection of bolting material or the bolting design shall include consideration of differential contraction bet!een flanges and bolts such that changes in gas9et seating pressure !ill not result in lea9age Similarly" differential expansion shall be considered at operating temperatures above @**IC

"igure 541 Stud *o)t and nutThe Inspector must chec9 the bolts for proper si7e" dimension and for any physical damage to shan9s or threads !hich !ould interfere !ith bolt assembly or performance The Inspector must verify that proper lubricant is used .ubricant for bolts and nuts shall be 5et;.ube SS;@* or other acceptable lubricants listed in Table;SA%$;@:';*' (belo!) In addition" the Inspector must chec9 that no lubricant is used on the gas9et seating area

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PEW-405.01

PARTICIPANT

INFORMATION

Ta*)e/SAEP/570/=0 @ "riction "actor- for Different %u*ricant%u*ricant-oly >raphite Tool 5oint Compound >raphite and Oil (used as the base line for torEue values in Table;SA%$;@:';*() Aerocote Q, 4O$/;4OT% %.;$/O C:A <%.;$/O C'** <%.;$/O C'*( (commonly called Anti;Sei7e) 5et .ube SS;@* A$I 2&.. :A( Thread Compound .ight -achine Oil as shipped Dry 2olts

"riction "actor*+ *? '* '' '' '' '' '' '( '(: ': (

Tor?ue Correction "actor


* += *? '* '' '' '' '' '' '( '@ ': (

'ack-cre35ac9scre!s in accordance !ith Saudi Aramco Standard Dra!ing AD;*@++@* or similar Saudi Aramco approved design shall be used to facilitate flange separation for maintenance 5oint assemblies that often reEuire freEuent separation include orifice plates" spectacle plates" spacers" screens" and drop;out spools $iping layout shall be designed such that flanges can be separated !ithout excessive force The Inspector should verify that the 6ac9scre!s are installed to be accessible from both sides of the pipe <or orifice flanges" the Inspector should verify that 6ac9scre!s are installed at @ and A oRcloc9 positions for liEuid service 8hen flange separators are used" 6ac9scre!s are not reEuired

")ange To)eranceThe Inspector must chec9 the flange fit;up to conform to the tolerances given in SA%S;.; @:*F <lange bolt holes shall be oriented as follo!s" unless other!ise indicated on the construction dra!ingsF a) b) <lange face vertical Pbolt holes to straddle vertical centerlines <lange face hori7ontalPbolt holes to straddle hori7ontal centerlines

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c) d)

/otation of flanges" measured as the offset bet!een elevations of bolt holes on opposite sides of a flange centerline" shall not exceed M ( , mm The tilt of a flange measured at the periphery across any diameter shall not exceed ' + mm from the sEuare position

<or piping over @;inch 1$S and connected to machinery)eEuipment" flange alignment shall be !ithin the follo!ing limits unless piping analysis per SA%S;.; '(* sho!s that loads and moments are !ithin the manufacturerRs limits for the machinery)eEuipment no77leF a) b) c) d) 0ertical bolt hole offsetF 3ori7ontal bolt hole offsetF /otational offsetF M ( , mm M ( , mm M ( , mm

<lange face tilt across diameterF * *(:mm per (: mm (* **' inch per inch) of flange outside diameter up to a maximum of * +=( mm (* *@* inch)" and * (:,mm (* *'* inch) for all flanges !ith an outside diameter less than '* inches <lange face separation" gas9et thic9nessF Combination of vertical" hori7ontal and rotational offsetF M ' + mm M @ ( mm

e) f)

In the case !here a spectacle plate is installed bet!een t!o flanges" these tolerances can be increased by @*L except for tolerances for flange face tilt across diameter and flange face separation If the tolerances per paragraphs A ' through A : cannot be achieved" the actual misalignment and piping layout shall be revie!ed and approved by the Chairman of $iping Standards Committee in CSD Note: When a piping flange is aligned to a ma hiner# flange& the ma hiner# alignment should be %ithin the e)uipment vendor spe ified toleran es& after the stud bolts of the onne ting flanges are removed follo%ing the ompletion of piping assembl#.

")ange &o)t/up Procedure


There are various types of tools available to achieve the proper torEue value such as impact !rench" torEue !rench or a stud tensioner (See <igure @@) Selection of the proper tool depends on the stud bolt si7e" physical location of the flanged 6oint" and criticality of the flange Identifying the proper tools shall be resolved bet!een Contractor" SA$-T" $roponent and Inspection prior to commencing the erection of the piping ,=

PEW-405.01

PARTICIPANT

INFORMATION

The Inspector shall verify that the manufacturerRs instructions are follo!ed for the operation" limitation and maintenance of all torEue !renches used to perform flange bolts tightening In addition" the Inspector shall 9eep trac9 of torEue !rench calibration performed in accordance !ith manufacturerRs recommendations" or as reEuired by the inspector after consultation !ith $iping Specialist in Consulting Services Department As per the SA%$;@:'" the Inspector shall ensure the follo!ing steps are ta9en for torEue tightening of bolted flangesF Step ' Step ( Align flanges and gas9et <orced tightening is not allo!ed to overcome non acceptable alignment tolerances Clamp securely in place Apply lubricant to stud threads over length and nut engagement and to face of nut !hich contacts flange %nsure that the nuts run freely do!n the thread of the studs Install all studs and nuts hand tight" ensure that studs pass freely through the flange holes $osition the nut on one end of the stud such that only the cro!n of the stud pro6ects beyond the face of the nut The excess stud length should pro6ect beyond the nut on the other side

Step @

Note: -# doing this& the nut that is installed nearl# flush %ith the end of the stud an be easil# removed sin e the threads are not oated& and normall# have not been sub.e ted to orrosion. The side of the stud %ith the flush nut should be hosen b# ta/ing into onsideration fa tors su h as %hether one side has better a ess for maintenan e personnel and0or tightening tools& e.g.& tor)ue %ren h or impa t %ren h& et . Step , Step : Step + Step = 1umber each stud according to its position in the flange as sho!n on <igure @, (Stud tightening seEuence) Tighten studs per <igure @, (Stud 2olt Tightening SeEuence) !ith an appropriate tool such as an air impact !rench or eEual <or 6oints containing /T5 or Spiral 8ound >as9ets" repeat step : Tighten the stud bolts in stages to obtain the final reEuired torEue from the appropriate torEue Table;SA%$;@:' (belo!) The first stage should not be more than @*L of the final torEue The final torEue shall be !ithin M:L of the reEuired torEue value Apply the torEue evenly to each stud follo!ing the stud bolt tightening seEuence The final torEue must be !ithin M:L of the reEuired values per Step : above This approach also helps achieve uniform bolt load around the flange circumference <or the most critical high;temperature or high;pressure flanges" a method that permits

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measuring the applied load shall be used (i e " torEue !rench or stud tensioner) In this !ay" there is greater assurance that uniform bolt load is achieved <or such applications" a maximum stud stress during bolt;up of (=:;@,: -$a (,*;:*"*** psi) is the normal target

"igure 551 Tor?ue 3renc.e-

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"igure 561 Stud *o)t tig.tening -e?uence SAEP/570!

