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Like Hebrew, Khuzdul has only 2 tenses "Perfect" and "Imperfect" - Each Khuzdul verb also identifies the tense of the verb. In English a verb can have three tenses - past, present or future. Examples of these would be "You took a horse" (past), "You are taking a horse" (present) and "You will take a horse" (future). Khuzdul only has two direct tenses - perfect and imperfect. While the three verb tenses in English are related to time, Khuzdul verb tenses are related to action. The perfect tense is a completed action while the imperfect tense is an incomplete action. The "imperfect tense," can indicate an incomplete action and can be translated as "You are taking a horse" (an action that has begun but not yet completed) or "You will take a horse" (an action that has not yet begun). Below is a chart for a few verb conjugations in the perfect and imperfect tense. Notice that unlike Hebrew (or Adûnaic), Khuzdul places both imperfect and perfect added letters at the end of the verb, no letters are added at the beginning of the verb. Khuzdul also uses a specific female, male or neuter form (like in Hebrew - or Adûnaic).

"Perfect Tense" -a direct passed tense ("did") for all verbs except those with last root "sh" example: Who walked (Durin's Song) Ku ganaga "Imperfect Tense" (use of prefixes like in Hebrew and Arabic , but places them at the end of the verb - before personal form) -i future tense ("will do") / examples in the song: "The Abyss" - "zatablugi" (will swallow) and "zatagrafizu" (will take you)

PERFECT (action is completed / ex: you took)
Number Person

IMPERFECT (action will be done or is in progress / ex: you will take or you are taking)
Number Person

Khuzdul Perfect Tense
take zatagrif (perfect form) a zatagrifa I took (perfect form) a zatagrifamâ We took (perfect form) a zatagrifazu You took (perfect form) a zatagrifamênu You took (pl) (perfect form) a zatagrifai He took (perfect form) a zatagrifadi She took (perfect form) a zatagrifaki It took (perfect form) a zatagrifaizd They took (I) *
STRUCTURE TRANSLATION KHUZDUL STRUCTURE KHUZDUL ENGLISH

Khuzdul Imperfect Tense***
Sing. take zatagrif (perfect form) (I) i * zatagrifi I will take / I am taking take (perfect form) we zatagrif i mâ zatagrifimâ We will take / We are taking take (perfect form) you (s) zatagrif i zu zatagrifizu you will take / you are taking take (perfect form) you (pl) zatagrif i mênu zatagrifimênu you will take (pl) / you are taking (p) take (perfect form) he zatagrif i i zatagrifî** he will take / he is taking take (perfect form) she zatagrif i di zatagrifidi she will take / she is taking take (perfect form) he/she/it zatagrif i ki zatagrifiki it will take / it is taking take (perfect form) they zatagrif i zd zatagrifizd They will take / They are taking
STRUCTURE TRANSLATION KHUZDUL STRUCTURE KHUZDUL ENGLISH STRUCTURE TRANSLATION KHUZDUL STRUCTURE KHUZDUL ENGLISH STRUCTURE TRANSLATION KHUZDUL STRUCTURE KHUZDUL ENGLISH STRUCTURE TRANSLATION KHUZDUL STRUCTURE KHUZDUL ENGLISH STRUCTURE TRANSLATION KHUZDUL STRUCTURE KHUZDUL ENGLISH STRUCTURE TRANSLATION KHUZDUL STRUCTURE KHUZDUL ENGLISH STRUCTURE TRANSLATION KHUZDUL STRUCTURE KHUZDUL ENGLISH STRUCTURE TRANSLATION KHUZDUL STRUCTURE KHUZDUL ENGLISH

First

Sing.

Plural

KHUZDUL STRUCTURE KHUZDUL ENGLISH

Sing.

KHUZDUL STRUCTURE

Second

ENGLISH

Plural

KHUZDUL STRUCTURE KHUZDUL ENGLISH

Sing.

KHUZDUL STRUCTURE KHUZDUL ENGLISH

Sing.

KHUZDUL STRUCTURE KHUZDUL ENGLISH

Third

Sing.

KHUZDUL STRUCTURE KHUZDUL ENGLISH

Plural

KHUZDUL STRUCTURE KHUZDUL ENGLISH

Plural

take zatagrif

they izd

STRUCTURE TRANSLATION

Sing.

take zatagrif

it ki

STRUCTURE TRANSLATION

Third

Sing.

take zatagrif

she di

STRUCTURE TRANSLATION

Sing.

take zatagrif

he i

STRUCTURE TRANSLATION

Plural

take zatagrif

you (pl) mênu

STRUCTURE TRANSLATION

Second

KHUZDUL

Sing.

take zatagrif

you (s) zu

STRUCTURE TRANSLATION

Plural

take zatagrif

we mâ

STRUCTURE TRANSLATION

First

The Imperative Khuzdul Imperative Tense 3 Radical verbs. tamb => tambu! [touch!] Note: The vowel between the last radicals can be replaced by "ù" (sounds like "u" in "butter") in case one of the last radicals is a combined radical "sh. and. in Khuzdul we use the Imperative for direct orders and suggestions and also for a variety of other purposes. Stress and intonation.it turns into . above all. we merely add a "u" at the end of the word (like: sakh => sakhu! [look!]. Unlike English however in Khuzdul we do not use the "bare infinitive" to create the imperative (like: "wait!.They are taking the horse now / Zatagrifizd kharub baduzh . The negative form is usually expressed by "ma" (do not / don't) . with 3 (or more)-radical words. if we add an "i" for imperfect form. shut up!. "at this moment". facial expression. hold!). *** to indicate if the action is taking place at this moment or will take place often words like "now". etc. kh. gh. Examples: (replace last vowel between radicals with ù) Tashnik I rip Tashnùk! Rip! 3 Radical verbs. we get "zuznuii" seeing that "uii" doesn't exist in khuzdul as a diphtong it turns into "zuznuhî"."..wich indicates a negative form. abrupt. Examples: (base form ends with vowel => remove it) Ishkhaku I spit Ishkhak! Spit! Base Form ("I" Form) 2 Radical words. impatient..) Note: Verbs base forms ending with a vowel are given an "h" at the end of the base form (example: the verb base of "to be wrong" is "zuznu". "later". tashurruk => Tashurrk! [surround!]. "tomorrow" are added to clarify.zatagrifii . Examples: (base form ends with "h" => place it with "i") lah I behold lai! Behold! .* = no letters are added for the 1st person (I) form ** = double ii turns into "î" (instead of . With 2 (or 1)-radical words. tanak => Tank! [come] or remove the last vowel.They will take the horse later) Other Forms Like in English. situation and context. rukosha => rukosh! [shout!] .zatagrifî . gesture. Examples: (remove last vowel between radicals) English Khuzdul English Imperative Translation Imperative Tense Translation Tabur I grow Tabr! Grow! Tanak I come Tank! Come! 3 Radical verbs. and another for the he-form. incase the base verb end in a vowel (like: takarra => takarr! [split!]. we simply remove the vowel between the two last radicals of the base verb (like: gurud => Gurd! [fear!]. persuasive. indicate whether the use of this form is friendly. (Example: Zatagrifizd kharub khidu . etc. angry.

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