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Leadership

Concepts and Principles Aurora Dawn 2014

Table of Contents

1. What is a Leader? 2. Types of Leaders and Leadership Authoritative-Dictatorship Various other styles Servant Leadership 3. Do you have to be born a leader, to be a leader? 4. Leadership and Character

1. What is a Leader? To each of us we will have our own definition. Thus to each of us we may see one person as a leader, and another not. A leader is more than someone who has followers. Example; many have a twitter, and many followers, or a FB, and have many followers. This does not make someone a leader. Anyone can be anything, and anyone they choose to be online. A leader has been described as one who is a guide, like a tour guide, etc. Anyone can learn to give directions. There is also a difference in manger, and leader. Not all managers are leaders. What is a Leader? Leadership has been described as "a process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task" A Leader is one who makes a positive impact, influence on others around them. A Leader is one who inspires others to achieve goals. A Leader does not have to have a pulpit, or microphone to influence, or have a great impact. A good leader is one who is not attention seeking for his or her own glory.

A leader is best when people barely know he /she exists, when his work is done, his aim fulfilled, they will say: we did it ourselves..
Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent.

Another popular definition of Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal (Northouse's (2007, p3). The U.S. military has studied leadership in depth. One of their definitions is a process by which a soldier influences others to accomplish a mission (U.S. Army, 1983). Note that all three definitions have one process in common a person influences others to get something accomplished

Bass' theory of leadership states that there are three basic ways to explain how people become leaders (Stogdill, 1989; Bass, 1990). The first two explain the leadership development for a small number of

people, while the third one is the dominant theory today. These theories are: Some personality traits may lead people naturally into leadership roles. This is the Trait Theory. A crisis or important event may cause a person to rise to the occasion, which brings out extraordinary leadership qualities in an ordinary person. This is the Great Events Theory. People can choose to become leaders. People can learn leadership skills. This is the Transformational or Process Leadership Theory. It is the most widely accepted theory today and the premise on which this leadership guide is based. 2. Types of Leaders There are various types of leaders, and leadership. Dictatorial Style The leader or manager using this style operates like a dictator. He or she makes all the decisions about what, where, when, why, how things are done, and who will do them. Employees failing to following directions are usually severly disciplined or given cause for early retirement (as recently happened to a friend of mine). The dictatorial leader traits are: all decision-making power is theirs, unrealistic in demands, uses excessive discipline and punishment, does not allow others to question decisions or authority A more passive style of this is: all decision-making power is theirs, unrealistic demands clouded in humor, subtle forms of discipline and

punishment, allows questions about decisions (on the surface) but ignores them, pretends to be your friend only to get their way Authoritative Style Because of the volatile nature of the dictatorial style, more leaders and managers opt for the authoritative style. The authoritative leader traits are: seldom lets others make decisions, feels he/she is the most qualified and experienced, considers his/her views to be most valid, lacks confidence in others abilities, critical of differing opinions, rarely gives recognition, is easily offended, uses others for his/her benefit, action oriented, highly comtetitive The biggst weakness of this style is the failure to recognize the skills and abilities within other people. They are often denied opportunities to use or exhibit their skills in decision-making venues. Yet, the greatest strength of this style is to produce action when it is needed. Below are various styles I found. 1. Charismatic The Icon: Oprah Winfrey Known all over the word by her first name alone, picks a book to read and makes it a bestseller overnight, runs her own television network, and has more than 14 million Twitter followers. Her word can move the stock market and social issues for the better.

Behaviors Influences others through power of personality Acts energetically, motivating others to move forward Inspires passion May seem to believe more in self than in the team When to Use It To spur others to action To expand an organization's position in the marketplace To raise team morale Impact on Others Can create risk that a project or group will flounder if leader leaves Leader's feeling of invincibility can ruin a team by taking on too much risk Team success seen as directly connected to the leader's presence 2. Innovative The Icon: Richard Branson Launched his first business at 16, founder of Virgin Group, comprising more than 400 companies in fields ranging from music to space tourism. He recently described his philosophy to Inc. magazine: "Dream big by setting yourself seemingly impossible challenges. You then have to catch up with them." Behaviors Grasps the entire situation and goes beyond the usual course of action

