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PH 531, FALL 2009

Authored by: Jessica McCartney

DERIVATION OF FIELD COMPONENTS


The Ez component equation is used to derive the radial and azimuthal components, E r and E, of the electric field for Transverse Magnetic (TM) modes. TM modes are those for which the magnetic field is perpendicular (transverse) to the direction of propagation, and Hz=0. The Hz component equation is used to derive the radial and azimuthal components, Hr and H, of the electric field for Transverse Electric (TE) modes. Transverse Electric modes are those for which the electric field is perpendicular (transverse) to the direction of propagation, and Ez=0. From Cronins Microwave and Optical Waveguides (1995), the transverse components Er, E, Hr, H can be derived from the longitudinal components Ez and Hz. From this we may therefor conclude that in solving the wave equation it is only necessary to determine the longitudinal components. The TM mode is apparently the easiest to solve for, so this mode is generally solved for first, with the TE mode being derived directly from the TM mode. This method will be followed here. To find the the longitudinal components of the electric and magnetic fields in a cylindrical waveguide, Ez and Hz, it is necessary to start from two of Maxwells equations.

=
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()

(Faradays Law of Induction)

And = + ()

(Amperes Circuit Law with Maxwells correction)

To get equation (1) in terms of H, H must be substituted in for B in (1) using the relationship B=0(H+M). As there is assumed to be no magnetization B=0(H+M)= 0(H+0)= 0(H+0)= 0H, equation (1) becomes:

()

Likewise, to get (2) in terms of E, E is substituted in for D using the relationship D=E, and as there is assumed to be no free current (Jf), equation (2) becomes:

()

The equation for the Electrical field in a cylindrical waveduide, in cylindrical coordinates, starts with the wave equation. 2 = 2 () 2

According to Holts Introduction to Electromagnetic Fields and Waves, the wave equation for E can be derived from Maxwells Equations in the following manner: 1. Taking the curl of both sides of equation (3): = ()
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2. Substituting the right-hand-side (RHS) of equation (4) in for the curl of H, this becomes: 2 = = 2 ()

3. According to Wikipedia, Electromagnetic wave equation, the left -handside (LHS) of equation (7) can be rewritten using a vector identity as: 2 = = 2 ()

4. Using another of Maxwells Equations (Gausss Law), with charge density =0 as the propagating medium is assumed to be uncharged:

0 = = 0 () 0 0

5. Substituting for the divergence of E in (8) using (9), the RHS of (8) is equal to the negative Laplacian of the electric field. The negative signs cancel, and all that remains is the wave equation, (5), reproduced here for completeness. 2 2 2 = () 2 2

0 =

If the waveguide mode is propagating in the z-direction, then in cylindrical coordinates E0=(E0r, E0, 0), where the radial and azimuthal components of the electric field will be functions of r and . The z-dependence of the field is assumed to be given by the equation for the electric field, Ez=E0z(, )ei(t-kzz).

In order to solve for the electrical components for a circular waveguide, the first step is to rewrite the Laplacian of E (LHS of (5)) in cylindrical coordinates,

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1 1 2 + 2 + 2 2 + +

2 2 + 2 2

1 1 2 + 2 + 2 2 1 1 2 2 + 2 + 2 2 ()

Since only the longitudinal component Ez needs to be determined, the and terms will go away, and eq. (5) becomes:

1 1 2 2 2 + 2 + = () 2 2 2

Substituting in Ez=E0z(, )ei(t-kzz).

1 0 , ( ) 1 2 0 , ( ) 2 0 , ( ) + 2 + 2 2 2 0 , ( ) = () 2

Taking derivatives of exponential terms where possible, and then separating out exponential terms, the equation becomes:

1 0 ,

1 2 0 , + 2 2

+ 0 , 2

= 0 , 2

()

Cancelling out exponential terms, the equation becomes:

+ 2 0 , = 2 0 , ()

Gathering non-differential terms to the RHS:

1 0 ,

1 2 0 , 2 2

= 2 + 2 0 , ()

This equation needs to be solved using separation of variables. Rewriting E0z as a product function E0z(, )= ()() and substituting this in, the equation becomes:

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1 0 ,

1 2 0 , 2 2

1 ()() 1 2 ()() + 2 = 2 + 2 () 2

In order to complete variable separation, both sides of the equation are multiplied by 2:

()() 1 2 ()() + = 2 2 2 () 1 2

Then both sides are divided by ()() (after constants are factored out of differential terms), to yield:

() 1 2 () + = 2 2 2 () P() () 2

Rearranging to get and terms on different sides,

() 1 2 2 2 = P()
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2 2

()

From Cronins Microwave and Optical Waveguides (1995), The left hand side is function of R [] only and the right-hand side is a function of only. Each side must therefore be independently equal to a common constant. Setting this common constant equal to m2, the equations become:

2 2 2 = 2 () P 1 2 () = 2 () () 2

The equation for , (21), can be rewritten as:

2 () + ()2 = 0 () 2

According to Magnusson et al. Transmission Lines and Wave Propagation (2001), [the equation above] may be recognized as a homogenous linear differential equation of the second order with constant coefficients, the solution to which is :

= C1 sin + C2 cos ()

In order for the solution to have a single value, must repeat at intervals of 2, and m must be an integer.

After multiplying both sides by )/2 the equation for (20) can be rewritten as:

2 2

2 2

P = ()

2 1 2 + + 1 = () 2 2

According to Cronins Microwave and Optical Waveguides (1995), this corresponds to a Bessel equation of order n (See Appendix for Bessel function plot). According to Magnusson et al. Transmission Lines and Wave Propagation (2001), this has a general solution of the form:

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Defining a new variable = 2 2 and using the product rule to separate the differential term, eq. (24) becomes

= + ()

Where Jm and Ym represent Bessel functions of the first and second kind, respectively. Defining a new variable h= 2 2 , the equation becomes

= + ()

The Ym term would approach infinity at =0, implying an infinite field on the axis of the waveguide. As this is an impossibility, the Ym term can be dropped from the solution. Then the final solution of ) is:

= () (Note: Different books will use different arbitrary lettering for the constant h)

Substituting the solutions for ) (28) and () (23) into the assumed solution Ez=E0z(, )ei(t-kzz), the overall solution for H is:

E0z , = C1 sin + C2 cos


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()

According to Cronins Microwave and Optical Waveguides (1995), Since the form of this equation [wave equation for H] is identical to the wave equation for E the solution that we arrive at for Hz is just [the solution to the wave equation for E] with Hz replacing Ez, so one can simply substitute Hz in for Ez in the solution to the wave equation for E and declare that this is the answer:

H0z , = C1 sin + C2 cos

()

In order to actually derive the solution to the wave equation for H, one can start with the electromagnetic wave equation for H and repeat the same steps as those followed for E to arrive at the same conclusion. (This will not be repeated here, to save space.)

However, one must remember that the boundary conditions are different at the waveguide walls when the equation is written in terms of H. According to Magnusson et al. Transmission Lines and Wave Propagation (2001), the values of the constants h and k in equation( 30), are fixed by the boundary conditions that the components of E which are parallel to the conducting guide wall and the component of B, and hence H, which is normal to the wall (the radial component of H), shall vanish along that conducting surface.

The radial and azimuthal components of E and H can be determined using the curl equations for E and H and assuming the fields are sinusoidal travelling-wave functions. According to J.F. Kiang, TE Models of Cylindrical Waveguide, the and components can then be written in terms of Ez and Hz as:

1 + 2

()

1 + 2

()

1 2

()
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1 2 2

()

The component equations can be rewritten as explicit functions of time, according to Magnusson et al. Transmission Lines and Wave Propagation (2001), and J.F. Kiang, TE Models of Cylindrical Waveguide as:

sin cos () 2

cos sin ()

()

()

CUTOFF FREQUENCY
Applying the boundary condition E=0 at the guide wall (=R) results in the expression below, where hmn is the nth root of the derivative of the mth-order Bessel function.