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PEW-405.01

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Ta*)e/SAEP/570/=4 @ Tor?ue Va)ue for A0<5 &: and &:# Stud &o)t- 3it. A0<6 48 and 48# NutStud &o)t

Size inc.
')( A)'+ :)? @), =)? ' ';')? ';'), ';@)? ';')( ';:)? ';@), ';=)? ( (;'), (;')( (;@), @ @;'), @;')( @;@), ,
Note-A ')

Tor?ue #ini(u( "t/%*


@* ,@ +* '*= '=* (:+ @=, :(, =*A A@, '(*' ':': '?=A ((A+ @@'' ,':' +':* ?*@@ '*"(:@ '("?=( ':"A*' 'A"@:+

Tor?ue #a>i(u( "t/%*


@, ,A +? '(* 'A* (?= ,(* :A* =A? '*:' '@:' '=*, (''@ (:?@ @=(, :':: +A'? A*@= ''":,: ',",?' '="??? ('"==:

TorEue values based on * '* Average <riction <actor and @*"*** psi prestress on stud bolts A combination of various elements such as the conditions of the threads" the condition of the flange to the nut bearing surface and the type of lubricant used" ma9es up the friction factor !hich can vary from *, to (* or as much as :**L TorEue values for stainless steel or other alloy stud bolts can be obtained by multiplying the ratio of the specified minimum yield strength (S-BS) of stainless steel stud bolts to A'A@ 2= stud bolts" to the torEue values in the Table;SA%$;@:' The S-BS values for all bolting materials are listed in Table;SA%$;@:';*( of AS-% 2@' @ code (Note: S-BS depends on grade" class and si7e)

()

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Ta*)e/SAEP/570/=5 @ Tor?ue Va)ue- for I-o)ating Ga-ket- PIBOTEB! on AS#E &0917 and AS#E &0916: Serie- A & &C C)a-- 07= t.roug. C)a-- 47== ")angeStud &o)t Size

inc.
N :)? S =)? ' ';')? ';'), ';@)? ';')( ';:)? ';@), ';=)? ( (;'), (;')(

Tor?ue #ini(u( "t/%*


@* +* '** '+* (,: @:: :** +?* ?** ''** ':** (*** ((** @'?* ,,**

NoteF TorEue values based on @*"*** psi tension load and * '(: <riction <actor from A$I 2&.. :A( thread compound See Table;SA%$;@:';*( 1ote (') for other factors

Cau-e- of ")ange %eakage


-ost of the primary causes of flange lea9age are directly related to poor inspection or installation These are summari7ed belo!F $ne,en &o)t Stre-An incorrect bolt;up procedure or limited !or9ing space near one side of a flange can leave some bolts loose !hile others crush the gas9et This is especially troublesome in high temperature services" !hen the heavily loaded bolts relax during operation

I(proper ")ange A)ign(ent Improper flange alignment" especially nonparallel faces" causes uneven gas9et compression" local crushing" and subseEuent lea9age I(proper Ga-ket Centering If a gas9et is off;center compared to the flange faces" the gas9et !ill be unevenly compressed and more prone to lea9age

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PEW-405.01

PARTICIPANT

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Dirt2 or Da(aged ")ange "aceDirt" scale" scratches" protrusions" or !eld spatter on gas9et seating surfaces provide lea9age paths or can cause uneven gas9et compression that results in lea9age E>ce--i,e %oad- in t.e Piping S2-te( at ")ange %ocation%xcessive piping system forces and moments at flanges can distort them and cause lea9s Common causes of this are inadeEuate flexibility" using excessive force to align flanges" and improper location of supports or restraints T.er(a) S.ock /apid temperature fluctuations can cause flanges to deform temporarily" resulting in lea9age

I(proper Ga-ket Size or #ateria) &sing the !rong gas9et si7e or material can result in lea9age I(proper ")ange "acing A rougher flange;surface finish than specified for spiral; !ound gas9ets can result in lea9age

Note: The prin ipal methods for orre ting flange lea/age problems are be#ond the s ope of this ourse. $o%ever& several of them are easil# orre ted based on the auses of lea/age.

Safet2 of ")anged 'oint- A--e(*)2


Though it seems flanged 6oint assembly is very straightfor!ard and simple" petrochemical industries have experienced tragic incidents due to failures of flanged 6oints The main reEuirements and factors to achieve reliable flanged 6oints are the follo!ingF <lange type" material and rating >as9et material" type and Euality Appropriate surface finish of the flange rating /ight bolting procedure is follo!ed >ood !or9manship by the people assembling the flanges Careful inspection during the above stages as reEuired

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>enerally" the flange has very high safety margins in its design Over the years of experience" it has been found that the human factor is the main reason for failures in the flanged 6oints There are standards and acceptable practices that should be carefully follo!ed to insure safety around the flanged 6oints Improper surface finish of the flange facing >as9et is not centered &neven bolting torEue TorEue value are either under minimum reEuired or !ay over to the point that gas9et is completely not functional Installing the !rong gas9et" type or rating

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INSPECT VA%VES
0alves are ma6or components of a piping system and reEuire careful attention during the design process Selecting a valve is based upon the reEuired valve functionF to bloc9 flo!" throttle flo!" or prevent flo! reversal There are numerous types of valves The valve most commonly used (approximately =:L of the time) is the gate valve SA%S;.; **? provides special service limitations and selection reEuirements for valves The *,;SA-SS;series of specifications provides additional valve design reEuirements Once a valve is selected" its flange rating class must be specified based on its design pressure)temperature and the -AO$ of the class <inally" the valve must be inspected and tested *,;SA-SS;*,? reEuires that" as a minimum" each valve be tested" examined" and Eualified per the industry standard referenced in the purchase order and the applicable *,;SA-SS valve specification Supplementary reEuirements are contained !ithin *,; SA-SS;*,? A$I :A?" 0alve Inspection and Testing" is the basic document used for inspection and testing of gate;" globe;" plug;" ball; chec9;" and butterfly;type valves The follo!ing highlight reEuirements that are contained in A$I :A? and *,;SA-SS;*,?" plus additional inspection guidelines The Inspector must chec9 the follo!ing for valves and valve 6ointsF The finish on flange faces and ring 6oints <ace;to;face dimension <lange outside diameter" bolt circle diameter" bolt hole diameter" flange thic9ness 2ody !all thic9ness (per applicable standard) 2evel preparation on !elding;end valves Stem diameter Threaded ends (si7e and taper" if reEuired) Soc9et;end concentricity and !all thic9ness (per A1SI 2'+ '') <or gate valves" !ith the gate closed" the position of the gate seat rings relative to the body seat rings to confirm sufficient !ear travel position

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PEW-405.01

PARTICIPANT

INFORMATION

<or soft;sealed gate valves" the height of the soft seal above the metal seats" the !idth of the soft seal" and the total !idth of the metal seat outside the soft seal Component features as specified in the purchase order (such as stem pac9ing material" bonnet gas9et;type" operator;type" soft;seal material" body bleed number" and location) -aterials identification Obtain chemical and physical test data on steel and alloy steel castings for all valves inspected All alloys bolting must be identified by mar9ings reEuired by the specifications on the stud or bolt ends" or on nuts Additional tests conforming to SA-SS reEuirements" such as hardness or impact testing" may also be reEuired if specified in the purchase order The minimum testing reEuired by A$I :A? is a pressure test of the shell" bac9 seat (if any)" and seats Test pressures and durations are specified in A$I :A?" based on valve si7es and the type of test

Note: *or more information& refer to 1alve 'nspe tion +ourse 2PEW-4043.

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PEW-405.01

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INSPECT S$PPORTS AND RESTRAINTS


$ipe supports are used to support the !eight of the piping system and the contents of the system The supports 9eep the pipe elevated at a desired height above the ground The specific number and locations for pipe supports are determined to ensure the follo!ingF The pipe stress that is caused by the !eight load must be 9ept !ithin allo!able limits The pipe must not sag excessively /eaction loads at eEuipment connections must not be excessive

8hen practical" ne! piping should use existing supports to minimi7e costs As much as possible" ne! piping should be located in existing pipe;!ays Intersecting pipe;!ays are located at different elevations to facilitate access and future piping installation Standard Dra!ing AC;*@+(*= specifies the minimum spacing of lines that are supported on sleepers or pipe rac9s /estraints control or limit movement of the pipe in one or more directions Such restraint may be reEuired to reduce thermal expansion reaction loads at eEuipment connections" or to limit pipe vibration Some restraints 9eep the pipe from moving vertically or laterally but allo! the pipe to move longitudinally Other restraints do not allo! the pipe to move in any direction A support is a speciali7ed type of restraint that prevents pipe movement under vertical !eight loading