Can see what is not working and brings new thinking and action into play When to Use It To break open entrenched, intractable issues To create a work climate for others to apply innovative thinking to solve problems, develop new products and services Impact on Others Risk taking is increased for all Failures don't impede progress Team gains job satisfaction and enjoyment Atmosphere of respect for others' ideas is present Leadership in Action "My best leadership moments have all occurred when I realized I did not have to lead anymore. Leadership is not always about being in front. Sometimes, it is about being comfortable enough in your skin to lead from the rear and let others shine."Velma Hart, FASAE, CAE, chief financial officer, Thurgood Marshall College Fund "The best leadership moments are the ones that I don't know about. They happen when someone on the staff or volunteer team makes the right decision that solves a problem, or delights a member, or inspires an idea, or advances our mission. The ultimate measure of a leader is what happens in your absence."Gary A. LaBranche, FASAE, CAE, president and CEO, Association for Corporate Growth "What comes naturally to me is the desire to connect ideas, experiences, stories, efforts, and people. Sharing relevant information at opportune times in ways that enhance outcomes is energizing.

Communication skills, timing, including all stakeholders, and egofree interactions are keys to successful leadership."Susan Gorin, CAE, executive director, National Association of School Psychologists 3. Command and Control The Icon: Tom Coughlin Controversial head coach of the New York Giants, a stern taskmaster and disciplinarian who learned to adapt his leadership style to improve his relationships with his team but never lost sight of his goal: winning Super Bowls. Behaviors Follows the rules and expects others to do the same When to Use It In situations of real urgency with no time for discussion When safety is at stake In critical situations involving financial, legal, or HR issues In meeting inflexible deadlines Demands immediate compliance Engages in top-down interactions Is the sole decision maker Impact on Others If used too much, feels restrictive and limits others' ability to develop their own leadership skills Others have little chance to debrief what was learned before next encounter with leader

4. Laissez-Faire The Icon: Donna Karan Founder of DKNY, built an international fashion empire based on wide appeal to both women and men. Although she has spent less time creating her own designs since 2002, her vision lives on in the work of other designers, inspired by her leadership. Behaviors Knows what is happening but not directly involved in it Trusts others to keep their word Monitors performance, gives feedback regularly When to Use It When the team is working in multiple locations or remotely When a project, under multiple leaders, must come together by a specific date To get quick results from a highly cohesive team Impact on Others Effective when team is skilled, experienced, and self-directed in use of time and resources Autonomy of team members leads to high job satisfaction and increased productivity 5. Pace Setter The Icon: Jeff Bezos

Founder of Amazon, set the pace for the boom in e-commerce by creating a transactional interface that every other online merchant copiedthe same people who are now following him to the cloud. Behaviors Sets high performance standards for self and the group Epitomizes the behavior sought from others When to Use It When staff are self-motivated and highly skilled, able to embrace new projects and move with speed When action is key and results are critical Impact on Others Cannot be sustained too long, as staff may "burn out" from demanding pace Results delivered at a speed staff can't always keep up with 6. Servant The Icon: Herb Kelleher Cofounder and former CEO of Southwest Airlines, famously said "the business of business is people" and created a company culture that reflects that philosophy. He once took an interior office with no windows rather than encourage the traditional view of an office as a status symbol. Behaviors Puts service to others before self-interest

Includes the whole team in decision making Provides tools to get the job done Stays out of limelight, lets team accept credit for results When to Use It When leader is elected to a team, organization, committee, or community When anyone, at any level of the group, meets the needs of the team Impact on Others Organizations with these leaders often seen on "best places to work" list Can create a positive culture and lead to high morale Ill-suited if situation calls for quick decisions or meeting tight deadlines 7. Situational The Icon: Pat Summitt Former head coach of the University of Tennessee women's basketball team, holds the record as the all-time winningest coach in NCAA history. Even as new players joined her team each year, she maintained a winning record (more than 1,000 victories and eight national championships over 38 years) by adapting her coaching to her young players' skills and needs. Behaviors Links behavior with group's readiness Includes being directing and supportive, while empowering and coaching

