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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Santa Barbara

The 2006 Penguin Revolution and the 2011 Chilean Winter: Chilean Students Fight for Education Reform

A Thesis submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree Master of Arts in Latin American and Iberian Studies

by

Brian Thomas Wiley

Committee in Charge Professor John Foran, Chair Professor Sarah Cline Professor David Lpez-Carr Professor David Rock June 2013

UMI Number: 1545846

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____________________________________________ David Rock ____________________________________________ David Lpez-Carr ____________________________________________ Sarah Cline ____________________________________________ John Foran, Committee Chair

May 2013

The 2006 Penguin Revolution and the 2011 Chilean Winter: Chilean Students Fight for Education Reform

Copyright 2013 by Brian Thomas Wiley

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

No academic work such as this can be done without input and help from many people. I would first like to thank my committee members Dr. Sarah Cline, Dr. David Rock, and Dr. David Lpez-Carr. Each committee member, in their own way, has contributed immensely to the completion of this thesis and I cannot thank them enough. Their advice and wisdom has been invaluable. I would especially like to thank my advisor, Dr. John Foran, who spent countless hours going over my thesis line-by-line and constantly encouraged and supported me, for which I am eternally grateful. I would also like to thank my family, for without their love and support throughout my entire life, this project would not be possible. They have always supported me, no matter what path I chose. I would particularly like to thank Denise Moliterno, who read and edited every single line I wrote and was always willing to help. I would also like to thank the many hundreds of people, friends, family, teachers, and community members who have helped me in countless ways. Finally, I would like to thank my beautiful wife Lindsay. I truly could not have done this without her. She not only read and edited my entire thesis but also most of my other writing assignments throughout my college career. Her patience and willingness to argue with me over the phrasing of a particular sentence or the use of specific word went above and beyond anything I could expect. Without her support and patience, this project would not be possible.

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ABSTRACT The 2006 Penguin Revolution and the 2011 Chilean Winter: Chilean Students Fight for Education Reform

by

Brian Thomas Wiley

The 2006 student movement, termed the Penguin Revolution for the black and white uniforms worn by high school students, and the 2011 student movement, called the Chilean Winter, a reference to the Arab Spring, have captivated the attention of the media and scholars alike. However, little work has been done to place these student movements into a broader historical context. Historically, Chilean students have had a long record of both general political activism and specific activism over educational matters dating back over 100 years. Even the most recent student protests, which developed into a broader movement against the neoliberal policies implemented under the dictator General Augusto Pinochet, were preceded by demonstrations with similar demands dating back to at least 2000. However, these precedents do not explain why the movements developed between 2000 and 2011, rather than immediately after the fall of the dictatorship in 1990. I argue that part of the reason is because that the students in the twenty-first century were the first ones to

attend high school and college who were not raised under the dictatorship and for that reason they did not fear the repression and violence their predecessors, who grew up predominantly under the dictatorship, experienced. Thus, an analysis of the history of student political activism in Chile, the history of Chilean politics, the history of the Chilean education system, and the neoliberal reforms, especially in education, is necessary to provide a historical, political, and social context for the recent student movements.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS I INTRODUCTION.... 1 A. Literature Review..... 3 B. Methodology.... 8 C. A Brief History of Chile......... 10 D. History of the University System in Chile..... 17 E. The Foundation of Primary and Secondary Education in Chile..... 22 II III HISTORY OF THE FECH..... 24 NEOLIBERAL POLICIES IN CHILEAN EDUCATION..... 33 A. Neoliberal Policies in Higher Education........... 37 B. Neoliberal Policies in Secondary Education..... 40 IV STUDENT MOVEMENTS 2000-2007 ..... 45 A. Build Up: Student Protests 2000-2005..... 45 B. The 2006 Penguin Revolution...... 53 C. 2007: The Decline of the Penguin Revolution....... 67 V The Chilean Winter..... 74 A. Rebuilding a Movement: 2008-2010. 75 B. 2011: The Chilean Winter...... 82 C. 2012: The Decline of the Movement.... 112 VI CONCLUSION..... 123

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 129

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I. Introduction

In June 2011, thousands of university and secondary students across Chile took over and occupied their schools in order to change the Chilean educational system. Since that May, these students had been protesting against the inequality inherent in the Chilean education system. These massive, student-led demonstrations and occupations lasted through December 2011, the end of the Chilean school year. Protests recommenced at the beginning of the 2012 school year and it appears protests will continue during the 2013 school year. These protests represent a critique and defiance of the neoliberal policies instituted under the dictator General Augusto Pinochet, policies that have continued under democratically elected presidents. The issues in education and the activism of the students are rooted in the modern political and social history of Chile. Todays student protests are consistent with the long history of student protests and students political involvement. This tradition dates back to the creation of the Universidad de Chile Student Federation (FECH) in 1906 and that has reappeared since the fall of the dictator Augusto Pinochet. I first became interested in these education protests in 2011 while teaching in Antofagasta, Chile. From early March through August, I was supposed to be teaching English in a secondary school. One day in early June I arrived at school to find out that the students had barricaded themselves inside the school with chairs and desks piled along the fences surrounding the school and students perched atop school buildings. Talking to colleagues and students at my school I learned that the students

were en toma, having taken over their schools in a form of protest. Talking with my wife I discovered that the school where she was teaching in another part of Antofagasta was also en toma. Later in the day I found out that almost all the public liceos (public secondary schools) in Antofagasta, along with a number of private secondary schools as well as the public University of Antofagasta, had been taken over by students. Particularly impressive was the fact that students, not just in Antofagasta, but across Chile were protesting and taking over their schools in a concerted effort to create a meaningful change in their education system. This sort of mass effort across schools, both at the high school and university levels, was unheard of by my generation in the United States. Upon returning to the United States from Chile and beginning my Masters degree, I have sought to better understand the historical and sociological context of this student protest and the education system that students were determined to transform. Much of the recent media and academic focus has been on the student movements in 2006 and 2011 and deservedly so. These were very significant demonstrations with hundreds of thousands of protestors. However, to solely focus on these two years leaves out a lot of the context of these movements and how these movements developed. What is largely ignored is that Chilean students have been engaged in political activism, off and on, since the early twentieth century. Even the protests that occurred from 2000-2005 and 2007-2010 which were essential in developing the ideas and demands of the 2006 and 2011 movements respectively are not discussed to any significant degree in much of the academic literature.

What provided the immediate catalyst for the student movements from 20002012 were the neoliberal education policies introduced under the Pinochet dictatorship which privatized secondary and higher education. However, student demands to reform these education policies did not immediately appear in 2000, but rather were developed over a decade, culminating (at least for now) in the 2011 student movement. Another question concerns the fact that these student demands for changes to the neoliberal education policies only truly emerged around 20 years after the fall of the Pinochet dictatorship in 1990. Why did these demands not emerge immediately following the return to democracy? I argue that part of the reason is due to the fact that the students involved in the recent movements were among the first students that were not raised under the dictatorship. Unlike their predecessors, these students do not have the memory of repression and violence common under the dictatorship. Consequently the student movements in 2006 and 2012 are only part of a longer history of student protests and political activism that has recently reemerged in order to protest neoliberal education policies. By looking at the broader context of these movements I hope to better understand the future of the movement and its possible effects on the politics and society of Chile.

Literature Review Most of the scholarly literature for both the 2006 and 2011 student movements does not address the history of student activism in Chile. Nor do many authors give a detailed timeline of the movements and the protests since 2000 that led up to the

larger demonstrations in 2006 and 2011. Most are short articles that provide good summaries of the 2006 and/or 2011 protests. The academic literature for 2006 focuses primarily on the inequality in Chilean secondary education. Most authors used the 2006 Penguin Revolution as a context for an argument against privatization in education and the use of vouchers in education. These articles are usually short, only giving a brief historical background to the movement and a short summary of the movement itself before moving into a discussion of the effects of neoliberal strategies in public education.1 In The Penguin Revolution in Chile: Exploring Intergenerational Learning in Social Movements, Donna Chovanec and Alexandra Benitez2 explore the effect of parental influence on student protestors during the 2006 Penguin Revolution and how the critical consciousness of the parents was passed on to this new generation of protestors, particularly women. The authors provide a brief history of the dictatorship, the transition to democracy and the neoliberal education reforms, as well as a short

Eduardo Ballesteros, Student upheavals expose anti -working class agenda of Chiles Bachelet, World Socialist Web Site, July 20, 2006. http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2006/07/chil-j20.html (accessed March 20, 2013); Jorge Fbrega, Education: Three Years After Chiles Penguin Revolution, Americas Quarterly Fall 2009, http://www.americasquarterly.org/node/982 (accessed March 20, 2013); Timothy Hatfield, Chiles Student Protests and the Democratization of a Semi Democratic Society, Council on Hemispheric Affairs, July 6, 2006, http://www.coha.org/chile%E2%80%99s-student-protests-and-the-democratization-of-a-semidemocratic-society/ (accessed March 20, 2013); Justin Vogler, Chile: The Rise of the Penquin Revolution, Upside Down World, January 11, 2010, http://upsidedownworld.org/main/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=330&Itemid=0http: //upsidedownworld.org/main/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=330&Itemid=0 (accessed March 20, 2013). 2 Donna M. Chovanec and Alexandra Benitez, The Penguin Revolution in Chile: Exploring Intergenerational Learning in Social Movements, Journal of Contemporary Issues in Education, 3(1) (2008): 39-57.

introduction to the movement itself. The articles main focus is on the intergenerational learning and interaction between parents and students. The monograph El mayo de los pinginos by Andrea Domedel and Macarena Pea y Lillo3 provides excellent insight into the 2006 Penguin Revolution. The book describes the associations of secondary student and their creation. Domedel and Pee y Lillo examine the protests in the years leading up to the Penguin Revolution, where the ideas that drove the movement in 2006 originated. The authors also interviewed a number of the major participants, giving a unique insight into the internal politics and divisions within the movement over demands, tactics, and responses to government offers. Overall, El mayo de los pinginos provides an excellent timeline and recent historical context for the Penguin Revolution, but it does not provide the longer term historical context nor do the authors describe in any detail the neoliberal education policies that led to the protests. The 2011 protests received much more attention, but due to the recentness of these events, the scholarly literature is sparse. Most of the academic literature for 2011 is similar to that of 2006, with authors using the protests as a case study to argue about the inequality and issues with the Chilean education system. Most give a short summary of the neoliberal reforms, history of the dictatorship, and a brief description of the movement itself. The focus of many of these authors was the student movement as a critic of neoliberal reforms and a test of Chiles democracy. These articles came from political groups and journals such as Solidarity, International
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Andrea Domedel and Macarena Pea y Lillo, El Mayo de los Pinginos, (Santiago: Ediciones Radio Universidad de Chile, 2008).

Socialist Review, Radical Philosophy, The International Sociological Association, and the Harvard Review of Latin America to name a few.4 Garca et al.5 examine social media use during the 2011 student movement. The article did not provide much contextual information, choosing instead to focus on the social media use during the movement. The authors analyze the movement using theories about technology-enabled networks to hypothesize about the success and sustainability of the movement. A student thesis by Hilary Pollan6, discusses the history of student political activism in Chile dating back to 1906 and the history of the Chilean education system. However, the author includes very little on movements from 2000-2010 and largely ignores the secondary student involvement in 2011, choosing instead to focus on the concept of cultural repertoire7 as it pertains to the 2011 higher education student movement. Articles by Nicols Somma and Cristian Cabalin examine the 2006 and 2011 movements in the context of the neoliberal policies instituted under the dictatorship,
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Nicolas Slachevsky Aguilera, Chilean Students are not afraid of the police, Infoshop News, September 3, 2013, http://news.infoshop.org/article.php?story=20120902235721335 (accessed March 20, 2013); Katy Fox-Hodess, The Chilean Student Movement and the Crisis of Neoliberal Democracy.Universities in Crisis, September 23, 2012, http://www.isa-sociology.org/universities-incrisis/?p=914 (accessed March 20, 2013); Manuel Larrabure and Carlos Torchia, Our futur e is not for sale: The Chilean Student Movement Against Neoliberalism, Socialist Project E-Bulletin, no. 542, September 6, 2011, http://www.socialistproject.ca/bullet/542.php (accessed March 20, 2013); Lachlan Marshall, Chiles students spread resistance in the neo -liberal laboratory, Solidarity.net, 54, September, 2011, http://www.solidarity.net.au/39/chiles-students-spread-resistance-in-the-neo-liberallaboratory/ (accessed March 20, 2013);Eduardo Silva, The Winter Chilean Students Said, Enough! Mobilizing Ideas, last modified May 2, 2012, http://mobilizingideas.wordpress.com/2012/05/02/thewinter-chilean-students-said-enough/ (accessed March 20, 2013); Sergio Villalobos-Ruminott, The Chilean Winter, Radical Philosophy 171, Jan/Feb 2012, http://www.radicalphilosophy.com/commentary/the-chilean-winter (accessed March 20, 2013). 5 Cristbal Garca et al. Tracking the 2011 Student-led Collective Movement in Chile through Social Media Use, (Presented at Collective Intelligence conference, 2012). 6 Hilary Pollan, The Chilean Winter: Student Movements and Higher Education Reform in Chile, (Mount Holyoke College, Sociology and Anthropology Departments, 2012). 7 Cultural Repertoire refers to the role of culture practices and traditions in a society.

but neither gives much information on the movements themselves or the history of student movements in Chile.8 An article by Daniel Salinas and Pablo Fraser9 arguably does the best job of providing a broader context of the student movement and giving a reasonably detailed description of the movement itself. The authors use social movement theory10 to examine how and why the protests emerged. The authors discuss the history of neoliberal reforms in education, the 2011 student movement, and social movement theory as it relates to education. However, Salinas and Fraser do not discuss the Penguin Revolution in great detail, the longer history of student movements, or the movements that took place from 2000 2011 other than the Penguin Revolution and the 2011 movement. Much of the academic literature concerning the 2006 and 2011 student movements lacks evaluation of the history of student political activism in Chile. Furthermore, almost no work has been done to form a coherent timeline of student protests from 2000 2012 that includes protests other than 2006 and 2011. A detailed description and analysis of the protests from 2000 2012 and government responses is needed in order to provide a more comprehensive background to these events and their effects.

Nicols M. Somma, The Chilean Student Movement of 2011-2012: Challenging the Marketization of Education, Interface, 4(2) (November 2012): pp. 296-309. Cristian Cablin, Neoliberal Education and Student Movements in Chile: Inequalities and Malaise, Policy Futures in Education, 10(2) (2012): pp. 219-228. 9 Daniel Salinas and Pablo Fraser, Education Opportunity and Contentious Politics: The 2011 Chilean Student Movement, Berkeley Review of Education, 3(1) (2012): pp. 17-47. 10 Social movement theory seeks to explain why social movements occur and their potential consequences.

Methodology Most of the research I conducted on the history of Chile and the Chilean education system is derived from secondary sources, largely books and journal articles in Spanish and English. Particularly well documented is the period concerning Salvador Allendes presidency and the subsequent coup, as well as the time frame of policies adopted under the dictator General Augusto Pinochet. I obtained much of the information on neoliberalism and its role in Chilean education through secondary sources, but I uncovered primary source material, particularly on laws and legislation, from official Chilean government websites. For the most part, my sources for the student movements were newspaper articles I accessed on official media websites. Due to time and budgetary constraints, I was unable to return to Chile to research directly in the archives or conduct interviews. Therefore, I relied on what I could access using Internet sources. I found and chose four major Chilean media websites -- El Mercurio, The Santiago Times, La Nacin, and El Tercero. I also accessed articles through The New York Times, The Guardian, BBC, Democracy Now!, and Al Jazeera. I then performed a Boolean search in each of these media outlet archives looking for the keywords students, student protests, tomas, paros, protests, demonstrations, strikes, and education in English and Spanish. I sorted the results by year and proceeded to sort through the thousands of results looking for articles relating to the student movements and protests I wished to study. The newspapers not only provided information on what was going on regarding student and government actions, but also showed the medias

attitude toward the protests, and at times reported public opinion concerning the protests. Newspapers also printed interviews with student and government leaders that were extremely informative. Unfortunately, at the time of this writing, none of the online archives provided information on protest activities prior to the year 2000. Consequently, I do not have access to media reports of any protests before 2000. The fact that all of my newspaper sources were accessed online leads to another limitation of my data collection. While many newspapers are now online, the Chilean newspapers with the most significant databases are the major newspapers such as El Tercero, La Nacin, El Mercurio, and The Santiago Times. This means that my data collection was largely limited to these four papers which were all from Santiago. The first three, El Tercero, La Nacin, and El Mercurio, are largely considered to be conservative, while The Santiago Times, the only English language paper of the four, is more liberal. Therefore, my data was skewed heavily toward news from Santiago, and furthermore, because my first language is English, I tended to favor information from The Santiago Times. Due to their conservative nature, El Tercero, La Nacin, and El Mercurio tended to attribute the violence during demonstrations to the protestors and usually gave the governments interpretation of events. The Santiago Times normally attributed the violence at demonstrations to authorities or non-student protestors. Because of my tendency to favor The Santiago Times, as well as my approval of the student movement, many of the figures given for protest attendance and the interpretation of events will be sympathetic to the student protestors.

I used Blogs, Facebook, and Twitter to keep abreast of the student movements and leaders, particularly the 2011-2012 movement in which the use of social media was prominent. I also accessed speeches and government announcements from government websites in order to obtain the official government reaction to the protests. While the historical background section of this thesis is based mostly on secondary sources, the information on the student movements was primarily gleaned from primary sources including blogs, social media, published/public interviews, and newspaper articles. These sources provided good information on movement turnout, number of arrests, dialogue between the government and students, politics, and movement tactics. However, these sources did not provide information on debates and dialogue within the movement, so the discussions and arguments within the movement were not available.

A Brief History of Chile Chile is a long, narrow country that stretches more than 4,270 kilometers (2,653 miles) from the Atacama Desert in the north to Patagonia in the south and averages only 177 kilometers (110 miles) across from East to West.11 With the Andes bordering it on the eastern side and the Pacific Ocean on its western side, and a desert in the north and the bleak and the icy Patagonia region in the south, Chile remained relatively isolated during the Spanish colonial period, as it was cut off from most of the other Spanish colonies, with Peru in charge of governing the Chilean territory for
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J. Samuel Valenzeula, The Society and Its Environment, Chile: A Country Study, edited by Rex A. Hudson, (Washington D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, 1994): 63-64.

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most of its colonial existence. Despite its isolation and the neglect of the Spanish crown, Chile has evolved to become one of the wealthiest and most successful countries in Latin America.12 Chiles population is predominately white with about 95% of the population listed as white-Amerindian who are mostly descendants of the intermixing of the Spanish invaders and the indigenous people. Mapuche, an indigenous group, make up around 4% of the population according to the CIA world fact book. Spanish is the official language along with German, English, and Mapudungun, an indigenous language.13 Most of Chiles wealth comes from its mining industry. In the late nineteenth century Chile instigated a war of aggression to take resource rich territory from neighboring Peru and Bolivia. During the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Chile was one of the biggest producers of nitrates in the world, extracted from its newly acquired northern territories. The Chilean economy, with its reliance on nitrates as its primary export, suffered a blow with the German invention of a synthetic substitute for nitrates during World War I. Chile abruptly entered a severe economic crisis. However, it quickly recovered with the increased demand for copper for electrical wire during and after the war. By the middle of the twentieth century, Chile had become one of the leading producers of copper with ownership of the mines alternating between privatized foreign ownership and nationalized state run
12

Paul W. Drake, Historical Setting, Chile: A Country Study, edited by Rex A. Hudson, (Washington D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, 1994): 3-4. 13 Chile, CIA World Factbook, last updated April 11, 2013, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ci.html (accessed April 18, 2013).

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corporations.14 Throughout its recent history the strength of Chiles economy has largely been determined by the price of copper. After Chile finally gained its independence from Spain in 1818 (fighting would continue until 1826) several years of civil war followed as liberals and conservatives fought for control of the newly formed nation. These conflicts gave way to a relatively peaceful, aristocratic form of democracy that would continue for most of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries with only a few exceptions.15 However, it is these exceptions, and one in particular, that have made Chile politically famous. The democratically elected socialist government of Salvador Allende, his subsequent overthrow by a military coup on September 11, 1973, and the ensuing 17year dictatorship of General Augusto Pinochet brought Chile to the attention of the world. In 1970, Salvador Allende became the first openly socialist president to be democratically elected in Chile. Allende was elected by a very thin margin, garnering only 36.2 percent of the vote compared to right-wing Jorge Alessandris 35 percent and centrist Radomiro Tomics 27.8 percent. 16 Although Allende won a plurality, he was far from winning a majority. Allende along with his Popular Unity coalition immediately began implementing a number of his socialist programs. The peaceful Chilean road to socialism began with the nationalization of all foreign-owned copper mines. The bill to nationalize the largely foreign-owned copper
14

Sebastian Edwards and Alejandra Cox Edwards, The Economy, Chile: A Country Study, edited by Rex A. Hudson, (Washington D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, 1994): 141-142. 15 Simon Collier and William F. Sater, A History of Chile, 1808-2002, 2nd Edition, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004): 71-124. 16 Drake, Historical Setting, 47.

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mining industry passed easily through Congress.17 Also during Allendes first year in office, his administration sought to decrease unemployment, increase production, and narrow the gap between rich and poor by raising wages for workers and instituting land reform and by taking advantage of Chiles unused industrial capacity. In order to accomplish these goals, Economic Minister, Pedro Vuskovic, raised wages 35 to 40 percent and froze prices. The initial result was an increase in demand for consumer products prompting an increase in production from Chilean industries and a subsequent increase in employment. Despite the success of these policies, long-term economic repercussions began to surface. Demand was too high and certain goods, such as sugar became scarce. Stores began to ration high-demand products and a black market soon appeared that sold items at highly inflated prices.18 Nor were Allendes policies welcomed by the majority of the upper-class in Chile or the Nixon administration in the U.S. Chilean elites saw Allendes policies as an affront to their economic and political power, while the Nixon administration saw these socialist policies as dangerous examples for the rest of Latin America to follow. The United States administration was concerned that Chile would lead the rest of the region into socialism. In order to prevent this potential political outcome, Nixon ordered the CIA to make the economy scream, and authorized $10 million to be used by the CIA to destroy the Chilean economy.19 The CIA had the internal support of the majority of upper class Chileans as well as significant sectors of the military.
17 18

John Lawrence Rector, The History of Chile, (Westport, CT: Green Wood Press, 2003): 172-173. Rector, The History of Chile, 173-174. 19 Richard Helms, CIA, Notes on Meeting with the President on Chile, September 15, 1970 http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB8/ch26-01.htm (accessed, Feb 18, 2012).

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Economic sabotage by the CIA and conservative groups in Chile combined with a global economic downturn and rampant inflation caused by Allendes policies achieved the desired effect of severely weakening the Chilean economy. The weakened economy made Allendes policies difficult to enact and caused hyperinflation as Allende attempted to implement his policies by printing and spending more money. This intervention laid the groundwork for the military coup that shortly followed. While there is no evidence that the CIA was directly involved in the coup itself, the agency had a significant hand in creating the environment conducive to such a military takeover. The coup on September 11, 1973, led by General Augusto Pinochet demanded the resignation of President Allende. Military forces attacked the presidential palace of La Moneda, one of Chiles most revered buildings. They proceeded to bomb, shell, and strafe the building to force Salvador Allende to surrender. Simultaneously, the military took over other strategic locations, including the port in Valparaso. The military also instituted a curfew and hunted down known supporters of Allende, imprisoning, torturing, and often killing them. By the end of the day, with no hope of victory or escape, the president committed suicide rather than surrender. The military junta took power, and a new era in Chile began.20 When Pinochet seized power in 1973, he declared a political recess (or state of siege) and closed down Congress and other democratic institutions in Chile. From 1973 through 1988, Pinochet allowed only three democratic exercises or plebiscites.
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Samuel Chavkin, Storm Over Chile: The Junta Under Siege, (New York: Lawrence Hill Books, 1989):17-30.

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The first, in 1978, was to affirm support of Pinochet after the United Nations had condemned his regimes human rights abuses. In 1980 the second plebiscite was held to extend his rule for another eight years. Both these plebiscites were conducted without lists of registered voters and it is generally considered that the Pinochet regime rigged these elections.21 Not surprisingly, the results of the two votes showed overwhelming support for Pinochet and his policies. The third plebiscite, in 1988, was conducted differently. This time there was a push from within the junta by the leaders of the other armed forces and from the international community for a more transparent election with registered voters and foreign observers to monitor the elections. The international community and Chilean opposition parties justifiably feared that if Pinochet lost the plebiscite, he would resort to military force. After the results of the plebiscite showed that Pinochet had lost, the other junta members convinced him that it would be best if he stepped down and acknowledged the will of the people.22 However, this urging did not assure that Pinochet would leave public life quietly as he still retained residual power and protections even after the plebiscite. Subsequently, the transition towards a more democratic Chile was very slow. After Pinochet left power in 1990, he remained in the public eye, first as head of the army, and upon his retirement from the military, as a senator for life. His position as senator, along with legislation passed during his dictatorship, ensured that

21

Mary Helen Spooner, The Generals Slow Retreat: Chile After Pinochet, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011): 15-18. 22 Spooner, The Generals Slow Retreat: Chile After Pinochet, 20-34.

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he and many of his subordinates would not be charged in Chile for the atrocities committed under his rule. Laws governing elections and the amendment of the constitution enacted in the final years of the regime made it extremely difficult to change the constitution and policies of Pinochet. Two of these laws were especially effective in hindering reforms to Chiles laws and constitution. The first law made certain members of the governing junta, including Pinochet, senators for life. The second law is a bit more complicated. In Chilean congressional elections two members from each region are elected to represent their region. Pinochet implemented a law that rigged the election so that if the top two politicians in the regional election were from the same coalition or party, the second place politician would need double the popular vote of the closest politician of another party or coalition or be forced to give up his/her seat to that opposition party member.23 The newly democratically-elected President, Patricio Aylwin, did not attempt significant reform, but instead tried to preserve the uneasy peace between the civilian government and the powerful military, which was remained under the control of Pinochet. This situation did not change until Pinochets standing began to fall in public opinion, and even then, no significant reforms were made until after his death in 2006. In 1998, while traveling abroad for medical treatment, he was arrested in Britain, under a warrant from a Spanish judge who claimed universal jurisdiction for human rights violations. However, Pinochet was never charged or extradited and was

23

Roberto Garretn, Perpetual Transition Under the Shadow of Pinochet, Neoliberalisms Fractured Showcase: Another Chile is Possible, edited by Ximena de la Barra (Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2011): 87-90.

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released in 2000 for medical reasons. He was stripped of his title of senator for life and his last few years, until his death in 2006, were spent largely in disgrace.24 The year 2006 also marked the election of President Michelle Bachelet, daughter of a man tortured by the military, who, under pressure from student demonstrators, became the first president since Pinochet to institute significant education reforms.

History of the University System in Chile The Chilean higher education system was established during the colonial period. The first university in Chile, the Royal University of San Felipe, was created in 1738. Before independence, this university was the sole institution of higher education in colonial Chile, attended by only the wealthiest men in Chile. After Chile won its independence from Spain in 1818 (after 10 years of civil war and a war against Spain), the Royal University of San Felipe was neglected and slowly decayed and lost power until 1839, when it was finally abolished and shut down.25 Replacing it was the University of Chile, founded November 19, 1842.26 One of its founders and its first rector was Andrs Bello, one of the most famous Latin American intellectuals of the era. Bello emigrated from Venezuela to avoid the dictatorship there. In Chile he played a large role in the formation of the University of Chile and the creation of the Chilean civil code, as well as in encouraging and leading a new wave of historians in Chile. The formation of the University of Chile under
24

Heraldo Muoz, The Dictators Shadow: Life Under Augusto Pinochet, (New York: Basic Books, 2008): 243-314. 25 Collier and Sater, A History of Chile, 1808-2002, 62-63. 26 Historical Outline, University of Chile, http://www.uchile.cl/portal/englishversion/presentation/49741/historical-outline (accessed February 8, 2012).

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Bellos leadership ushered in a new era of intellectual life in Chile as foreigners and nationals gathered around the University of Chile. Known as the Generation of 1842, these intellectuals worked toward increasing democracy and reducing the role of the Catholic Church in government, and sought greater freedom of the press and civil liberties.27 Initially, the University of Chile served primarily as a supervising body for the Chilean education system and it was not until 1865 that the university actually offered its own classes in the universitys building. Despite the progressive nature of the university and the accompanying intellectuals, the University of Chile, like almost all universities of the time, was an institution reserved for elite men and the early programs at the University of Chile, predominately law and medicine, reflected this trend. In 1877, in a major breakthrough, the University of Chile began to admit women to the University, although it would not be until the twentieth century that women became a significant part of the universitys student population.28 The creation of the University of Chile was followed shortly by the establishment of a mechanical arts school in 1849 that focused on welding, carpentry, and mechanics with a special emphasis on mining. This school would come to be known as the University of Santiago. Later, an engineering school (1940) and a teacher training school (1944) were added to the University of Santiago.29 Both the University of Chile and the University of Santiago were state universities and it was not until 1888, with the foundation of the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile
27

Paul W. Drake, Historical Setting, in Chile: A Country Study, edited by Rex Hudson, 3rd edition (Washington D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, 1994): 20. 28 Collier and Sater, A History of Chile, 1808-2002: 102-103. 29 Historia de la Usach, University of Santiago, http://www.usach.cl/index.php?id=6748 (accessed, February 8, 2012).

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(PUC), that a permanent Catholic institution of higher education was created in Chile. Initially focused on the faculties of law and the physical sciences, it was after 1930 that the PUC added the faculties of theology, technology, philosophy, education, architecture, and medicine. With the expansion of its faculties, the PUC subsequently became one of the biggest and most influential universities in Chile alongside the University of Chile and the University of Santiago.30 The first private, non-confessional university in Chile was the University of Concepcin, founded in 1917 by the elites in the southern city of Concepcin. The government of Concepcin commissioned Enrique Molina, a strong advocate for the establishment of a university in Concepcin, to travel to the United States and study the higher education system there.31 However, the government of Concepcin was slow to act, and after two years of research and organization led by Molina, the University of Concepcin was finally opened in 1919 with private funding from the community and with Molina as rector. The University of Concepcin was also the first university in Chile to be based outside of Santiago and was initially designed to serve the need for an institution of higher education in southern Chile.32 The

30

Historia, Pontifical Catholic University, http://www.uc.cl/es/la-universidad/historia (accessed February 8, 2012). 31 Fundacin, Los Inicios, University of Concepcin (2011), http://www.udec.cl/pexterno/node/164?q=node/166 and http://www.udec.cl/pexterno/node/164 (accessed July 15, 2012). 32 Comit Pro UdeC, University of Concepcin (2011), http://www.udec.cl/pexterno/node/164?q=node/169 (accessed February 8, 2012).