Genera) Guide)ine$iping systems should be routed to facilitate their support and restraint" to minimi7e cost" and to limit additional structural and foundation reEuirements The follo!ing guidelines should be consideredF The piping system should support itself to the extent possible to minimi7e the amount of additional structural steel that is reEuired to provide support $iping !ith excessive flexibility may reEuire the addition of restraints to minimi7e excessive movement and)or vibration that may be caused by fluid flo!" !ind" or earthEua9e Therefore" piping systems should be designed !ith only the flexibility needed to accommodate the expected thermal movement !ithout causing

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excessive pipe stresses or end point reaction loads Systems should not be overly flexible $iping that is prone to vibration" such as reciprocating compressor suction and discharge systems" should be supported independently from other piping systems This independent support 9eeps the effects of the vibration;prone system confined to that system and directly associated structures The effects are not transmitted to other systems $iping that is located in structures should be routed beneath platforms and near ma6or structural members" at points that permit added loading /outing beneath platforms avoids access interference problems /outing near ma6or structural members minimi7es the need to increase the si7e of structural members or to provide additional local reinforcement" due to increased bending moment 8hen possible" piping should be routed near existing structural members to minimi7e the need for additional structure and foundations The layout of the piping system must consider the safety of personnel !ho may be near the pipe -a6or pieces of eEuipment" particularly heat exchangers" vessels" and tan9s" must be accessible for fire;fighting eEuipment $ipe;!ays must be routed to provide this access There must be adeEuate space under pipe;!ays for people to !al9 and !or9 <or many services" carbon steel has adeEuate corrosion resistance or a nominal corrosion allo!ance may be used to account for corrosion Corrosion allo!ance is additional thic9ness that is added to a pipe for corrosion that ta9es place during service Carbon steel pipe and piping components are manufactured to various AST- and A$I specifications" and they are available in various grades or strength levels

A piping system needs supports and restraints to do the follo!ingF $ermit the piping system to function under normal operating conditions !ithout failure of the pipe or associated eEuipment Support piping system !eight loads to 4eep sustained longitudinal pipe stress !ithin allo!able limits .imit pipe sag to avoid process flo! problems .imit loads on connected eEuipment Control or direct thermal movement of the pipe to 9eep pipe thermal expansion stresses !ithin allo!able limits .imit loads on connected eEuipment

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Absorb other loads imposed on piping system to limit loads on connected eEuipment .imit pipe deflection .imit resultant pipe stresses

Selection of a particular type of support or restraint depends on such factors as the follo!ingF 8eight load /estraint load Clearance available for attachment to pipe Availability of nearby existing structural steel Direction of loads to be absorbed or movement to be restrained Design temperature Allo!ance reEuired for thermal movement of pipe

T2pe- of SupportThis section discusses and illustrates various types of supports and restraints for piping systems The t!o general classes of supports are as follo!sF /igid <lexible or resilient It is the duty of an Inspector to verify that the right type" location" spacing" alignment of the pipe support is per pro6ect dra!ings If for practicality the spacing has to be altered" prior approval shall be granted and revie!ed by the $iping Standards Committee Chairman or his representative The Inspector must confirm that the supports provide for a minimum of @** mm clearance bet!een bottom of pipe to finished grade per SA%S;.;@'* In addition" a minimum clearance of :* mm shall be provided for inspection and freedom of pipe movement bet!een above ground piping crossing !ith any structure

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(including pipe support structure) This clearance is also reEuired for above ground piping crossing !ith another pipe

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Rigid Support/igid supports are the more common of the t!o support types %ngineers use rigid supports !hen !eight support is needed and no provision to permit vertical thermal expansion is reEuired A rigid support does the follo!ingF Allo!s lateral movement and rotation -ay or may not prevent movement up $revents movement do!n

<igures @: through @A illustrate some of the rigid support types that are available The rigid support that is selected for a particular application depends primarily on the follo!ingF Amount of load to be carried Distance to solid attachment (structure" grade" etc ) $oint of attachment to pipe (hori7ontal or vertical run" elbo!" etc )

"igure 571 S.oe Support

"igure 591 Sadd)e Support

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"igure 5:1 &a-e Ad+u-ta*)e Support

"igure 5;1 Du((2 Support

"igure 5<1 Trunnion


The Inspector must verify that a + mm !eep hole shall be drilled for all dummy supports The !eep hole shall be located near the base plate for all vertical dummy supports" and near the run pipe at + oRcloc9 position for all hori7ontal dummy supports

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PEW-405.01

PARTICIPANT

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$ipe hangers are also a form of rigid support $ipe hangers support the pipe from structural steel or other facilities that are located above the pipe and carry the pipe !eight load in tension A pipe hanger rod moves freely parallel and perpendicular to the pipe axisK therefore" thermal expansion is not restricted longitudinally or laterally The rod does restrict vertical thermal expansion The rod also must be long enough so that it does not restrict pipe lateral or longitudinal movement SA%S;.;@:* discourages use of hanger rods and suggests that they be replaced !ith rigid pipe supports $er SA%S;.;@:*" the Inspector must confirm the follo!ing items related to rod hangersF /od hangers are not used for lines '(J 1$S and larger in liEuid service or multi phase flo! All hangers are provided !ith means for vertical ad6ustment Suitable loc9ing devices are used at all threaded connections of the hanger assembly (double nuts) /od hangers are sub6ected to tensile loading only $racticality for replacing them !ith rigid pipe supports should be evaluated and implemented" during construction

<igures ,* through ,( sho! some examples of pipe hangers

"igure 6=1 S)ing/T2pe Pipe 8anger

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"igure 601 Pipe 8anger Su-pended "ro( Side of Structure

"igure 641 Pipe Support &ea( Su-pended &2 Rod")e>i*)e or Re-i)ient Support<lexible or resilient type supports carry the !eight load and allo! the piping system to move in all three directions A coil spring that has the correct stiffness and pre; compression to carry the !eight load supports the !eight 2ecause the spring is resilient" it permits vertical movement !hile still carrying the !eight The ability to move vertically allo!s the support to carry the !eight !hile permitting the pipe to expand and contract as needed for thermal expansion The thermal expansion may be due to the heating of the pipe or of a vessel to !hich the pipe attaches" or both T!o basic types of flexible supports are as follo!sF 0ariable load Constant load

The type of flexible support selected from standard available models is based on the follo!ing factorsF Design load

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PEW-405.01

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/eEuired movement Installation geometry Standard models available

Varia*)e %oad ")e>i*)e Support The variable load flexible support is the more common of the t!o types of flexible support 8ith variable load supports" pipe movement stretches or compresses the spring" changing the load that the spring exerts on the pipe The spring is selected to provide the correct amount of support load to the pipe throughout the movement range <igure ,@ sho!s an example of a variable load support
.oad and deflection scale

"igure 651 Varia*)e %oad Support

Con-tant %oad ")e>i*)e Support 8ith constant load flexible supports" the load that is exerted by the support on the pipe remains constant throughout the movement range The use of a variable;length internal; moment arm mechanism accomplishes this constant load This type of support is reEuired !hen the load variation caused by the vertical thermal movement in a variable; load;type spring is too large to be accommodated by the piping system" or !hen the thermal movement is greater than approximately @ in (=: mm) <igure ,, sho!s an example of a constant load support

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"igure 661 Con-tant %oad Support

T2pe- of Re-traint/estraints have the follo!ing t!o primary purposes in a piping systemF They control the unrestricted thermal movement of the pipe by directing or limiting it >enerally" a piping system is totally restrained at its end connections to eEuipment They control" limit" or redirect the thermal movement to reduce the thermal stress in the pipe or the loads exerted due to thermal movement on eEuipment connections They absorb loads imposed on the pipe by other conditions %xamples of these other conditions are as follo!sF 8ind %arthEua9e Slug flo! 8ater hammer <lo!;induced vibration

Several different types of restraints may be used The selection of the type of restraint and its specific design details depends primarily on the follo!ingF

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Direction of pipe movement to be restrained .ocation of the restraint point -agnitude of the load to be absorbed

One or more types of restraint or support may be combined at one location" depending on the piping system design needs Three types of restraints are as follo!sF Stops >uides Anchors