=
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()

Substituting this relationship into the definition for h leads to the propagation constant. Setting the propagation constant equal to zero yields the cutoff frequency:

() 2

DISPERSION EQUATION
From Magnusson et al. Transmission Lines and Wave Propagation (2001), the longitudinal component of Poyntings vector for a cylindrical waveguide can be written:

1 = ()

Which, when time-averaged over a number of cycles, reduces to:

1 =

01 01 22 01

2 2 1 ( 01 ) ()

Integrating equation (41) over the transverse cross section of the waveguide produces the formula for transmitted power,

01 01 2 22 01

2 0 ( 01 )()

The power dissipated over a short section of the waveguide wall is found by squaring the Hz component function (written out as an explicit function of time), with equal to the radius of the waveguide, ra, and multiplying by surface resistance, denoted as Rs. The resulting equation is then integrated over a cylindrical strip and simplified to produce the attenuation function, :

2 01 = () 01

Substituting the cutoff frequency equation in for and simplifying yields the following version of the attenuation function, which was important in early microwave

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development in terms of sending signals over long distances, as it shows that the attenuation drops of as the carrier frequency is raised above the cutoff frequency:

2 01 3 () 2

TE MODES
In a TEmn mode, the subscript m represents the order of the Bessel function, and n represents the rank of the root. For circular waveguides, the hmn roots (eigenvalues) are not regularly spaced, in contrast to the rectangular guide. According to Kraus, Electromagnetics, 4th Edition, the TE01 mode should really be designated the TE02 mode since it represents the second root of the Bessel function.

TE 0 1 Mode
In this mode, the electrical field strength depends only on the azimuthal angle. The TE01 mode, according to Magnusson et al. Transmission Lines and Wave Propagation (2001), was the subject of intense interest due to the unique properties of its dispersion function. The TE01 mode is the simplest possible circularly symmetrical TE mode. Early on, it was glommed on to by the radio industry as a means of transmitting information over long distances using microwaves. Its dispersion function drops of continuously as frequency is raised. This results in very practical applications, as very low dispersion can be achieved using a carrier frequency much greater than the cutoff frequency. The TE01 is hence sometimes referred to as the low-loss mode. The properties of the attenuation function can be attributed to the way that the mode fields fail to cohere to the guide walls at high frequencies. This can result in problems with mode conversion if the guide bends to go around corners. The It has interesting properties beyond the waveguide as well. From Ramo et. Al. Fields and Waves in Communication Electronics (1984), In the TE01 mode, the electric field lines do not end on the guide walls, but form closed circles surrounding the axial timevarying magnetic field. TE01 mode also has applications in measuring microwave frequencies using wavemeters.

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TE 1 1 Mode
The TE11 mode is the lowest order possible for a circular waveguide, and is the fundamental mode of a circular waveguide, due to the fact that it has the lowest cutoff frequency. It is sometimes referred to as the dominant mode. In this mode, the Electrical field strength depends on both the radius and the azimuthal angle. Hence, this mode is quite similar to the TE01 mode in a rectangular guide. According to J. F. Kiangs website on TE modes in cylindrical waveguides, the magnitude of the field is the largest in the center of the waveguide and decreases radially outwards. However, when the power in the waveguide increases, the field strength increases, but the profile remains constant.

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REFERENCES AND WORKS CITED


Cronin, Nigel J. Microwave and optical waveguides. Bristol: Institute of Physics Pub., 1995. Print. "Electromagnetic wave equation -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 01 Dec. 2009. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_wave_equation>. Holt, Charles A. Introduction to Electromagnetic Fields and Waves. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1963. Print. Magnusson, Philip C., Gerald C. Alexander, Vijai K. Tripathi, and Andreas Weisshaar. Transmission Lines and Wave Propagation, Fourth Edition. Null: CRC, 2000. Print. Ramo, Simon. Fields and waves in communication electronics. New York: Wiley, 1984. Print. "TE Modes of Cylindrical Waveguide." . Web. 02 Dec. 2009. <http://cc.ee.ntu.edu.tw/~jfkiang/electromagnetic%20wave/demonstrations/ demo_35/im2005_demo_35.htm>.

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