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specializations initially offered by this university were arithmetic, typing, and shorthand, followed shortly after by dentistry, pharmacy, and industrial chemistry. 33 In 1925, a second Catholic university was established in Valparaso, about 140 km west of Santiago. Called the Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaso, it was made possible by a significant grant from Isabel Caces de Brown who, along with her daughters, was among the most important families of Valparaso at that time. The institution initially focused on science, particularly engineering and mining, but later expanded to include law, medicine, and art among others.34 In 1932, Agustn Edwards McClure, the executor of the estate of Federico Santa Mara, donated a substantial sum upon the death of his client to the formation of an institute of higher education in Valparaso called the Federico Santa Mara Technical University.35 The donation also created a high school that was to be run in cooperation with the university. Federico Santa Maras only request was that for the first ten years of the institutions operation, the teachers at the university be exclusively foreigners because he believed that foreigners, especially Germans, would be better educators than Chileans. Federico Santa Mara Technical University initially offered degrees in mathematics, commerce and economics, physics, chemistry, and biology.36

33

Primeras Carreras University of Concepcin (2011), http://www.udec.cl/pexterno/node/164?q=node/185 (accessed July 16, 2012). 34 Nuestra Universidad, Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaso, http://www.pucv.cl/ (accessed February 9, 2012). 35 Historia, Federico Santa Mara Technical University, http://www.utfsm.cl/universidad/historia.html#rese%C3%B1a (accessed July 30, 2012). 36 Historia, Federico Santa Mara Technical University, http://www.utfsm.cl/universidad/historia.html#rese%C3%B1a (accessed February 9, 2012).

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The Southern University of Chile was the second private university in Chile and the second university to be located in the south of Chile. Established in 1954 in the city of Valdivia, the universitys main areas of focus were agriculture, forestry, veterinary medicine, engineering, and fine arts. The idea for the Southern University of Chile began in 1942 with the birth of the Friends of Art Society, led by Dr. Eduardo Miranda Morales. The financial means to establish the University were obtained through private contributions from local citizens and commercial businesses in Valdivia.37 The Catholic University of the North was the first university to be established in the north of Chile. Located in the port city of Antofagasta, which serves as the major port for most of the mining in Chile, the Catholic University of the North initially focused on engineering and technical fields, particularly those related to mining. Founded in 1956, the university filled a big need for a university in the north of Chile.38 The eight universities described above constitute what are known as Chiles traditional universities. They served mostly the elites of Chile, but were tuition free, funded through public and private funds. These universities particularly the University of Chile have played a large role in the establishment of the Chilean education system at all levels and continue to be the biggest and most influential universities in Chile. Moreover, these eight traditional universities remained largely
37

Conoce la UACh, Southern University of Chile, http://admision.uach.cl/conoce-uach/ (accessed February 9, 2012). 38 Historia de la UCN, Catholic University of the North (2010), http://www.ucn.cl/sitioDeInteres/?cod=1&codItem=100&codPrincipal=1000 (accessed, February 9, 2012).

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unchanged until 1980, when General Augusto Pinochet radically transformed the higher education system in Chile.

The Foundation of Primary and Secondary Education in Chile The foundation of primary and secondary education in Chile is linked to literacy campaigns that continually pushed to expand literacy through education. Until the founding of the University of Chile, the Chilean state had all but disregarded popular education and literacy. Very few primary and secondary schools existed and all of these were elite institutions.39 From the time of its founding, the University of Chile was charged with the entire Chilean education system in order to increase literacy. Initially, the primary education systems main purpose was to educate wealthy elites and it was not until the presidency of Jos Manuel Balmaceda (18861891) that compulsory free education became a reality. Despite resistance from elites who opposed educating the masses, Balmaceda tripled the funding for schools and instituted substantial education reforms that strove to increase literacy at all levels.40 Thus, the University of Chile supervised all education-related matters, from primary and secondary education to teacher training and higher education. While Balmacedas reforms greatly increased literacy, the education system still favored elites. The state supported only a few years of school for the masses and even then, mandatory attendance was not regularly enforced. The next big push for

39

Robert Austin, The State, Literacy, and Popular Education in Chile, 1964-1990, (Maryland: Lexington Books, 2003): 10-11. 40 Austin, The State, Literacy, and Popular Education in Chile, 1964-1990, 11-12.

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literacy and more education for the general public came from the newly formed socialist and communist parties in Chile during the 1920s and early 1930s.41 The goal of the parties of the left was to empower workers to effect change through education and literacy. With the help of teacher unions and educators, such as Nobel Prizewinning poet Gabriela Mistral, and despite resistance from conservative parties and groups, by 1940 illiteracy had dropped to 22% in school-age populations, down from 53% in 1920.42 With the presidency of Pedro Aguirre Cerday, these gains were consolidated with increased funding for schools and for adult literacy campaigns.43 The efforts of these early pioneers for education successfully made primary and secondary education, as well as literacy, a priority for future Chilean governments.

41 42

Austin, The State, Literacy, and Popular Education in Chile, 1964-1990, 17-19. Austin, The State, Literacy, and Popular Education in Chile, 1964-1990, Table2.1 on page 41. 43 Austin, The State, Literacy, and Popular Education in Chile, 1964-1990, 41-42.

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II.

History of the Student Federation of the University of Chile (FECH)

Every major university in Chile has a student federation that is supposed represent the political goals of the student body. These federations, in turn, comprise Confederation of Student Federations of Chile, or Confech, which is a council of student federations. The Confech played a significant role in the student movement by bringing together all the major student federations into dialogue and providing a structure for coordination and cooperation among the student federations. The most powerful and oldest student federation is the student federation of the University of Chile, known as the FECH.44 Due to the prestige of the University of Chile and the political activism of FECH leaders, the FECH played an integral role in the Confech and were among the most active and most ardent supporters of the student movements as well as among the most outspoken critics of the government. The FECH has a long history of political activism and protest dating back to its formation in 1906. The creation of the FECH corresponded with increased immigration from Europe during the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries particularly Germans, who became prominent in education as administrators and teachers. The creation of the FECH also corresponded with increased urban literacy and the beginnings of a leftist political movement in Chile.45 In addition, elections and regime changes during this time became more peaceful, and labor unions began to develop around the turn of the century.
44 45

Federacin Estudiantil de la Universidad de Chile. Collier and Sater, A History of Chile, 1808-2002: Second Edition, 179-195.

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The formation of the FECH was spurred by these demographic and social changes. The immediate event that prompted the creation of the FECH was when medical students invited to a theatre to be honored were seated in the back of the theatre, while visiting dignitaries were seated at the front. The students protested the seating arrangement by leaving the theatre. The next day, the students received permission from the president of the medical school and the university rector to form the FECH, the first student federation in Chile. The FECH was fully supported by the rector of the university, and when he was forced to resign in 1911 over political disagreements with President Ramn Barros Luco, the students of the FECH were the first to protest his resignation.46 Besides that event, the FECH remained largely inactive for the first decade of its existence, until events just prior to and during the early 1920s brought the organization to the foreground. During the decade from 1910 to 1920, the FECH developed a close relationship to labor unions through the Anarchism movement. This movement was predominant in labor unions, such as the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), and attracted a number of prominent FECH intellectuals.47 In 1911, the FECH created a high school extension in Santiago to educate workers and the following year, it established an adult school called the Lastarria Popular University. The FECH entered the political scene through links to labor unions made in the anarchist movement and adult schools, and many prominent members of the FECH became
46

Frank Bonilla and Myron Glazer, Student Politics in Chile, (New York: Basic Book Inc., 1970): 3132. 47 Peter DeShazo, Urban Workers and Labor Unions in Chile: 1902-1927, (Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 1983): 135.

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leaders and outstanding members of the IWW and other labor unions.48 The FECH also began meeting with the Workers Federation of Chile (FOCH) and the Socialist Party, as well as other leftist organizations. This coalition of labor unions and the FECH staged a number of protests from 1917 to 1920, resulting in the government targeting the FECH and shutting down the Lastarria Popular University, raiding the FECH offices, and generally restricting FECH and labor union activities.49 Despite the repression, the FECH continued to maintain close links with the FOCH, IWW, and the Socialist Party through its adult education programs and through student leaders associations to leftist political parties. In 1920, the FECH once again became embroiled in conflict with the Chilean government after a coup occurred in Bolivia on July 12 that installed a government with friendlier ties to Peru. The Chilean government under President Juan Luis Sanfuentes (1915-1920) attempted to gain support for the next election by implying that Peru had engineered the coup in an effort to recover its losses from the War of the Pacific (1879-1883), where Chile took territory from Peru and Bolivia. The subsequent outpouring of patriotism was used to attempt the silencing of opposition forces particularly labor unions and the FECH. The FECH, along with some of the labor unions, resisted the government, taking a lead role in the anti-military, pacifist movement. The conflict culminated in the invasion and destruction of the FECH offices by an angry, patriotic crowd as police stood by watching.50 Throughout these

48 49

DeShazo, Urban Workers and Labor Unions in Chile: 1902-1927, 158. DeShazo, Urban Workers and Labor Unions in Chile: 1902-1927, 171. 50 DeShazo, Urban Workers and Labor Unions in Chile: 1902-1927, 1983: 182-184.

26

conflicts, the FECH maintained its ties to labor unions and workers while defending its own education and organization against attacks from the government and conservative groups.51 Thus, the relationship between the FECH and leftist labor groups and political parties was cemented and continues to this day. The conflicts and protests by the FECH during the 1920s were followed by several years of relative silence. However, during this time, the self-conception of the FECH as an independent, revolutionary, and leftist organization that had begun during the protests from 1917-1920 was solidified, and the principles of the FECH were articulated and institutionalized within the organization.52 The end of World War I had major implications for the Chilean economy. Mostly reliant on the export of nitrates and copper, Chile had profited greatly from the demand for nitrates (used for gunpowder) during the war. The end of the war saw copper and nitrate prices crash, and in 1919, exports dropped 66 percent. The following year, prices stabilized and began to rise, only to fall again in 1921. The economic downturn caused over 10,000 miners and family members to migrate from the mining regions in northern Chile to Santiago. These economic difficulties and social and political discontent led to the election of Arturo Alessandri to the presidency in 1920. Arturo Allessandri was a reformist and member of the Radical Party in Chile, becoming the first populist president elected in the country, managing to generate a tremendous following among labor unions, workers, and the FECH due
51

Frank Bonilla, Students in Politics: Three Generations of Political Action in A Latin-American University, (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University 1959), 42-52. 52 Frank Bonilla, Students in Politics: Three Generations of Political Action in A Latin-American University, 54-60.

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to his charisma and inflammatory rhetoric against the privileged classes. However, the uncooperative legislature, controlled by a conservative coalition, and the continuing decline of nitrate exports caused increasing discontent among the Chilean population.53 The conflict between President Alessandri and the conservative legislation came to a head on September 8, 1924. A military junta, led by General Luis Altamirano, took control of Congress and passed a number of labor laws designed to appease the labor movement, while simultaneously limiting their legality and power and splintering the larger unions by pitting each industry against the others. Shortly thereafter, Allessandri resigned the presidency and full political power was given to the military junta.54 The FECH, along with the IWW and the FOCh, were very vocal in their opposition to what they saw as a blatant attack on individual liberties and the labor unions, as they called for an overthrow of the military junta.55 Another military coup in 1925 saw Alessandri back in power, much to the pleasure of the labor unions and the FECH. Yet, their satisfaction was short-lived as Alessandri resigned again under pressure from the military only a few months later. In 1927, Colonel Carlos Ibaez assumed the presidency after dominating the politics of the country for the previous three years. Although Ibaezs presidency was more of a dictatorship marked by repression and violence, Chile remained remarkably calm until 1930, the year after the U.S stock market crashed. That crash triggered a drastic

53 54

Collier and Sater, A History of Chile, 1808-2002: Second Edition, 203-210. DeShazo, Urban Workers and Labor Unions in Chile: 1902-1927, 1983: 218-219. 55 DeShazo, Urban Workers and Labor Unions in Chile: 1902-1927, 1983: 221.

28

decline in Chiles economic prosperity as copper and nitrate prices fell dramatically. In 1931, as economic conditions worsened, Ibaez was forced to cut expenditures and stop making payments on the foreign debt. The crisis sparked a new wave of protests and demonstrations, with the FECH playing a very active role. Despite Ibaez regimes active repression of leftist and student groups, the FECH declared a strike and occupied the University of Chile. The strike by the FECH was in support of a larger strike by labor unions and together, they forced Ibaez to resign the presidency.56 The fall of Ibaez marked the return to power of labor unions and the FECH after four years of oppression by the Ibaez regime. The years following the overthrow of the Ibaez regime however were turbulent. The man who had replaced Ibaez as president, Esteban Montero, was overthrown in 1932 by yet another coup. A military junta was established that declared a Socialist Republic of Chile and dissolved Congress. However, this Socialist regime only lasted 100 days, and Arturo Alessandri was re-elected president. What followed were several decades of democratic elections and relative calm. The year 1952 saw the return to power of General Carlos Ibaez, this time democratically elected, followed by Arturo Alessandris son, Jorge Alessandri, in 1958. The years between 1932 and 1956 were quiet years for the FECH, with control of the organization primarily in the hands of moderates.57

56 57

Collier and Sater, A History of Chile, 1808-2002: Second Edition, 220-222. Bonilla and Glazer, Student Politics in Chile, 145-148.

29

The Ibaez presidency (1952 -1958) was marked by turmoil as he attempted to bring inflation under control and suppress angry labor unions and miners. The FECH was reestablished as a major political player when it joined labor unions in strikes against increased cost of living and Ibaezs economic policies. The demonstrations by the FECH were violently suppressed by the police and military, and after the fighting ended, 20 people were dead.58 Ibaez was not overthrown, continuing until the end of his term, but the strikes of 1956 and 1957 by the FECH established the organizations return to the political scene after years of relative quiet and reestablished its links to labor unions and leftist groups. The next major event in Chile that was profoundly influenced by students was the 1970 election of Salvador Allende, the first democratically-elected socialist president in Chile. Elected in 1970 with support of the FECH and other student groups, Allende proceeded with his democratic road to socialism and socialism from above59 ideologies that were attempts to institute socialist programs in Chile while staying within existing law. These programs nationalized copper mines and instituted healthcare for the urban and rural poor.60 The hopeful and energetic support from the FECH was brought to an abrupt halt with the military coup. Pinochets rise to power regime brought a temporary halt to FECH activities as he cracked down on leftist sympathizers. Right after Pinochet took power in 1973,

58 59

Collier and Sater, A History of Chile, 1808-2002: Second Edition, 256-257. Socialism from above is the process of implementing socialist policies from the top (government officials, elites etc.) rather than from bottom. 60 Orlando Caputo and Graciela Galarce, Chiles Neoliberal Reversion of Salvador Allendes Copper Nationalization, in Neoliberalism Fractured Showcase: Another Chile Is Possible, edited by Ximena de la Barra, (Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2011), 47-71.

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he began to purge Chilean society of people believed to be of socialist, communist, or leftist sympathies. Higher education was no exception. The military junta under Pinochet rid the universities of all administrators and staff thought to sympathize with Allende and the political left. These purges were accomplished under the guise of economic and financial cuts.61 The regime also replaced previously autonomous university leaders with ones sympathetic to the junta. Subsequently, the faculty and administration at universities were controlled indirectly by the junta, creating an institutional legitimacy that would uphold the ideology of the regime. The regime demobilized students, disallowing student groups and organizations unless approved by the regimes appointees in the universities, and enforced the idea that students should not have a role outside academics, banning any meetings that were not social in nature. By co-opting the leadership of the universities, students and administrators alike, the Pinochet regime was able to reshape the curriculum and fields of study to emphasize neoliberal ideology. In summary, the immediate effect of the military coup was the dismantling of student organizations and political activity; the purging of leftist faculty, students, and staff; and the reorienting of the university in favor of Pinochet and neoliberal ideology. Despite the crackdown on student political activity, some students still protested. However, these protests were frequently met with violence by police and the military and deaths were not uncommon. While strikes and demonstrations continued, police and military repression, usually violent in nature, made organizing
61

Daniel C. Levy, Chilean Universities under the Junta: Regime and Policy, Latin American Research Review, Vol. 21, No.3 (1986): 95-128.

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difficult if not impossible. Not until the plebiscite in 1988 did protests and demonstrations truly grow in size. The run-up to the plebiscite in 1988 to determine whether Pinochet would serve for another eight years, or allow a transition to democracy marked the largest demonstration in Chile since before the coup that brought Pinochet to power. As has been demonstrated in this chapter, the FECH has a long tradition of political activism that stems back over 100 years. This tradition has continued in recent years after the fall of the Pinochet dictatorship with the FECH playing a leading role in student movements from 2000-2012. The student movements from 2000 through 2012 represent a set of practices that have been revitalized and reenergized by student opposition to neoliberal policies.

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III.

Neoliberalism in Chilean Education

The neoliberal policies that were implemented under the dictatorship of General Augusto Pinochet sought to privatize and deregulate secondary and higher education. These neoliberal policies provided the immediate catalyst for the 2006 Penguin Revolution and 2011 Chilean Winter in which student protestors demanded reforms to these neoliberal policies. Neoliberalism is the set of economic policies designed to open the economy and create an extreme version of a free market. Neoliberal policies include increased privatization, deregulation, and the cutting of public expenditures. Neoliberal policy dictates that education is a private good, not a public one, and must go through what is termed cost-recovery.62 For education this means the substitution of private financing (loans) for public financing (low tuition, grants) with the financial burden usually placed on the student. In higher education this usually implies increased tuition and other fees. These policies of cost-recovery, in turn, have led to inequality in the availability of higher education as tuition and fees become more difficult to afford for lower-middle-class and lower-class students. This problem is exacerbated in developing countries as cutbacks in higher education make it increasingly difficult for lower-income students even to enroll. The neoliberal wave of privatization in education has also caused a proliferation of so-called pseudo universities. These establishments are for-profit institutions such as professional institutes, vocational
62

Steven J. Klees, A Quarter Century of Neoliberal Thinking in Education: Misleading Analyses and Failed Policies, Globalization, Societies and Education, Vol.6, No.4 (2008): 311-348.

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schools, and online universities that often operate without much oversight or regulation.63 The neoliberal project in Chile began in 1955 when the University of Chicago and the Universidad Catlica de Chile signed a contract wherein faculty from the economics department of the University of Chicago would spend time in Chile to help develop a department of economics at the Universidad Catlica de Chile, and students from the Universidad Catlica de Chile would attend the University of Chicago to study economics. With assistance from the U.S. government and the Ford Foundation, three faculty members from the University of Chicago arrived in Santiago in May 1956 for a two-year stint and selection of Chilean students for study at the University of Chicago began in September of the same year.64 The economics department at the University of Chicago was dominated by the idea that economics was positivistic, with emphasis placed on the study of economics as an ideal model and a separation between economics as a science and economics in politics. Furthermore, many of the Chicago economics faculty advocated an individualistic market economy and the application of economic theory to every aspect of life.65 Thus, the idea of economics as a positive science and the emphasis on the idea of the economic market as the location of free and informed decisions, exempt from politics and society, with antipathy toward state involvement in the economy was transferred to the Universidad Catlica de Chile. The contract between the University of Chicago
63

Philip G. Altbach, International Higher Education: Reflections on Policy and Practice, (Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College Center for International Higher Education, 2006):103-119. 64 Juan Gabriel Valds, Pinochets Economists, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995): 135137. 65 Valdes, Pinochets Economists: 65-66.

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and the Universidad Catlica de Chile was originally set for three years, but this contract was extended to eight years, during which time 26 Chilean economists were trained at the University of Chicago, with some returning to Chile to replace the University of Chicago faculty who were teaching at the Universidad Catlica de Chile.66 The Chilean economists that were trained at the University of Chicago or by Universidad Catlica de Chile faculty who had trained at the University of Chicago became the leading proponents of neoliberal ideology in Chile. After Pinochet took power these economists were instrumental in creating the neoliberal economic policies introduced during Pinochets seventeen-year dictatorship.67 In many ways the contract between the University of Chicago and the Universidad Catlica de Chile was a successful venture as the economists trained under the contract were able to shape and continue to shape Chiles economic future. Chile has long been touted as a success for its neoliberalism and as a role model for other countries in Latin America. In many respects, Chile has been seen as an economic success. The CIA describes Chile as a role model for economic reform, with economic growth averaging 4% a year, mostly from copper and mining as world prices for commodities have risen.68 Chile has also become the first South American country to join the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, or OECD, establishing it as a major player in global markets. The
66 67

Valdes, Pinochets Economists, 127. Valdes, Pinochets Economists, 16-18. 68 Chile, The World Factbook, CIA, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-worldfactbook/geos/ci.html (accessed February 18, 2012).

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conservative Heritage Foundation ranks Chile seventh among top free market (least amount of government regulation) economies in the world and first among top free markets in South America, noting that Chile has maintained the sound economic policies established under the 17-year rule of General Augusto Pinochet.69 However, these apparent successes are complicated by problems and inequalities that have beset the neoliberal model in Chile. Chile has one of the most inequitable distributions of wealth in both Latin America and the world. According to the World Bank, Chile was the fourth country in Latin America during the 1990s in terms of unequal wealth distribution.70 Thus, while the neoliberal policies under Pinochet greatly increased and accelerated the Chilean economys growth, they have also created a large gap in income inequality, with 75% of the wealth going to 10% of the population.71 Neoliberal polices have had much wider impacts beyond income inequality, including education inequality, environmental degradation, and indigenous rights violations. Education plays a central role in neoliberal ideology. Under neoliberalism education becomes a private commodity instead of a public good. Neoliberal emphasis on business relationships, efficiency, and commodification of education as a resource has played a large role in shaping educational institutions. This is especially

69

Chile #7, 2012 Index of Economic Freedom, The Heritage Foundation, 2012, http://www.heritage.org/index/country/chile (accessed February 18, 2012). 70 Inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean: Breaking with History? (World Bank, 2003) http://www.fao.org/righttofood/kc/downloads/vl/docs/inequality%20in%20latinamerica.pdf (accessed February 18, 2012). 71 Sylvia Vias, The Inequality Behind Chiles Prosperity, MercoPress, (November 24, 2011). http://en.mercopress.com/2011/11/24/the-inequality-behind-chile-s-prosperity (accessed, February 20, 2012).

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true of universities, where neoliberal ideology increasingly creates an environment where a student is both a consumer and commodity. 72 A student is a consumer in that s/he must achieve career goals by paying for education and formal certifications. Furthermore, a student is a commodity with potential output and value to the economy. Thus, education serves as an important zone for neoliberal ideology and the commodification of schools, students, and knowledge. This ideology paves the way for increased user fees, especially in higher education, as well as the proliferation of education institutions which were unregulated and of dubious quality.

Neoliberal Policies in Higher Education In 1980, another set of higher education reforms moved Chilean universities further toward a neoliberal model for education. Before 1980, there were only eight institutions of higher education in Chile. Just two of these institutions were fully public and six were private, three of which were Catholic universities. All these universities received public funding and charged no tuition. It is important to note that these universities were selective institutions based on academics and standardized tests and, although they did not charge tuition, they mainly served the middle and upper classes.73 The 1980 reforms were an attempt to privatize the higher education system and move the financial burden of higher education from the government to private
72

Les Levidow, Marketizing Higher Education: Neoliberal Strategies and Counter Strategies, in The Commoner N. 3 (January 2002). 73 Jose Joaquin Brunner, Higher Education in Chile: 1980-1990, Educacin y Cultura, No.20 (Santiago, March 1992) , 21-23.

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individuals and institutions. The reforms deregulated higher education, allowing private institutions to flourish and the requirements for the establishment of new private institutions were minimal.74 The two large public universities were split up to create numerous, smaller local institutions. A three-tiered system was established that included universities that focused on four-year undergraduate degrees that required a licenciaturas (e.g. lawyers, doctors, engineers, journalists, and economists) and graduate degrees. Also included were professional institutes that focused on four-year programs that did not require licenciaturas and technical training centers that were restricted to two-year vocational degrees. The ease of accreditation for new private institutions, along with the division of the large public universities to create smaller, more local universities, and the creation of professional institutes and technical training centers, caused the number of higher education institutions to expand immensely, from just eight universities before 1980 to over 300 in 1990, of which only 22 were publicly funded.75 The reforms instituted by Pinochet in the 1980s also saw the financial burden of higher education move toward the private sector and individuals, and away from public funding. Even public institutions were now only partially funded and were forced to introduce tuition fees for the first time. Moreover, funding for private institutions became entirely tuition-based. Scholarships, grants, and other forms of financial assistance were replaced with private and public loans, and a portion of
74

For more information see article by Jose Joaquin Brunner and Guillermo Briones, Higher Education in Chile: Effects of the 1980 Reform, in Higher Education Reform in Chile, Brazil and Venezuela, Laurence Wolff and Douglas Albrecht (eds.) (CRESAL/UNESCO, 1997):21-45. 75 Brunner, Higher Education in Chile: 1980 -1990, 24-25.

38

government funding for all universities were tied to the best 27,500 students. Higher education institutions, public and private, were encouraged to compete for alternate means of both public and private funding.76 The goal of these reforms in the neoliberal model was to create a more efficient and competitive higher education system that could more readily adapt to changing market needs, as well as to reduce the amount of government money invested in the education system. With less demand for education funding, the government could allocate money for other services, or reduce taxation. Indeed, the number of higher education institutions exploded, as did the number of people who attended an institute of higher education. In 1980, higher education enrollment was 116,000 in universities alone; by 1990, enrollment had jumped to 249,482,77 including universities, professional institutions and technical training centers, and by 2007, total enrollment had skyrocketed to 660,517.78 The increase in numbers of students and institutions belied the fact that the majority of institutions created were private, for-profit institutions that were usually unaffordable for the average Chilean family and primarily served the wealthiest students or students who qualified among the best 27,500 of secondary students. The implementation of tuition requirements in public universities also made it difficult for the poorest students to afford a higher education without taking out loans, as needbased assistance was available, but very difficult to obtain due to the high demand
76

Higher Education Finance and Cost Sharing in Chile, University of Buffalo Graduat e School of Education, last modified December 28, 2006. http://gse.buffalo.edu/org/inthigheredfinance/files/Country_Profiles/Latin_America/Chile.pdf 77 Brunner, Higher Education in Chile: 1980 -1990, 28. 78 Consejo Superior de Educacin, INDICES, 2010.

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and low number of scholarships and financial aid.79 Oversight was minimal as well, as the new institutions were essentially paying the old institutions for accreditation without any government regulation.80 In 1990, just days before the end of the Pinochet regime, Congress passed an additional set of reforms that set up an independent licensing committee, the Higher Education Committee, to oversee the licensing of new private institutions of higher education. However, this committee was still allowed to charge fees for their accreditation services and only partially addressed the complaints against the 1980 reform.81

Neoliberal Policies in Secondary Education While the higher education reforms instituted under Pinochet did not have a significant immediate effect on the socioeconomic makeup of the universities, his regime did establish a permanent, systematic institution via secondary education for excluding lower-class students and keeping higher education reserved for the elites. Secondary school education in Chile was an important target of drastic neoliberal reforms during the Pinochet regime. The neoliberal policies in secondary education have continued to increase not only this inequality in secondary schools, but also in higher education enrollment. Similar to the influence on higher education, neoliberal ideology in secondary education promotes the privatization of schools and the placing of the financial
79 80

Brunner, Higher Education in Chile: 1980 -1990, 27-28. Brunner, Higher Education in Chile: 1980 -1990, 13. 81 Jose Joaquin Brunner and Guillermo Briones, Higher Education in Chile: Effects of the 1980 Reform, (Santiago, Chile: FLACSO, Educacin y Cultura No. 29, Noviembre de 1992).

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burden on students families through decentralization and user fees. The primary method for implementing this neoliberal ideology is through voucher systems, which work by giving each student a monetary voucher that can be used at either public or private schools. The rationale for implementation of this system is the belief that in giving students a choice, enrollment becomes more competitive and private schools will strive to provide a better education than that provided by public schools. This belief is a hotly contested issue in many studies both for and against privatized education and the voucher system. In recent studies summarized by S.J. Klees, when private schools are compared to public schools and the data is controlled for selection bias, student socio-economic status, and location, no statistically significant difference exists in the quality of education between public and private schools.82 Chile has long served as the main battleground for debates between public and private education. In the early 1980s, the Pinochet regime instituted education reforms that created a voucher system for education and decentralized and privatized the education system. These reforms were purportedly designed to increase the efficiency and competitiveness of the school system. The reforms first decentralized the education system, giving most of the power and financial authority to municipalities. This decentralization essentially undermined the power of the nationally organized teachers union as the central government no longer had the power to hire or fire teachers. A voucher system was then created that provided a fixed amount of money per student to public and non-tuition charging private
82

Klees, A Quarter Century of Neoliberal Thinking in Education: Misleading Analyses and Failed Policies, 311-348.

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institutions. This plan created a three-tiered education system that included municipality-run public schools, privately-run subsidized schools, and fully private non-subsidized schools. After the passage of these reforms, subsidized private schools proliferated and the enrollment in these subsidized private schools went from 15% in 1981 to 35% in 1999.83 The argument for the decentralized voucher system was that the increased competition of the private schools would result in better quality education in the subsidized private schools compared to that of the public schools. On the face of it, this outcome has seemingly been achieved in Chile, with students in the subsidized private schools generally performing better than students in public schools on standardized tests. However, with closer analysis, this conclusion has been proven inaccurate. Studies have shown that when data is controlled for socio-economic status, selection bias (private schools selectively choosing students based on academic success), and other factors, there are no real differences between subsidized private and public schools in regards to student achievement.84 One of the reasons for the apparent success of the subsidized private schools can be linked to the fact that administrators of these schools can actively select which
83

Emiliana Vegas, School Choice, Student Performance, and Teacher and School Characteristics: The Chilean Case, The World Bank Development Research Group Working Papers, (April, 2002):4-6. 84 Please see Alberto Arenas, Privatization and Vouchers in Colombia and Chile, International Review of Education, 50: 379-395, 2004;Chang-Tai Hsieh and Miguel Urquiola, The Effects of Generalized School Choice on Achievement and Stratification: Evidence from Chiles Voucher Program, Journal of Public Economics 90, 2006: 1477-1503; Alejandra Mizala and Florencia Torche, Bringing the Schools Back in: The Stratification of Educational Achievement in the Chilean Voucher System, International Journal of Educational Development, 32, 2012;Emiliana Vegas, School Choice, Student Performance, and Teacher and School Characteristics: The Chilean Case, The World Bank Development Research Group Working Papers, April, 2002.