StopStops are restraints that limit the movement of the pipe in the longitudinal direction Stops are designed to 9eep the pipe from moving axially beyond a point or from moving axially at all <igure ,: sho!s an example of a stop

"igure 671 Stop Guide>uides are types of supports that limit the movement of the pipe perpendicular to the pipe axis in one or more directions !hile allo!ing movement along the pipe axis $ipe rotation may or may not be restricted Typical applications for guides are as follo!sF .ong pipe runs on a pipe rac9 toF Control thermal movement $revent buc9ling Straight runs do!n the side of to!ers toF

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$revent !ind;induced movement Control thermal expansion

<igures ,+ through ,A sho! examples of guides

"igure 691 C.anne) Guide

"igure 6:1 S)ee,e Guide

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"igure 6;1 &o>/In Guide

"igure 6<1 Vertica) &o>/In Guide on Side of Ve--e) Anc.orAnchors stop pipe movement in all three translational directions %ngineers use anchors to isolate one section of a piping system from another section in terms of loading and deflection A total anchor that eliminates all translation and rotation at one location is not as common as one or more restraints that act at a single location It is difficult to design effective rotational anchors or restraints $lant piping more commonly uses directional anchors that restrain the pipes only in their translational directions <igures :* through :( sho! examples of anchor types that are typically used in aboveground plant piping systems

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"igure 7=1 Anc.or

"igure 701 Anc.or

"igure 741 Anc.or

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INSPECT COATING
$ipelines shall be painted in accordance !ith SA%S;3;**(" SA%S;3;'*' and SA%S;3; '** to give protection from corrosion This topic !ill be covered in separate training course

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PEW-405.01

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INSPECT INS$%ATION
Insulation shall be provided on the piping systems as sho!n in $ D IDs and other design documents Sections of the insulation shall be removable to allo! for on;stream inspection The follo!ing standards are applicable for inspecting insulationF SA%S;1;**'F SA%S;A;'*:F SA%S;2;**+F $I$ I1%> '***F $I$ I1SC'***F $I$ I1S3 '***F $I$ I1IC'***F $I$ I1I3'***F $I$ I1T>'***F 2asic criteria" industrial insulation 1oise control <ireproofing in Offshore <acilities Insulation Design and type codes /eEuirements for Cold Service Insulation -aterials /eEuirements for 3ot Service Insulation materials Cold Insulation Installation Details 3ot Insulation Installation Details Insulation Inspection Chec9list

>enerally the reasons for using insulation areF Condensation prevention /eduction of heat loss $ersonnel protection 1oise reduction

In-u)ation Co(ponentIn-u)ation
There are many different types of insulation materials available for both commercial and industrial piping applications The insulation must be applied in a single layer !hen the total thic9ness does not exceed @H (=: mm) Other!ise" for thic9ness above @NH (A*

=(

PEW-405.01

PARTICIPANT

INFORMATION

mm)" insulation shall be comprised of multiple layers (See <igures :@ and :,) The follo!ing list comprises the material classifications most common to the piping industryF Calcium silicate insulation Cellular glass insulation %lastomeric foam insulation <iberglass and mineral !ool insulations $erlite insulation $henolic foam insulation $olystyrene foam insulation $olyurethane and polyisocyanurate foam insulations

The Inspector must verify that all Insulation used in Saudi Aramco pro6ects has been tested for fire;related values per AST- %?A," and meets the minimum standard for a flame spread of (: or less <or outdoor use" the Inspector should verify that elastomeric foam insulation is resistant to ultra violet exposure or coated according to the insulation manufacturerRs instructions &nless other!ise specified" the Inspector shall verify that the follo!ing has been completed prior to installation of insulation /eEuired hydrostatic and)or pneumatic pressure testing Application of reEuired substrate protective coating systems" including touch;up of previously applied coatings Installation and testing of reEuired tracing systems Cleaning of surfaces that are to receive insulation

After installation of the insulation" the Inspector must verify that it is smooth and free from crac9s" voids" gaps and depressions greater than ')? in (@ mm) All crac9s" voids" gaps and depressions in the insulation greater than ')? in (@ mm) shall be refitted not filled In addition" any insulation that has become !et shall be removed and replaced !ith dry insulation" and the !et insulation shall be discarded According to $I$ I1S3(***" the Inspector shall verify that insulation is secured as follo!sF

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PEW-405.01

PARTICIPANT

INFORMATION

Insulation up to '( in (@** mm) outside diameter (O D ) shall be held in place !ith '+ gauge Type @*, stainless steel tie !ire" except cellular glass and polyisocyanurate foam insulation" !hich may be held in place !ith fiberglass reinforced pressure;sensitive tape or stainless steel tie !ires applied over the tape Insulation '( in (@** mm) O D to (, in (+'* mm) O D shall be held in place !ith ')( in ('@ mm) !ide by * *(* in (* :' mm) thic9 Type @*, stainless steel bands and !ing seals Above (, in (+'* mm) O D " use @), in ('A mm) !ide by * *(* in (* :' mm) thic9 bands and !ing seals

"igure 751 Sc.e(atic of a piping in-u)ation -2-te(

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PEW-405.01

PARTICIPANT

INFORMATION

"igure 761 Sing)e and #u)ti/)a2er In-u)ation PIP INI80===!


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PEW-405.01

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INFORMATION

'acket
In order to function more efficiently and extend service life" most insulation must be protected from damage and degradation by the application of an effective cover" or 6ac9et material A 6ac9et is defined as any material" except cements and paints that can be used to cover or protect insulation installed on a pipe or vessel (See <igures :: and :+) The choice of 6ac9eting !ill depend upon its use" such asF ' 8eather barriers are used to prevent the entry of liEuid !ater into insulation and also the entry of chemicals that !ould affect the inside or outside of the insulation -aterials include plastic" aluminum" and stainless steel as !ell as !eather barrier mastics 0apor barriers are used to reduce the entry of !ater vapor into the surface of the insulation In order to be effective" the vapor barrier must be completely sealed at every opening A vapor barrier is typically used for cold insulation systems primarily for eliminating the possibility of entrapped !ater vapor condensing on the pipe Note: " metal .a /et does not )ualif# as a vapor barrier per !"E!-N-001. @ -echanical abuse;resistant coverings are used to protect the underlying insulation from mechanical damage due to abuse or accidental contact by personnel or eEuipment The compressive strength of the insulation used should be considered !hen selecting a 6ac9et -etal products are most commonly used Corrosion; and fire;resistant coverings are used as part of a complete ha7ard resistance system Almost any type of 6ac9et or mastic increases the fire rating The most successful corrosion 6ac9ets are plastic or stainless steel depending upon the nature of the spill" lea9" or atmosphere expected Some mastics are also useful $lain 6ac9ets are used on hot services and in other cases !hen a 6ac9et is desired for ease of installation and appearance

5ac9ets come in various forms and types These can be divided into three general categoriesF rigid (plastic" aluminum" or stainless steel)" membrane (glass cloth" coated papers" treated papers" and papers laminated !ith foils and)or cloth)" and mastic <or Saudi Aramco plants" metal 6ac9eting on all vessels and piping less than ,? in ('('A mm) in diameter shall be aluminum" * *'+ in (* ,*+ mm) thic9 and machine;rolled for circumferential fit <or fire protection" stainless steel 6ac9eting * *'* in (* (:, mm) or 7inc;aluminum alloy coated steel * *'+ in (* ,*+ mm) thic9 shall be used on eEuipment and piping

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PEW-405.01

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INFORMATION

The Inspector shall verify that metal 6ac9eting '( in (@** mm) O D to (, in (+'* mm) O D is held in place !ith ')( in ('@ mm) !ide by * *(* in (* :' mm) thic9 Type @*, stainless steel bands and !ing seals Above (, in (+'* mm) O D " use @), in ('A mm) !ide by * *(* in (* :' mm) thic9 bands and !ing seals