When to Use It Where ongoing procedures need refinement, reinvention, or retirement Impact on Others Can be confusing if behavior changes unpredictably and too often Can reduce uncertainty as leader adapts behavior appropriately 8. Transformational The Icons: Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield Turned a $12,000 investment and a correspondence course on ice cream making into a beloved international treat. They adopted a radical business philosophy dedicated to social responsibility and created a business model that allowed members of their customer community to become stockholders. Behaviors Expects team to transform even when it's uncomfortable Counts on everyone giving their best Serves as a role model for all involved When to Use It To encourage the group to pursue innovative and creative ideas and actions To motivate the group by strengthening team optimism, enthusiasm, and commitment Impact on Others

Can lead to high productivity and engagement from all team members Team needs detailed-oriented people to ensure scheduled work is done Rhea Blanken, FASAE, is president of Results Technology, Inc., in Bethesda, Maryland. Servant Leadership I happen to like best. Today we do not like the word, servant. We know in history America had slaves, and too many abused them. In ancient times in Roman a Servant was part of the family, had respect, had some rights. They often were treated very well. Slaves not too well. Yes there is a difference in being a slave, and a servant. Jesus came to serve, not be served. He taught his disciples to be the greatestes, you must be willing to be the least. Jesus washed his disciples feet. How many leaders today would do a foot washing Back then foot washing was the servants, and slaves job. Jesus taught also by example, living it. He set, lived an example for all to follow. A great article I found. This article first appeared in the Spring/Summer 2006 edition of In Touch magazine. For reprint permission contact Tim Geddert. By Tim Geddert, Lori James and Ron Toews The first followers of Jesus assumed that leadership meant power and glory, positions of honor. One day two of them explicitly requested positions of authority at Jesus' left and right. Jesus used the occasion to clarify to the disciples that greatness is not defined as lording it over others but as serving others, For even the Son of Man came not

to be served but to serve. . . (Mark 10:45). Jesus modeled the style of leadership he taught when he washed the disciples' feet and called them to play the servant role for others (John 13:12-17). If the term servant-leadership had been born in reflection on the nature of Christian ministry, that should not have surprised us. In fact, however, the term originated elsewhere. The term servant-leadership finds its genesis in the North American marketplace of the late 1960s and early 1970s. Earlier pressures in the marketplace were met by tighter management, more demands on employees, stronger unions, more clearly defined jobs, and stiffer regulations, all of which resulted in greater output and a greater share of the global marketplace. These measures, however, were no longer having their intended effect. Mechanistic systems and hierarchical institutions were not thriving. Dissatisfaction with traditional command-and-control leadership was rampant. Robert Greenleaf and George McGregor Burns, among others, suggested the need for a new kind of leadership that would place greater value on autonomy and human dignity. The personal integration of higher order complex values was needed, creating environments with self-initiating and self-responsible leaders and followers. The phrase that eventually came to mark the paradigm shift was servant-leadership. Servant-leadership, as Greenleaf and others defined it, involves interdependent governance by teams of peers who reach shared decisions based on agreed-upon values. Servant-leaders transform independence into interdependence, so that working within narrow

silos of responsibility gives way to working in interdisciplinary environments. Servant-leaders understand that trust and appropriate intimacy encourage synergy and inspiration. This model became common place in many organizations. Not just a type of leadership While the phrase servant leadership found its way into the vocabulary of the Christian community, it is not widely understood. It is typically thought of as nothing more than a particular style of leadershipthat is, at points one is or ought to be a (non-servant) leader, whereas at other points one is or ought to be a servant leader; the context determines the requisite kind of leadership. Christian leaders often make the mistake of dropping the hyphen, making servant an adjective, not a noun. The result of this error gives license to two kinds of leadership: one a dominant, get-things-done kind of leadership, and the other a submissive, passive, acquiescing leadership. However, inherent in the phrase servant-leadership is an

understanding that presents the words as connected, with equal weight. Put this way, servant-leadership is a culture-shaping belief that invites relationships, community, interdependence, caring, and risk-taking. It creates environments unfettered by rigid formal structures, distributing power, authority, and accountability. Servant-leadership is more that just an attitude; it is a form of radical discipleship, a choice to be made in terms of how we live our lives based on the model of Jesus Christ in relationship both to God and others. In other words, it is a pervasive mindset that guides one in terms of how they live all aspects of their lives, regardless of whether or not they are in a formal leadership role.