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students are accepted into their schools. Private schools can skim the best students by admitting students with higher grades or the highest national standardized test scores. In 1993, under the administration of President Patricio Aylwin, subsidized private schools were given the authority to impose a user fee on their students at the cost of no more than a 25% decrease in government funding. At a monthly fee of up to $9 a month, the government reduction in voucher payment was 0%. Between $9 and $17 the reduction was 10%, and from $17 to $68 the fee reduction was 25%.85 Thus, subsidized private schools were encouraged to place more and more of the financial burden on students and their families without losing their state subsidization, subsequently allowing schools to employ the user fee as a means for selecting wealthier and supposedly higher achieving students. This practice further stratified the education system as lower-income families, struggling to get by on minimum wage or less, could no longer afford to send their children to subsidized private schools. The system also made the public schools less effective and less desirable because as more and more of the best students left, public schools received less and less funding. This system of privatization, where the subsidized private schools could selectively choose their students and charge user fees, along with the loss of public school funding for every student that moved to a private school, subsidized or otherwise, further exacerbated the gap between the rich and the poor. Poorer students were increasingly represented in public schools, while middle-class and upper-middle

85

Alejandra Mizala and Florencia Torche, Bringing the Schools Back in: The Stratification of Educational Achievement in the Chilean Voucher System, International Journal of Educational Development, 32 (2012): footnote on 140.

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class students attended subsidized private schools. The truly wealthy could afford unsubsidized private schools.86 This fact has implications for university enrollment as well. Private schools became increasingly favored in university admissions, further limiting opportunities for academic advancement for students educated in public secondary schools. The perceived inequalities that have arisen from this neoliberal system have become the primary catalyst for the student movements from 2000-2012. The repeal of the neoliberal education reforms instituted under Pinochet has become an especially important demand of the 2011 student movement.

86

Emiliana Vegas, School Choice, Student Performance, and Teacher and School Characteristics: The Chilean Case, The World Bank Development Research Group Working Papers, (April, 2002): 10-20.

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IV.

Student Movements 2000-2007

While much of the recent focus on Chilean students has been centered on the 2006 Penguin Revolution and the 2011 Chilean Winter movement, the issues raised by these two movements and many of the tactics used can be traced back to smaller movements that began as early as 2000 under President Ricardo Lagos (2000-2006). While much smaller in number of students involved, these protests included both university and secondary students and provided a precedent for the 2006 and 2011 movements. These earlier protests also show the development of students demands from smaller more short-term demands to structural and long-term reforms to the education system.

Build Up: Student Protests 2000-2005 In June of 2000, university students, primarily in Santiago but also throughout the country, protested to demand more resources for the solidarity fund, or student tax credit, designed to support students who cannot afford higher education.87 The Consejo de Federaciones de Estudiantes de Chile88 (Confech) and the Federacin de Estudiantes de la Universidad Catlica89 (FEUC) demanded that more money be provided for the student tax credit and that the tax credit be used more effectively by the universities. The protests were relatively small in terms of student turn-out, but
87

Crdito Fiscal Universitario, Ministerio de Educacin Pblica , January 4, 1982, on the Catholic University of Valparaiso website, http://www.fscu.ucv.cl/pdf/cfu.pdf, (accessed, October 29, 2012). 88 Council of Chilean Student Federations. 89 Catholic University Student Federation.

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the disruption of schools through non-attendance and strikes interrupted classes for around 40,000 secondary students on June 22.90 In October and November of the same year, secondary students began protesting the delay in the delivery of the school transportation pass, which, according to the La Coordinadora de Estudiantes Secundarios de La Florida, 91 had been paid by the students four months previously and was yet to be delivered.92 These protests were localized to Santiago and continued through November of 2000.93 The Minister of Education of the time, Mariana Aylwin, commented that she understood the students impatience and noted that some bus drivers were not respecting the decision to extend the duration of the previous years school passes, but condemned the protests and subsequent damage and violence.94 The start of the 2001 school year brought larger protests, predominantly from secondary students, but also from university students. From the beginning of April to the end of May, secondary students in Santiago protested the new value of the school transportation passes which students considered to be too low.95 Several large
90

Universidades del pas se adhieren a protesta nacional por recursos, El Mercurio, June 22, 2000, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2000/06/22/24293/universidades-del-pais-se-adhieren-aprotesta-nacional-por-recursos.html (accessed October 29, 2012). 91 Coordinator of Secondary Students of La Florida. 92 Estudiantes anuncian protesta por pases escolares, El Mercurio, October 3, 2000, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2000/10/03/34343/estudiantes-anuncian-protesta-por-pasesescolares.html (accessed October 29, 2012). 93 Protesta de estudiantes secundarios por pase escolar, El Mercurio, November 3, 2000, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2000/11/03/37264/protesta-de-estudiantes-secundarios-porpase-escolar.html (accessed October 30, 2012). 94 Ministra Aylwin comprende impaciencia de escolares por retraso de pases, El Mercurio, November 9, 2000, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2000/11/09/37838/ministra-aylwincomprende-impaciencia-de-escolares-por-retraso-de-pases.html (accessed October 30, 2012). 95 Convocan Paro general de estudiantes secundarios por cobro de pase, El Mercurio, April 3, 2001, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2001/04/03/51043/convocan-paro-general-de-estudiantessecundarios-por-cobro-de-pase.html (accessed October 30, 2012).

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protests occurred on April 4 and April 9, with the April 9 protest marking the start of a paro, (or strike where students refuse to attend classes) that would last until April 12 when the students would return to school in order to meet and organize further actions.96 The Ministry of Education announced that on April 9 schools in Santiago recorded an absentee rate of around 80% and stated that it would not negotiate with students until the strike was terminated.97 More large protests and demonstrations took place on April 12 with student leaders meeting and calling for another large demonstration for the following Tuesday, April 17.98 These protests continued through the rest of April and into May, prompting the government to condemn the protests routinely and to call for negotiations and an end to the demonstrations and vandalism.99 The issue of the school transportation passes was never resolved to the students satisfaction because the student demands were met with resistance from both transportation companies and the government. During May of 2001 university students also mounted protests against a government-proposed credit reform that would partially privatize student loans. These
96

Ms de 23 mil alumnos se marginaron de movilizacin por pase escolar, El Mercurio, April 5, 2001, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2001/04/05/51273/mas-de-23-mil-alumnos-semarginaron-de-movilizacion-por-pase-escolar.html (accessed October 30, 2012); Violencia estudiantil en protesta por pase escolar, El Mercurio, April 9, 2001, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2001/04/09/51586/violencia-estudiantil-en-protesta-por-paseescolar.html (accessed October 30, 2012); ACES llamar a jvenes a retornar a clases, El Mercurio, April 12, 2001, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2001/04/12/52022/aces-llamara-a-jovenes-aretornar-a-clases.html (accessed October 30, 2012). 97 Seremi de Educacin: 80% de ausentismo a clases por el paro estudiantil, El Mercurio, April 9, 2001, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2001/04/09/51656/seremi-de-educacion-80-deausentismo-a-clases-por-el-paro-estudiantil.html (accessed October 29, 2012). 98 Ms de 80 detenidos en nueva protesta estudiantil, El Mercurio, April 12, 2001, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2001/04/12/52047/mas-de-80-detenidos-en-nueva-protestaestudiantil.html (accessed October 30, 2012). 99 Ministra de Educacin: Movilizaciones no sirven, El Mercurio, May 28, 2001, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2001/05/28/56063/ministra-de-educacion-movilizaciones-nosirven.html (accessed October 30, 2012).

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protests, smaller than the secondary student protests, did not receive as much attention. Students demanded that the payment of school fees be made dependent on the individual students ability to pay.100 The university protests were more widespread than the secondary student movements which were concentrated in Santiago, while university students participated throughout the country.101 As with the secondary protests, the momentum of the university student protests dissipated without effecting change. The complaints of 2001, never fully addressed or forgotten, reappeared at the start of the 2002 school year. In April of 2002 university finance and loan reform reemerged as university students, led by the Confech and the Federacin de Estudiantes de Chile (FECH), called for a series of protests in April, culminating in a national protest and strike on April 30 that saw over 6,000 students amassing to protest across the country.102 Minister of Education Mariana Aylwin denounced the strike, noting that the protest did not make sense because the government had already agreed to negotiate with students. Aylwin also remarked that the student demand for more money for the state-run student loans was unfeasible due to the low rate of

100

Universitarios marcharn igual pese a negativa de la intendencia, El Mercurio, May 16, 2001, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2001/05/16/55019/universitarios-marcharan-igual-pese-anegativa-de-la-intendencia.html (accessed October 30, 2012). 101 Anuncia manifestaciones estudiantiles para esta semana, El Mercurio May 13, 2001, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2001/05/13/54780/anuncian-manifestaciones-estudiantilespara-esta-semana.html (accessed October 30, 2012). 102 Confech llama a paro universitario para el 30 de abril, El Mercurio, April 17, 2002, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2002/04/17/83290/confech-llama-a-paro-universitario-para-el30-de-abril.html (accessed October 31, 2012).

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repayment, which she said was around 50%.103 On April 30 several large demonstrations resulted in clashes with police in central Santiago. Northern and Southern regions in Chile, including Chilln, Valparaso, Temuco, and Concepcin, among others, also experienced significant protests.104 Protests continued throughout May with a mostly unsuccessful attempt by students to protest the presidential address on May 21.105 Consequently, the movements momentum became increasingly depleted and began dissolving into isolated protests by individual universities as the end of May approached.106 The issue of student transportation passes reemerged in July and August 2002 and incited several large demonstrations that included both secondary and university students. Unlike the protests against student transportation fees in 2001 that were predominately comprised of secondary students, the 2002 protests were for the most part led by university students of the FECH and Confech.107 Large protests by secondary and university students that culminated in around 200 arrests occurred on August 8 and resulted in a number of injuries and significant vandalism aimed at

103

Mariana Aylwin no justifica movilizacin estudiantil anunciada para maana, El Mercurio, April 29, 2002, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2002/04/29/84178/mariana-aylwin-no-justificamovilizacion-estudiantil-anunciada-para-manana.html (accessed October 31, 2012). 104 Protesta estudiantil finaliz tras intervencin de Carabineros, El Mercurio, April 30, 2002, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2002/04/30/84225/protesta-estudiantil-finalizo-trasintervencion-de-carabineros.html (accessed October 31, 2012). 105 Andrea Domedel and Macarena Pea y Lillo, El Mayo de los Pinginos, (Santiago: Ediciones Radio Universidad de Chile, 2008): 25. 106 Baja adhesin tuvo protesta de estudiantes universitarios, El Mercurio, May 16, 2002, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2002/05/16/85422/baja-adhesion-tuvo-protesta-de-estudiantesuniversitarios.html (accessed October 31, 2012). 107 Estudiantes ratifican convocatoria a protestas, El Mercurio, August 6, 2002, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2002/08/06/91742/estudiantes-ratifican-convocatoria-aprotestas.html (accessed October, 31, 2012).

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public transportation.108 Demonstrations continued throughout August and November with protests from both university and secondary students, but without significant effect on transportation fees. University finance and loan reform and the price and inconsistent access to school transportation passes continued to draw protests from 2003 to 2005. In 2003, protests began in April with secondary student demonstrations against school transportation fees.109 Shortly after, in late April, university students resumed their protests for university finance and student loan reform.110 The protests for university finance and student loan reform continued through August of 2003, with a national strike on August 13.111 The secondary student protests appeared to lose steam at the end of May (or at least it is at that time when news coverage of the protests appeared to terminate). Protests and demonstrations in 2004 and 2005 exhibited similar student behavior with protests beginning at the start of the school year (March May)112 and

108

Ataques estudiantiles a buses, embajada y Palacio Arizta, El Mercurio, August 8, 2002, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2002/08/08/91926/ataques-estudiantiles-a-buses-embajada-ypalacio-ariztia.html (accessed October 31, 2012). 109 87 detenidos en protestas por tarifa escolar, El Mercurio, April 16, 2003, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2003/04/16/110124/87-detenidos-en-protestas-por-tarifaescolar.html (accessed November 1, 2012). 110 Ocho detenidos en violenta protesta estudiantil, El Mercurio, April 24, 2003, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2003/04/24/110733/ocho-detenidos-en-violenta-protestaestudiantil.html (accessed November 1, 2012). 111 Paro Nacional minute a minute, El Mercurio, August 13, 2003, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2003/08/13/120074/paro-nacional-minuto-a-minuto.html (accessed November 1, 2012). 112 Protesta de estudiantes frente al Ministerio de Educacin, El Mercurio, April 28, 2004, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2004/04/28/146220/protesta-de-estudiantes-frente-alministerio-de-educacion.html (accessed November 1, 2012); Estudiantes anuncian Movilizaciones por crdito universitario, El Mercurio, April 13, 2005, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2005/04/13/178939/estudiantes-anuncian-movilizaciones-porcredito-universitario.html (accessed November 1, 2012).

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gradually losing momentum as the school year wore on, although newspaper reports indicate there were occasional protests later in the year (October December).113 The student protests from 2000 to 2005 by both secondary and university students did not achieve significant changes in governmental policy. Part of the reason the protests were unsuccessful was that the movements were not really attempting to change the neoliberal education policies adopted under Pinochet as a whole. This is not to say that ideas of de-privatization and substantial education reform were not partly the basis of some of these protests, but as a whole, broader education reform was not the predominant aspect of these protests. Because smaller reforms are presumably easier to address and implement, the focus on smaller, less substantial reforms may have prevented these movements from moving beyond a narrow set of demands to neoliberal education policies and education reform as a whole. Another factor was that the military dictatorship, which had only ended in 1990, still overshadowed Chilean politics. Even though President Ricardo Lagos (2000-2006) was part of the center-left Concertacin, the military and Pinochet still possessed significant power and prestige and the civil government remained wary of confronting the military too openly. These factors led to the student demands of university finance and loan reform as well as school transportation pass reform being largely unmet at the start of the 2006 school year.

113

Ms de 20 estudiantes detenidos en marcha callejera, El Mercurio, October 21, 2004, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2004/10/21/161587/mas-de-20-estudiantes-detenidos-enmarcha-callejera.html (accessed November 1, 2012); 120 detenidos en protesta estudiantil contra cumbre APEC, El Mercurio, November 17, 2004, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2004/11/17/164278/120-detenidos-en-protesta-estudiantilcontra-cumbre-apec.html (accessed November 1, 2012).

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Although the movements from 2000 to 2005 did not have the impact, frequency, or number of participants that the 2006 movement had, they did provide the structures and tactics that would be used in the 2006 and later movements. The earlier movements led to the rise of several secondary school organizations that were prominent during the 2006 Penguin Revolution. La Asamblea Coordinadora de Estudiantes Secundarios114 (ACES) emerged in October of 2000, after the decline of the Federacin de Estudiantes Secundarios115 (Feses), which was a more traditional organization with strong hegemonic ties to the Communist Party. The ACES declared itself to be autonomous with no connections to political parties.116Another organization that came out of the dismantling of the Feses was the Coordinacin Revolucionaria de Estudiantes Autnomos117 (CREA). CREA became the bastion of political thought among secondary students and the political arm of the ACES.118 From 2000-2005 the ACES went through cycles of strong political action and relative silence as various student leaders rose to power and then graduated or left. During this time another organization, the Asamblea de Centros de Alumnos de Santiago119 (ACAS), rose to prominence as an assembly for secondary schools in central Santiago. The ACAS was dominated by the student leadership of the secondary schools of central Santiago and was a more hierarchical organization than the ACES, which was an open organization that sought to include diverse and

114 115

Coordinating Assembly of Secondary Students. Federation of Secondary Students. 116 Domedel and Pea y Lillo, El Mayo de los Pinginos: 48-49. 117 Autonomous Student Revolutionary Coordination. 118 Domedel and Pea y Lillo, El Mayo de los Pinginos: 50-51. 119 Assembly of Student Centers of Santiago.

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peripheral student groups.120 The ACAS, because of its more centralized power structure and location in Santiago, was in a better position to negotiate with the government than the ACES, while the ACES had the power to mobilize student groups across the country.121 Both of these groups would play a significant role in the 2006 and 2011 student movements.

The 2006 Penguin Revolution The 2006 Penguin Revolution122 stands apart from the secondary student protests of2000 2005. It distinguished itself in the broader scope of its demands; in the larger number of students who mobilized during the protests; in its larger presence in areas outside of Santiago; and in that it occurred during a particularly pivotal moment in Chilean history, the year that Michele Bachelet was elected to the presidency and ex-dictator Augusto Pinochet died. The outcome of the Penguin Revolution is particularly relevant to understanding the 2011 student protests because many of the reforms demanded during the 2006 movement were not satisfactorily addressed, and reappeared again in 2011. In the 2006 Penguin Revolution, secondary students occupied their schools and staged numerous demonstrations, most of which occurred in Santiago. Commonly seen as the precursor to or initial wave of the 2011 student movement, the major demonstrations of the Penguin Revolution began in late April 2006 and lasted through June 2006. High school students from across Chile
120 121

Domedel and Pea y Lillo, El Mayo de los Pinginos: 53. Domedel and Pea y Lillo, El Mayo de los Pinginos: 53-54. 122 The movement was termed the Penguin Revolution because of the black and white school uniforms worn by most Chilean secondary school students.

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began protesting against school bus and university entrance fees, as well as for an end to the neoliberal reforms instituted under Pinochet that continued under successive democratic governments. Although students had been staging various smaller protests since the fall of Pinochet in 1990, this movement was the largest movement yet and encompassed students throughout the entire country. 123 The 2006 movement came at a pivotal time in Chiles history with two major events that affected Chile and the student movement. The first was the election and inauguration of President Michele Bachelet, Chiles first female president. Bachelet ran on a socialist platform which promised change with continuity, and vowed to fight for social inclusion. Bachelet came from a family which had been torn apart by the Pinochet regime. Her adopted father had died in jail after repeated torture for being a socialist. Michele Bachelet herself, along with her mother, had been tortured and forced into exile.124 The election of Bachelet brought a sense of hope to many of those in favor of substantial social reform, including students. The second major event was the illness and death of ex-dictator Augusto Pinochet. The prestige and power of Pinochet had been steadily eroding since his arrest in England in 1998.125 Although he returned to Chile in 2000,126 he never fully
123

Orlando Seplveda, Biggest Mass Movement Since Pinochet: Chilean Students Launch Mass Protests, International Socialist Review, Issue 49, September October 2006. http://www.isreview.org/issues/49/chilestudents.shtml (accessed February 20, 2012) 124 Larry Rohter, A Leader Making Peace With Chiles Past, The New York Times, January 16, 2006, http://www.nytimes.com/2006/01/16/international/americas/16winner.html?pagewanted=1&_r=1&ref =chile (accessed, November 1, 2012). 125 David Connett, John Hooper, and Peter Beaumont, Pinochet Arrested in London, The Guardian, October 17, 1998, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/1998/oct/18/pinochet.chile (accessed November 1, 2012). 126 Pinochet Arrives in Chile, BBC, March 3, 2000, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/664514.stm (accessed November 1, 2012).

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regained his health or prestige. However, thanks to protection through various grants of immunity Pinochet had negotiated for crimes committed in Chile during his regime, he was able to avoid prosecution until 2004. Shortly afterward, Pinochet was inundated with court filings against him. For two years after 2004, Pinochets power, prestige, and health decayed, and he died on December 10, 2006.127 The slow decline of Pinochets power and health from 2000 until his death brought renewed opposition to his policies and provided opportunities for open demonstrations against those policies, such as was the case with the 2006 Penguin Revolution. The movement began on Tuesday, April 25, 2006 when students from Liceo Carlos Cousio de Lota in the Bo Bo region in southern Chile demonstrated with students from other schools in the community for an improvement to the infrastructure of the schools.128 On April 26 approximately 5,000 students from Santiagos municipal, semi-private, and private schools protested in downtown Santiago on the street Alameda Bernardo OHiggins in front of the Chilean Ministry of Education. The students were protesting the increase in price of the Prueba de Seleccin Universitaria (PSU) or university entrance exam and the increased cost of the public transportation pass for students and its limitation to two trips per day. Additionally, they called for the repeal of the Jornada Escolar Completa (JEC) or full school day, as well as for the repeal of the 1990 Ley Orgnica Constitucional de Educacin or Organic Constitutional Law on Education (LOCE). The JEC increased
127

Monte Reel and J.Y. Smith, A Chilean Dictators Dark Legacy, The Washington Post, December 11, 2006, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2006/12/10/AR2006121000302.html (accessed November 1, 2012). 128 Domedel and Pea y Lillo, El Mayo de los Pinginos: 15.

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the time students spent in school to over eight hours per day.129 The Minister of Education, Martn Zilic, agreed to hold talks with the students concerning the PSU and transportation fees, but said that there would be no change to the JEC. 130 Another demonstration on May 4 in Santiago resulted in over 600 arrests as the student movement escalated.131 These initial demonstrations were fairly localized to Santiago or the student participants respective regions, and it was not until May 10 that the movement gained momentum on a national level. On Monday May 8, the spokeswoman for the ACES, Mara Jess Sanhueza, announced a call for a national strike on Wednesday, May 10, giving the government an ultimatum to either meet their demands for free school bus fares, free PSU, and an end to the JEC or face a nationwide strike.132 Sanhueza declared that the demonstration would begin in Santiago at the Plaza Santa Ana and Miraflores at 9 a.m. and that demonstrations in the rest of Chile would follow at the Plaza de Armas (the town square) in each city. The spokeswoman also stated that these strikes and

129

Con 47 detenidos culmina protesta de Pinginos en el Centro, La Nacin, April 26, 2006, http://www.lanacion.cl/con-47-detenidos-culmina-protesta-de-pinguinos-en-el-centro/noticias/200604-26/113809.html (accessed October 12, 2012). 130 Cristina Dunn, School Kids Arrested as Protest Gets Out of Control, Santiago Times, April 27, 2006, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/other/9010-SCHOOL-KIDS-ARRESTED-AS-PROTESTGETS-OUT-OF-CONTROL (accessed October 15, 2006). 131 Ms de 600 detenidos en march estudiantil, La Nacin, May 5, 2006, http://www.lanacion.cl/masde-600-detenidos-en-marcha-estudiantil/noticias/2006-05-04/210030.html (accessed October 15, 2012). 132 Jen Sotolongo and Leah Serinsky, High School Students Organize Wednesday Strike, The Santiago Times, May, 8, 2006, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/other/9068-IN-BRIEF-BACHELET-,-MOTHER%E2%80%99S-DAY-MONEY,-STUDENTS-STRIKE,-AND-DIGITALNEWS (accessed, October 15, 2006).

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demonstrations would continue until the government met the student demands with substantial and genuine solutions.133 The call for a national strike caught the government by surprise, as a meeting between the student representatives and members of the Bachelet administration was already scheduled to for Thursday, May 11, to discuss the students demands.134 The Minister of Education, Martn Zilic, stated, For us it was a surprise that on Sunday some of the [student] leaders called a national mobilization because it was not on the negotiation table. 135 Zilic also urged the students not to follow through with the demonstration, but rather focus their efforts on the negotiating table; [I want] to tell young people that we are working with them, that we sat with them, there is a negotiating table. The petitions that they have given us cannot be resolved in one day, in two days; therefore we call them to negotiate, to continue negotiating. 136 Despite his call to negotiate and the impending student demonstration, Zilic declared that the students demand for free transport was financially unrealistic, explaining that this concession would cost 50 billion pesos, or approximately 10.5 million U.S. dollars in

133

Secundarios convocan a movilizaci n nacional para el 10 de Mayo, La Nacin, May 8, 2006, http://www.lanacion.cl/secundarios-convocan-a-movilizacion-nacional-para-el-10-demayo/noticias/2006-05-07/190048.html (accessed October 15, 2006). 134 SEREMI de educacin acusa manipulacin poltica de estudiantes secundarios, La Nacin, May 9, 2006, http://www.lanacion.cl/seremi-de-educacion-acusa-manipulacion-politica-de-estudiantessecundarios/noticias/2006-05-08/203304.html (accessed October 15, 2012). 135 Ministro de educacin descart pasa escolar gratuito para estudiantes secundarios La Nacin, May 9, 2006, http://www.lanacion.cl/ministro-de-educacion-descarto-pase-escolar-gratuito-paraestudiantes-secundarios/noticias/2006-05-09/144545.html (accessed October 15, 2012). 136 MINEDUC llama a escolares a mantener dilogo y cuestiona a profesores, La Nacin, May 8, 2006, http://www.lanacion.cl/mineduc-llama-a-escolares-a-mantener-dialogo-y-cuestiona-aprofesores/noticias/2006-05-08/153413.html, (accessed October 16, 2012).

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2006,137 but noting that student demands concerning the PSU and JEC were still being reviewed and discussed.138 This rejection of part of their demands naturally did not sit well with the students and was partially responsible for the renewed call for the national strike on May 10. The announcement of the national strike gained support from the Metropolitan Teachers Association, including Jorge Abedrapo, the president of the organization. The government condemned this support immediately as being overtly political and irresponsible. The Secretara Regional Ministerial de Educacin (SEREMI),139 Alejandro Traverso, accused Abedrapo of manipulating students for political ends, declaring: It is unacceptable from a professional ethics point of view that a teacher, given the strong political position he has, plays a role that ends in the manipulation of young people who are 15 or 16 years old. 140 Traverso also argued that none of the students who attended a meeting with Abedrapo were among the students who had been negotiating with the government, implying that there was a divide within the movement and the ACES.141 Further contributing to the governments suspicion was the fact that Jorge Abedrapo was also a leader in the Partido Comunista de Chile

137

I used XE currency calculator which allowed me to look at the exchange rate for May 2006. http://www.xe.com/currencytables/?from=CLP&date=2012-10-17 138 Ministro de educacin descart pasa escolar gratuito para estudiantes secundarios La Nacin, May 9, 2006, http://www.lanacion.cl/ministro-de-educacion-descarto-pase-escolar-gratuito-paraestudiantes-secundarios/noticias/2006-05-09/144545.html (accessed October 15, 2012). 139 Regional Secretary for the Minister of Education. 140 MINEDUC llama a escolares a mantener dilogo y cuestiona a profesores, La Nacin, May 8, 2006, http://www.lanacion.cl/mineduc-llama-a-escolares-a-mantener-dialogo-y-cuestiona-aprofesores/noticias/2006-05-08/153413.html, (accessed October 16, 2012). 141 MINEDUC llama a escolares a mantener dilogo y cuestiona a profesores, La Nacin, May 8, 2006, http://www.lanacion.cl/mineduc-llama-a-escolares-a-mantener-dialogo-y-cuestiona-aprofesores/noticias/2006-05-08/153413.html, (accessed October 16, 2012).

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(Communist Party of Chile) and was therefore directly attached to a political party that might be interested in co-opting the movement.142 The allegations of manipulation of the students and division within the movement were refuted by Mara Jess Sanhueza, who claimed that the students were invited to the meeting: They said they wanted to support us and we were invited to the conference; I dont want to think that its just a political manipulation because it is important that they support us. 143 This version of events was contradicted by Abedrapo who asserted that, They [the students] asked us to support them and we only called a press conference, so there is no such manipulation.144 The announcements from the Minister of Education and the Secretara Regional Ministerial de Educacin demonstrated the concern within the government that the student movement could be co-opted or used by other political groups for their own gain. The announcements also represented an attempt to discredit the movement and repress the students agency by attempting to portray the student movement as part of a broader conspiracy that was being perpetrated by adults with ulterior motives. While it is unclear if the teachers union contacted the students or the students contacted the union, the idea of manipulation by the teachers union was denied by both Jorge Abedrapo and by the representatives of the ACES. Despite the
142

In Brief: Students March, Mapuche Pitch, Smog Plan, The Santiago Times, May 10, 2006, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/other/9081-IN-BRIEF--STUDENTS-MARCH,-MAPUCHEPITCH,-SMOG-PLAN (accessed October 17, 2006). 143 SEREMI de educacin acusa manipulacin poltica de estudiantes secundarios, La Nacin, May 9, 2006, http://www.lanacion.cl/seremi-de-educacion-acusa-manipulacion-politica-de-estudiantessecundarios/noticias/2006-05-08/203304.html (accessed October 15, 2012). 144 SEREMI de educacin acusa manipulacin poltica de estudiantes secundarios, La Nacin, May 9, 2006, http://www.lanacion.cl/seremi-de-educacion-acusa-manipulacion-politica-de-estudiantessecundarios/noticias/2006-05-08/203304.html (accessed October 15, 2012).

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governments denunciation of the national strike and the call for continued negotiations, the students did not back down and reiterated their demands be met fully, including the increased funding for transportation that the Minister of Education had rejected.145 On May 10, the day of the planned national strike, secondary students across Chile staged protests and demonstrations. The ACES, in their call for a national strike, gave students in each region the freedom to act as they saw fit and negotiate with each municipality independently. Therefore, each region had different tactics and a different experience. The students in Santiago negotiated with both the central government and regional representatives of Santiago. This particular aspect of the Santiago protest meant that the strikes and protests in Santiago were more central and more influential in regards to the students goals because the students had a direct link to the central government and could literally protest right in front of the Ministry of Education. Subsequently, by far the biggest protest occurred in Santiago, as 5,000 students took to the streets as part of the national strike, resulting in almost 1,000 arrests.146 Smaller protests occurred in other regions of Chile. In Concepcin, around 1,000 students demonstrated in the center of the city, blocking traffic, throwing rocks, and vandalizing property until police broke up the protest with water cannons and

145

http://www.lanacion.cl/secundarios-convocan-a-movilizacion-nacional-para-el-10-demayo/noticias/2006-05-07/190048.html (accessed October 15, 2006). 146 Mil estudiantes detenidos en protesta en Chile, infobae.com, May 11, 2006, http://www.infobae.com/notas/nota.php?Idx=254323&IdxSeccion=1 (accessed October 20, 2012).