"igure 771 Co(ponent of a piping in-u)ation

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PEW-405.01

PARTICIPANT

INFORMATION

"igure 791 I))u-tration of 'acketed In-u)ation Ad.e-i,e- and Sea)antAdhesives are used to bond the insulation either to itself or to the surface on !hich it is applied %ach different type of insulation reEuires its o!n special type of adhesive Sealants (Caul9ing) are used to seal an insulation system from the elements" thereby protecting the underlying insulation from damage Insulation systems must be caul9ed and)or sealed at all possible points of moisture entry The Inspector shall verify that no featheredge of caul9 exists <or cold insulation systems" the 6oint sealer shall be applied to all 6oints of single layer and only to 6oints of the outer layer of multi;layer applications In cold service" the use of a breather final coat over a vapor barrier !ill prevent liEuid !ater from penetrating the coating !hile allo!ing !ater vapor to pass through 8hen used on a hot service" a breather coat !ill allo! the escape of the minimal amount of !ater vapor trapped inside 8hen additional strength or protection is reEuired" glass

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PEW-405.01

PARTICIPANT

INFORMATION

cloth membranes as !ell as metal mesh should be used to reinforce the !eather barrier application The Inspector must chec9 that all adhesives and sealants are supplied in their factory; sealed containers Any adhesive or sealant" !hich is exposed to temperatures outside the recommended temperature ranges during storage" shall be removed from the site and replaced !ith ne! material In addition" the Inspector must not allo! use of any materials !ith expired shelf life <igure := sho!s location of a + mm sealant (caul9ing) for insulation of a branch connection The Inspector must confirm that all caul9ing is uniformly applied per manufacturer#s instructions The caul9ing has to have good adhesion to the underlying substrate

"igure 7:1 Cau)king app)ication on in-u)ation of *ranc. connection Acce--orieAccessories are used to tie or support insulation materials to the pipe or eEuipment such as support rings" pins" clips" scre!s" studs" bands" !ires" tapes (See <igure :?) The Inspector should verify that all accessories used are of materials compatible !ith the components to !hich they are attached" and if !elded" are installed by the fabricator prior to post;!eld heat treatment unless specifically permitted other!ise by the Saudi Aramco %ngineer <or example" the Inspector must verify that scre!s shall not

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PEW-405.01

PARTICIPANT

INFORMATION

penetrate the vapor barrier In this case" the Contractor shall be reEuired to submit a proposed procedure for the use of scre!s for the $urchaser#s approval

"igure 7;1 E>a(p)e of acce--orie- needed for ,ertica) pipe in-u)ation

In-u)ation t2peIn Saudi Aramco" there are t!o types of insulation systems 3ot Insulation system Cold Insulation system ?*

PEW-405.01

PARTICIPANT

INFORMATION

8ot In-u)ation -2-te(The purpose for a hot insulation system is as follo!F 3eat conservation insulation $rocess Stability Insulation $ersonnel $rotection Insulation <ree7ing insulation

3eat conservation insulation shall be used if normal operating temperatures exceed +* degree C" unless the loss of heat is desirable Design of heat conservation insulation shall be based on local ambient climatic conditions $rocess stability insulation shall be used !here control of process temperatures" including impact due to sudden changes in ambient conditions Design of process stability insulation shall be based on anticipated extremes in ambient conditions $ersonnel protection insulation shall be used if normal temperature of a surface exceeds +* Degree C and if surface is in area that is accessible to personnel Accessible area is defined as an area !here personnel regularly perform duties other than maintenance during plant operation If corrosion under insulation is a concern" or if heat loss is desirable" use of fabricated shields) guards in lieu of insulation shall be used <ree7ing Insulation shall be used !here protection from free7ing is reEuired The design of free7ing insulation shall be based on local climatic conditions

Co)d In-u)ation -2-te(- t2peThe purpose for a cold insulation system is as follo!sF Cold Service insulation Condensation control insulation

Cold service insulation shall be based on maximum allo!able heat gain Cold service insulation shall be sealed against atmospheric moisture intrusion Condensate Control insulation is used !here reEuired control of external surface condensation Design shall be based on the normal operating temperatures and local climatic conditions <or hot and cold insulation systems" the Inspector must chec9 the follo!ing for conformance to pro6ect specifications and Saudi Aramco standards The Inspector should refer to $I$ I1T>'*** for Insulation Inspection Chec9list (See Addendum C)F ?'

PEW-405.01

PARTICIPANT

INFORMATION

Insulation is not installed over nameplates" expansion 6oints" rotating 6oints and other applications !here the intended use !ould be compromised <urthermore" nameplates are attached !ith extended brac9ets to give adeEuate clearance for full insulation thic9ness Insulation and accessory materials are not formulated !ith asbestos per reEuirements of $I$ I1S3'*** and $I$ I1SC '*** <or insulation of austenitic stainless steel" the leachable chloride content is less than :* ppm of any material that comes in contact !ith stainless steel All curved segments" beveled lags and 0;grooved insulation materials shall assure complete inside and outside diameter closure around the piping

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PEW-405.01

PARTICIPANT

INFORMATION

INSPECT CROSS/CO$NTRD PIPE%INES


Cross;country pipelines are used outside the boundaries of process plants" and convey liEuid petroleum" petroleum products" liEuid;gas mixtures" or natural gas Depending on the application" these pipelines connect one or more of the follo!ingF 8ellhead >OS$ $umping or compressing facilities Oil termination and shipping facilities /efineries and chemical plants Temporary storage facilities >as treating >as metering and regulation >as mains >as service to end users

Co(ponentThe types of components that are reEuired for cross;country pipelines are generally the same components reEuired for plant piping The si7e of pipe for cross;country pipelines is usually (but not al!ays) larger than the si7e used in plant pipingK that is" diameters =:* mm (@* in ) and greater in most cases Cross;country pipelines are also much longer than plant piping and can run for many miles Cross;country pipelines reEuire the follo!ing components that are in addition to the components usually found in plant pipingF Scraper launcher and receiver eEuipment at pump or compressor stations $ressure relief systems at pump or compressor stations

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PEW-405.01

PARTICIPANT

INFORMATION

$-eCross;country pipelines transport liEuids" gases" or liEuid;gas mixtures bet!een the facilities previously cited These pipelines provide a convenient method of transferring material from one facility to another and from the source of crude oil or gas to the final delivery terminals or end;users This section discusses the follo!ing general types of cross country pipelinesF &nderground Aboveground Submarine

$nderground Pipe)ineThe most common type of cross;country pipeline is buried underground A cross;country pipeline is normally buried because it isF &sually the least expensive form of construction Safer than aboveground construction

&nderground pipelines are buried by digging a trench" leveling the trench bottom" installing appropriate bedding material to provide uniform support" placing the pipe in the trench" and filling the trench bac9 in Sufficient cover must be used over the pipe to restrain the line and protect it from external loads Note: *or more information& refer to 'nspe t -a /fill 4peration (odule Additionally" consideration is al!ays given to the potential end movements of buried pipelines If these movements exceed :* mm (( in )" a full thrust or drag anchor must be provided A thrust anchor is designed for the full axial forces that are expected at the location A drag anchor is not designed for the complete thrust load that is expected and permits some movement of the pipe In this case" the drag anchor installation must limit the end movement of the pipeline to a maximum of + mm (* (: in ) Anchors are needed to limit movement at the ends of the pipeline" at changes in direction or si7e" and at above; to belo!;ground transition points %xcessive movement of a buried pipeline can cause shifting of the soil that supports the pipe" subsidence of the cover" or damage to the pipeRs external coating (if one is installed) In extreme cases"

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PEW-405.01

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INFORMATION

excessive movement could cause pipe overstress" inadeEuate cover depth" or external pipe corrosion 2uried concrete bloc9s act as drag anchors to underground pipelines These bloc9 anchors must be si7ed to resist the applied loads considering the local terrain (for example" soil or roc9 characteristics) and friction <igure :A illustrates typical concrete bloc9 anchors for buried pipelines