What does it look like? In a community-based environment, servant-leaders investigate, listen, and guide community members. They promote commitment and are conscious of community surroundings such as values-based factors of the past, present, and future. The structures of a servantleadership environment are non-hierarchical, warm, inclusive, and instrumental; we and us is the norm, not I or my. Ownership of the organizations mission, vision and values by everyone in the organization promotes responsibility and accountability. Communication is open and honest, and is marked by a sincere desire to understand colleagues. A commitment to employee competence is achieved through an institutional commitment to lifelong learning. Conflict is invited and expected in servant-leadership environments, with a view to continual personal and organizational improvement. The preceding paragraph could apply in any social or business setting. Yet in the Christian church additional factors come into play. The primary focus of servant-leadership involves the equipping of Gods people for works of service, so that the body of Christ may be built up (Eph. 4:12). Thus Christ, the head of the Church, and the entire church body is served in the act of providing leadership. Servant-leadership is conscious of the fact that all people in the church (leaders no less than all other participants) stand at a level place at the foot of the cross. Jesus is Lord of the Church; we submit mutually to Jesus' Lordship just as Jesus modeled submission to his Father. Servant-leadership from a biblical perspective models relationships that are free from abuse of power, free from coercion, and are based in mutual respect for the other.

The servant-leader does not view him/herself as the final authority, the one with all the answers. Rather a leader has the ability to ask thought-provoking questions, and to encourage followers' growth through the discovery process of seeking out answers and solutions to their problems/questions. Servant-leaders of the church do not demand compliance or motivate through guilt. They model service in the body and they aim to practice kindness and patience as they motivate and encourage others. Positions of leadership involve the granting of authority and thus also influence and power. Servant-leaders recognize that they have been entrusted with authority by Christ and by the church, and that this authority can be removed if it is used for personal benefit or practiced in a way that harms others. The servant-leader models radical followership in his/her relationship with God to those whom he/she is leading. Thus, the leader does not flaunt his/her position or authority, but rather seeks to invest him/herself into the lives of other followers in radical discipleship so that as a community, they may be challenged to grow to be more like Christ. One way to identify servant-leaders is by their ability and willingness to demonstrate a significant investment into the lives of those who are following their leadership, in the form of mentoring, discipleship, and education. Another way to identify servant-leaders is when their goals and agendas are not concerned about personal gain, success, notoriety, or public recognition.

Servant-leadership will not always look the same. Its form will vary according to the context in which it is practiced; the personalities, experience and giftedness of the leaders; and the needs of the Christian community. While leadership skills can be taught, choosing to live ones life as a servant-leader cannot be forced or coerced. In the end, as Max DePree says, servant-leadership is a calling to design, build, and serve inclusive communities by liberating human spirit and potential ("Servant-Leadership: Three Things Necessary," Focus on Leadership (Wiley and Sons, 2001)). Tim Geddert, Ph.D., is professor of New Testament at Fresno Pacific Biblical Seminary. Lori James is registrar. Ron Toews is assistant professor of leadership studies at the Langley, B.C. campus.

3. Do you have to be born a Leader, to be a Leader? No. If we understand what true leadership is, than no. Leaders are made. They are made in the crucible of life.

If I had not been in prison, I would not have been able to achieve the most difficult task in my life, and that is changing yourself. Nelson Mandella
What is a crucible? A crucible is a container that can withstand very high temperatures and is used for metal, glass, and pigment production as well as a number of modern laboratory processes It is the fires where gold, and silver are melted, and fashioned. Being a Leader is about having character as well. Character development is a lifelong process in the crucible. Leaders are not perfect, but know how to fail and handle it. Leaders are honest. If we are open, teachable, humble, we can choose to allow adversity to mold us us and fashion us for good, and to become an inspiration.