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arrested 33 people.147 In the city of Arica in northern Chile, the protests started out somewhat disorganized with several groups marching through the city until they congregated in a local park. After some minor altercations with police, a group of students delivered their demands to Governor Alvaro Palma. Manuel Ramrez, the president of the Student Center of the Eduardo Frei Montalva Integrated School, explained the different demands and methods of protests among different groups within the city and the country: In Arica, the majority of the leaders of the FESAP [Federation of Secondary Students] are students of rich schools, where there are no problems paying for a thousand PSUs and they go to classes in a car. Our fight is principally for the public school students [of the municipalized education], where there are no resources and they urgently need our demands to be approved. 148 Protests were also undertaken in many other cities in Chile, including Valparaiso, Via del Mar, and Temuco, among others. In all, the protests on May 10 resulted in over 1,200 arrests, the majority of which occurred in Santiago.149

147

Concepcin: protestas de estudiantes secundarios terminan con 33 detenidos, La Nacin, May 10, 2006, http://www.lanacion.cl/concepcion-protestas-de-estudiantes-secundarios-terminan-con-33detenidos/noticias/2006-05-10/164813.html (accessed October 22, 2012). 148 Gustavo del Canto, Protesta de estudiantes secundarios en Arica, El Morro Cotudo, May 10, 2006, http://www.elmorrocotudo.cl/admin/render/noticia/4002 (accessed, October 22, 2012). 149 Concepcin: protestas de estudiantes secundarios terminan con 33 detenidos, La Nacin, May 10, 2006, http://www.lanacion.cl/concepcion-protestas-de-estudiantes-secundarios-terminan-con-33detenidos/noticias/2006-05-10/164813.html (accessed October 22, 2012). In Brief: Students March, Mapuche Pitch, Smog Plan, The Santiago Times, May 10, 2006, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/other/9081-IN-BRIEF--STUDENTS-MARCH,-MAPUCHEPITCH,-SMOG-PLAN (accessed October 22, 2012). Katerinne Pavez, Manifestacin de estudiantes secundarios dej ms de mil detenidos en todo el pas, La Nacin, May 11, 2006, http://www.lanacion.cl/manifestacion-de-estudiantes-secundariosdejo-mas-de-mil-detenidos-en-todo-el-pais/noticias/2006-05-10/203937.html, (accessed October 22, 2012).

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On Thursday, May 11, the day following the national strike, government officials widely condemned the protests, claiming that the demonstrations were unwarranted given that they had agreed to negotiations with the students that had been scheduled to start the same day (May 11th). Chiles vice president, Andrs Zaldvar, stated that the protests and violent incidents involving students had caused damage to Chiles national and international image.150 Zaldvar also called on parents to monitor their children and prevent them from engaging in violent behavior. The Vice President further justified police intervention and the high number of arrests, noting that the police acted with restraint, but with enough force to stop the violence and property damage.151 The government further reiterated its belief that the student movement was being manipulated and taken advantage of by non-students and political groups. Education Minister Martn Zilic condemned the protests and emphasized his dismay at the violent behavior of some of the protestors, stating, I dont think that a 15 or 16 year old high school student should be throwing Molotov cocktails because that is terribly dangerous for them and their companions; hence I do not doubt that there are violent people who would like to use these types of demonstrations to protest against the Government. 152 Vice President Zaldvar made a similar statement, maintaining,

150

Graham Updegrove Zaldivar Upset with Student Demonstrations, The Santiago Times, May 11, 2006, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/9095-ZALD%C3%8DVAR-UPSET-WITHSTUDENT-DEMONSTRATIONS (accessed October 23, 2012). 151 Vicepresidente: Disturbios estudiantiles afectan imagen del pas, El Mercurio, May 11, 2012, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2006/05/11/218719/vicepresidente-disturbios-estudiantilesafectan-imagen-del-pais.html (accessed October 23, 2012). 152 Katerinne Pavez, Manifestacin de estudiantes secundarios dej ms de mil detenidos en tod o el pas, La Nacin, May 11, 2006, http://www.lanacion.cl/manifestacion-de-estudiantes-secundarios-

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It is always the case that there are people who will take advantage of these types of demonstrations that the students are doing; last time we saw it with the universities, we saw it on May 1st, in these types of situations small groups are always the ones that provoke these types of violent actions.153 The focus on the idea that the student movement was being manipulated by violent political groups was part of a government response that sought to marginalize the students and their demands, at least in part, by placing doubt on the legitimacy of their actions, thus creating a perception of illegitimacy for the movement. The students, for their part, did not help this perception since they went ahead with their strike a day before negotiations with the government were to begin and caused much damage and violence through their protest, although it could be argued that the protests made the government more compliant. Negotiations between the students and the government continued under strained circumstances from May 11 until May 16 with some progress. The government agreed to negotiate on the school transportation pass and allow students increased use of public transportation for education purposes beyond the two trips per day previously allowed.154 It appeared that the negotiations were going well, albeit slowly. However, on May 16, several student protests in Santiago ended in violence

dejo-mas-de-mil-detenidos-en-todo-el-pais/noticias/2006-05-10/203937.html, (accessed October 22, 2012). 153 Vicepresidente: Disturbios estudiantiles afectan imagen del pas, El Mercurio, May 11, 2012, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2006/05/11/218719/vicepresidente-disturbios-estudiantilesafectan-imagen-del-pais.html (accessed October 23, 2012). 154 Transportes estudiar aumentar cantidad de viajes diario con pase escolar, La Nacin, May 15, 2006, http://www.lanacion.cl/transportes-estudiara-aumentar-cantidad-de-viajes-diarios-con-paseescolar/noticias/2006-05-15/155051.html (accessed November 6, 2012).

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between police and protestors, with a number of arrests, prompting Zilic to suspend the negotiations saying, We are building trust little by little, and that breaks down when there are irresponsible protests.155 The governments termination of negotiations provoked an immediate response from the students who called for a national strike. The national strike occurred on May 18 when student leaders declared that despite the governments expansion of the transportation pass, not enough had been done to satisfy student demands that the JEC (extended school day) be repealed, the PSU (University Entrance Examine) cost be reduced, and the LOCE (Organic Constitutional Law on Education) be repealed.156 The strike on May 18 resulted in a large number of arrests and the government reaffirmed its stance against negotiating with the students while protests continued. The government argued that the student leaders could not control the movement, claiming that many of the protestors were not in fact students and that some of them were armed with weapons, including guns and knives.157 Student protestors awaited President Bachelets annual address on May 21. Students expected Bachelet to address their concerns and give personal attention to their movement, which she had virtually ignored up until this point.158 However, on

155 156

Domedel and Pea y Lillo, El Mayo de los Pinginos: 16. Cristina Dunn, Students Prepare for More Strike Action, The Santiago Times, May 17, 2006, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/9135-STUDENTS-PREPARE-FOR-MORE-STRIKEACTION (accessed November 6, 2012). 157 Cristina Dunn, Student Protestors Return to the Streets, This Time Armed, The Santiago Times, May 18, 2012, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/9156-STUDENT-PROTESTORSRETURN-TO-THE-STREETS,-THIS-TIME-ARMED (accessed November 6, 2012). 158 Domedel and Pea y Lillo, El Mayo de los Pinginos: 23.

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the day of the speech, Bachelet did not address student concerns, but, instead, denounced the student protests, saying, I will not tolerate vandalism, or destruction, or the intimidation of people!159 This harsh denunciation came as a surprise to those in the movement since many students believed that Bachelet would be sympathetic to their cause. The presidents harsh critique of the student movement, along with the governments continued refusal to negotiate while students demonstrated, prompted a crisis of identity within the movement. A number of schools and student groups wished to continue to demonstrate and hold the schools in toma (a student take-over and occupation of a school), while others opted to try and meet government demands for more peaceful demonstrations while still expressing their discontent. Student leaders at the Instituto Nacional, a large secondary school in Santiago, decided to forgo the street protests and tomas declaring, [We] are not going to protest on the streets. We believe that, unfortunately, they have given rise to disorder and have been infiltrated by lots of people who are not concerned with high school issues and only take to the streets to cause trouble.160 However, protests and tomas at other schools continued. The period from May 21 through May 31 was marked by uncertainty, indecision, and division among the student movement as some members opted for calmer forms of protests, while others continued demonstrations and strikes. A
159 160

Domedel and Pea y Lillo, El Mayo de los Pinginos: 26. Cristina Dunn, Chile Students Continue Challenging Bachelet Government, The Santiago Times, May 22, 2006, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/politics/9170-CHILE-STUDENTS-CONTINUECHALLENGING-BACHELET-GOVERNMENT (accessed December 12, 2012).

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national strike was called on May 30 by the ACES with the ACES emphasizing the peaceful activities of the strike, which included not attending class and forming peaceful demonstrations.161 The protest on May 30 was the largest demonstration since the fall of Pinochet, with around 600,000 (although this number is contested by authorities) protestors across the country. The protestors included students from at least 100 private schools in Santiago, as well as university students, teachers, parents, and unions. The majority of the demonstrations and protestors were peaceful with some students participating in street demonstrations while the majority simply refused to attend class. But some violence and vandalism occurred, causing over 300 people to be arrested in Santiago.162 In response to the pressure from this large organized response, Bachelets government finally presented its one and only offer on May 31, 2006. The offer pledged to create grants for university entrance exams for 150,000 students, 500,000 free school meals per year, funds for repairing rundown school buildings, and free bus passes to municipal students in the poorest 20th percentile. Furthermore, this proposition created a Presidential Education Commission to address reforms in education policy.163 Although this offer acknowledged a number of the student
161

Estudiantes confirman paro nacional para el prximo martes, El Mercurio, May 26, 2006, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2006/05/26/220221/estudiantes-confirman-paro-nacional-parael-proximo-martes.html (accessed December 14, 2012). 162 Chile Rocked by Largest Student Demonstration in Recent History, The Santiago Times, May 30, 2006, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/9235-CHILE-ROCKED-BY-LARGESTSTUDENT-DEMONSTRATION-IN-RECENT-HISTORY (accessed December 14, 2012). 163 Justin Vogler, Chile: The Rise of the Penguin Revolution, Upside Down World, last modified January 11, 2010, http://upsidedownworld.org/main/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=330&Itemid=0http: //upsidedownworld.org/main/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=330&Itemid=0 (accessed January 23, 2012).

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demands and aimed to address them, some of the students rejected it because they felt it did not go far enough. Specifically, some students were upset that the offer did not address decentralization or the discrimination inherent in the education system caused by private schools that skim the best students or by subsidized private school user fees. The proposal also did not provide free public transportation to all students. The proposal further divided the student movement resulting in some student leaders wishing to continue the protests, and others desiring to accept the proposal and work with the government to continue the progress. The leaders wishing to continue the protests won out, and many of the more moderate members of the ACES left the movement.164 This meant that the ACES became more radical and less willing to compromise or negotiate with their demands at the same time that the government became less willing to negotiate with the students. Students continued to protest well into October, but never with the same magnitude or frequency and never enjoyed as much public support as they did in May.165

2007: The Decline of the Penguin Revolution The discontent among students that coalesced itself in the demonstrations and protests of the Penguin Revolution had not disappeared even as the Penguin Revolutions momentum declined in the second half of 2006. Many student demands, particularly concerning transportation, remained unaddressed even as President Bachelet pushed forward her proposed education law. This law, known as the Ley
164 165

Domedel and Pea y Lillo, El Mayo de los Pinginos: 157-160. Domedel and Pea y Lillo, El Mayo de los Pinginos: 206-211.

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General de Educacin (LGE), would replace Chiles previous education law or LOCE (Ley Orgnica Constitucional de Enseanza) put in place under Pinochet. Thus, despite the progress made by the students in 2006 and the governments apparent willingness to address education reform, students continued to protest. However, the protests of 2007 never reached the same numbers or have as much influence as the 2006 protests. The student movement became marginalized even as student leaders attempted to revitalize the movement. Much of the talk at the beginning of 2007 concerned whether or not the student protests and demonstrations that had disrupted much of the 2006 school year would have an impact on the university entrance exams or PSU. Many were worried that the disruptions caused by the previous years protests would negatively impact the scores for numerous students of the graduating class. However, these fears proved largely unfounded. Ironically, the results showed that only the student leaders suffered any significant decrease in scores compared to their classmates. Overall the scores varied little from the previous years scores.166 Despite the generally good showing, the PSU exposed some of the inequalities and biases that had inspired the Penguin Revolution. The scores from the PSU taken in 2006 showed that despite government efforts, the gap in scores between public schools and private schools

166

Cate Setterfield, PSU Results: Chiles Student Leaders Limp Through, The Santiago Times, January 8, 2007, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/10422-PSU-RESULTS-CHILE%E2%80%99S-STUDENT-LEADERS-LIMP-THROUGH (accessed February 8, 20013).

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continued and even increased. Furthermore, the scores showed a strong socioeconomic correlation between family income level and PSU score.167 After several months of silence, the first few months of 2007 saw the reemergence of the Penguin Revolution and its leaders. Student leaders announced that protests would resume in March when most of Chiles schools returned from summer vacation. The student spokesperson from 2006, Mara Jess Sanhueza, announced the plan to resume protests saying The only way people are going to take us seriously is if we keep up the movement.168 March of 2007 also saw the first strong push for broader-reaching education reform as student leaders began demanding that the Pinochet-era LOCE be repealed entirely instead of being replaced by the LGE proposed by the Bachelet administration, which many students felt simply modified the LOCE. New leaders also emerged at the start of the school year in March, since many of the previous leaders of school assemblies had graduated. These new leaders vowed to continue the fight for reforms to improve education and keep the movement alive. However, student leaders noted that they would wait until April to start any strikes or protests so that they could read the Chilean Congresss proposed changes to the LOCE. 169
167

Cate Setterfield, Chiles Public Schools Fail to Make the Grade, The Santiago Times, January 9, 2007, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/other/10429-CHILE%E2%80%99S-PUBLIC-SCHOOLSFAIL-TO-MAKE-THE-GRADE (accessed February 8, 20013). 168 Cate Setterfield, In Brief: Students to March in March, Bachelets Vacation, Gonzalez Beats Hewitt, The Santiago Times, January 22, 2007, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/other/10554-INBRIEF--STUDENTS-TO-MARCH-IN-MARCH,-BACHELET%E2%80%99S-VACATION,GONZALEZ-BEATS-HEWITT (accessed February 8, 20013). 169 Nathan Crooks, Chiles Student Leaders Get Back to School, Plan New Actions, The Santiago Times, March 18, 2007, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/11027-CHILE%E2%80%99SSTUDENT-LEADERS-GET-BACK-TO-SCHOOL,-PLAN-NEW-ACTIONS (accessed February 8, 20013).

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The first student protests in 2007 were not about education reform. Rather, the initial protests concerned the newly implemented public transportation system in Santiago. The new system immediately ran into problems with delays, overcrowding, and long waits.170 These issues, combined with the start of school for many students, exacerbated the issues facing Transantiago, causing passengers to stage protests over the problems with the new transportation system, with many of the protests being led by students.171 Protests against Transantiago would continue well into the school year as the new transportation system struggled to keep up with demand and appease students and non-students alike.172 Despite the issues with Transantiago, the start of classes took place normally, with the only protests occurring in Chiles VII region, about 150 miles south of Santiago. Students protested during the first day of school, demanding that the state provide a subsidy of 30 to 60 pesos per month for each matriculated student, instead of a subsidy for each day a student spends in class. The protests left many teachers with empty classrooms. Education Minister Yasna Provoste declared that the government would not buckle under pressure from students and was critical of the students decision to strike saying, The situation seems a real shame. It goes against
170

Cate Setterfield, Chile Goes Back to School: Transantiago Faces its First Huge Test, The Santiago Times, February 24, 2007, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/transportation/10827-chilegoes-back-to-school-transantiago-faces-its-first-huge-test (accessed February 8, 20013). 171 Cate Setterfield, Tansantiago: The Final Countdown, The Santiago Times, February 25, 2007, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/transportation/10833-transantiago-the-final-countdown (accessed February 8, 20013); Student Spokesperson: Well take a radical stance on Transantiago, The Santiago Times, February 26, 2007, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/other/10845-STUDENTSPOKESPERSON--%E2%80%9CWE%E2%80%99LL-TAKE-A-RADICAL-STANCE-ONTRANSANTIAGO%E2%80%9D (accessed February 8, 20013). 172 Cate Setterfield, Chiles Transantiago: Government Pays Up, Students Protest, The Santiago Times, April 4, 2007, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/transportation/11190-chiles-transantiagogovernment-pays-up-students-protest (accessed February 8, 20013).

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the right to an education and takes the focus away from how important a quality education is for everyone.173 Some student protests occurred at the end of March and beginning of April as Bachelet and the Chilean Congress unveiled their replacement for the LOCE. However, these protests remained localized and did not come close to reaching the scale of the 2006 demonstrations.174 As the end of April approached, the movement began to fall apart as four student representatives from prominent schools announced during a meeting that they were abandoning the National Assembly of Secondary Students (ANES). The schools leaving the organization included the National Institute which had been prominent during the 2006 protests, as well as three other large secondary institutions in Santiago.175 The division in the movement can be traced back to ideological differences from 2006 regarding the organization of the movement and various assemblies, as well as differences in how and when to negotiate with the government. The result was a number of tomas and protests at various schools on an individual basis seeking to address specific issues for a given
173

Cate Setterfield, Student Protests Kick off in Chiles Region VII The Santiago Times, March 6, 2007, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/10920-STUDENT-PROTESTS-KICK-OFF-INCHILE%E2%80%99S-REGION-VII (accessed February 8, 2013). 174 Yanni Peary, In Brief: Lost, Student Strike, Copper Theft on the Rise, The Santiago Times, March 23, 2007, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/other/11066-IN-BRIEF--LOST,-STUDENT-STRIKE,COPPER-THEFT-ON-THE-RISE (accessed February 8, 2013). Cate Setterfield, Chiles Transantiago: Government Pays Up, Students Protest, The Santiago Times, April 4, 2007, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/transportation/11190-chiles-transantiago-governmentpays-up-students-protest (accessed February 8, 2013); Chiles Bachelet Sinks Her Teeth into Education Reform, The Santiago Times April 9, 2007, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/politics/11221-CHILE%E2%80%99S-BACHELET-SINKS-HERTEETH-INTO-EDUCATION-REFORM (accessed February 8, 2013). 175 Cate Setterfield, Chiles Student Movement Crumbles as Leading Schools Pull Out, The Santiago Times, April 30, 2007, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/11387-CHILE%E2%80%99SSTUDENT-MOVEMENT-CRUMBLES-AS-LEADING-SCHOOLS-PULL-OUT (accessed February 8, 2013).

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school, without much cooperation or dialogue between schools.176 Thus while the assembly portion of the movement was severely weakened, protests and strikes from secondary students would continue for the duration of the school year. Another factor that contributed to the decline of the Penguin Revolution was the reformation proposed and put in place by the Bachelet administration and the Chilean Congress that addressed many of the changes demanded by the students. These reforms sought to replace the LOCE and end discrimination and unfair selection in the semi-private schools from first grade through eighth. The reforms also sought to end profiteering in schools so that only non-profit organizations and the municipalities could set up state-subsidized schools, and to create a National Council of Education.177 Nevertheless, many students and teachers were disappointed with the reforms. Juan Eduardo Garca-Huidobro, former president of the Education Advisory Council, voiced his concern about the new reforms, noting that the laws provision making illegal selection below ninth grade essentially legitimized selection for ninth grade and above, thus continuing discrimination within the education system.178 When the new education system was finally passed, none of the student leaders or participants from the Penguin Revolution were invited to attend or participate in the
176

Maria Garcia Dalgalarrando and Manuel Fernndez, Secundarios ya no actan en bloque, y autoridad desaloja sus tomas rpidamente, El Mercurio, June 7, 2007, http://diario.elmercurio.com/detalle/index.asp?id={763d41d5-3dc1-491b-a0cb-e07ee8dca358} (accessed February 8, 2013). 177 Cate Setterfield, Chiles Bachelet Sinks her Teeth into Education Reform, The Santiago Times, April 9, 207, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/politics/11221-CHILE%E2%80%99S-BACHELETSINKS-HER-TEETH-INTO-EDUCATION-REFORM (accessed February 9, 2013). 178 Cate Setterfield, Education Reform in Chile: New Debate Over Discrimination in Schools, The Santiago Times April 5, 2007, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/11203-EDUCATIONREFORM-IN-CHILE--NEW-DEBATE-OVER-DISCRIMINATION-IN-SCHOOLS (accessed February 8, 2013).

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process. Also notably absent were teachers or representatives of Chiles Teachers Union.179 Despite student and teacher opposition, President Bachelet continued to push her reforms through the Chilean Congress, although they would not be passed fully until 2008.180 The reforms ended much of the profiteering abuse of the private schools but failed to completely address the selective admissions issues and the user fees that subsidized private schools could impose. Because of these failures, the stratification and discrimination inherent in the system still existed. Also, these reforms were mostly focused on secondary schools, not universities, and while improvements were made, this reformation was not the complete overhaul of the system for which the protestors were looking.181 After 2006 the student movement received much less attention in the media and did not enjoy the same level of public support. The frustration of the student protestors in the 2006 Penguin Revolution, their failure to achieve their goals, and the refusal of the government to completely overhaul the education system provided the catalyst for the eruption of the 2011-2012 student protests.

179

Jessica Roberts, Students Not Invited to Sign Education Agreement, The Santiago Times, November 14, 2077, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/politics/12247-STUDENTS-NOT-INVITEDTO-SIGN-EDUCATION-AGREEMENT (accessed February 9, 2013). 180 Matt Malinowski, Chamber of Deputies Approves Education Reform Bill, The Santiago Times, June 19, 2008, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/politics/14000-CHAMBER-OF-DEPUTIESAPPROVES-EDUCATION-REFORM-BILL (accessed February 20, 2013). 181 Cate Setterfield, Chiles Bachelet Sinks Her Teeth Into Education Reform, Worldpress.org, last modified April 13, 2007, http://www.worldpress.org/Americas/2752.cfm#down (accessed January 30, 2012).

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V.

The Chilean Winter

The student protests from 2008 through 2010 received much less attention than protests in 2006 or 2007. This fact was partially due to the breakup of the student assemblies that had been prevalent during 2006 and 2007 and the belief that many students and the general public held that progress had been made in regards to education reform. President Bachelet had pushed through her education reform bill, thus silencing most of her critics and quieting all but the most ardent secondary student protestors from the years before 2008. Despite being outflanked by the Bachelet government, remaining secondary student protestors along with university students continued to stage demonstrations and strike throughout these three years. They attempted to keep attention focused on perceived flaws in the education reforms and the effect of neoliberal policies on education. The protestors also sought to keep public focus on their specific demands for funds, infrastructure, transportation, and testing. The actions from 2008 through 2010 are evidence that even though many people had forgotten the student movement, numerous concerns and demands dating back to 2000 still remained and had not been satisfactorily addressed. From 2008 to 2010 the demands of the student movement continued to evolve, resulting in the demands of the 2011 Chilean Winter movement for free higher education, demunicipalization, and the complete structural overhaul of the education system.

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Rebuilding a Movement: 2008-2010 As in previous years, demonstrations in 2008 began at the start of the academic school year in March. Protests continued sporadically throughout the school year until its end in December. The first protest described in newspaper archives occurred on March 10 when fifteen secondary students took over and occupied the SEREMI (Regional Ministerial Secretary of Education) office in Santiago for several hours, demanding an end to municipalization, a freeze on higher education rates, free transportation passes for students, and free education at all levels.182 Another protest on March 28, 2008, involved 300 students who marched along Alameda, a main transportation artery in Santiago, and interfered with traffic.183 Police presence at both protests and resulted in a number of arrests. During April and May students began demanding free public transportation to and from school. The first major demonstration took place on May 9, when over 3,500 students from Santiago, Valparaso, Concepcin, and Valdivia demanded free public transportation. Student leaders claimed that the May 9 protest was only a precursor to a larger protest planned for May 15.184 On May 15 more than 5,000 student demonstrators gathered in downtown Santiago. The protestors walked peacefully around central Santiago until hooded individuals (perhaps students,
182

Toma de la Seremi de Educacin termin con 16 detenidos, El Mercurio Online, March 10, 2008, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2008/03/10/295699/toma-de-la-seremi-de-educacion-terminocon-16-detenidos.html (accessed February 15, 2013). 183 Francisco Aguila, Manifestacin estudiantil obliga intervencin de Fuerzas Especiales, El Mercurio, March 28, 2008, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2008/03/28/298172/manifestacion-estudiantil-obligaintervencion-de-fuerzas-especiales.html (accessed February 15, 2013). 184 Roxanne Klaassen, Bits and Brights, The Santiago Times, May 11, 2008, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/other/13648-Frei-Montalva-Museum,-Student-Protest,Clar%C3%ADn-Case-Update (accessed February 20, 2013).

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perhaps provocateurs) began vandalizing public property, prompting the police to intervene and make over 400 arrests. Many smaller demonstrations occurred outside Santiago with participation numbering in the hundreds.185 As the new education law came before the Chilean Congress for a vote in mid-June, student demonstrations against the proposed reforms escalated. A number of protests occurred during the latter part of May and first half of June. On June 12, around 5,000 students began peacefully demonstrated against the Ley General de Educacin or LGE in downtown Santiago. The students marched down Alameda toward La Moneda, the presidential palace, and were blocked by police who dispersed the protestors with water cannons and tear gas.186 Another protest on June 18 saw more than 2,500 students protesting against the LGE. The June 18 protests were also met by police with water cannons and tear gas. Police arrested more than 290 protestors with several incidents of violence between protestors and police, and at least one protestor was apprehended with a Molotov cocktail in his possession.187 On June 19, Chiles Chamber of Deputies approved the LGE despite opposition from secondary students, Chiles National Teachers Association (Teachers Union), and

185

Con 400 detenidos termin la protesta estudiantil contra la Ley General Educacin, El Mercurio Online, May 15, 2008, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2008/05/15/304498/con-400-detenidostermino-la-protesta-estudiantil-contra-la-ley-general-educacion.html (accessed February 20, 2013). 186 Protesta estudiantil deja cerca de 180 detenidos en Santiago, El Mercurio Online, June 12, 2008, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2008/06/12/308349/protesta-estudiantil-deja-cerca-de-180detenidos-en-santiago.html (accessed February 22, 2013). 187 Carabineros dispersa con gases lacrimgenos manifestacin estudiantil, El Mercurio Online, June 18, 2008, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2008/06/18/309137/carabineros-dispersa-con-gaseslacrimogenos-manifestacion-estudiantil.html (accessed February 22, 2012); Protesta estudiantil en Santiago deja saldo de 292 detenidos, El Mercurio Online, June 18, 2008, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2008/06/18/309200/protesta-estudiantil--en-santiago-dejasaldo-de-292-detenidos.html (accessed February 22, 2013).

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university students. The passage meant that the decision to ratify the LGE moved on to Chiles Senate.188 The full ratification of the LGE (General Education Law) did not occur until March 17, 2009. The passage of the LGE prompted the National Teachers Association to call for a protest on April 2 against the new law. The Teachers Union called for participation not only from teachers, but also high school students, university students, and parents. The call was supported by the Confech and other student and union groups.189 The National Teachers Association and student groups claimed that the LGE did not provide the structural change that they had demanded. Article 46 of the new law particularly angered the teachers because it allowed university graduates without any teaching qualifications to teach in areas related to their degree for up to five years. The National Teachers Association claimed that the new law would challenge their job security and allow inexperienced and unqualified teachers, who may only be teaching because they cannot find another job, to be hired by educational institutions.190 The protests on April 2 resulted in violence between police and demonstrators in central Santiago with several journalists and policemen injured and an unknown

188

Matt Malinowski, Chamber of Deputies Approves Education Reform Bill, The Santiago Times, June 19, 2008, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/politics/14000-CHAMBER-OF-DEPUTIESAPPROVES-EDUCATION-REFORM-BILL (accessed February 22, 2013). 189 Alexis Molina Tapia Profesores anuncian paro de 24 horas contra LGE, El Mercurio de Antofagasta, March 18, 2009, http://www.mercurioantofagasta.cl/prontus4_noticias/site/artic/20090318/pags/20090318010504.html (accessed February 24, 2013). 190 Daniela Estrada, Chile: Teachers and Students Fight New Education Law, Inter Press Service, April 3, 2009, http://www.ipsnews.net/2009/04/chile-teachers-and-students-fight-new-education-law/ (accessed February 24, 2013).

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number of students received injuries as well.191 The demonstrators gathered in the Plaza de Armas in Santiago. However, before the speeches began several masked people began attacking policemen and reporters, instigating the police to use teargas and water cannons. The demonstrators then marched to the Education Ministry office to deliver a message to the Ministry of Education. The President of the National Teachers Association, Jaime Gajardo, called the strike a success and claimed a participation rate of 90 percent among teachers. The Undersecretary of Education, Christin Martnez, disputed the high participation rate and claimed that only 22 percent of teachers participated.192 The next major protest occurred during early June. On June 8, students at the Instituto Nacional in Santiago, the oldest and one of the most prestigious public schools in Chile, took over their school, barricading themselves inside.193 This so called cultural occupation was in protest of perceived mismanagement of public schools by municipalities and the students demanded that administration of public schools be centralized under the national government.194 The Instituto Nacional was quickly joined by Barros Arana National Boarding School and Confederation Suiza,

191

Protestas en Chile dejan al menos seis heridos, Los Tiempos, April 3, 2009, http://www.lostiempos.com/diario/actualidad/internacional/20090403/pro%C2%ADtes%C2%ADtasen-chi%C2%ADle-de%C2%ADjan-al-me%C2%ADnos-seis_1225_2055.html (accessed February 24, 2013). 192 Daniela Estrada, Chile: Teachers and Students Fight New Education Law, Inter Press Service, April 3, 2009, http://www.ipsnews.net/2009/04/chile-teachers-and-students-fight-new-education-law/ (accessed February 24, 2013). 193 Chris Noyce, Bits and Brights: Students Take Over School, Car Cloning, The Santiago Times, June 8, 2009, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/other/16429-BITS-AND-BRIGHTS--STUDENTSTAKE-OVER-SCHOOL,-CAR-CLONING (accessed February 24, 2013). 194 Alumnos de Instituto Nacional mantienen ocupacin cultural, El Mercurio de Valparaso, June 9, 2009, http://www.mercuriovalpo.cl/prontus4_noticias/site/artic/20090609/pags/20090609000415.html (accessed February 24, 2013).