<I/- >/O&1D

CO#PACTION TO NOT %ESS T8AN ;7E RE%1 DENSITD PER AST#/D/ 4=6<

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PEW-405.01

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INFORMATION

/%2A/S /%2A/S

"igure 7<1 &)ock anc.or for underground piping

A*o,eground Pipe)ine-

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PEW-405.01

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INFORMATION

Aboveground pipelines are cross;country pipelines that are constructed above the surface of the ground Aboveground pipelines are used !hen a buried pipeline is not practical The primary reasons for the use of aboveground pipelines include terrain features" such as solid roc9" that ma9e underground piping expensive or impossible to construct It is not unusual to use sections of aboveground pipeline in an other!ise buried system to avoid local terrain features Aboveground pipelines are supported by support structures and associated foundations similar to plant piping An aboveground pipeline !ith its associated supports and foundations is usually more expensive than digging and filling trenches for an underground pipeline Differential thermal expansion is a more significant design issue for aboveground pipelines than for underground pipelines because of direct exposure to the sun for aboveground pipelines Aboveground pipelines may be either restrained or unrestrained A restrained pipeline has anchors or restraints installed to restrict its thermal expansion movements and limit the loads that are imposed on any above;to;belo!ground transition points An unrestrained pipeline does not have anchors installed Therefore" the pipe is theoretically free to expand or contract due to changes in its metal temperature -ost aboveground pipelines are designed as restrained systems" since the free thermal movements can result in excessive loads being imposed on any above;to;belo!ground transitions In extreme cases" this could eventually cause the pipe to move off its supports The anchors that are used in restrained piping systems" and their associated foundations" must be designed for the anticipated loads that are caused by pipe thermal expansion)contraction and friction Similar to buried pipelines" anchors are needed to limit movement at the ends of the pipeline" at changes in direction or si7e" and at above; to belo!;ground transition points Aboveground pipe anchors typically employ local reinforcement at their attachment to the pipe" such as sleeves and ring girders (See <igure +*)" to avoid local overstress in the pipe In addition" aboveground anchor structures are designed !ith sufficient strength to prevent excessive deflection under the applied loads" !hich !ould render the anchor ineffective Aboveground restrained pipelines must have thrust anchors on the ends that are designed to resist the full axial forces due to differential thermal expansion and contraction" and internal fluid pressure The anchor structure must be designed to limit the maximum pipe deflection under the applied loading to + mm (* (: in ) Differential thrust anchors are also provided on aboveground restrained pipelines !here there is a change in thrust due to a change in pipe diameter or !all thic9ness" unless the axial pipe movement is calculated to be less than + mm (* (: in ) The Inspector must verify the spacing and type of support per the profile dra!ings" the pro6ect specification or the scope of !or9 The Inspector must chec9 that pipe support elevations are maintained !ithin M + mm per SA%S;.;,:* Similarly" ring girders shall be installed !ithin M + mm hori7ontal and vertical tolerances

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PEW-405.01

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INFORMATION

/I1> >I/D%/

$I$%

20", 22", 24", 26", 30", 31", & 32" O.D. PIPE TO BE SUPPORTED

SIDE ELEVATION

ELEVATION "A-A"

"igure 9=1 Ring girder SASD A&/=59::6!

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PEW-405.01

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INFORMATION

Su*(arine Pipe)ineSubmarine pipelines are cross;country pipelines that deliver oil or gas that is produced offshore They are submerged in !ater" rest on the marine bottom" or are trenched and buried in the seabed To counteract buoyancy" submarine pipelines may be coated !ith concrete

?A

PEW-405.01

PARTICIPANT

EXERCISES

EFERCISE 01

INSPECT PIPING

'

8hich general types of piping systems are used !ithin Saudi AramcoT

The $iping Inspector shall be 9no!ledgeable on !hich components of a piping system T

$ipe !all thic9ness is expressed by the term ScheduleT a b True UUUUUUUUUUU <alse UUUUUUUUUU pipe conforms to the pro6ect

The Inspector verifies !hich items that the specification and design dra!ings

A*

PEW-405.01

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EXERCISES

8hich Saudi Aramco standard prohibits the use of %/8 pipe for ha7ardous serviceT

8hich type of pipe is generally the lo!est cost and the lo!est EualityT

Spiral !elded pipe is used primarily for !hich type of pipeline servicesT

8hat is the 6oint Euality factor for seamless pipeT

$ipe for plant applications shall be seamless or single P longitudinal seam submerged arc !elding and shall conform to !hich standardsT

'*

The higher the schedule" the thic9er the pipeT a b True UUUUUUUUU <alse UUUUUUUU

A'

PEW-405.01

PARTICIPANT

EXERCISES

EFERCISE 41

INSPECT PIPE "ITTINGS

'

$ipe fittings are used extensively is process plants as !ell as other piping systems" give three examples if their useT

The reEuirement for plugs of the round headed type can be found in !hich Saudi Aramco StandardT

8hich are the t!o primary design standards used for pipe fittingsT

The Inspector shall be able to differentiate bet!een standard types of fittings" such asT

A(

PEW-405.01

PARTICIPANT

EXERCISES

>ive three examples of !hat the inspector must verify !hen inspecting elbo!sT

8hat is the purpose of a reducerT

>ive three examples of TeesT

>ive three techniEues for connecting a fitting to a pipeT

A@

PEW-405.01

PARTICIPANT

EXERCISES

In !hat situation !ould !e use a lateralT

'*

8hat are the reasons for using a pipe cap rather than a blind flangeT

A,

PEW-405.01

PARTICIPANT

EXERCISES

EFERCISE 51
'

INSPECT PIPE 'OINTS

8hich international standard defines seal !eldingT

8hat are the reasons for insuring thread engagementT

8hen the !all thic9ness ratio of pipes to be 6oined is less than or eEual to ' :" 6oint design details shall comply to !hich international codeT

>ive three examples !hy pre;heat is usedT

A:

PEW-405.01

PARTICIPANT

EXERCISES

>ive a reason or reasons !hy $ositive -aterial Identification is used in Saudi AramcoT

1ame t!o types of !eld configurationsT

8hen inspecting a soc9et !eld type at !hat distance must the pipe be !ithdra!n and for !hat reasonsT

8hat type of material is $' according to AS-% 2 @' @T

8hat is the number of threads that should be engaged on a ten inch pipeT

A+

PEW-405.01

PARTICIPANT

EXERCISES

'*

8hen carrying out post !eld heat treatment !hat is the holding time for Carbon SteelT

''

Threaded 6oints should be avoided in !hich type of corrosionT

'(

>ive four reasons for carrying out post !eld heat treatmentT

A=

PEW-405.01

PARTICIPANT

EXERCISES

EFERCISE 61

"%ANGED 'OINTSC GASBETS & ST$D &O%TS

'

<langed assembly is normally used for pipe si7es aboveT

A slip on flange has an oversi7ed boreT True UUUUUUUU

<alse UUUUUUU

A flat faced flange is typically used for !hat types of materialT

>ive four examples !hat the inspector must be familiar !ith in relation to flanged 6ointsT

A?