4. Character

Today look at our Government, and we shall see much of the problems are the result we have put in people in leadership positions who for many lack real character. Leadership - Character and Traits Managers are people who do things right, while leaders are people who do the right thing. - Warren Bennis, Ph.D. "On Becoming a Leader" Article below belongs to http://www.depts.ttu.edu/aged/leadership/leadchr.htm "Waste no time arguing what a good man should be. Be one." - Marcus Aurelius "Courage - not complacency - is our need today. Leadership not salesmanship." - John F. Kennedy Building Excellence

Leaders do not command excellence, they build excellence. Excellence is "being all you can be" within the bounds of doing what is right for your organization. To reach excellence you must first be a leader of character. You must do everything you are supposed to do. An organizations will not achieve excellence by figuring out where it wants want to go, then having leaders do whatever they have to in order to get the job done, and hope that along the way those leaders acted with good character. That way is backwards. Pursuing excellence should not be confused with accomplishing a job or task. When you do planning, you do it by backwards planning. But you do not achieve excellence by backwards planning. Excellence starts with leaders of character who engage in the entire process of leadership. And the first process is being a person of honorable character. Character develops over time. Many think that much of character is formed early in life. However, nobody knows exactly how much or how early character develops. But, it is safe to claim that character does not change quickly. A person's observable behavior is an indication of her character. This behavior can be strong or weak, good or bad. A person with strong character shows drive, energy, determination, self-discipline, willpower, and nerve. She sees what she wants and goes after it. She attracts followers. On the other hand, a person with weak character shows none of these traits. She does not know what she wants. Her traits are disorganized, she vacillates and is inconsistent. She will attract no followers. A strong person can be good or bad. A gang leader is an example of a strong person with a bad character, while an outstanding community leader is one with both strong and good characteristics. An organization needs leaders with strong and good characteristics,

people who will guide them to the future and show that they can be trusted. To be an effective leader, your people must have trust in you and they have to be sold on your vision. Korn-Ferry International, an executive search company, performed a survey on what organizations want from their leaders. The respondents said they wanted people who were ethical and who convey a strong vision of the future. In any organization, a leader's actions set the pace. This behavior wins trust, loyalty, and ensures the organization's continued vitality. One of the ways to build trust is to display a good sense of character. Character is the disposition of a person, made up of beliefs, values, skills, and traits. Beliefs are the deep rooted beliefs that a person holds dear. They could be assumptions or convictions that you hold true regarding people, concepts, or things. They could be the beliefs about life, death, religion, what is good, what is bad, what is human nature, etc. Values are attitudes about the worth of people, concepts, or things. For example, you might value a good car, home, friendship, personal comfort, or relatives. These are import because they influence your behavior to weigh the importance of alternatives. For example, you might value friends more than privacy. Skills are the knowledge and abilities you gain throughout life. The ability to learn a new skill varies with each individual. Some skills come almost naturally, while others come only by complete devotion to study and practice.

Traits are distinguishing qualities or characteristics of a person, while character is the sum total of these traits. There are hundreds of personality traits, far too many to be discussed here. Instead, we will focus on a few that are crucial for a leader. The more of these you display as a leader, the more your people will believe and trust in you: (1) Honesty - Display sincerity, integrity, and candor in all your actions. Deceptive behavior will not inspire trust in your people. Competent - Your actions should be based on reason and moral principles. Do not make decisions based on childlike emotional desires or feelings. Forward-looking Set goals and have a vision of the future. The vision must be owned throughout the organization. Effective leaders envision what they want and how to get it. They habitually pick priorities stemming from their basic values. Inspiring - Display confidence in all that you do. By showing endurance in mental, physical, and spiritual stamina, you will inspire your people to reach for new heights. Take charge when necessary. Intelligent - Read, study, and seek challenging assignments. Fair-minded - Show fair treatment to all people. Prejudice is the enemy of justice. Display empathy by being sensitive to the feelings, values, interests, and well-being of others. Broad-minded - Seek out diversity. Courageous - Have the perseverance to accomplish a goal, regardless of the seemingly insurmountable obstacles. Display a confident calmness when under stress. Straightforward - Use sound judgment to make a good decision at the right time.

Imaginative - Make timely and appropriate changes in thinking, plans, and methods. Show creativity by thinking of new and better goals, ideas, and solutions to problems.