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both in Santiago. The students, who were supported by teachers and student leaders at the Instituto Nacional, stated that they would meet with other schools to coordinate and determine how the demonstrations would move forward.195 Despite declaring a toma at these three prestigious secondary schools in Santiago, the movement was unable to gain much momentum and the rest of the school year went by with only a few minor student demonstrations, primarily from university students. President Bachelets presidency ended in 2010 after four years in office and she was replaced in March of 2010 by the newly-elected President, Sebastin Piera, a conservative politician and investment banker. Highly educated, with a doctorate from Harvard, he is currently listed by Forbes as the 49th most powerful person in the world and the 521st wealthiest with $2.4 billion U.S.196 His inauguration signaled that the government would become more conservative and possibly less sympathetic to student demands than the left-leaning Bachelet government. Just two weeks before his inauguration, an 8.8 magnitude earthquake struck offshore in the Bio-Bio region, causing massive damage and displacing 1.5 million people, as well as damaging hospitals, schools, government offices, and other buildings.197 Possibly due to the occurrence of the earthquake so close to the start of classes and the general feeling of unity that results after a disaster, fewer major protests
195

Chris Noyce, Students Ask For Better, More Equal Education For Public Schools, The Santiago Times, June 9, 2009, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/politics/16441-CHILE--STUDENT-TAKEOVER-OF-SCHOOLS-CONTINUES-AND-EXPANDS- (accessed February 24, 2013). 196 Worlds Most Powerful People: Sebastian Piera, Forbes, December, 2012, http://www.forbes.com/profile/sebastian-pinera/ (accessed February 26, 2013). 197 Alexei Barionuevo and Liz Robbins, 1.5 Million Displaced After Chile Quake, The New York Times, February 27, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/28/world/americas/28chile.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 (accessed February 26, 2013)

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occurred in 2010; major student protests also began much later in the year. These protests primarily focused on rebuilding schools after the earthquake, as well as the continued grievances regarding public transportation costs. On April 28, a thousand protestors marched against an increase in the price of the school transportation pass, ending in 23 arrests. Protestors attempted to march from the Plaza of Heroes to the Ministry of Education but were confronted by police. The protest prompted a statement from Interior Minister Rodrigo Hinzpeter, The protests should not end with vandalism, with destruction of private or public property, with attacks on police or passers-by that are going to their place of work or returning to their homes.198 The next major protests occurred on May 12, when approximately 3,000 students demonstrated against the governments handling of the earthquake recovery. Students demanded further government funds for students in regions affected by the earthquake and expressed anger at the increase in cost of student transportation passes. The protests involved primarily university students and culminated in protestors throwing rocks and bottles at police, resulting in police use of teargas and water cannons. The protest was denounced by Joaqun Lavn, the Minister of Education, who declared in reference to the protestors that, They do whatever they

198

Protesta estudiantil termina con ms de una veintena de detenidos en Santiago, El Mercurio Online, April 28, 2010, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2010/04/28/410239/protestaestudiantil-termina-con-mas-de-una-veintena-de-detenidos-en-santiago.html (accessed February 28, 2010).

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want, but I want to call attention to the fact that these arrests cause them to miss classes, this is not what Chile wants today.199 In June of 2010 President Pieras Head of Higher Education in the Ministry of Education, Juan Jos Ugarte, announced a set of education reforms which contained a new deal for higher education. Many of the details of this new deal were not immediately made available to the public, but were sent to the rectors of the universities for discussion. However, Ugarte did indicate that the new reforms would make loans more available to students, especially to middle-class students not eligible for the solidarity fund for lower-income students. The new reforms were supported by a number of university rectors.200 The announced reforms initially caused some apprehension among students, but the details were not yet known and the reforms were still in their initial stages. Another demonstration on August 4 began when more than 1,000 students met in downtown Santiago to protest new measures that would make school passes for middle-class secondary students valid only while school was in session, instead of the entire year. The protest was peaceful and resulted in no arrests, although the demonstrators were monitored by several dozen police officers in riot gear.201 Several

199

Lindsay Fendt, Chiles University Students Take to The streets, The Santiago Times, May 13, 2010, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/18834-chiles-university-students-take-to-the-streets (accessed February 28, 2013). 200 Andrs Lpez Anuncio de reforma a Ed. superior abre debate entre rectores, La Tercera, June 21, 2010, http://diario.latercera.com/2010/06/21/01/contenido/9_30428_9.shtml (accessed March 5, 2013). 201 Christine Mehta, 1,000 Chilean High School Students Protest in Santiago, The Santiago Times, August 4, 2010, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/19491-1000-chilean-high-schoolstudents-protest-in-santiago (accessed February 28, 2010).

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smaller protests occurred from August to December, but overall the frequency and turnout for these protests was much lower than in previous years. The years from 2008-2010 saw a decline and eventual disappearance of momentum as well as organization among demonstrators that had been so prevalent during the Penguin Revolution. University students during these years became more active and dominant in student movements compared to their supporting role during the 2006 Penguin Revolution. The decline of secondary students taking as large a role in student activism allowed university students to prevail as the dominant student dissenting voice. This change in leadership was apparent in the 2011 protests in which university students dominated the student movement, even though secondary student groups continued to play a large role.

2011:The Chilean Winter The student demonstrations of 2011 were the largest mobilizations in Chile since the Penguin Revolution in 2006. However, unlike the 2006 Penguin Revolution the new student protests were led primarily by university students who were less factionalized and better organized than the secondary students of 2006. The impact of this new wave of protests was greater due to the participation of increased numbers of secondary and university students. The 2011 protests were also characterized by a creative component. Student protestors dressed up as zombies and danced to

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Thriller by Michael Jackson to represent the death of public education.202 Students also staged a carnival protest and a dramatization of a mass suicide protest.203 In another creative demonstration, students attempted to run around La Moneda, the presidential palace, for 1,800 hours to represent the $1.8 billion appropriated to the military that could have been applied to education.204 The creativity of these protests and others brought worldwide attention to the student movement and its demands. The movement also received Democracy Nows 2012 Letelier-Moffitt Human Rights Award205 and Camila Vallejo, president of the FECH and Confech in 2011, was voted Chiles Person of the Year by a national poll and by The Guardian.206 The first protests of 2011 were not over education. In January residents of the Magallanes region, the southernmost region in Chile, protested a proposed gas subsidy decrease. The protests succeeded in halting the proposed subsidy decrease
202

Chile Thriller Protest: Students Stage Michael Jackson Dance For Education Rally, Huffington Post, last modified 08/25/11, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/06/25/chile-thriller-proteststudents-michael-jackson-dance_n_884531.html (accessed March 11, 2013). 203 Nathan Frandino, Rain Dampens Mass Suicide Attempt by Chilean Student Protestors, The Santiago Times, June 30, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/21815-rain-dampensmass-suicide-attempt-by-chilean-student-protesters (accessed March 11, 2011). Carnaval estudiantil se tom el Paseo Ramrez, El Mercurio Calama, June 25, 2011, http://www.mercuriocalama.cl/prontus4_nots/site/artic/20110625/pags/20110625002240.html (accessed March 11, 2011). 204 Estudiantes corrern 1.800 horas alrededor de La Moneda, El Mercurio, June 17, 2011, http://diario.elmercurio.com/detalle/index.asp?id={2fec9966-8297-44e6-ba32-a8f9593b8b69} (accessed March 11, 2011). 205 Orlando Letelier was a supporter and diplomat for President Salvador Allende who moved to the U.S. after the military coup and lobbied the U.S. and European governments against the Pinochet regime. He along with his U.S. assistant Ronni Moffit were assassinated by the Pinochet regime in 1976. 206 Chilean Student Movement Awarded for Organizing Nations Largest Protests Since Pinochet Era, Democracy Now, October 16, 2012, http://www.democracynow.org/2012/10/16/chilean_student_movement_awarded_for_organizing (accessed March 11, 2013); Joe Hinchliffe, The Guardian Names Chiles Camila Vallejo as Person of the Year, The Santiago Times, December 20, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/23110-the-guardian-names-chiles-camila-vallejo-asperson-of-the-year (accessed March 11, 2011).

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from 17 percent to 3 percent.207 In February, the HidroAysn Dam project in Patagonia became the target of large protests that continued into June and merged into the education protests that began in May. Protestors, including environmentalists, students, Mapuche and indigenous activists, and citizens concerned with transparency and environmental issues marched in the streets of Santiago demanding an end to the project and more government transparency.208 Subsequently, when students decided to demonstrate for education, a deep-seated mistrust for the government and a growing opposition to neoliberal policies in Chile already existed. The first major student protest began in May, 2011. The Confech along with teacher associations and several secondary student groups called for a general strike on May 12 in an effort to obtain greater government support for higher education. The Confech published a call for mobilization saying, We call on this 12th of May to those players involved in education, namely, university students, high school students, workers, teachers, rectors, researchers, parents, and the entire citizenry to a strike and national mobilization for the recovery of public education. 209 Along with their call for mobilization the Confech published a list of demands including rejection of the University Entrance Exam or PSU (with the claim that it was regressive and was instrumental in maintaining socio-economic inequality); access to quality

207

Deal Ends Chile Magallanes Gas Protest, BBC News, January 18, 2011, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-12222392 (accessed March 5, 2013). 208 Ian Anthony Randall, In Chile, Explaining Massive Protests Entails Remembering the Past, Dissent 58, no. 4 (2011): 15-21; Steve Anderson, Thousands Peacefully Protest HidroAysn in Santiago, The Santiago Times, May 29, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/health-andenvironment/21582-thousands-peacefully-protest-hidroaysen-in-santiago- (accessed March 5, 2011). 209 Zach Simon, Chiles Universities Strike, Seek More Government Support, The Santiago Times, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/21453-chiles-universities-strike (accessed March 7, 2013).

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institutions that do not profit from students; increased funding for higher education as a percentage of the GDP; increased scholarships and fewer student loans; and a more democratic system of higher education with more student input in the governing bodies and decision-making processes.210 The protests on May 12 were widespread with about 50,000 students taking to the streets according to FECH president, Camila Vallejo, who noted that half the turnout was in regions outside Santiago. Minister of Education, Joaqun Lavn, criticized the protests saying, The most vulnerable and those that have few scholarships are not on the streets.211 Protests also occurred in Copiapo, Vallenar, La Serena Valparaso, Concepcin, and Valdivia among others. On the day after these protests, May 13, close to 30,000 protestors demonstrate against the HidroAysn Dam project. The protests resulted in vandalism and over 70 arrests in Santiago. Coyhaique, Temuco, Iqueque, Concepcin, and Valparaso also experienced demonstrations.212 Protests for education reform and against the HidryAysn Dam project continued to the time just prior to the Presidential State of the Union Address on May 21. The goal of many of these demonstrations was to put pressure on President Piera
210

Convocatoria Movilizacin y Paro Nacional, Confech, http://www.scribd.com/doc/54488587/Convocatoria-Movilizacion-y-Paro-Nacional (accessed March 8, 2013). 211 50 mil universitarios salen a las calles y Educacin pone acento en alumnos tcnicos, El Mercurio, May 13, 2012, http://diario.elmercurio.com/detalle/index.asp?id={0b129a7c-e5ae-4fc7878e-23d5e465d732} (accessed March 7, 2013); Zach Simon, Chileans March for University Reform, The Santiago Times, May 13, 2011 http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/21454chileans-march-for-university#linktext_ (accessed March 7, 2013). 212 Cerca de 30 mil personas se congregaron para protestar en contra de HidroAysn, El Mercurio, May 14, 2011, http://diario.elmercurio.com/detalle/index.asp?id={3fbb83ab-4540-4fd8-bf9508a0c0358995} (accessed March 7, 2013).

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to address these concerns in his speech. On the day of the Presidential Address, protestors, including students, labor unions, and environmental organizations, converged on Valparaso, where President Piera was set to address the nation. The two main groups were HidroAysn protestors and education protestors which included the FECH and the Central Unitaria de Trabajadores (Confederation of Workers) or CUT.213 On the eve of the speech, 40,000 protestors converged on Santiago in protest of the HidroAysn project.214 On the day of the speech, thousands of protestors demonstrated throughout the country with the largest protests occurring in Valparaso, the location of the State of the Union Address. Between 6,000 and 15,000 protestors marched in Valparaso, resulting in around 70 arrests. Ral Celis, the Regional Governor of Valparaso spoke out against the protests declaring that the demonstrations were a carnival of crime.215 Protests continued consistently across the country through the end of May. The majority of these protests were localized protests against the HidroAysn Dam project and for education reform.216

213

Zach Simon Protestors Unite Before Chiles State of the Union Address, The Santiago Times, May 20, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/politics/21522-protesters-unite-before (accessed March 8, 2013). 214 Margaret Godoy, HidroAysn and the Many Voices of Those Who Oppose It, The Santiago Times, May 22, 2011 http://www.santiagotimes.cl/opinion/op-ed/21524-hidroaysen-and-the-manyvoices-of-those-who-oppose-it- (accessed March 8, 2013). 215 Erin Allen, HidroAysn Protests in Chile Escalate, The Santiago Times, May 22, 2011 http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/health-and-environment/21531-hidroaysen-protests-in-chile-escalate (accessed March 8, 2013). 216 Masiva marcha de estudiantes secundarios se realiza en Lota, soyconcepcin.cl, May 23, 2011 http://www.soychile.cl/Concepcion/Sociedad/2011/05/23/16710/Masiva-marcha-de-estudiantessecundarios-se-realizo-en-Lota.aspx (accessed March 8, 2013); Las alumnas de la Escuala Espaa se tomaran la calle Roosevelt, soyconcepcin.cl, May 23, 2011, http://www.soychile.cl/Concepcion/Sociedad/2011/05/23/16642/Las-alumnas-de-la-Escuela-Espanase-tomaron-la-calle-Roosvelt.aspx (accessed March 8, 2013); Estudiantes de Chilln anuncian nueva movilizacin para maana, soychilln.cl, May 25, 2011, http://www.soychile.cl/Chillan/Sociedad/2011/05/25/17159/Estudiantes-de-Chillan-anuncian-nuevamovilizacion-para-manana.aspx (accessed March 8, 2013); Steve Anderson, Thousands Peacefully

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In light of the ongoing protests, on May 26 the Minister of Education met with rectors from a number of universities to outline the governments plans for higher education reform. The reforms sought to increase funding for public universities while making this funding more dependent on performance (graduation rates, publications in mainstream journals, number of faculty with higher degrees, and competitive research grants among others). The proposal also sought to increase competition between public and private universities.217 Despite the governments attempt to pacify the protestors of the movement at this early stage, many protestors rejected the reforms. In response to Education Minister Lavns proposal, a number of large student demonstrations ensued on June 1. In Chilln 2,500 university and high school students demonstrated without incident against the government proposal.218 Students from the Universidad de Atacama in Copiap protested against what they saw as a government agenda to privatize education. The march included university students, secondary students, and the teachers union.219 In Concepcin approximately 8,500 protestors demonstrated peacefully without incident, announcing that they would

Protest HidroAysn in Santiago, The Santiago Times, May 29, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/health-and-environment/21582-thousands-peacefully-protesthidroaysen-in-santiago-#linktext_ (accessed March 8, 2013). 217 Reforma a la educacin superior: Lavn detall propuesta a rectores de Ues tradicionales, La Segunda, May 26, 2011, http://www.lasegunda.com/Noticias/Nacional/2011/05/650821/Reforma-a-laeducacion-superior-Lavin-detallo-propuesta-a-rectores-de-Ues-tradicionales (accessed March 9, 2013). 218 Ingrid Acua, Finaliz la masiva movilizacin de estudiantes en Chilln, soychile.cl, June 1, 2011, http://www.soychile.cl/Chillan/Sociedad/2011/06/01/18587/Finalizo-la-masiva-movilizacion-deestudiantes-en-Chillan.aspx (accessed March 10, 2013). 219 Brbara Prez, Los estudiantes marchan en Copiap, soychile.cl, June 1, 2011, http://www.soychile.cl/Copiapo/Sociedad/2011/06/01/18523/Los-estudiantes-marchan-enCopiapo.aspx (accessed March 10, 2013).

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begin meeting to determine the next step in the student movement.220 Santiago experienced the largest demonstrations with about 25,000 protestors that ended with a clash between police and students. Students demanded more support for public education, an increase in oversight of private institutions to prevent illicit profiteering, and support for students who were forced to go into debt for their education. Similar protests occurred in Valparaso and Osorno. 221 The June 1 protests showed the broad appeal of education reform, as university students, high school students, teachers, parents, union members, and concerned citizens all participated in the demonstrations. The education protests combined with the anger over the HidroAysn project caused Pieras popularity to plummet to 36 percent for and 56 percent against. The popularity of the Interior Minister Rodrigo Hinzpeter, Energy and Mining Minister Laurence Golborne, and Education Minister Joaqun Lavn suffered as well. HidroAysn was the prime culprit behind the sharp fall in popularity as, according to news articles, the project was rejected by 74 percent of Chileans. The loss in popularity was particularly painful, as it occurred right after the May 21 State of the Union speech which many believed would boost Pieras poll numbers. It is worth noting that the HidroAysn project,

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Tras fin de la marcha por Concepcin los dirigentes adelantan nuevas movilizaciones, soychile.cl, June 1, 2011, http://www.soychile.cl/Concepcion/Sociedad/2011/06/01/18599/Tras-fin-de-la-marchapor-Concepcion-los-dirigentes-adelantan-nuevas-movilizaciones.aspx (accessed, March 10, 2013). 221 Carabineros y estudiantes se enfrentan tras la manifestacin en Santiago, soychile.cl, June 1, 2011, http://www.soychile.cl/Santiago/Sociedad/2011/06/01/18512/Camila-Vallejos-y-Jaime-Gajardoencabezan-la-marcha-de-la-Confech-en-Santiago.aspx (accessed March 10, 2013).

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although approved under President Piera and his right-wing government, had been developed and supported by the two previous left-wing administrations.222 On Sunday, June 5, student leaders including the President of the FECH, Camila Vallejo, and president of the FEUC,223 Giorgio Jackson, met with Joaqun Lavn to discuss student demands. After the meeting the student leaders vowed to keep protesting, claiming that Lavn had failed to provide concrete answers to student demands. Vallejo said, We told the minister that his proposal was insufficient. There is no guarantee, no written promise about how hes going to strengthen public education. Lavn maintained that he had provided his personal commitment to work with public universities, saying, My commitment is to submit legislation that permits a greater flexibility in the management of public universities, as well as new funds to help infrastructure.224 Shortly after the announcement that the student negotiations with the government had failed, both university and high school students took over their schools and declared a toma. Tomas occurred across the country with many of the high schools that were active during the 2006 Penguin Revolution once again having student demonstrators taking over the schools. The high school demands also echoed the demands of 2006 including year-round student bus passes, lower fees for student

222

Steve Anderson, Approval Ratings Plummet for Chiles President Piera, The Santiago Times, June 3, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/politics/21629-approval-ratings-plummet-for-chilespresident-pinera (accessed March 10, 2013). 223 Student Confederation of the Universidad Catlica. 224 Nathan Frandino, Chiles Students Fail to Reach Agreement with Education Minister, The Santiago Times, June 6, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/21645-chiles-students-failto-reach-agreement-with-education-minister- (accessed March 11, 2013).

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transportation passes, and more support for public education. 225 Lavn announced on Friday, June 10, that more than 40 high schools were in toma, and the Coordinating Assembly of High School Students (ACES) announced that another 30 schools expected to join the movement on Monday, June 13.226 However, on Monday over 122 schools were in toma, while another 62 high schools went on strike and demonstrated in the streets, surpassing the figures expected by the Ministry of Education and the ACES.227 The Confech and the National Teachers Union announced a nationwide strike for Thursday. The High School Parents Association also announced a demonstration on Thursday in support of the high school students protests.228 On June 15, the day before Thursdays planned demonstrations, around 8,000 high school students marched in Santiago, calling for free transportation passes and further help for schools damaged by the 2010 earthquake. The march was led by the ACES and resulted in a confrontation with police that ended with at least 50 arrests.229 That same day Lavn offered to open dialogue with the secondary students concerning their demands. Lavn said he was in favor of exploring reforms to the
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La toma del Liceo Narciso Tondreau de Chilln seguir hasta maana, soychile.cl, June 6, 2011, http://www.soychile.cl/Chillan/Sociedad/2011/06/07/19716/Desde-la-media-noche-se-encuentratomado-el-Liceo-Narciso-Tondreau-en-Chillan.aspx (accessed March 11, 2013); Benjamin Schneider, Chiles High School Students Protest Education Policy, The Santiago Times, June 8, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/21670-chiles-high-school-students-protest-educationpolicy (accessed March 11, 2011). 226 Schneider, Chiles High School Students Protest Education Policy, 227 Hay 184 colegios movilizados en el pas y los alumnos los prximos pasos, soychile.cl, June 14, 2011, http://www.soychile.cl/Santiago/Sociedad/2011/06/14/21209/Hay-184-colegios-movilizados-enel-pais-y-los-secundarios-analizan-los-proximos-pasos.aspx (accessed March 11, 2011). 228 Schneider, Chiles High School Students Protest Education Policy, 229 Nathan Frandino, Number Arrested Unknown after 8,000 March for Chiles Education, The Santiago Times, June 15, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/21718-number-arrestedunknown-after-8000-march-for-chiles-education (accessed March 11, 2013).

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transportation pass and offered an advance copy of the agenda for rebuilding schools affected by the earthquake. Secondary student representatives were satisfied with Lavns proposed dialogue, but warned that his proposal would still have to be approved by the rest of the ACES.230 On June 16 over 80,000 protestors marched in Santiago. Another 44,000 protestors demonstrated in Chiles regions. Most of the demonstrations were peaceful; however, incidents of vandalism and confrontations between police and protestors occurred in Santiago. According to news reports 37 people were arrested in Santiago and damages totaled $20 million.231 The regions also saw clashes between police and protestors. 232 Lavn condemned the violence stating, I saw a lot of energy today on the street, but you have to channel it constructively. Lavn went on to claim that the demonstrations did not help solve the education problems and that the students should enter into negotiations with the government. Camila Vallejo, president of the FECH, answered back and announced that protests would continue until the government responded to student demands for increased support for public education, a crackdown on profiteering, and ultimately, free public education.233 On June 19, Lavn announced that the number of schools in toma had risen to nearly 200. He also announced that students who attended schools that were in toma
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Lavn propone mesa de trabajo a los estudiantes secundarios, El Mercurio, June 15, 2011, http://diario.elmercurio.com/detalle/index.asp?id={93d25588-08c4-4e38-be9c-f0bc9d141a80} (accessed Marche 11, 2013). 231 All monetary amounts are in U.S. dollars unless stated otherwise. 232 Tras marcha que convoc a 80 mil personas, estudiantes dicen que seguirn movilizados, El Mercurio, June 17, 2011, http://diario.elmercurio.com/detalle/index.asp?id={1aa330e4-26cd-41618732-51a7284f80d4} (accessed March 11, 2013). 233 Nathan Frandino, Nearly 80,000 March in Chile, Demanding Education Reform, The Santiago Times, June 17, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/21731-nearly-80000-march-inchile-demanding-education-reform- (accessed March 11, 2013).

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would be given alternative locations to attend class if they wished. Lavn stated, We want to prevent a minority from taking away the right of the majority to go to school, and so starting tomorrow we will give alternative places for people who want to study.234 On June 20, Lavn met with rectors from Chiles public universities to discuss funding for public education. This meeting came after the Confech and Teachers Union announcement of another large demonstration for June 30. The rectors proposed a 200 million dollar increase in funding for public universities.235 Lavn also pledged to increase transparency in reporting university profits and to explore the idea of increasing the student transportation pass to an all-year transportation pass. The next day Lavn announced the creation of a $75 million fund for public universities. After meeting with the Education Minister, Camila Vallejo mentioned that she was happy to see some results, stating, Finally, hes offering us a concrete proposal. She continued, Obviously, certain aspects are lacking. These documents are going to be passed to students stretching from Arica to Magallanes, so they can discuss if theyll accept the proposals or not, which will determine the future of this movement.236 During the negotiations between Lavn and the university students, secondary students continued to protest in Santiago and in the regions, demanding de234

Nathan Frandino, Chilean Students to Get Other Places Not En Toma to Study, The Santiago Times, June 19, 2011 http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/21741-chilean-students-to-get-otherplaces-not-en-toma-to-study (accessed March 11, 2013). 235 Nathan Frandino, Chiles Public University Presidents Discuss Funding Proposals With Edu cation Minister, The Santiago Times, June 20, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/21745chiles-public-university-presidents-discuss-funding-proposals-with-education-minister (accessed March 11, 2013). 236 Nathan Frandino, Chiles Public Universities to Benefit from US$75 Million Fund, The Santiago Times, June 21, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/21757-chiles-public-universities-tobenefit-from-us75-million-fund#linktext_ (accessed, March 11, 2013).

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municipalization of public schools and expressing their concerns regarding the transportation pass. Despite the proposal by the government and the ongoing negotiations, university student leaders, including Camila Vallejo and Giorgio Jackson, rejected the government proposal, claiming that the offer of $75 million did not adequately address the more comprehensive demands of the students: limiting privatization, greater equality in education, and greater government oversight of private education. Camila Vallejo best described the structural change demanded by the students, Our demands could be the basis for the construction of a new educational model, centered around the recovery of education as a universal right and the end of education as a lucrative business. Vallejo concluded with the announcement that the major demonstration for June 30 would still be held and that they expected an even larger turnout than the 80,000 protestors that marched on June 16.237 It is clear from Vallejos statement the student movement had moved beyond protesting for further government support for public education and toward demands for structural and systemic change to the Chilean education system. The protests on July 30 were extremely large. Estimates of the turn-out in Santiago varied from 100,000 to 200,000 depending on the news source. However, an estimate of 400,000 participants from all the regions was consistent across various news sources. During the march, Camila Vallejo called for a plebiscite to address

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Adeline Bash, Chiles Student Protesters Reject Government Proposals, The Santiago Times, June 27, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/21795-chiles-student-protesters-rejectgovernment-proposals- (accessed March 11, 2011).

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education reforms, If the political class, both the government and the legislative powers, do not have the capacity to respond and resolve this conflict, it will have to be citizens, the vast majority, they will decide.238 The protests were relatively peaceful with only 121 arrests.239 The mobilization brought a response from President Pieras Secretary of State, Valentina Pozo Olavarrieta, who reaffirmed the administrations commitment to negotiation and called for an end to the protests so that dialogue could begin.240 A response by such a senior ministry official showed the increasing concern of the administration over the student demonstrations. Following the massive June 30 demonstrations, President Piera gave a televised address on July 5 and announced a four-part plan called the Gran Acuerdo Nacional por la Educacin (GANE).241 Pieras proposal sought to improve the quality, access, and financing of higher education by creating a $4 billion Education Fund. Piera also proposed increasing scholarships for higher education from 70,000 to 120,000 and reducing the student loan interest rate to around 4%. Furthermore, Piera agreed to revamp the higher education admissions process and create a system for improved transparency in the university accreditation process. He also announced that the government would create an institution to be run by the newly created position of Undersecretary of Higher Education to oversee the higher education
238

Ms de 100 mil personas participaron de la march estudiantil en Santiago, soychile.cl, June 30, 2011, http://www.soychile.cl/Santiago/Sociedad/2011/06/30/24149/Los-estudiantes-santiaguinosesperan-superar-los-100-mil-protestantes-en-la-marcha-de-hoy.aspx (accessed March 12, 2013). 239 La Intendencia Metropolitana cifr en 80 mil los asistentes a la marcha estudiantil, soychile.cl, June 30, 2011, http://www.soychile.cl/Santiago/Sociedad/2011/06/30/24333/La-IntendenciaMetropolitana-cifro-en-80-mil-los-asistentes-a-la-marcha-estudiantil.aspx (accessed March 12, 2013). 240 Citas en ministerio y La Moneda marcaron el intenso da de Lavn, El Mercurio, July 1, 2011, http://diario.elmercurio.com/detalle/index.asp?id={6f4fa45c-079a-494d-bd4c-d5a2f820f5c5} (accessed March 12, 2013). 241 Great National Agreement for Education.

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system and to help separate state universities, private universities and private forprofit universities. In regards to private for-profit higher education institutions, the President proposed to tax the profits and require increased transparency of these institutions. Finally, the government would create three competitive funds for which universities could apply that could be used to improve quality and for other discretionary spending. However, Piera declared that he would not nationalize Chilean education and said that to do so would be extremely harmful to the education system.242 Student leaders, both secondary and university, as well as leaders from opposition parties and the teachers union rejected President Pieras proposal saying that it did not end profiteering in higher education. They also claimed that Piera had not been specific enough in his proposal about how his $4 billion education fund would be used and that his entire proposal was done unilaterally without any real input from protesting groups. The leaders were also disappointed that Piera had rejected outright the idea of a nationalized education system.243 Following his education speech Pieras approval rating dropped to 35% and his disapproval rating,

242

Sebastin Piera, Cadena Nacional de Radio y Televisin: Presidente Piera anunci Gran Acuerdo Nacional por la Educacin, June 5, 2011, http://www.gob.cl/destacados/2011/07/05/cadenanacional-de-radio-y-television-presidente-pinera-anuncio-gran-acuerdo-nacional-por-la-educaci.htm (accessed March 12, 2013). 243 Nathan Frandino, Students say Chiles president failed to offer concrete answers, The Santiago Times, July 6, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/21886-students-say-chiles-presidentfailed-to-offer-concrete-answers-on-education-plan (accessed March 12, 2013).

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which reached 53%, was the highest disapproval rating for a Chilean president in 20 years.244 On July 9, following the rejection of the GANE, student protestors called for another national strike for July 14 as Lavn met with rectors and senators in a desperate attempt to forestall the protests and get the GANE passed.245 Over the next few days, smaller student protests continued including a creative and humorous pillow-fight protest in Concepcin and a dance protest in Chilln, as well as other protests in Osorno and Santiago.246 On Thursday, July 14, protests enveloped much of Santiago, with students claiming 100,000 attendees and the government countering with a much smaller claim of 30,000 attendees. The protestors, including high school and university students, labor unions, the teachers union, and parents marched in downtown Santiago and clashed with police. In all, 62 people were detained. Violent acts by the protestors were widely condemned by the government and violence by the police was

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Nathan Frandino, Disapproval of Chiles president hits 20 -year high at 53%, The Santiago Times, July 6, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/politics/21873-disapproval-of-chiles-president-hits-20year-high-at-53 (accessed March 12, 2013). 245 Nathan Frandino, Education reform battle rages on as negotiations, strikes continue, The Santiago Times, July 10, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/21912-education-reform-battlerages-on-as-negotiations-strikes-continue (accessed March 13, 2013). 246 Creativa protesta estudiantil fue con Guerra de almohadas, soychile.cl, July 13, 2011, http://www.soychile.cl/Concepcion/Sociedad/2011/07/13/26732/Creativa-protesta-estudiantil-fue-conguerra-de-almohadas.aspx (accessed March 13, 2013). Sergio Silva, Los estudiantes de la ULA en Osorno se tomaron la Ruta 215, soychile.cl, July 12, 2011, http://www.soychile.cl/Osorno/Sociedad/2011/07/12/26361/Los-estudiantes-de-la-ULA-enOsorno-se-tomaron-la-Ruta-215.aspx (accessed March 13, 2013). Alumnos de la universidad del Bo Bo protestan bailando en Chilln, soychile.cl, July 13, 2011, http://www.soychile.cl/Chillan/Sociedad/2011/07/13/26653/Alumnos-de-la-universidad-del-Bio-Bioprotestan-bailando-en-Chillan.aspx (accessed March 13, 2013).