PEW-405.01

PARTICIPANT

EXERCISES

8hich is the strongest type of flangeT

8hich type of flange is gas9et on the same elevation as the surrounding flange surfaceT

>ive an example of three types of gas9etsT

8hat Saudi Aramco Standard should be used for the selection of spiral !ound gas9etsT

8hich type of gas9et material should be avoided !ith regard to healthT

'*

8hich is the most used type of insulation type of gas9etT

''

8hat type of stud bolts and nuts shall be used for sour !et services and is not exposed to 3ydrogen SulfideT

AA

PEW-405.01

PARTICIPANT

EXERCISES

'(

>ive three causes of flange lea9ageT

'**

PEW-405.01

PARTICIPANT

EXERCISES

EFERCISE 71

INSPECT PIPE S$PPORTS & RESTRAINTS

'

>uides are types of supports that limit the movement of the pipe >ive four examples of their typical applicationsT

8hich dra!ing specifies the minimum spacing of lines that are supported on sleepers or pipe rac9sT

A piping system needs supports and restraints >ive four reasons for thisT

>ive three examples !hy !e use rigid supportsT

'*'

PEW-405.01

PARTICIPANT

EXERCISES

>ive t!o examples for the purpose of a restraint in a piping systemT

>uides are supports that limit the movement of the pipe >ive four examples of typical applicationT

>ive an explanation !hy anchors are commonly used in plant pipingT

8hat is the most important consideration !hen for layout design of a piping systemT

'*(

PEW-405.01

PARTICIPANT

EXERCISES

Carbon steel is manufactured to !hich international specifications and is available in various grades and strength levelsT

'*

>ive one example !hat factor restraint depends onT

'*@

PEW-405.01

PARTICIPANT

EXERCISES

EFERCISE 91
'

INSPECT INS$%ATION

>ive four examples for the use of insulationT

8hat are !eather barriers used forT

8hat is the main use of adhesivesT

>ive four examples for the purposes of hot insulationT

8hat must the inspector chec9 regarding adhesivesT

'*,

PEW-405.01

PARTICIPANT

EXERCISES

In !hat forms do 6ac9ets come inT

8hat shall happen to insulation that has become !etT

The insulation shall be applied in a single layer !hen the total thic9ness does not exceedT

8hich Saudi Aramco Standard is used for noise controlT

'*

The inspector must verify that all insulation used in Saudi Aramco pro6ects has been tested for fire related values To !hat international standardT

'*:

PEW-405.01

PARTICIPANT

EXERCISES

EFERCISE :1

INSPECT CROSS CO$NTRD PIPING & APP%ICA&%E CODES & STANDARDS

'

>ive three general types of cross;country pipingT

>ive t!o reasons !hy cross country piping is buriedT

8hat could extreme movement of the pipe causeT

If pipe buried pipe movement is more than :*mm a full thrust or drag anchor must be usedT True UUUUUUUU <alse UUUUUUU

The inspector must chec9 pipe supports to !hich Saudi Aramco StandardT

'*+

PEW-405.01

PARTICIPANT

EXERCISES

Concrete bloc9s can be used as an anchorT TrueUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU <alseUUUUUUUUUUUUU

8hich Saudi Aramco Standard is used for pressure testingT

8hich Saudi Aramco Standard is for the design of plant pipingT

8hat does the Saudi Aramco . series specifyT

'*

8hat is the basic difference bet!een AS-% 2@' @ and AS-% 2@' ,T

'*=

PEW-405.01

PARTICIPANT

GLOSSARY

G%OSSARD
AS#E &5015 Abbreviation for AS-%)A1SI 2@' @"$rocess $iping " published by the American Society of -echanical %ngineers AS-% 2@' @ is !ritten for design and construction of piping systems 3o!ever" most of the technical reEuirements on design" !elding" examination" and materials also can be applied in the inspection" rerating" repair" and alteration of operating piping systems reEuirements" certain heat treatments" and pressure tests" the piping engineer)inspector shall be guided by A$I :=* in lieu of strict conformance !ith AS-% 2@' @ As an example of intent" the term principles of AS-% 2@' @ has been employed in A$I :=* rather than the phrase in accordance !ith AS-% 2@' @ Corrosion under insulation" !hich includes stress corrosion crac9ing under insulation Components of a piping system that normally have no significant flo! %xamples include blan9ed branches" lines !ith normally closed bloc9 valves" lines !hich have one end blan9ed" pressuri7ed dummy support legs" stagnant control valve bypass piping" spare pump piping" level bridles" relief valve inlet and outlet header piping" pump trim bypass lines" high point vents" sample points" drains" bleeders" and instrument connections In 1D% usage" a defect is an imperfection of a type or magnitude exceeding the acceptable criteria The temperature at !hich" under the coincident pressure" the greatest thic9ness or highest rating of a piping system component is reEuired It is eEuivalent to the design temperature" as defined in AS-% 2@' @ and other code sections" and is sub6ect to the same rules relating to allo!ances for variations of pressure or temperature or both Different components in the same piping system or circuit may have different design temperatures In establishing this temperature" consideration shall be given to process fluid temperatures" ambient temperatures" heating) cooling media temperatures" and insulation

C$I dead)eg-

defect de-ign te(perature

'*?

PEW-405.01

PARTICIPANT

GLOSSARY

i(perfection

<la!s or other discontinuities noted during inspection that may be sub6ect to acceptance criteria on engineering)inspection analysis .ocations !here relatively small Euantities of materials are in6ected into process streams to control chemistry or other process variables In6ection points do not include the locations !here t!o process streams 6oin (mixing tees) %xamples of in6ection points include chlorine in reformers" !ater in6ection in overhead systems" polysulfide in6ection in catalytic crac9ing !et gas" anti;foam in6ections" inhibitors" and neutrali7ers /efers to piping systems that have been placed in operation as opposed to ne! construction prior to being placed in service An authori7ed piping inspector A legally constituted government administration that may adopt rules relating to piping systems A piping component that combines t!o process streams of differing composition and)or temperature 1ondestructive examination 1ominal pipe si7e (follo!ed" !hen appropriate" by the specific si7e designation number !ithout an inch symbol) $iping containing any amount of process fluid An operator of piping systems !ho exercises control over the operation" engineering" inspection" repair" alteration" testing" and rerating of those piping systems .iEuid penetrant testing A pressure;tight cylinder used to convey a fluid or to transmit a fluid pressure" ordinarily designated pipe in applicable material specifications (-aterials designated tube or tubing in the specifications are treated as pipe !hen intended for pressure service ) Complex process units or piping systems are divided into piping circuits to manage the necessary inspections" calculations" and record 9eeping A piping circuit is a section of piping of !hich all points are exposed to an

in+ection point-

in/-er,ice

in-pector +uri-diction (i>ing teeNDE NPS on/-trea( o3ner/u-er

PT pipe

piping circuit

'*A

PEW-405.01

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GLOSSARY

environment of similar corrosivity and !hich is of similar design conditions and construction material 8hen establishing the boundary of a particular piping circuit" the Inspector may also si7e it to provide a practical pac9age for record9eeping and performing !eld inspection piping engineer One or more persons or organi7ations acceptable to the o!ner;user !ho are 9no!ledgeable and experienced in the engineering disciplines associated !ith evaluating mechanical and material characteristics !hich affect the integrity and reliability of piping components and systems The piping engineer" by consulting !ith appropriate specialists" should be regarded as a composite of all entities necessary to properly address a technical reEuirement An assembly of interconnected piping" sub6ect to the same set or sets of design conditions" used to convey" distribute" mix" separate" discharge" meter" control" or snub fluid flo!s $iping system also includes pipe;supporting elements" but does not include support structures" such as building frames" bents" and foundations $ost !eld heat treatment A repair is the !or9 necessary to restore a piping system to a condition suitable for safe operation at the design conditions If any of the restorative changes result in a change of design temperature or pressure" the reEuirements for rerating also shall be satisfied Any !elding" cutting" or grinding operation on a pressure; containing piping component not specially considered an alteration is considered a repair A change in either or both the design temperature or the maximum allo!able !or9ing pressure of a piping system A rerating may consist of an increase" decrease" or a combination Derating belo! original design conditions is a means to provide increased corrosion allo!ance .ess than or eEual to 1$S ( An area in !hich external corrosion may occur on partially buried pipe The 7one of the corrosion !ill vary depending on factors such as moisture" oxygen content of the soil" and the operating temperature The 7one generally is considered to be from '( inches (@* cm) belo! to + inches

piping -2-te(

PW8T repair

rerating

-(a)) *ore piping S&P) -oi)/to/air SGA! interface

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(': cm) above the soil surface $ipe running parallel !ith the soil surface that contacts the soil is included -poo)te(per e(*ritt)e(ent A section of piping encompassed by flanges or other connecting fittings" such as unions A loss of ductility and notch toughness in susceptible lo!; alloy steels (e g " ' V Cr and ( V Cr) due to prolonged exposure to high temperature service (bet!een =**C to '*=*< (@=' to :== C))

t.ickne-- (ea-ure(ent )ocation- T#%-! Designated areas on piping systems !here periodic inspections and thic9ness measurements are conducted W"#T or W"#PT 8et fluorescent magnetic particle testing