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equally condemned by student leaders.247 After the national strike, Camila Vallejo vowed that the students would continue the movement and denied claims that the movement was weakening, stating, We really believe that our movement has not weakened and that it continues with more support than ever, with students continuing to demonstrate.248 In response to his dwindling popularity and the ongoing protests, President Piera announced changes to his cabinet on July 18. These changes included replacing Education Minister, Joaqun Lavn with Felipe Bulnes and replacing the Minister of Mining and Energy. Piera also changed personnel in several other cabinet positions. However, no new cabinet members were added; Piera shifted existing cabinet members into new positions.249 Despite these changes, protests continued throughout the latter half of July with no signs of weakening. At the end of July the Confech published Bases Para un Acuerdo Social por la Educacin Chilena and delivered the document to the Piera administration. Bases Para un Acuerdo Social por la Educacin Chilena called for education to be a right, guaranteed by the state. The document also detailed student demands for both secondary school and higher education reforms as well as environmental and indigenous rights concerns. At the heart of these demands was an attempt to repeal
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Marcha estudiantil se toma la Alameda y termina con violentos incidentes, El Mercurio, July 15, 2011, http://diario.elmercurio.com/detalle/index.asp?id={0fc5e32d-1c0f-4df4-b97c-28a82860bdae} (accessed March 13, 2013). 248 Nathan Frandino, Students say Chiles education movement not fizzing out, The Santiago Times, July 17, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/21982-students-say-chiles-educationmovement-not-fizzing-out (accessed March 13, 2013). 249 Zach Simon, Chiles Piera makes sweeping cabinet changes, The Santiago Times, July 18, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/politics/21999-chiles-pinera-makes-sweeping-cabinet-changes (accessed March 13, 2013).

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many of the neoliberal education reforms put in place under the Pinochet military dictatorship. For secondary or high school students, the demands included the centralization of schools away from the municipalities and to the central government, the cessation of the voucher system and the institution of a new, more equitable funding system, new policies for teacher development and training, free student transportation year-round, more investment in schools and school infrastructure, more technical and vocational training, democratization of secondary student participation, and the creation of secondary student federations. The university demands included more regulation of supposedly non-profit private universities, which often exploited loopholes in the laws to receive profits; increased funding for public universities; a more equitable selection system for universities; a new student finance system to help low-income students; a more democratic higher education system; an increasingly pluralistic education system that included participation and recognition of indigenous peoples; the creation of a public and intercultural state university; and increased technical educational programs. Moreover, all of these demands were to be achieved through constitutional reforms that incorporated student input.250 On July 31, President Piera presented his second education reform proposal designed to appease student protestors. The Piera government proposed a

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Bases para un Acuerdo Social por la Educacin Chilena, El Chileno, http://elchileno.cl/world/nacional/1071-bases-para-un-acuerdo-social-por-la-educacion-chilena-textocompleto.html (accessed October 20, 2011).

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constitutional change that should enshrine education as a fundamental right and a public good, where the state will be responsible for providing it, ensuring compliance with the principles of gratuity, universality and quality in preschool, primary, and secondary education.251 For Piera to call education a public good was a dramatic about-face for the president since less than a month before, he had called education a consumer good.252 Education Minister Felipe Bulnes also released a response to student demands that opened the door for de-municipalization by allowing the national Ministry of Education to take over control of low-performing schools.253 However, both Bulnes and Piera emphasized that university profits would not be touched, a central demand from student groups. The proposal sparked some debate among students and teachers; however, after reviewing the documents, both the teachers and students rejected the administrations proposals. Bulnes felt that the students and teachers never gave the proposal a chance and rejected it immediately out of hand, Before I submitted this proposal some of these groups had already announced that they would reject it, no matter what it said. At the same time it was being presented they formed barricades to

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Nathan Frandino, Chiles president opens door for talks on education amendment, The Santiago Times, August 1, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22113-chiles-president-opensdoor-for-talks-on-education-amendment (accessed March 14, 2013). 252 Zach Simon, Chiles president calls education a consumer good, The Santiago Times, July 20, 2011, http://santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22018-chiles-president-calls-education-a-consumer-good (accessed March 14, 2013). 253 Piera impulse cambios en la Constitucin que garanticen una educacin de calidad, El Mercurio, August 1, 2011, http://diario.elmercurio.com/detalle/index.asp?id={987a1297-f571-4828-894ce8588270fa3b} (accessed March 14, 2013).

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protest a document they did not even know.254 However, students and teachers believed that the proposal did not offer anything new and lacked concrete details. The president of the Universidad de Santiago Student Federation, Camilo Ballesteros said, It [the plan] is no more than a copy and paste of every document from before that they had given us.255 After they announced their rejection of the reforms, students reiterated their call for national strikes on August 8 and August 21. Shortly after the announcement of the governments proposals, student groups sought permission from the government to hold a march on August 4. For demonstrations to occur the protesting group must seek a permit from the government. In the past these permits had been granted fairly regularly. However, this time the government refused the students request, with the Interior Minister Rodrigo Hinzpeter saying, Our government will not be authorizing new student marches on Alameda. Hinzpeter cited vandalism and damages caused by previous marches and the threat that the entire school year would be lost if the protests continued.256 Nonetheless students vowed to move ahead with the march as planned and filed a lawsuit against the government asserting a constitutional right to protest.257 The result of the standoff was massive violence in Santiago as protestors and police clashed.
254

Estudiantes rechazaron la propuesta y Bulnes anunci envi de proyectos de ley, soychile.cl, August 5, 2011, http://www.soychile.cl/Santiago/Sociedad/2011/08/05/30642/Vallejo-confirmo-quela-Confech-rechazara--la-propuesta-del-Gobierno.aspx (accessed March 14, 2013). 255 Nathan Frandino, Early signs of disappointment greet education ministers proposals, The Santiago Times, August 2, 2011, http://santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22124-early-signs-ofdisappointment-greet-education-ministers-proposals (accessed March 14, 2013). 256 Ivan Ebergenyi, Chilean students prepare for showdown with government, The Santiago Times, August 3, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22131-chilean-students-prepare-forshowdown-with-government (accessed March 15, 2013). 257 Estudiantes mantienen sin cambios decisin de efectuar marchas este jueves, emol.com, August 3, 2011, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2011/08/03/496101/estudiantes-mantienen-sin-cambiosdecision-de-efectuar-marchas-este-jueves.html (accessed March 15, 2013).

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Through the use of tear gas and water cannons, police managed to prevent any protestors from gathering and assembling, effectively stopping any march from taking place. Police arrested over 500 in Santiago alone with many more arrested in the regions outside Santiago. The police violence caused many citizens to come out in support of the student movement, banging pots and pans in what is known as a cacerolazo protest, which harkens back to protests against Pinochet.258 Even though students were unable to successfully gather and march, they succeeded in gaining support for their movement from the general populace as the government attempted to repress and disrupt the mobilization. Another protest on August 8 brought around 50,000 to 150,000 protestors into Santiagos streets and an estimated 500,000 students nationwide depending on the source. Once again protestors and police clashed with incidents of violence, fires, vandalism, and looting. Both student and government leaders condemned the protest and placed the bulk of the blame for the negative outcomes on each other. The demonstrations also brought about a return of cacerolazos as citizens expressed their support for the student movement.259 Most of the violence during the student protests revolved around encapuchados, or hooded and masked protestors, who are generally considered to be instigators of violence and whose actions are regularly denounced by student leaders.

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Ivan Ebergenyi, Students and police face off in Chiles capital, The Santiago Times, August 3, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22145-students-and-police-face-off-in-chiles-capital (accessed March 15, 2013). 259 Benjamin Schneider, Chiles student protests stretch beyond the streets of Santiago, The Santiago Times, August 10, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22194-chiles-student-protestsstretch-beyond-the-streets-of-santiago (accessed March 15, 2013).

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One of the major controversies of the August 8 protest was the discovery of several undercover police officers disguised as encapuchados. These officers were detected when student protestors, attempting to prevent the violence that had plagued earlier protests, confronted several encapuchados who turned out to be police officers. At least one undercover officer was accused of throwing rocks and inciting violence.260 The discovery of these undercover officers was a severe blow to the governments credibility concerning the protests, as the Piera administration had repeatedly cited the violence committed by the encapuchados as the primary reason for denying students permission to protest. The tactics used by police, both harsh physical treatment of protestors and the planting of undercover police as encapuchados, was reminiscent of dictatorship-era police practices. The leaders of the Chilean Senate and Chamber of Deputies responded to the continued protests by issuing an invitation to both secondary and university student groups to attend a round-table discussion on education reform. This incident caused the first split in the movement, as secondary student groups decided to accept the invitation while university student groups rejected it on the grounds that Congress did not have the power to affect the change needed and that the real responsibility lay with the executive branch. 261 In response to the university students rejection of this invitation, President Piera issued yet another proposal for education reform. This

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Ivan Ebergenyi, Undercover police under fire for role in Chiles student protests, The Santiago Times, August 11, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22201-undercover-police-underfire-for-role-in-chiles-student-protests (accessed March 15, 2013). 261 Secundarios se integran a mesa de dilogo y Girardi pone condiciones al Gobierno, El Mercurio, August 15, 2011, http://diario.elmercurio.com/detalle/index.asp?id={f1dc3be6-7930-4d64-8e615bcd30862b3c} (accessed March 15, 2013).

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third proposal, although by far the most generous proposal submitted to the students to date, was once again rejected by the students. The proposal extended scholarships to the poorest 60 percent of students, reduced interest rates on student loans to around 2%, guaranteed the right to a quality education for all Chileans, and increased the oversight of private for-profit universities.262 Students rejected the proposal, stating that it was not the systematic overhaul of the education system that they were seeking and that the proposal was essentially the same as previous offers.263 On August 18 yet another student protest erupted with student leaders claiming an attendance of around 100,000 protestors in Santiago, 15,000 in Concepcin, 4,000 in Talca, and 12,000 in Valparaso. Compared to previous protests, incidents of violence were much less frequent. Nevertheless, confrontations between police and demonstrators occurred.264 Another protest followed shortly after on August 21. This protest was peaceful and was reminiscent of a fair as the protest took place in Parque OHiggins with live music, performances, food, and arts and crafts. Turnout was estimated at several hundred thousand and included children and

262

Piera se rene con ministro Bulnes y comit polito para afinar agenda educacional, El Mercurio, August 16, 2011, http://diario.elmercurio.com/detalle/index.asp?id={660eeb5a-b0a5-4759-a9811923a4c4cb1b} (accessed March 15, 2013). 263 Adeline Bash, Chilean government offers everything but students dont budge, The Santiago Times, August 18, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22255-chilean-governmentoffers-everything-but-students-dont-budge (accessed March 15, 2013). 264 Minuto a minute: Emplazan a encapuchados a mostrar el rostro, emol.com, August 18, 2011, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2011/08/18/498409/minuto-a-minuto-emplazan-aencapuchados-a-mostrar-el-rostro-fin.html (accessed March 15, 2013).

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families. The event demonstrated the widespread community support of education reform in Santiago.265 Pressure on the Piera administration was intensified by a two-day labor strike on August 24 and 25 that had been planned since early July by the Central Workers Union or CUT. The CUT protested Chiles social inequality and demanded healthcare reform, improved social security, and protection for the environment.266 The first day of protest went smoothly and was relatively quiet. However, the second day saw much larger protests with student groups, labor unions, and other protestors combined their strength to march through downtown Santiago. The day ended with some vandalism and violence, although the government conceded that the demonstrations were largely peaceful.267 Despite the repeated protests and conflicts between the Piera administration and the student movement, student leaders from the Confech agreed to meet with President Piera on September 3. Student leaders Camila Vallejo and Giorgio Jackson said they would seek a response from the government on their Bases Para un Acuerdo Social por la Educacin Chilena. They also sought action on their demand that the government cease its repression of the student movement and urged the resignation of Interior Minister Hinzpeter for his role in repressing the student
265

Zach Simon, Chileans rally in support of education reforms, The Santiago Times, August 21, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22274-chileans-rally-in-support-of-education%20reforms (accessed March 15, 2013). 266 Adeline Bash, Chiles Central Workers Union calls for August strike, The Santiago Times, July 4, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/human-rights-a-law/21857-chiles-central-workers-unio%20ncalls-for-august-strike- (accessed March 15, 2013). 267 Ivan Ebergenyi, Violent incidents mar otherwise peaceful, massive march in Chile, The Santiago Times, August 25, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22316-violent-incidents-marotherwise-peaceful-massive-march-in-chile (accessed March 15, 2013).

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movement. Jackson and Vallejo emphasized that the meeting with the President did not mean an end to the movement and that protests and mobilizations would continue.268 The negotiations were positive according to administration and student sources and students and officials agreed on a number of points including a constitutional amendment guaranteeing a right to quality education, rights for indigenous Chileans, and increased financial support. Nonetheless, students and administration officials could not agree on ending private for-profit universities and centralization of secondary schools. Student leaders noted that they hoped that negotiations with the government would continue even as they announced further student demonstrations.269 As September began, there was some doubt about the strength of the student movement and the ability of the students to maintain the level of commitment and activism seen in the past 4 months in the face of the possible loss of the entire school year for many of the schools involved in the strike (due to lack of class attendance).The next two student demonstrations on September 11, the anniversary of the military coup in 1973, and September 18, seemed to confirm these doubts as student turnout was disappointing, around 5,000 and 6,000 protestors respectively. Subsequently, student leaders called for a national strike on September 22, in hopes

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Universitarios acuerdan aceptar dilogo con el Presidente y asistirn el martes a La Moneda, El Mercurio, August 28, 2011, http://diario.elmercurio.com/detalle/index.asp?id={de1b63c2-8deb-4a428fe3-d3cf97149fd3} (accessed March 15, 2013). 269 Joe Hinchliffe, Chiles students hold first meeting with President Piera, The Santiago Times, September 4, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22394-chiles-students-hold-firstmeeting-with-president-pinera (accessed March 15, 2013).

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of revitalizing the movement.270 On September 22, student leaders reported an attendance of around 180,000 in Santiago, and another 27,000 in the regions outside of Santiago. The demonstration was peaceful and included musicians, dancers, and people in costumes. After the demonstration student leaders, including Giorgio Jackson and Camila Vallejo, declared the demonstration a success and announced that the student movement was not weakening. The government spokesman, Andrs Chadwick, dismissed the march saying This is the 35th march of the student movement A march, big or small, is not going to change the core themes and concerns of the government.271 Near the end of September, the students agreed to return to negotiations with the Piera administration. At the same time they announced a nationwide protest for September 29 that included participation from labor unions across the country. Student leaders said that the protests were even more important with the negotiations approaching in order to put more pressure on the government.272 The protest on September 29, however, was broken up by police before it began, launching tear gas into the middle of the crowd of protestors as they gathered to begin the march. Police claimed that they broke up the march due to vandalism and violence, but student
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Joe Hinchliffe, Chilean students march in silence, The Santiago Times, September 11, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22452-chilean-students-march-in-silence (accessed March 15, 2013). Joe Hinchliffe, Chilean students march in Santiago, call for strike next Thursday, The Santiago Times, September 14, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22473-chiles-students-marchin-santiago-call-for-strike-next-thursday (accessed March 15, 2013). 271 Joe Hinchliffe, Massive marches across Chile re-invigorate student movement, The Santiago Times, September 22, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22519-massive-marchesacross-chile-re-invigorate-student-movement (accessed March 18, 2013). 272 Vallejo llam a marchar este jueves desde Plaza Italia en Santiago, La Nacin, September 28, 2011, http://www.lanacion.cl/vallejo-llamo-a-marchar-este-jueves-desde-plaza-italia-ensantiago/noticias/2011-09-28/101414.html (accessed March 18, 2013).

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leaders refuted the claim.273 The conflict between police and protestors was reflected in the negotiations between student and administration representatives. The government declared that the students must cease marching before true negotiations could begin while students announced that they would keep demonstrating until their demands were satisfactorily met. The negotiations thus ended in a stalemate as neither side would accede to the others demands.274 After the breakdown in negotiations, the students announced more demonstrations October 6, and October 19. Rodrigo Hinzpeter, the Interior Minister, responded by proposing legislation, known as Ley Hinzpeter (the Hinzpeter Act), that would criminalize tomas and strengthen penalties for public disorder, looting, obstructing transportation, obstructing public services, disrespecting police officers, and wearing a face covering.275 The government also announced that while it would leave the door open for dialogue with students, it would not wait any longer for student cooperation and would proceed, through legislative channels, with education reforms. Administration spokesman, Andrs Chadwick justified the governments decision to continue with the reforms unilaterally saying, It has become clear that with yesterdays [Saturdays] declaration that the Confech has become taken over, absolutely co-opted and directed by the more ultra, more radical, more intransigent,
273

Joe Hinchliffe, Massive protest in Chiles capital violently dispersed, The Santiago Times, September 29, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22570-massive-protest-in-chilescapital-violently-dispersed (accessed March 18, 2013). 274 Joe Hinchliffe, Talks between Chilean students and government end in deadlock, The Santiago Times, October 2, 2011, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22575-talks-betweenchilean-students-and-government-end-in-deadlock (accessed March 18, 2013). 275 Joe Hinchliffe, Chilean government to criminalize school seizures, The Santiago Times, October 3, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22585-chilean-government-to-criminalizeschool-seizures (accessed March 18, 2013).

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more ideological.276 As such, students continued to protest and demonstrate throughout October, including major demonstrations on Thursday, October 6, Saturday, October 15, and Wednesday Thursday, October 19-20 with turnouts between 50,000 and 100,000. The two day protest on October 19-20 was the largest and included university students, high school students, and labor unions. Although the demonstration began peacefully, it ended in violence with clashes between protestors and police.277 October also saw the internationalization of the Chilean student movement as Spains Indignado movement announced a worldwide protest on October 15, which sought to unite people from the Arab Spring, Chilean Winter, Occupy Wall Street, Indignados,278 and other social movements.279 Student leaders, including Giorgio Jackson from the FEUC, Camila Vallejo from the Confech, Francisco Figueroa of the FECH and Gabriel Iturra of ACES, also traveled to Europe to meet with various organizations including UNESCO, United Nations, and the Indignados, as well as meetings with foreign intellectuals. The European tour was criticized by the Piera administration as damaging to Chiles international image. Giorgio Jackson responded to the government criticism by stating, This [tour] does not have to do
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Gobierno afirma que ya no puede seguir esperando a los estudiantes para dialogar, El Mercurio, October 10, 2011, http://diario.elmercurio.com/detalle/index.asp?id={1e89e758-5049-4779-a53cb48d396d6fbe} (accessed March 18, 2013). 277 Joe Hinchliffe, Massive protest in Chiles capital ends again in violence, The Santiago Times, October 19, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22715-massive-protest-in-chilescapital-ends-again-in-violence (accessed March 18, 2013). 278 The Indignado movement is a Spanish social movement that began in 2011 and demanded significant changes to the Spanish government. The movement rejected the cuts to welfare, the austerity measures, and Spanish politicians generally. 279 Unas 1.000 ciudades en ms de 80 pases se sumarn a protesta de indignados, emol.com, October 14, 2011, http://www.emol.com/noticias/internacional/2011/10/14/507991/unas-1000ciudades-en-mas-de-80-paises-se-sumaran-a-protesta-de-indignados.html (accessed March 18, 2013).

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with [President] Piera or any government in particular, rather he emphasized that the problem of education in Chile was a problem to do with the structure of the Chilean state and society.280 The student movement began to lose steam in November and December as the Chilean summer vacation approached and students would not be attending classes. Public support for the student movement also began to decline. A poll in early November showed that support for Chiles student movement had fallen to 67%, much lower than the near 80% approval rating at the height of the movement in August October. This decline was due, in part, to the increased violence and destruction that accompanied the protests and the lack of compromise between students and the government. The decline in popularity of the student movement did not translate to any increase in approval for President Piera as his approval rating remained a little above 30%.281 The movement also struggled against government and institutional pressure, as well as internal pressure from some students to return to school in order to save the school year. On November 2, the Vice-Dean of the Universidad de Chile ordered students to return to classes despite a vote by students to continue the strike that passed by a narrow margin of 52% for and 48% against. The order was prompted by an effort to save at least one semester of the school year by holding classes from November 2, 2011 until March 15, 2012, well into what is

280

Joe Hinchliffe, Chiles student leaders strike back from Paris, The Santiago Times, October 17, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22692-chiles-student-leaders-strike-back-from-paris (accessed March 18, 2013). 281 Randall Woods, Support for Chile Student Movement falls to 67%, Poll Shows, Bloomberg, November 7, 2011, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-11-07/support-for-chile-studentmovement-falls-to-67-poll-shows-1-.html (accessed March 18, 2013).

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normally summer vacation in Chile. Some students including, engineering, economics, and law students voted against continued protests and decided to return to classes.282 Juan Manuel Zolezzi, Dean of the Universidad de Santiago, ordered the eviction of students occupying the university after students had voted to end the occupation the week before.283 Nonetheless protests continued as the Piera administration negotiated with the opposition-controlled congress to pass the 2012 education budget that included almost none of the government reforms proposed during the past year. Piera did announce the creation of a private university regulation institution that would monitor these institutions and make public, information about fees, as well as graduation and employment rates.284 The government also announced that it would close out the school year and that it would force secondary students to repeat the academic year, although this declaration was disregarded by many local officials.285 The Confech attempted to resurrect the student movements momentum by declaring a national strike for December 1. However, the march resulted in the lowest

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Joe Hinchliffe, Universidad de Chile orders striking students to return to classes, The Santiago Times, November 2, 2011 http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22804-universidad-de-chileorders-striking-students-to-return-to-classes (accessed March 18, 2013). 283 Joe Hinchliffe, Police evict students from Usach in Chiles capital, The Santiago Times, November 12, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22877-police-evict-students-fromusach-in-chiles-capital (accessed March 18, 2013). 284 Joe Hinchliffe, Chile announces private university regulator, The Santiago Times, November 16, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22910-chile-announces-private-university-regulator (accessed March 18, 2013). 285 Joe Hinchliffe, Local officials defy plan to punish Chiles student protestors, The Santiago Times, November 23, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22962-local-officials-defy-plan-topunish-chiles-student-protesters (accessed March 18, 2013).

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turnout of the year for a national protest with only a few thousand demonstrators.286 The end of December saw students abandon the toma of the Universidad de Chile as well as a number of prominent secondary schools in Santiago leaving only 70 secondary schools still in toma across the country.287 Despite the perceived decline of the student movement, the movement is credited with the downfall of another Minister of Education. On December 29, President Piera announced his third Minister of Education, Harald Beyer, who replaced Felipe Bulnes.288 Elections for the FECH were also held in December with Camila Vallejo, the current president, being defeated for reelection by Gabriel Boric. The change in leadership was declared an extremist shift by many news organizations as Boric ran on a pledge to distance the student movement from political groups. While Vallejo, a member of the Communist Party, had been more inclined to deal with the administration as well as opposition leaders, Boric announced, in reference to former president Michelle Bachelet that we are not Bachelets youth brigade. Boric also labeled the Piera administration as an adversary and announced that he would not work with any political parties.289

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Marcha de la Confech tuvo la convocatoria ms baja del ao, El Mercurio, December 2, 2011, (accessed March 18, 2013). 287 Joe Hinchliffe, Chilean students end symbolic occupations after 6 months, The Santiago Times, December 22, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/23139-chilean-students-endsymbolic-occupations-after-6-months (accessed March 18, 2013). 288 Randall Woods and Sebastian Boyd, Chiles Student Protests Claim Their Second Ministerial Victim, Bloomberg Business Week, December 29, 2011, http://www.businessweek.com/news/201112-29/chile-s-student-protests-claim-their-second-ministerial-victim.html (accessed March 18, 2013). 289 Joe Hinchliffe, The new face of Chiles student movement: an extremist shift? The Santiago Times, December 8, 2011, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/23048-the-new-face-of-chilesstudent-movement-an-extremist-shift (accessed March 18, 2013).

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2012: The Decline of the Movement After the massive mobilization and subsequent widespread publicity and popularity of the 2011 student movement, expectations were high for the student movement in 2012. However, the high popularity enjoyed by the student movement had declined in November and December before the start of summer vacation. The broader Chilean public had grown tired of deadlocked negotiations, violence between police and protestors, the loss of the academic school year, and the acts of destruction and vandalism that reportedly accompanied the student protests. 2012 also saw heightened tensions between student groups and the Piera administration as frustrations over the lack of consensus between the two groups boiled over into increasingly violent confrontations. Thus it remained to be seen if the new leadership of Chiles student movement can resurrect the momentum and success that the movement enjoyed in mid-2011. On January 3, 2012, the PSU scores from the previous year were announced. The results showed an increasing gap between public and private schools, supporting the student movements demand to abolish the PSU system.290 Due primarily to the demonstrations, registration for the PSU had dropped by 19,000 students in 2011. Subsequently, universities throughout Chile were obliged to lower their admissions

290

Dirigentes lamentan que ningn puntaje nacional en la PSU en Conc epcin provenga de liceo pblico, soyconcepcin.cl, January 3, 2012, http://www.soychile.cl/Concepcion/Sociedad/2012/01/03/62853/Dirigentes-lamentan-que-ningunpuntaje-nacional-en-la-PSU-en-Concepcion-provenga-de-liceo-publico.aspx (accessed March 19, 2013).

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standards due to a lower number of applicants and a lower national average for PSU scores.291 The beginning of 2012 saw the broadening of the student movement as former FEUC president, Giorgio Jackson, along with other members of the FEUC (Universidad Catlica Student Federation) created the Revolucin Demoncrtica (Democratic Revolution) or RD. The RD was a political movement that sought to institutionalize the demands of 2011 and create a new center-left party which, according to Jackson would, construct an alternative democratic institutionalism in our country.292 The initial protests of 2012 were likewise devoted to broader causes than education. These early protests revolved around the controversial Ley Hinzpeter which was being debated in congress at the time. Protests were held on January 11 and January 19 against the proposed legislation and were met with teargas and water cannons from police. Gabriel Boric, president of the FECH, said that the law was a direct attack on the student movement as it increased the penalties for and broadened the definition of public disorder. The Confech sent a letter to Chilean congressmen urging them not to pass the law.293 While small student protests still continued, the government was enjoying a relative lull in demonstrations compared to 2011. However, in mid-February the
291

David Pedigo, Chiles universities lower admissions standards after rough year, The Santiago Times, January 17, 2012, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/23247-chiles-universities-loweradmissions-standards-after-rough-year (accessed March 19, 2013). 292 David Pedigo, Interview: Chiles Revolucin Deomcrtica, The Santiago Times, January 19, 2012, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/23266-interview-chiles-revolucion-democratica (accessed March 18, 2013). 293 Confech pide a parlamentarios no aprobar ley de resguardo del orden pblico, emol.com, January 24, 2012, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2012/01/24/523104/confech-pide-a-parlamentariosno-aprobar-ley-de-resguardo-del-orden-publico.html (accessed March 18, 2013).

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Aysn region in Southern Chile began large protests to draw attention to a number of issues plaguing the region. This was the same region where the contentious HidroAysn project was planned. The movement, called Social Movement for the Aysn Region (MSPRA) and consisting of the citizens of Aysn, including their congressional representatives, labor groups, students, environmentalists, and fishing organizations, blocked roads and occupied the region. The MSPRA gave a list of demands to the government that included reduced fuel costs, improved health care infrastructure, more equitable labor practices like an increased minimum wage, more citizen input in the evaluation of mega projects like the HidroAysn project, increased funding for regional public universities, and increased regional infrastructure.294 A number of protests in the second half of February in Santiago in support of the Aysn region also occurred. The Aysn protests continued into March. On March 6, the Confech delivered a letter to La Moneda in support of the MSPRAs demands. Gabriel Boric announced, The student movement and the movement in Aysn have the same causes and so it is vital we mobilize together.295 Shortly afterward, on March 15, the first major student protest of 2012 ended in violence as demonstrators clashed with police. The protest, organized by the ACES, was unauthorized by the government and was subsequently confronted by the police who used water cannons and tear gas to disperse the crowd

294

Steve Anderson, Chile orders special cabinet meeting to defuse Aysn uprising, The Santiago Times, February 20, 2012, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/politics/23428-chile-orders-specialcabinet-meeting-to-defuse-aysen-uprising (accessed March 18, 2013). 295 Olivia Crellin, Chiles student movement leaders pledge support for Aysn, The Santiago Times, March 5, 2012, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/politics/23502-chiles-student-movement-leaderspledge-support-for-aysen (accessed March 19, 2013).

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of less than 1,000.296 At the end of March the MSPRA managed to get an agreement from the Piera administration to increase fuel subsidies and improved infrastructure throughout the region.297 Despite the Aysn protests and the relatively subdued nature of the student protests during March and April the student movement continued to attract attention both in Chile and abroad. In April, Camila Vallejo was declared the Worlds Most Glamorous Revolutionary, by the New York Times in a lengthy article, written by Francisco Goldman, a well know author who covered Central America during the Cold War, that described the student movement, their demands and tactics.298 The government also went forward implementing the reforms proposed by the Piera administration the year before, including setting the student loan interest rate at 2 percent for 90 percent of students, increased funding for public universities, and modifications to the PSU system that lowered the bar for admissions and scholarships for the two poorest quintiles of students.299 The proposal did not include any of the structural changes demanded by the students during 2011 including free public education, de-municipalization, and an end to for-profit universities.

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Incidentes en centro de Santiago por primera marcha estudiantil del ao, emol.com, March 15, 2012, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2012/03/15/530972/secundarios-se-congregan-en-plazaitalia-pese-a-prohibicion-de-la-intendencia.html (accessed March 18, 2013). 297 Jade Hobman, Aysn Social Movement leaders sign agreement with government, The Santiago Times, March 26, 2012, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/politics/23605-aysen-social-movementleaders-sign-agreement-with-government (accessed March 20, 2013). 298 Francisco Goldman, Camila Vallejo, the Worlds Most Glamorous Revolutionary, The New York Times, April 5, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/08/magazine/camila-vallejo-the-worlds-mostglamorous-revolutionary.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 (accessed March 20, 2013). 299 Olivia Crellin, Chilean minister presents university funding plan to president, The Santiago Times, April 23, 2012, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/23727-chilean-minister-presentsuniversity-funding-plan-to-president (accessed March 20, 2013).

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In response to the governments proposal the Confech organized its first major protest of 2012 on April 25. Confech leaders estimated the turnout for the event at around 60,000 protestors. The March was relatively peaceful although police arrested a small number of encapuchados.300 The second major march convened by the Confech occurred on May 16. The march began with speeches by FECH President Gabriel Boric and FEUC President Noam Titelman, and ended quite peacefully although, once again, police reported isolated incidents of vandalism caused by encapuchados.301 On June 4, students from the Universidad del Mar, a private university located in Reaca, about 80 miles west of Santiago, took over their school to demand the resignation of the board of directors. The university had been experiencing fiscal difficulties and was about to be audited by the government for financial irregularities. The toma was supported by the Confech who traveled to Reeca to visit the protestors.302 The weekend following the takeover at the Universidad del Mar, the Confech announced a national strike for June 28 to protest private for-profit universities.303 The demonstration proved to be the largest of the year so far, drawing a crowd of around 150,000 people according to student organizers. The Confech was
300

Abigail Olmstead, 60,000 Chileans protest in the years first authorized student march, The Santiago Times, April 25, 2012, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/23739-60000-chileansprotest-in-the-years-first-authorized-student-march (accessed March 20, 2013). 301 David Pedigo, Chilean students continue pressuring government, The Santiago Times, May 16, 2012, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/23818-chilean-student-movement-carries-outsecond-march-of-the-year (accessed March 20, 2013). 302 Confech solidariza con estudiantes de U. del Mar y llama a terminar con el lucro, Publimetro, June 4, 2012, http://www.publimetro.cl/nota/cronica/confech-solidariza-con-estudiantes-de-u-del-mary-llama-a-terminar-con-el-lucro/xIQlfd!GDl4UUgF0vE8Y/ (accessed March 20, 2013). 303 Andrew Chow, Chilean student leaders call for national strike over profiteering, The Santiago Times, June 11, 2012, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/23916-chilean-student-leaders-callfor-national-strike-over-profiteering (accessed March 20, 2013).

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joined by secondary student groups and teachers unions. The demonstration was eventually broken up by police who cited vandalism committed by encapuchados.304 While July was fairly quite except for the opening of the official campaign for municipal elections305 on July 30 for elections that would take place in October, August saw the most intense series of protests and demonstrations of 2012. The demonstrations began on August 8 when about 5,000 secondary students staged an illegal demonstration in Santiago. The demonstration resulted in 75 arrests and 49 policemen were injured as students and police clashed during the unauthorized march. In addition, the government accused the protestors of vandalism including the burning of three buses.306 Over the next few days a number of secondary schools in Santiago were occupied by students to demand de-municipalization and free education as well as against the Hinzpeter Act which would make the punishment for participating in a toma punishable by up to three years in jail and possible expulsion. The secondary students also announced a national strike for August 23.307 This time the government was unwilling to let the tomas continue. Police began forcibly removing protestors from the schools, including the Instituto Nacional, Insuco 2, and Internado Nacional Barros Arana, among others. The Mayor of Santiago, Pablo Zalaquett, of the right-wing UDI (Independent Democrat Union)
304

Brittany Peterson, Chilean Students Demand Education Reform, The Nation, June 29, 2012, http://www.thenation.com/blog/168676/chilean-students-demand-education-reform# (accessed March 20, 2013). 305 Municipal elections concern the election of local officials who govern the municipalities and occur every four years. These are separate from regional elections and national elections. 306 Chile cracks down on violent student protests, Al Jazeera, August 9, 2012, http://www.aljazeera.com/news/americas/2012/08/201289761989960.html (accessed March 20, 2013). 307 Miles Coleman, Chilean students continue protests with high school occupations, The Santiago Times, August 10, 2012, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/25024-chilean-high-schoolstudents-continue-protests-with-school-occupations (accessed March 20, 2013).

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party, agreed to meet with the students but threatened them saying that if no agreement was reached the students involved in the toma would be forcibly removed by police. Zalaquett noted that this hard line came from a desire to avoid the chaos of 2011 resulting in the loss of the school year for many students. Zalaquett also threatened students involved with the protests and tomas with a loss of their scholarships if they continued their demonstrations and takeovers.308 The students rejected Zalaquetts demands resulting in a number of forced evictions of protestors from their schools. The Mayors decision was criticized by university student leaders. Gabriel Boric expressed his full support for the secondary schools and accused the government of attempting to criminalize social protest: The government is confused, it has acted with a lot of indifference, legitimizing evictions and legitimizing the cancelation of scholarship. It has entered into a perverse logic. 309 As the August 23 march approached, confrontations between police and demonstrators continued to escalate as students marched and took over their schools to protest their treatment by the police who reacted by increasing the number of evictions for schools in toma and by dispersing student protests. On August 21, the FECH finally threw its weight behind the secondary students and occupied the

308

Leonardo Vallejos Seguel, Zalaquett y cita clave con estudiantes: Si no hay d ilogo, habr desalojos, emol.com, August 14, 2012, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2012/08/13/555516/alcalde-zalaquett-y-cita-clave-conestudiantes-si-no-hay-dialogo-habra-desalojos.html (accessed March 20, 2013). 309 Boric por desalojos: El Gobierno ha entrado en una lgica perversa, soychile.cl, August 16, 2012, http://www.soychile.cl/Santiago/Sociedad/2012/08/16/112557/Boric-por-desalojos-El-Gobierno-haentrado-en-una-logica-perversa.aspx (accessed March 20, 2013).

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Universidad de Chile.310 The August 23 protests were extremely violent with 139 arrests. Around 10,000 students, scattered across Santiago in groups of 1,000 or more, protested against the continued evictions, the Hinzpeter Act, and for free public education. The protest began peacefully enough but then broke into smaller, scattered groups that became increasing confrontational with police. The government used the violence to denounce the student movement claiming that student leaders purposely flouted the law and thus condoned the violence.311 August 28 saw another large student protest, this one organized by the Confech. This protest began relatively peacefully but once again ended in violence initiated by encapuchados. Organizers estimated turnout at over 150,000 protestors while police put the figure at 50,000 protestors. Violence broke out after the official end of the March at 2 p.m. as encapuchados and police clashed resulting in over 200 arrests and with at least one serious injury as protestors accused police of breaking a boys legs.312 As a result of the violence between police and protestors at these two strikes, criticism of the police grew. One officer was discharged after he was caught

310

David Pedigo, Universidad de Chile students throw weight behind school occupation, The Santiago Times, August 21, 2012, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/25060-universidad-dechile-students-throw-weight-behind-school-occupation (accessed March 20, 2013). 311 Miles Coleman and Sumy Sadurni, Encapuchados clash with Chiles police force in studen t protests, The Santiago Times, August 23, 2012, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/25075encapuchados-clash-with-chiles-police-force-in-student-protests (accessed March 20, 2013). 312 Miles Coleman, Largely peaceful march in Chilean capital marred by late violence, The Santiago Times, August 28, 2012, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/25092-largely-peaceful-marchin-chilean-capital-marred-by-late-violence (accessed March 20, 2013).

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on video beating students involved in demonstrations, while other officers faced allegations of sexual assault.313 Throughout the continued protests and violence the government had continued to work on the education reforms proposed by the Piera administration. On September 4, after over four months of political negotiations the administrations proposal was passed by the Senate and Chamber of Deputies. The bill increased the top corporate tax rate by 20 percent and allocated that revenue, approximately $1.23 billion to education. Reactions were mixed, with conservative politicians calling it the second-biggest tax reform since 1990, while opposition politicians called it insufficient, but a step in the right direction.314 Despite the passage of the education reform bill, protests continued throughout September, October, November, and December. Clashes with police continued as the government sought to keep the movement from gaining the momentum and support it had in 2011. In response, student marches increased in violence and vandalism, further weakening their support among Chilean citizens although support for education reform remained strong. In October Camila Vallejo and Noam Titelman visited the U.S. to receive Democracy Nows Letelier-Moffitt Human Rights Award for the student movement. They met with the Communist Party USA and the Young Communist League. 315

313

Sumy Sadurni, Chilean police to be sanctioned after reports of abuse, The Santiago Times, August 30, 2012, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/human-rights-a-law/25099-chilean-police-to-besanctioned-after-reports-of-abuse (accessed March 20, 2013). 314 Michelle Tullo, In climactic vote, Chiles congress passes controversial tax reform, The Santiago Times, September 4, 2012, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/politics/25124-in-climactic-vote-chilescongress-passes-controversial-tax-reform (accessed March 21, 2012). 315 Lisa Bergmann, Chilean student leaders inspire U.S. activists, Peoples World, October 25, 2012, http://www.peoplesworld.org/chilean-student-leaders-inspire-u-s-activists/ (accessed March 21, 2013).

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FECH elections the following month saw a new president elected, Andrs Fielbaum. Fielbaums election was considered a vote to stay the course as he was from the same party as former president Gabriel Boric. Fielbaum also stated that he would follow in Borics footsteps: We have the same conviction to continue building up our own strength and influence without needing to retreat to old politics, he said.316 Shortly after the FECH elections Camila Vallejo, now the leader of Chiles Communist Youth announced her congressional candidacy for the elections that will be held in November of 2013.317 While the 2011-2012 movements did not succeed in their goal of obtaining free public education or eliminating for-profit universities, they did create a new dialogue on education. The student movement forced a right-wing government to make substantial education reforms that, despite the students rejection of the reforms, were a significant change to the education system. The movement also forced the Piera administration to make a number of cabinet changes. More importantly the student movement opened up a dialogue about education that called into question not just the funding of education but the entire education system itself. While support for the movements tactics was not always high, support for the goals of the student movement remained popular. The student movement also revealed problems in the way Chiles government handles social movements and uprisings and

316

Katie Manning, Chiles top student federation votes to stay the course, The Santiago Times, November 14, 2012, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/25397-chiles-top-student-federationvotes-to-stay-the-course (accessed March 21, 2012). 317 Eunice Kim, Chiles Camila Vallejo announces congressional candidacy, The Santiago Times, November 19, 2012, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/politics/25415-chiles-camila-vallejoannounces-congressional-candidacy (accessed March 21, 2013).

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exposed the repressive tactics of the police, as holdovers from the years under the Pinochet dictatorship. Many critics point to the violence and vandalism caused by the protests and the radical nature of the student movement. Finally, Giorgio Jackson, expresident of the FEUC (Student Federation of the Universidad Catlica), in a talk at UC Berkeley, makes a critical point in regards to the education reform demanded by the student movement: What happened in 1981[in reference to the neoliberal education reforms instituted around that time] is a lot more radical than what we are asking for now.318

318

Giorgio Jackson, Inside Chiles Student Movement, CLAS Berkely, December 7, 2011, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9VOWxL90_ds (accessed March 21, 2013).

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VI.

Conclusion

From 2000 to 2011 the student movement in Chile grew from modest protests, primarily demanding changes to transportation fees, PSU (University Entrance Exam) fees, and changes to the higher education loan and finance to a large movement with widespread support that demanded systematic and structural changes to both secondary and higher education, including free higher education and a complete end to privatization and municipalization in secondary schools. These student protests were the product of a long history of student political activism centered on education. The immediate catalyst for the student movement was the neoliberal reforms established during the latter decade of the Pinochet dictatorship. The subsequent return to democracy did little to change many of these policies. Nonetheless, the decline in power and then death of Pinochet in 2006, as well as the new generations lack of fear in regards to government oppression gave the movement greater impetus as these students were among the first to have not grown up entirely under the repressive dictatorship. It is important to note that while the 2006 Penguin Revolution and 2011 Chilean Winter have been the primary focus of academic literature and the news media, protests occurred yearly from 2000 to 2012. Some years the protests were larger than others; however, every year saw fairly major protests at the start of the school year. Generally these protests would diminish as the school year continued. One of the most significant difference between 2006 and 2011 and the other years

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was that 2006 and 2011 were near the start of President Bachelets and President Pieras terms respectively. Both had been in office less than a year when protests began. It should also be noted that most years, with the large exception of 2011, secondary students and university students did not collaborate significantly in their protests. There seems to be a pattern that alternates between secondary students and university students. One group would have the momentum for a year or two before losing energy and being replaced by the other group. As mentioned earlier, 2011 seems to be the big exception in which university students and secondary students collaborated on numerous occasions in demonstrations, occupations, and to a certain extent for negotiations with the government. Nor was the student movement alone in its fight against neoliberalism. Nationally, protests against the HidroAysn Dam project, over Mapuche rights, and gas prices in Magallanes, as well as various strikes by labor unions all joined the chorus of voices demanding changes to the neoliberal system in Chile. Internationally, the student protests took place alongside the Arab Spring, Occupy Wall Street, los Indignados in Spain, student protests in Britain, and amid a global economic crisis that caused protests in around the world. Despite the growth of and large turnouts for protests, especially during 2006 and 2011, the student movements were largely unsuccessful in achieving their goals of changing the education system. Neither the Bachelet nor the Piera administrations were willing to commit to all the changes that the students and teachers demanded, although both attempted to appease students with some reforms and increased funding for education. President Bachelet went the furthest with her reform of the

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LOCE (Organic Constitutional Law on Education), but both Piera and Bachelet avoided making substantial structural reforms to the education system. As such, the student movement was not successful in achieving its larger, structural goals of ending municipalization and privatization for secondary education, ending for-profit, privatized universities, changing admissions standards for universities, and creating free public higher education. The failure of the student movement to achieve these goals can be partially attributed to governments unwillingness to make such fundamental structural changes to their education system. Not all the blame can be attributed to the government however. Student groups at crucial times were unwilling or incapable of maintaining negotiations with the government. This is partially due to the fact that many of the student groups, particularly secondary students, had diverging viewpoints that hindered negotiations. At times one group would be negotiating with the government while another continued protesting in the streets. The administrations of Bachelet and Piera did what they could to discredit the movement by marginalizing the students demands and demonizing the protesters. The government and the media focused on the vandalism and violence that accompanied the protests. Many of the news articles from La Tercera, El Mercurio, La Nacin, Soychile, and others emphasized violence, disorder, and vandalism that sometimes accompanied the protests, as well as highlighting the number of injuries and arrests in each protest. While violence and vandalism did occur during the protests, there is also evidence that some of these instances were caused by other

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groups taking advantage of the protests or even government or police provocateurs, possibly sent to discredit the movement. The Piera government, especially after its failure to appease the student movement with increased funding, began denying student groups the right to protest and violently cracked down on authorized and unauthorized demonstrations. Amidst the reports of violence and vandalism the student movements in 2006 and 2011 maintained a high popularity rating for a number of months as a large portion of the population supported their demands. Despite the failure of the student movement to fully achieve the desired reforms, the movement did produce some significant changes. Education became a priority for both the Bachelet and Piera administrations, and public discourse around the education system increased dramatically. The student movement also initiated a discussion on the right to protest in Chile and brought public attention to laws from the years of military dictatorship. Furthermore, the student movement brought national attention to Chiles education system and the inequalities within Chilean society. The student movement also garnered international attention and refuted many of the notions of Chile as an economic miracle. The student movement in 2011 was also partially responsible for the plunge in popularity of President Piera and his administration, as well as the removal of two Ministers of Education. Thus, although the student movement did not achieve many of their stated goals, they did radically change the dialogue surrounding education in Chile and pushed the boundaries of political discourse in Chile, revealing inadequacies in Chiles democracy.

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While it is difficult to guess the future of the student movement and their demands, some predictions can be made. The long history of student protests in Chile would indicate that student protests and student political activism will continue. The fact that student demands have developed significantly to include widespread structural reform to the education system demonstrates the growing political awareness of students. Another factor is that the legacy of Pinochet and his influence will most likely diminish over time, providing more political space to reform his neoliberal policies. However, these events are too recent to accurately gauge their long-term effects on Chilean politics and society and while there is a strong push to continue the movement, the students must contend with a fairly entrenched status quo that has little interest in acceding to student demands. In the end the students failed to achieve many of their stated goals. It is unlikely, however, that student demands will go away. After more than a decade of consideration and reflection among the students it is likely that protests will continue. On April 11, 2013, more than 150,000 students protested in the first nationwide march.319 It remains to be seen whether student leaders will be able to continue this momentum. Student success in the future depends partially on how well the students convince Chiles voting population of the need for change and the ability of Chiles democracy to accommodate that change. Both are big ifs. The student movement also must contend with student concerns about the possible disruption of their education,

319

Weiru Fang, More than 150,000 take part in Chilean education march, The Santiago Times, April 11, 2013, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/25995-more-than-150000-take-part-in-chileaneducation-march (accessed April 22, 2013).

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resulting in delayed graduation or a failure to graduate that will negatively impact their future. As of April 2013, Chileans are gearing up for another national election that will determine the next president as well as a number of seats in the Chamber of Deputies and Senate. Former President Bachelet has announced that she will be running and has declared that one of her main priorities is education reform.320 This election, which will be held at the end of 2013, will also be a test to see if the student movement can successfully institutionalize their demands. Camila Vallejo and Giorgio Jackson, major leaders of the 2011 student movement, are running for congress and other politicians are running in an attempt to garner the student vote.

320

Alicia Siekierska, Bachelet speaks out, calls for new Chilean constitution, The Santiago Times, April 11, 2013, http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/politics/25996-bachelet-speaks-out-calls-for-newchilean-constitution (accessed April 22, 2013).

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April 17, 2002. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2002/04/17/83290/confech-llama-aparo-universitario-para-el-30-de-abril.html Confech pide a parlamentaris no aprobar ley de resguardo del orden public. emol.com. January 24, 2012. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2012/01/24/523104/confech-pide-aparlamentarios-no-aprobar-ley-de-resguardo-del-orden-publico.html Confech solidariza con estudiantes de U. del Mar y llama a terminar con el lucro. Publimetro. Last modified June 4, 2012. http://www.publimetro.cl/nota/cronica/confech-solidariza-con-estudiantes-deu-del-mar-y-llama-a-terminar-con-el-lucro/xIQlfd!GDl4UUgF0vE8Y/ Con 47 detenidos culmina protesta de Pinguinos en el Centro. La Nacion. Last modified April 26, 2006. http://www.lanacion.cl/con-47-detenidos-culminaprotesta-de-pinguinos-en-el-centro/noticias/2006-04-26/113809.html Con 400 detenidos termin la protesta estudiantil contra la Ley General Educacin. El Mercurio Online. Last modified May 15, 2008. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2008/05/15/304498/con-400detenidos-termino-la-protesta-estudiantil-contra-la-ley-generaleducacion.html Connett, David; Hooper, John and Beaumont, Peter. Pinochet Arrested in London. The Guardian. Last modified October 17, 1998. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/1998/oct/18/pinochet.chile Conoce la UACh. Southern University of Chile. http://admision.uach.cl/conoce-uach/ Convocan Paro general de estudiantes secundarios por cobro de pase. El Mercurio. Last modified April 3, 2001. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2001/04/03/51043/convocan-parogeneral-de-estudiantes-secundarios-por-cobro-de-pase.html Convocatoria Movilizacin y Paro Nacional. Confech. http://www.scribd.com/doc/54488587/Convocatoria-Movilizacion-y-ParoNacional Creativa protesta estudiantil fue con Guerra de almohadas. soychile.cl. Last modified July 13, 2011. http://www.soychile.cl/Concepcion/Sociedad/2011/07/13/26732/Creativaprotesta-estudiantil-fue-con-guerra-de-almohadas.aspx 135

Credito Fiscal Universitario. Ministerio de Educacion Publica. Last modified January 4, 1982, on the Catholic University of Valparaiso website. http://www.fscu.ucv.cl/pdf/cfu.pdf Crellin, Olivia. Chilean minister presents university funding plan to president. The Santiago Times. Last modified April 23, 2012. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/23727-chilean-minister-presentsuniversity-funding-plan-to-president ------ Chiles student movement leaders pledge support for Aysn. The Santiago Times. Last modified March 5, 2012. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/politics/23502-chiles-student-movementleaders-pledge-support-for-aysen Crooks, Nathan. Chiles Student Leaders Get Back to School, Plan New Actions. The Santiago Times. Last modified March 18, 2007. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/11027-CHILE%E2%80%99SSTUDENT-LEADERS-GET-BACK-TO-SCHOOL,-PLAN-NEW-ACTIONS Deal Ends Chile Magallanes Gas Protest. BBC News. Last modified January 18, 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-12222392 DeGroot, Gerard J., editor. Student Protest: The Sixties and After. New York: Addison Wesley Longman, 1998. Del Canto, Gustavo. Protesta de estudiantes secundarios en Arica. El Morro Cotudo. Last modified May 10, 2006. http://www.elmorrocotudo.cl/admin/render/noticia/4002 DeShazo, Peter. Urban Workers and Labor Unions in Chile: 1902-1927. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 1983. Dinges, John. The Condor Years: How Pinochet and His Allies Brought Terrorism to Three Continents. New York: The New Press, 2004. Dirigentes lamentan que ningn puntaje nacional en la PSU en Concepcin provenga de liceo public. soyconcepcin.cl. Last modified January 3, 2012. http://www.soychile.cl/Concepcion/Sociedad/2012/01/03/62853/Dirigenteslamentan-que-ningun-puntaje-nacional-en-la-PSU-en-Concepcion-provengade-liceo-publico.aspx Domedel, Andrea and Pea y Lillo, Macarena. El Mayo de los Pinginos. Santiago: 136

Ediciones Radio Universidad de Chile, 2008. Drake, Paul W. Historical Setting. Chile: A Country Study, edited by Rex A. Hudson, Washington D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, 1994. http://countrystudies.us/chile/ Dunn, Cristina. Chile Students Continue Challenging Bachelet Government. The Santiago Times. Last modified May 22, 2006. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/politics/9170-CHILE-STUDENTSCONTINUE-CHALLENGING-BACHELET-GOVERNMENT ------ School Kids Arrested as Protest Gets Out of Control. The Santiago Times. Last modified April 27, 2006. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/other/9010SCHOOL-KIDS-ARRESTED-AS-PROTEST-GETS-OUT-OF-CONTROL ------ Students Prepare for More Strike Action. The Santiago Times. Last modified May 17, 2006. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/9135STUDENTS-PREPARE-FOR-MORE-STRIKE-ACTION ------ Student Protestors Return to the Streets, This Time Armed. The Santiago Times. Last modified May 18, 2012. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/9156-STUDENTPROTESTORS-RETURN-TO-THE-STREETS,-THIS-TIME-ARMED Ebergenyi, Ivan. Chilean students prepare for showdown with government. The Santiago Times. Last modified August 3, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22131-chilean-students-preparefor-showdown-with-government ------ Students and police face off in Chiles capital. The Santiago Times. Last modified August 3, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22145students-and-police-face-off-in-chiles-capital ------ Undercover police under fire for role in Chiles student protests. The Santiago Times. Last modified August 11, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22201-undercover-police-underfire-for-role-in-chiles-student-protests ------ Violent incidents mar otherwise peaceful, massive march in Chile. The Santiago Times. Last modified August 25, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22316-violent-incidents-marotherwise-peaceful-massive-march-in-chile Edwards, Sebastian and Cox Edwards, Alejandra. The Economy. Chile: A Country 137

Study, edited by Rex A. Hudson. Washington D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, 1994. Elacqual, Gregory et al. School Choice in Chile: Is it Class or Classroom. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 25, No. 3 (2006): pp. 577-601. 87 detenidos en protestas por tarifa escolar. El Mercurio. Last modified April 16, 2003. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2003/04/16/110124/87detenidos-en-protestas-por-tarifa-escolar.html Ensalaco, Mark. Chie Under Pinochet: Recovering the Truth. Philidelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000. Estrada, Daniela. Chile: Teachers and Students Fight New Education Law. Inter Press Service. Last modified April 3, 2009. http://www.ipsnews.net/2009/04/chile-teachers-and-students-fight-neweducation-law/ Estudiantes anuncian Movilizaciones por crdito universitario. El Mercurio. Last modified April 13, 2005. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2005/04/13/178939/estudiantesanuncian-movilizaciones-por-credito-universitario.html Estudiantes anuncian protesta por pases escolares. El Mercurio. Last modified October 3, 2000. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2000/10/03/34343/estudiantesanuncian-protesta-por-pases-escolares.html Estudiantes confirman paro nacional para el prximo martes. El Mercurio. Last modified May 26, 2006. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2006/05/26/220221/estudiantesconfirman-paro-nacional-para-el-proximo-martes.html Estudiantes corrern 1.800 horas alrededor de La Moneda. El Mercurio. Last modified June 17, 2011. http://diario.elmercurio.com/detalle/index.asp?id={2fec9966-8297-44e6ba32-a8f9593b8b69} Estudiantes de Chilln anuncian nueva movilizacin para maana. soychilln.cl. Last modified May 25, 2011. http://www.soychile.cl/Chillan/Sociedad/2011/05/25/17159/Estudiantes-deChillan-anuncian-nueva-movilizacion-para-manana.aspx Estudiantes mantienen sin cambios decisin de efectuar marchas este jueves. 138

emol.com. Last modified August 3, 2011. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2011/08/03/496101/estudiantesmantienen-sin-cambios-decision-de-efectuar-marchas-este-jueves.html Estudiantes ratifican convocatoria a protestas. El Mercurio. Last modified August 6, 2002. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2002/08/06/91742/estudiantesratifican-convocatoria-a-protestas.html Estudiantes rechazaron la propuesta y Bulnes anunci envi de proyectos de ley. soychile.cl. Last modified August 5, 2011. http://www.soychile.cl/Santiago/Sociedad/2011/08/05/30642/Vallejoconfirmo-que-la-Confech-rechazara--la-propuesta-del-Gobierno.aspx Fbrega, Jorge. Education: Three Years After Chiles Penguin Revolution. Americas Quarterly Fall 2009. http://www.americasquarterly.org/node/982 Fang, Weiru. More than 150,000 take part in Chilean education march. The Santiago Times. April 11, 2013. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/25995-more-than-150000-takepart-in-chilean-education-march Fendt, Lindsay. Chiles University Students Take to The streets. The Santiago Times. Last modified May 13, 2010. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/18834-chiles-university-studentstake-to-the-streets Ffrench-Davis. Economic Reforms in Chile: From Dictatorship to Democracy. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 2002. 50 mil universitarios salen a las calles y Educacin pone acento en alumnos tcnicos. El Mercurio. Last modified May 13, 2012. http://diario.elmercurio.com/detalle/index.asp?id={0b129a7c-e5ae-4fc7-878e23d5e465d732} Fox-Hodess, Katy. The Chilean Student Movement and the Crisis of Neoliberal Democracy.Universities in Crisis. Last modified September 23, 2012. http://www.isa-sociology.org/universities-in-crisis/?p=914 Frandino, Nathan. Chilean Students to Get Other Places Not En Toma to Study. The Santiago Times. Last modified June 19, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/21741-chilean-students-to-getother-places-not-en-toma-to-study

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------ Chiles president opens door for talks on education amendment. The Santiago Times. Last modified August 1, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22113-chiles-president-opensdoor-for-talks-on-education-amendment ------ Chiles Public University Presidents Discuss Funding Proposals With Education Minister. The Santiago Times. Last modified June 20, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/21745-chiles-public-universitypresidents-discuss-funding-proposals-with-education-minister ------ Chiles Students Fail to Reach Agreement with Education Minister. The Santiago Times. Last modified June 6, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/21645-chiles-students-fail-toreach-agreement-with-education-minister------ Disapproval of Chiles president hits 20-year high at 53%. The Santiago Times. Last modified July 6, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/politics/21873-disapproval-of-chilespresident-hits-20-year-high-at-53 ------ Early signs of disappointment greet education ministers proposals. The Santiago Times. Last modified August 2, 2011. http://santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22124-early-signs-of-disappointmentgreet-education-ministers-proposals ------ Education reform battle rages on as negotiations, strikes continue. The Santiago Times. Last modified July 10, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/21912-education-reform-battlerages-on-as-negotiations-strikes-continue ------ Nearly 80,000 March in Chile, Demanding Education Reform. The Santiago Times. Last modified June 17, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/21731-nearly-80000-march-inchile-demanding-education-reform------ Number Arrested Unknown after 8,000 March for Chiles Education. The Santiago Times. Last modified June 15, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/21718-number-arrestedunknown-after-8000-march-for-chiles-education ------ Rain Dampens Mass Suicide Attempt by Chilean Student Protestors. The Santiago Times. Last modified June 30, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/21815-rain-dampens-masssuicide-attempt-by-chilean-student-protesters 140

------ Students say Chiles education movement not fizzing out. The Santiago Times. Last modified July 17, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/21982-students-say-chileseducation-movement-not-fizzing-out ------ Students say Chiles president failed to offer concrete answers. The Santiago Times. Last modified July 6, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/21886-students-say-chilespresident-failed-to-offer-concrete-answers-on-education-plan Fundacin, Los Inicios, and Comit Pro UdeC. University of Concepcin, 2011. http://www.udec.cl/pexterno/node/164 Garcia, Cristobal et al. Tracking the 2011 Student-Led Collective Movement in Chile through Social Media Use. Presented at Collective Intelligence conference, 2012. Garcia Dalgalarrando, Maria and Fernndez, Manuel. Secundarios ya no ctuan en bloque, y autoridad desaloja sus tomas rpidamente. El Mercurio. Last modified June 7, 2007. http://diario.elmercurio.com/detalle/index.asp?id={763d41d5-3dc1-491ba0cb-e07ee8dca358} Garretn, Roberto. Perpetual Transition Under the Shadow of Pinochet. Pp. 73-92. Neoliberalisms Fractured Showcase: Another Chile is Possible. Edited by Ximena de la Barra. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2011. Gobierno afirma que ya no puede seguir esperando a los estudiantes para dialogar. El Mercurio. Last modified October 10, 2011. http://diario.elmercurio.com/detalle/index.asp?id={1e89e758-5049-4779a53c-b48d396d6fbe} Godoy, Margaret. HidroAysn and the Many Voices of Those Who Oppose It. The Santiago Times. Last modified May 22, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/opinion/op-ed/21524-hidroaysen-and-the-manyvoices-of-those-who-oppose-itGoldman, Francisco. Camila Vallejo, the Worlds Most Glamorous Revolutionary. The New York Times. Last modified April 5, 2012. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/08/magazine/camila-vallejo-the-worldsmost-glamorous-revolutionary.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 Gonzlez, Francisco E. Dual Transitions to Authoritarian Rule: Institutionalized 141

Regimes in Chile and Mexico, 1970-2000. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press, 2008. Harvey, David. A Brief History of Neoliberalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. Hatfield, Timothy. Chiles Student Protests and the Democratization of a SemiDemocratic Society. Council on Hemispheric Affairs. Last Modified July 6, 2006. http://www.coha.org/chile%E2%80%99s-student-protests-and-thedemocratization-of-a-semi-democratic-society/ Hay 184 colegios movilizados en el pas y los alumnus los proximos pasos. soychile.cl. Last modified June 14, 2011. http://www.soychile.cl/Santiago/Sociedad/2011/06/14/21209/Hay-184colegios-movilizados-en-el-pais-y-los-secundarios-analizan-los-proximospasos.aspx Helms, Richard. CIA, Notes on Meeting with the President on Chile. September 15, 1970. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB8/ch26-01.htm Herrick, Bruce H. Urban Migration and Economic Development in Chile. Cambridge Massachusetts: The M.I.T. Press, 1965. Hinchliffe, Joe. Chilean government to criminalize school seizures. The Santiago Times. Last modified October 3, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22585-chilean-government-tocriminalize-school-seizures ------ Chile announces private university regulator. The Santiago Times. Last modified November 16, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22910-chile-announces-privateuniversity-regulator ------ Chiles student leaders strike back from Paris. The Santiago Times. Last modified October 17, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22692-chiles-student-leadersstrike-back-from-paris ------ Chilean students end symbolic occupations after 6 months. The Santiago Times. Last modified December 22, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/23139-chilean-students-endsymbolic-occupations-after-6-months ------ Chilean students march in Santiago, call for strike next Thursday. The 142