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ADDEND$# A1 APP%ICA&%E CODES AND STANDARDS

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APP%ICA&%E CODES AND STANDARDS "OR PIPING SDSTE#S AND T8EIR CO#PONENTS
Indu-tr2 Standard- for Piping S2-te(- and T.eir Co(ponentThis section summari7es the scope of the follo!ing codes and standards that apply to Saudi Aramco piping systems and componentsF A1SI)AS-% codes A1SI)AS-% 2@'" Code for $ressure $iping A1SI)AS-% 2@' @" Chemical $lant and $etroleum /efinery $iping A1SI)AS-% 2@' ," .iEuid Transportation Systems for 3ydrocarbons" .iEuid $etroleum >as" Anhydrous Ammonia" and Alcohols A1SI)AS-% 2@' ?" >as Transmission and Distribution $iping A1SI and A$I standards and publications

ANSIGAS#E &5015C C.e(ica) P)ant and Petro)eu( Refiner2 Piping


A1SI)AS-% 2@' @ establishes reEuirements for the safe design" construction" inspection" and testing of chemical plant and petroleum refinery piping This code applies to all piping !ithin the property limits of facilities that process or handle chemical" petroleum" or related products It applies to piping for all fluids" including the follo!ingF >as" steam" air" and !ater <luidi7ed solids $etroleum products /a!" intermediate" and finished chemicals /efrigerants A1SI)AS-% Code 2@' @ excludes systems that operate above * but belo! '*@ 9$a (': psig) (!ithin specified service and temperature restrictions)" piping !ithin a fired heater enclosure" process eEuipment (for example" pressure vessels" heat exchangers" etc )" and other specified items $iping components that are included in this code are pipe" fittings" valves" flanges" gas9ets" and bolting

ANSIGAS#E &5016C %i?uid Tran-portation S2-te(- for 82drocar*on-C %i?uid Petro)eu( Ga-C An.2drou- A((oniaC and A)co.o)A1SI)AS-% 2@' , establishes reEuirements for the safe design" construction" inspection" testing" operation" and maintenance of piping that transports the follo!ing liEuidsF

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Condensate Crude oil .iEuid alcohol .iEuid anhydrous ammonia .iEuefied petroleum gas .iEuid petroleum products 1atural gas liEuids 1atural gasoline

This code excludes systems that operate at or belo! '*@ 9$a (': psig)" belo! ;(AIC (; (*I<)" or above '('IC ((:*I<)K auxiliary piping systems for specified servicesK eEuipment itemsK and other specified components and systems

ANSIGAS#E &501;C Ga- Tran-(i--ion and Di-tri*ution Piping


A1SI)AS-% 2@' ? establishes reEuirements for the safe design" construction" inspection" testing" operation" and maintenance of gas transmission and distribution piping This code applies toF >as transmission and distribution systems" including gas pipelines" gas compressor stations" gas metering and regulation stations" gas mains" and service lines up to the outlet of the customer#s meter set assembly >as storage eEuipment of the closed;pipe type" fabricated or forged from the pipe or fabricated from the pipe fittings" and gas storage lines $ipe" valves" fittings" flanges" bolting" gas9ets" regulators" pressure vessels" pulsation dampers" and relief valves A1SI)AS-% 2@' ? excludes systems operating at or belo! ; (AIC (;(*I<) or above (@(IC (,:*I<)" eEuipment items" piping beyond the customer#s meter set" and other specified components and systems

ANSI and API Standard- and Pu*)icationThe industry codes that are noted above" and the Saudi Aramco standards and specifications that !ill be discussed later" include references to A1SI" A$I" and other industry standards and publications 2y reference" these publications become integral parts of the industry and Saudi Aramco design standards These publications provide additional detailed reEuirements for specific piping system components" such as valves and flanges" and for particular piping system applications" such as offshore production platform piping or liEuefied petroleum gas (.$>) installations These A1SI and A$I standards are not discussed since they provide detailed information that is beyond the scope of this course $articipants are referred to the A1SI)AS-% 2@' Codes and relevant Saudi Aramco standards and specifications as necessary for additional information

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Saudi Ara(co Standard- for Piping S2-te(- and T.eir Co(ponentThe G. seriesH of the Saudi Aramco %ngineering Standards (SA%SRs) is the primary group of standards that specify additional Saudi Aramco engineering reEuirements for piping systems that are !ithin the scope of the A1SI)AS-% 2@' Codes These SA%SRs also include other pressure piping services that are excluded from the Code The SA-SSRs are primarily Gpurchase typeH documents that are included in the purchase order for an item to further specify its technical reEuirements They are not discussed in this course" and the $articipants are referred to the Saudi Aramco -aterial System Specifications -anual as reEuired for information The follo!ing material highlights several of the SA%SRs that are relevant to piping system design

SAES/A/==6C Pre--ure Te-ting


SA%S;A;**, provides the general principles that apply to pressure testing of plant eEuipment and plant piping This standard applies to ne!ly installed and existing eEuipment and piping The standard specifies that a pressure test be performed as follo!sF 2efore the eEuipment or piping is placed into service After repairs or alterations that affect the strength of the eEuipment At scheduled intervals 8henever considered necessary or advisable by the responsible manager This standard provides conditions" limits" and exceptions for pressure testing

SAES/A/==7C Safet2 In-truction S.eet


SA%S;A;**: outlines the procedure for preparing Safety Instruction Sheets (SISRs) for ne! plants" for additions to existing plants" and for re;rating existing eEuipment SISRs provide information in a consistent format on safe operating limits" protection devices" and special safety precautions This information is primarily used by operations" maintenance" and inspection personnel Critical plant piping and cross;country pipelines must have SISRs

SAES/8/==4C Interna) and E>terna) Coating- for Stee) Pipe)ineand Piping


SA%S;3;**( provides the mandatory internal and external coating selection and installation reEuirements for steel pipelines and piping" including the associated fittings and appurtenances

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SAES/% -erie-C Saudi Ara(co piping StandardSA%S;.;*:( SA%S;.;'** SA%S;.;'*' SA%S;.;'*( SA%S;.;'*: SA%S;.;'*? SA%S;.;'*A SA%S;.;''* SA%S;.;'(* SA%S;.;'(: SA%S;.;'@* SA%S;.;'@' SA%S;.;'@( SA%S;.;'@@ SA%S;.;'@+ SA%S;.;',* SA%S;.;':* SA%S;.;@'* SA%S;.;@:* SA%S;.;,'* SA%S;.;,(* SA%S;.;,,* SA%S;.;,:* SA%S;.;,+* SA%S;.;+'* SA%S;.;?'* SA%S;.;?:* 3ot Tap Connections Applicable Codes and Standards for $ressure $iping Systems /egulated 0endors .ist for $ipes and <ittings /egulated 0endors .ist for 0alves $iping -aterial Specifications Selection of 0alves Selection of <langes" Stud 2olts and >as9ets .imitations on $ipe 5oints and Components $iping <lexibility Analysis Safety Instruction Sheet for $iping and $ipelines -aterial for .o! Temperature Service <racture Control of .ine $ipe -aterial Selection for $iping Systems Corrosion $rotection /eEuirements for $ipelines)$iping $ipe Selection and /estrictions Thermal %xpansion /elief in $iping $ressure Testing of $lant $iping and $ipelines Design of $lant $iping Construction of $lant $iping Design of $ipelines Scraper Trap Station and Appurtenances Anchors for 2uried $ipelines Construction of On;.and and 1ear;Shore $ipelines $ipeline Crossings &nder /oads and /ailroads 1onmetallic $iping Design of $iping on Offshore Structures Design of Submarine $ipelines and /isers

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ADDEND$# &1 DETAI% O" 8EAVD WE%DING &OSS

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ADDEND$# C1 INS$%ATION INSPECTION C8ECB%IST

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