Santiago Times. Last modified September 14, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22473-chiles-students-march-insantiago-call-for-strike-next-thursday ------ Chilean students march in silence. The Santiago Times. Last modified September 11, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22452chilean-students-march-in-silence ------ Chiles students hold first meeting with President Piera. The Santiago Times. Last modified September 4, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22394-chiles-students-hold-firstmeeting-with-president-pinera ------ The Guardian Names Chiles Camila Vallejo as Person of the Year. The Santiago Times. Last modified December 20, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/23110-the-guardian-nameschiles-camila-vallejo-as-person-of-the-year ------ Local officials defy plan to punish Chiles student protestors. The Santiago Times. Last modified November 23, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22962-local-officials-defy-planto-punish-chiles-student-protesters ------ Massive marches across Chile re-invigorate student movement. The Santiago Times. Last modified September 22, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22519-massive-marches-acrosschile-re-invigorate-student-movement ------ Massive protest in Chiles capital ends again in violence. The Santiago Times. Last modified October 19, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22715-massive-protest-in-chilescapital-ends-again-in-violence ------ Massive protest in Chiles capital violently dispersed. The Santiago Times. Last modified September 29, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22570-massive-protest-in-chilescapital-violently-dispersed ------ The new face of Chiles student movement: an extremist shift? The Santiago Times. Last modified December 8, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/23048-the-new-face-of-chilesstudent-movement-an-extremist-shift

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------ Police evict students from Usach in Chiles capital. The Santiago Times. Last modified November 12, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22877-police-evict-studentsfrom-usach-in-chiles-capital ------ Talks between Chilean students and government end in deadlock. The Santiago Times. Last modified October 2, 2011, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22575-talks-between-chileanstudents-and-government-end-in-deadlock ------ Universidad de Chile orders striking students to return to classes. The Santiago Times. Last modified November 2, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22804-universidad-de-chileorders-striking-students-to-return-to-classes Higher Education Finance and Cost Sharing in Chile. University of Buffalo Graduate School of Education. Last modified December 28, 2006. Historia de la UCN. Catholic University of the North 2010. http://www.ucn.cl/sitioDeInteres/?cod=1&codItem=100&codPrincipal=1000 Historia de la Usach. University of Santiago. http://www.usach.cl/index.php?id=6748 Historia. Federico Santa Mara Technical University. http://www.utfsm.cl/universidad/historia.html#rese%C3%B1a Historia. Pontifical Catholic University. http://www.uc.cl/es/la-universidad/historia Historical Outline, University of Chile, http://www.uchile.cl/portal/english-version/presentation/49741/historicaloutline Hobman, Jade. Aysn Social Movement leaders sign agreement with government. The Santiago Times. Last modified March 26, 2012. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/politics/23605-aysen-social-movementleaders-sign-agreement-with-government Hsieh, Chang-Tai and Urquiola, Miguel. The Effects of Generalized School Choice on Achievement and Stratification: Evidence from Chiles Voucher Program. Journal of Public Economics 90, 2006:1477-1503. Inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean: Breaking with History? World Bank,

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2003.http://www.fao.org/righttofood/kc/downloads/vl/docs/inequality%20in% 20latinamerica.pdf In Brief: Students March, Mapuche Pitch, Smog Plan. The Santiago Times. Last modified May 10, 2006. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/other/9081-INBRIEF--STUDENTS-MARCH,-MAPUCHE-PITCH,-SMOG-PLAN Incidentes en centro de Santiago por primera marcha estudiantil del ao. emol.com. Last modified March 15, 2012. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2012/03/15/530972/secundarios-secongregan-en-plaza-italia-pese-a-prohibicion-de-la-intendencia.html Jackson, Giorgio. Inside Chiles Student Movement. CLAS Berkely. Last modified December 7, 2011. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9VOWxL90_ds Klaassen, Roxanne. Bits and Brights. The Santiago Times. Last modified May 11, 2008. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/other/13648-Frei-MontalvaMuseum,-Student-Protest,-Clar%C3%ADn-Case-Update Kim, Eunice. Chiles Camila Vallejo announces congressional candidacy. The Santiago Times. Last modified November 19, 2012. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/politics/25415-chiles-camila-vallejoannounces-congressional-candidacy Klees, Steven J. A Quarter Century of Neoliberal Thinking in Education: Misleading Analyses and Failed Policies. Globalization, Societies and Education, Vol.6, No.4, 2008: 311-348. La Fech. FECH. http://fech.cl/lafech/ La Intendencia Metropolitana cifr en 80 mil los asistentes a la marcha estudiantil. soychile.cl. Last modified June 30, 2011. http://www.soychile.cl/Santiago/Sociedad/2011/06/30/24333/La-IntendenciaMetropolitana-cifro-en-80-mil-los-asistentes-a-la-marcha-estudiantil.aspx La toma del Liceo Narciso Tondreau de Chilln seguir hasta maana. soychile.cl. Last modified June 6, 2011. http://www.soychile.cl/Chillan/Sociedad/2011/06/07/19716/Desde-la-medianoche-se-encuentra-tomado-el-Liceo-Narciso-Tondreau-en-Chillan.aspx Lara, Bernardo et al. The Effectiveness of Private Voucher Education: Evidence From Structural School Switches. Education Evaluation and Policy Analysis 33, no. 2, 2011.

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Larrabure, Manuel and Torchia, Carlos. Our future is not for sale: The Chilean Student Movement Against Neoliberalism. Socialist Project E-Bulletin, no. 542, September 6, 2011. http://www.socialistproject.ca/bullet/542.php Las alumnas de la Escual Espaa se tomaran la calle Roosevelt. soyconcepcin.cl. Last modified May 23, 2011. http://www.soychile.cl/Concepcion/Sociedad/2011/05/23/16642/Las-alumnasde-la-Escuela-Espana-se-tomaron-la-calle-Roosvelt.aspx Lavn propone mesa de trabajo a los estudiantes secundarios. El Mercurio. Last modified June 15, 2011. http://diario.elmercurio.com/detalle/index.asp?id={93d25588-08c4-4e38be9c-f0bc9d141a80} Levidow, Les. Marketizing Higher Education: Neoliberal Strategies and Counter Strategies. The Commoner N. 3, January 2002. Levy, Daniel C. Chilean Universities under the Junta: Regime and Policy. Latin American Research Review, Vol. 21, No.3, 1986. Ley Organica Constitucional De Enseenza, no. 18962. Chilean Ministry of Education, published by Chilean Library of Congress, originally published August 3,1990, last modified September 12, 2009. http://www.leychile.cl/N?i=247551&f=2009-09-12&p Lopez, Andres. Anuncio de reforma a Ed. superior abre debate entre rectores. La Tercera. Last modified June 21, 2010. http://diario.latercera.com/2010/06/21/01/contenido/9_30428_9.shtml Malinowski, Matt. Chamber of Deputies Approves Education Reform Bill. The Santiago Times. Last modified June 19, 2008. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/politics/14000-CHAMBER-OFDEPUTIES-APPROVES-EDUCATION-REFORM-BILL Manning, Katie. Chiles top student federation votes to stay the course. The Santiago Times. Last modified November 14, 2012. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/25397-chiles-top-studentfederation-votes-to-stay-the-course Marcha de la Confech tuvo la convocatoria ms baja del ao. El Mercurio. Last modified December 2, 2011. http://diario.elmercurio.com/detalle/index.asp?id=%7B0404ba09-ecab-40808847-fc43261dce1e%7D

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Marcha estudiantil se toma la Alameda y termina con violentos incidents. El Mercurio. Last modified July 15, 2011. http://diario.elmercurio.com/detalle/index.asp?id={0fc5e32d-1c0f-4df4-b97c28a82860bdae} Mariana Aylwin no justifica movilizacin estudiantil anunciada para maana. El Mercurio. Last modified April 29, 2002. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2002/04/29/84178/mariana-aylwinno-justifica-movilizacion-estudiantil-anunciada-para-manana.html Martnez, Javier and Diaz, Alvaro. Chile: The Great Transformation. Geneva: The United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, 1996. Marshall, Lachlan. Chiles students spread resistance in the neo-liberal laboratory. Solidarity.net, 54. Last modified September, 2011. http://www.solidarity.net.au/39/chiles-students-spread-resistance-in-the-neoliberal-laboratory/ Ms de 100 mil personas participaron de la march estudiantil en Santiago. soychile.cl. Last modified June 30, 2011. http://www.soychile.cl/Santiago/Sociedad/2011/06/30/24149/Los-estudiantessantiaguinos-esperan-superar-los-100-mil-protestantes-en-la-marcha-dehoy.aspx Ms de 20 estudiantes detenidos en marcha callejera. El Mercurio. Last modified October 21, 2004. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2004/10/21/161587/mas-de-20estudiantes-detenidos-en-marcha-callejera.html Ms de 23 mil alumnus se marginaron de movilizacin por pase escolar. El Mercurio. Last modified April 5, 2001. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2001/04/05/51273/mas-de-23-milalumnos-se-marginaron-de-movilizacion-por-pase-escolar.html. Ms de 600 detenidos en march estudiantil. La Nacin. Last modified May 5, 2006. http://www.lanacion.cl/mas-de-600-detenidos-en-marchaestudiantil/noticias/2006-05-04/210030.html Ms de 80 detenidos en nueva protesta estudiantil. El Mercurio. Last modified April 12, 2001. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2001/04/12/52047/mas-de-80detenidos-en-nueva-protesta-estudiantil.html Masiva marcha de estudiantes secundarios se realiza en Lota. soyconcepcin.cl. 147

Last modified May 23, 2011. http://www.soychile.cl/Concepcion/Sociedad/2011/05/23/16710/Masivamarcha-de-estudiantes-secundarios-se-realizo-en-Lota.aspx McEwan, Patrick J. The Effectiveness of Public, Catholic, and Non-Religious Private Schools in Chiles Voucher System. Education Economics, Vol. 9, No.2, 2001. Mehta, Christine. 1,000 Chilean High School Students Protest in Santiago. The Santiago Times. Last modified August 4, 2010. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/19491-1000-chilean-high-schoolstudents-protest-in-santiago Meller, Patricio. The Unidad Popular and the Pinochet Dictatorship: A political Economy Analysis. New York: St. Martins Press LLC, 2000. Mil estudiantes detenidos en protesta en Chile. infobae.com. Last modified May 11, 2006. http://www.infobae.com/notas/nota.php?Idx=254323&IdxSeccion=1 MINEDUC llama a escolares a mantener dilogo y cuestiona a profesores. La Nacin. Last modified May 8, 2006. http://www.lanacion.cl/mineduc-llama-aescolares-a-mantener-dialogo-y-cuestiona-a-profesores/noticias/2006-0508/153413.html Ministra Aylwin comprende impaciencia de escolares por retraso de pases. El Mercurio. Last modified November 9, 2000. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2000/11/09/37838/ministra-aylwincomprende-impaciencia-de-escolares-por-retraso-de-pases.html Ministra de Educacin: Movilizaciones no sirven. El Mercurio. Last modified May 28, 2001. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2001/05/28/56063/ministrade-educacion-movilizaciones-no-sirven.html Ministro de educacin descart pasa escolar gratuito para estudiantes secundarios. La Nacin. Last modified May 9, 2006. http://www.lanacion.cl/ministro-deeducacion-descarto-pase-escolar-gratuito-para-estudiantessecundarios/noticias/2006-05-09/144545.html Minuto a minute: Emplazan a encapuchados a monstrar el rostro. emol.com. Last modified August 18, 2011. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2011/08/18/498409/minuto-a-minutoemplazan-a-encapuchados-a-mostrar-el-rostro-fin.html Mizala, Alejandra and Torche, Florencia. Bringing the Schools Back in: The 148

Stratification of Educational Achievement in the Chilean Voucher System. International Journal of Educational Development, 32, 2012. Molina Tapia, Alexis. Profesores anuncian paro de 24 horas contra LGE. El Mercurio de Antofagasta. Last modified March 18, 2009. http://www.mercurioantofagasta.cl/prontus4_noticias/site/artic/20090318/pags /20090318010504.html Muoz, Heraldo. The Dictators Shadow: Life Under Augusto Pinochet. New York: Basic Books, 2008. Noyce, Chris. Bits and Brights: Students Take Over School, Car Cloning. The Santiago Times. Last modified June 8, 2009.
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modified November 17, 2004. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2004/11/17/164278/120-detenidos-enprotesta-estudiantil-contra-cumbre-apec.html Oppenheim, Lois Hecht. Politics in Chile: Socialism, Authoritarianism, and Market Democracy. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 2007. Paro Nacional minute a minute. El Mercurio. Last modified August 13, 2003. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2003/08/13/120074/paro-nacionalminuto-a-minuto.html Parry, Taryn Rounds. Achieving Balance in Decentralization: A Case Study of Education Decentralization in Chile. World Development 25, no. 2, 1997. Pavez, Katerinne. Manifestacin de estudiantes secundarios dej ms de mil detenidos en todo el pas. La Nacin. Last modified May 11, 2006. http://www.lanacion.cl/manifestacion-de-estudiantes-secundarios-dejo-masde-mil-detenidos-en-todo-el-pais/noticias/2006-05-10/203937.html Peary, Yanni. In Brief: Lost, Student Strike, Copper Theft on the Rise. The Santiago Times. Last modified March 23, 2007. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/other/11066-IN-BRIEF--LOST,STUDENT-STRIKE,-COPPER-THEFT-ON-THE-RISE Pedigo, David. Chilean students continue pressuring government. The Santiago Times. Last modified May 16, 2012. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/23818-chilean-studentmovement-carries-out-second-march-of-the-year ------ Chiles universities lower admissions standards after rough year. The Santiago Times. Last modified January 17, 2012. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/23247-chiles-universities-loweradmissions-standards-after-rough-year ------ Interview: Chiles Revolucin Deomcrtica. The Santiago Times. Last modified January 19, 2012. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/23266-interview-chilesrevolucion-democratica ------ Universidad de Chile students throw weight behind school occupation. The Santiago Times. Last modified August 21, 2012. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/25060-universidad-de-chilestudents-throw-weight-behind-school-occupation

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Peirano, Claudia and Vargas, Jaime. Private Schools with Public Financing in Chile. in Private Education and Public Policy in Latin America. ed. Laurence Wolff et al. Washington D.C.: Partnership for Education Revitalization in the Americas, 2005. Prez, Brbara. Los estudiantes marchan en Copiap. soychile.cl. Last modified June 1, 2011. http://www.soychile.cl/Copiapo/Sociedad/2011/06/01/18523/Los-estudiantesmarchan-en-Copiapo.aspx Peterson, Brittany. Chilean Students Demand Education Reform. The Nation. Last modified June 29, 2012. http://www.thenation.com/blog/168676/chileanstudents-demand-education-reform# Piera impulse cambios en la Constitucin que garanticen una educacin de calidad. El Mercurio. Last modified August 1, 2011. http://diario.elmercurio.com/detalle/index.asp?id={987a1297-f571-4828894c-e8588270fa3b} Piera, Sebastin. Cadena Nacional de Radio y Telievision: President Piera anuncio Gran Acuerdo Nacional por la Educacion. July 5, 2011. http://www.gob.cl/destacados/2011/07/05/cadena-nacional-de-radio-ytelevision-presidente-pinera-anuncio-gran-acuerdo-nacional-por-laeducaci.htm Piera se rene con ministro Bulnes y comit polto para afinar agenda educacional. El Mercurio. Last modified August 16, 2011. http://diario.elmercurio.com/detalle/index.asp?id={660eeb5a-b0a5-4759a981-1923a4c4cb1b} Pinochet Arrives in Chile. BBC. Last modified March 3, 2000. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/664514.stm Polticas y propuestas de accin para el desarrollo de la educacin Chilena: Gobierno propone 21 medidas para alcanzar pacto en educacin. Ministerio de Educacin, Gobierno de Chile. August 1, 2011. http://www.mineduc.cl/index2.php?id_portal=1&id_seccion=10&id_contenid o=15546 Pollan, Hilary. The Chilean Winter: Student Movements and Higher Education Reform in Chile. Mount Holyoke College, B.A. thesis in Sociology and Anthropology Departments, 2012. Primeras Carreras. University of Concepcin. Last Modified 2011. 151

http://www.udec.cl/pexterno/node/164?q=node/185 Protesta de estudiantes frente al Ministerio de Educacin. El Mercurio. Last modified April 28, 2004. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2004/04/28/146220/protesta-deestudiantes-frente-al-ministerio-de-educacion.html Protesta de estudiantes secundarios por pase escolar. El Mercurio. Last modified November 3, 2000. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2000/11/03/37264/protesta-deestudiantes-secundarios-por-pase-escolar.html Protesta estudiantil deja cerca de 180 detenidos en Santiago. El Mercurio Online. Last modified June 12, 2008. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2008/06/12/308349/protestaestudiantil-deja-cerca-de-180-detenidos-en-santiago.html Protesta estudiantil en Santiago deja saldo de 292 detenidos. El Mercurio Online. Last modified June 18, 2008. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2008/06/18/309200/protestaestudiantil--en-santiago-deja-saldo-de-292-detenidos.html Protesta estudiantil finaliz tras intervencin de Carabineros. El Mercurio.Last modified April 30, 2002. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2002/04/30/84225/protestaestudiantil-finalizo-tras-intervencion-de-carabineros.html Protesta estudiantil termina con ms de una veintena de detenidos en Santiago. El Mercurio Online. Last modified April 28, 2010. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2010/04/28/410239/protestaestudiantil-termina-con-mas-de-una-veintena-de-detenidos-en-santiago.html Protestas en Chile dejan al menos seis heridos. Los Tiempos. Last modified April 3, 2009.http://www.lostiempos.com/diario/actualidad/internacional/20090403/pr o%C2%ADtes%C2%ADtas-en-chi%C2%ADle-de%C2%ADjan-alme%C2%ADnos-seis_1225_2055.html Quines Somos. CONFECh. http://confech.wordpress.com/quienes-somos/ Randall, Ian Anthony. In Chile, Explaining Massive Protests Entails Remembering the Past.Dissent 58, no. 4, 2011: 15-21 Rector, John Lawrence. The History of Chile. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2003.

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Reel, Monte and Smith, J.Y. A Chilean Dictators Dark Legacy. The Washington Post. Last modified December 11, 2006. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2006/12/10/AR2006121000302.html Reforma a la educacin superior: Lavn detall propuesta a rectores de Ues tradicionales. La Segunda. Last modified May 26, 2011. http://www.lasegunda.com/Noticias/Nacional/2011/05/650821/Reforma-a-laeducacion-superior-Lavin-detallo-propuesta-a-rectores-de-Ues-tradicionales Rnique, Gerardo. Latin America: The New Neoliberalism and Popular Mobilization. Socialism and Democracy 2, no. 3, 2009. Roberts, Jessica. Students Not Invited to Sign Education Agreement. The Santiago Times. Last modified November 14, 2077. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/politics/12247-STUDENTS-NOTINVITED-TO-SIGN-EDUCATION-AGREEMENT Rohter, Larry. A Leader Making Peace With Chiles Past. The New York Times. Last modified January 16, 2006. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/01/16/international/americas/16winner.html?pa gewanted=1&_r=1&ref=chile Sadurni, Sumy. Chilean police to be sanctioned after reports of abuse. The Santiago Times. Last modified August 30, 2012. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/human-rights-a-law/25099-chilean-policeto-be-sanctioned-after-reports-of-abuse Salinas, Daniel and Fraser, Pablo. Educational Opportunity and Contentious Politics: The 2011 Student Movement. Berkely Review of Education, 3(1) 2012: 17-47. Salazar, Paulina. 11 Universidades Rechazan la Propuesta Educativa del Gobierno. La Tercera. Last modified March 8, 2011. http://latercera.com/noticia/educacion/2011/08/657-383956-9-11universidades-rechazan-la-propuesta-educativa-del-gobierno.shtml Schneider, Benjamin. Chiles High School Students Protest Education Policy. The Santiago Times. Last modified June 8, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/21670-chiles-high-schoolstudents-protest-education-policy ------ Chiles student protests stretch beyond the streets of Santiago. The Santiago Times. Last modified August 10, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22194-chiles-student-protestsstretch-beyond-the-streets-of-santiago 153

Secundarios convocan a movilacion nacional para el 10 de Mayo. La Nacin. Last modified May 8, 2006. http://www.lanacion.cl/secundarios-convocan-amovilizacion-nacional-para-el-10-de-mayo/noticias/2006-05-07/190048.html Secundarios se integran a mesa de dilogo y Girardi pone condiciones al Gobierno. El Mercurio. Last modified August 15, 2011. http://diario.elmercurio.com/detalle/index.asp?id={f1dc3be6-7930-4d648e61-5bcd30862b3c} Seplveda, Orlando. Biggest Mass Movement Since Pinochet: Chilean Students Launch Mass Protests. International Socialist Review. Issue 49, September October 2006. http://www.isreview.org/issues/49/chilestudents.shtml SEREMI de educacin acusa manipulacin poltica de estudiantes secundarios. La Nacin. Last modified May 9, 2006. http://www.lanacion.cl/seremi-deeducacion-acusa-manipulacion-politica-de-estudiantessecundarios/noticias/2006-05-08/203304.html Seremi de Educacin: 80% de ausentismo a clases por el paro estudiantil. El Mercurio. Last modified April 9, 2001. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2001/04/09/51656/seremi-deeducacion-80-de-ausentismo-a-clases-por-el-paro-estudiantil.html Setterfield, Cate. Chiles Bachelet Sinks Her Teeth Into Education Reform. Worldpress.org. Last modified April 13, 2007. http://www.worldpress.org/Americas/2752.cfm#down ------ Chiles Public Schools Fail to Make the Grade. The Santiago Times. Last modified January 9, 2007. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/other/10429CHILE%E2%80%99S-PUBLIC-SCHOOLS-FAIL-TO-MAKE-THE-GRADE ------ Chiles Student Movement Crumbles as Leading Schools Pull Out. The Santiago Times. Last modified April 30, 2007. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/11387-CHILE%E2%80%99SSTUDENT-MOVEMENT-CRUMBLES-AS-LEADING-SCHOOLS-PULLOUT ------ Chiles Transantiago: Government Pays Up, Students Protest. The Santiago Times. Last modified April 4, 2007. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/transportation/11190-chiles-transantiagogovernment-pays-up-students-protest ------ Chile Goes Back to School: Transantiago Faces its First Huge Test. The 154

Santiago Times. Last modified February 24, 2007. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/transportation/10827-chile-goes-back-toschool-transantiago-faces-its-first-huge-test ------ Education Reform in Chile: New Debate Over Discrimination in Schools. The Santiago Times. Last modified April 5, 2007. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/11203-EDUCATION-REFORMIN-CHILE--NEW-DEBATE-OVER-DISCRIMINATION-IN-SCHOOLS ------ In Brief: Students to March in March, Bachelets Vacation, Gonzalez Beats Hewitt. The Santiago Times. Last modified January 22, 2007. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/other/10554-IN-BRIEF--STUDENTS-TOMARCH-IN-MARCH,-BACHELET%E2%80%99S-VACATION,GONZALEZ-BEATS-HEWITT ------ PSU Results: Chiles Student Leaders Limp Through. The Santiago Times. Last modified January 8, 2007. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/10422-PSU-RESULTS-CHILE%E2%80%99S-STUDENT-LEADERS-LIMP-THROUGH ------ Student Protests Kick off in Chiles Region VII. The Santiago Times. Last modified March 6, 2007. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/10920STUDENT-PROTESTS-KICK-OFF-IN-CHILE%E2%80%99S-REGION-VII ------ Student Spokesperson: Well take a radical stance on Transantiago. The Santiago Times. Last modified February 26, 2007. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/other/10845-STUDENTSPOKESPERSON--%E2%80%9CWE%E2%80%99LL-TAKE-ARADICAL-STANCE-ON-TRANSANTIAGO%E2%80%9D ------ Tansantiago: The Final Countdown. The Santiago Times. Last modified February 25, 2007. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/transportation/10833transantiago-the-final-countdown Siekierska, Alicia. Bachelet speaks out, calls for new Chilean constitution. The Santiago Times. April 11, 2013. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/politics/25996-bachelet-speaks-out-callsfor-new-chilean-constitution Sigmund, Paul E. The Overthrow of Allende and the Politics of Chile, 1964-1976. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1977. Silva, Eduardo. The Winter Chilean Students Said, Enough! Mobilizing Ideas. Last

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modified May 2, 2012. http://mobilizingideas.wordpress.com/2012/05/02/thewinter-chilean-students-said-enough/ Silva, Patricio. In the Name of Reason: Technocrats and Politics in Chile. Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University, 2008. Silva, Sergio. Los estudiantes de la ULA en Osorno se tomaron la Ruta 215. soychile.cl. Last modified July 12, 2011. http://www.soychile.cl/Osorno/Sociedad/2011/07/12/26361/Los-estudiantesde-la-ULA-en-Osorno-se-tomaron-la-Ruta-215.aspx Simon, Zach. Chileans March for University Reform. The Santiago Times. Last modified May 13, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/21454chileans-march-for-university#linktext_ ------ Chileans rally in support of education reforms. The Santiago Times. Last modified August 21, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22274-chileans-rally-in-supportof-education-%20reforms ------ Chiles Piera makes sweeping cabinet changes. The Santiago Times. Last modified July 18, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/politics/21999chiles-pinera-makes-sweeping-cabinet-changes ------ Chiles president calls education a consumer good. The Santiago Times. Last modified July 20, 2011. http://santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/22018chiles-president-calls-education-a-consumer-good ------ Chiles Universities Strike, Seek More Government Support. The Santiago Times. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/21453-chiles-universitiesstrike ------ Protestors Unite Before Chiles State of the Union Address. The Santiago Times. Last modified May 20, 2011. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/politics/21522-protesters-unite-before Somma, Nicols M. The Chilean Student Movement of 2011-2012: Challenging the Marketization of Education. Interface 4(2), November 2012: 296-309. Sotolongo, Jen and Serinsky, Leah. High School Students Organize Wednesday Strike. The Santiago Times. Last modified May, 8, 2006. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/other/9068-IN-BRIEF--BACHELET-,MOTHER%E2%80%99S-DAY-MONEY,-STUDENTS-STRIKE,-ANDDIGITAL-NEWS, 156

Spooner, Mary Helen. The Generals Slow Retreat: Chile After Pinochet. Berkely: University of California Press, 2011. Taylor, Marcus. From Pinochet to the Third Way: Neoliberalism and Social Transformation in Chile. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Pluto Press, 2006. Toma de la Seremi de Educacin termin con 16 detenidos. El Mercurio Online. Last modified March 10, 2008, http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2008/03/10/295699/toma-de-laseremi-de-educacion-termino-con-16-detenidos.html Transportes estudiar aumentar cantidad de viajes diario con pase escolar. La Nacin. Last modified May 15, 2006. http://www.lanacion.cl/transportesestudiara-aumentar-cantidad-de-viajes-diarios-con-pase-escolar/noticias/200605-15/155051.html Tras marcha que convoc a 80 mil personas, estudiantes dicen que seguirn movilizados. El Mercurio. Last modified June 17, 2011. http://diario.elmercurio.com/detalle/index.asp?id={1aa330e4-26cd-41618732-51a7284f80d4} Tras fin de la marcha por Concepcin los dirigentes adelantan nuevas movilizaciones. soychile.cl. Last modified June 1, 2011. http://www.soychile.cl/Concepcion/Sociedad/2011/06/01/18599/Tras-fin-dela-marcha-por-Concepcion-los-dirigentes-adelantan-nuevasmovilizaciones.aspx Tullo, Michelle. In climactic vote, Chiles congress passes controversial tax reform. The Santiago Times. Last modified September 4, 2012. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/politics/25124-in-climactic-vote-chilescongress-passes-controversial-tax-reform Unas 1.000 ciudades en ms de 80 pases se sumarn a protesta de indignados. emol.com. Last modified October 14, 2011. http://www.emol.com/noticias/internacional/2011/10/14/507991/unas-1000ciudades-en-mas-de-80-paises-se-sumaran-a-protesta-de-indignados.html Universidades del pas se adhieren a protesta nacional por recursos. El Mercurio. Last modified June 22, 2000. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2000/06/22/24293/universidades-delpais-se-adhieren-a-protesta-nacional-por-recursos.html Universitarios acuerdan aceptar dilogo con el Presidente y asistirn el martes a La 157

Moneda. El Mercurio. Last modified August 28, 2011. http://diario.elmercurio.com/detalle/index.asp?id={de1b63c2-8deb-4a42-8fe3d3cf97149fd3} Universitarios marcharn igual pese a negative de la intendencia. El Mercurio. Last modified May 16, 2001. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2001/05/16/55019/universitariosmarcharan-igual-pese-a-negativa-de-la-intendencia.html Updegrove, Graham. Zaldivar Upset with Student Demonstrations. The Santiago Times. Last modified May 11, 2006. http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/education/9095-ZALD%C3%8DVARUPSET-WITH-STUDENT-DEMONSTRATIONS Valds, Juan Gabriel. Pinochets Economists. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Valenzeula, J. Samuel. The Society and Its Environment. Chile: A Country Study, edited by Rex A. Hudson, Washington D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, 1994. http://countrystudies.us/chile/ Vallejo Dowling, Camila. Camila Vallejo Dowling Blog. Last modified March 31, 2013. http://camilavallejodowling.blogspot.com/ (accessed April 4, 2013). Vallejo llam a marchar este jueves desde Plaza Italia en Santiago. La Nacin. Last modified September 28, 2011. http://www.lanacion.cl/vallejo-llamo-amarchar-este-jueves-desde-plaza-italia-en-santiago/noticias/2011-0928/101414.html Vallejos Seguel, Leonardo. Zalaquett y cita clave con estudiantes: Si no hay dilogo, habr desalojos. emol.com. Last modified August 14, 2012. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2012/08/13/555516/alcalde-zalaquetty-cita-clave-con-estudiantes-si-no-hay-dialogo-habra-desalojos.html Vegas, Emiliana. School Choice, Student Performance, and Teacher and School Characteristics: The Chilean Case. The World Bank Development Research Group Working Papers. April, 2002. Vicepresidente: Disturbios estudiantiles afectan imagen del pas. El Mercurio. Last modified May 11, 2012. http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2006/05/11/218719/vicepresidentedisturbios-estudiantiles-afectan-imagen-del-pais.html Vidal, Milton J. The Student Movement in Chile. Global Dialogue 2(1), 2012. 158

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