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Voice Data Voice data is something which is comprised of different wavelengths of sound. A simple exam can be found in an E.C.

G Report of Heart. It has different wavelengths showing the Heartbeat. If you observe you will find that these wavelengths are of different height, which is basically indicating the Pitch of Sound Wave. Video Data Video data is a compilation of some Pixel or Vector based Images. A simple digital camera has an option of Multi Shot Mode. What happens in this mode is that a Picture is taken 10 to 15 times in a Sec. These images are then converted into a video. 1 Picture in this compilation will serve as 1 Frame. Now for a standard, Human Eye is capable of considering 30 Frames per second as a video. that means if 30 pictures are moved accross in front of human eye within a Second, it will turn into a video. A Simple example is an OLD Cinema House. In old days pictures, were used to entertain people in Cinema. Those pictures were moved across a projector with a speed of 30 FPS.

Audio
MP3 The MP3 audio format lossy data compression. Audio quality improves with increasing bitrate.
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32 kbit/s - generally acceptable only for speech 96 kbit/s - generally used for speech or low-quality streaming 128 or 160 kbit/s – mid-range bitrate quality 192 kbit/s - a commonly used high-quality bitrate 320 kbit/s - highest level supported by MP3 standard

Other audio
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800 bit/s – minimum necessary for recognizable speech, using the special-purpose FS1015 speech codecs. 1400 bit/s – lowest bitrate open-source speech codec Codec2.[14] 2.15 kbit/s – minimum bitrate available through the open-source Speex codec. 8 kbit/s – telephone quality using speech codecs. 32-500 kbit/s – lossy audio as used in Ogg Vorbis. 256 kbit/s – Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB.) MP2 bit rate required to achieve a high quality signal.[15] 400 kbit/s–1,411 kbit/s – lossless audio as used in formats such as Free Lossless Audio Codec, WavPack, or Monkey's Audio to compress CD audio. 1,411.2 kbit/s – Linear PCM sound format of CD-DA. 5,644.8 kbit/s - DSD, which is a trademarked implementation of PDM sound format used on Super Audio CD.[16]

5 Mbit/s max – VCD quality (using MPEG1 compression)[17] 3." i.) Well. AVC or VC-1 compression)[21] Good question! In US residential wiring. 18 Mbit/s . The bigger problem is if the neutral connection becomes very resistive or open.  6. This potential is usually very small. however.144 Mbit/s . since the transformer is 240V. it has no potential on it. you have 3 wires feeding your home off the transformer: two hots and neutral. that's all fine and good. which is an enhanced coding system based on the AC-3 codec.advanced lossless audio codec based on Meridian Lossless Packing. metal junction boxes. The center tap divides the transformer winding in the middle. why is it called neutral. then? At your main service panel a fourth wire comes into play: ground.5 Mbit/s typ — Standard-definition television quality (with bit-rate reduction from MPEG-2 compression) 9. if there is a current in a wire there is a potential across it. Then .e. The transformer is a 240V center tapped transformer. you have 240V in between the two hots.E-AC-3 (Dolby Digital Plus). screws. Ground is simply a heavy safety wire that goes to a 8ft long copper rod driven into the ground. By the very nature of wire. while neutral is not ground. The neutral is the center tap. This ground wire is connected to all metal surfaces you touch (panels.) In the main panel (and only the main panel) neutral is bonded to ground. Neutral is kind of a return wire for 120V circuits. 120V safety issues You cannot assume neutral is grounded or safe to touch. but your probably asking "what does that mean?" right about now. current is flowing in both directons. Well. So between either hot and neutral you get 120V. but is still there.8 Mbit/s max – DVD (using MPEG2 compression)[18] 8 to 15 Mbit/s typ – HDTV quality (with bit-rate reduction from MPEG-4 AVC compression) 19 Mbit/s approximate — HDV 720p (using MPEG2 compression)[19] 24 Mbit/s max — AVCHD (using MPEG4 AVC compression)[20] 25 Mbit/s approximate — HDV 1080i (using MPEG2 compression)[19] 29.4 Mbit/s max – HD DVD 40 Mbit/s max – Blu-ray Disc (using MPEG2. etc. when everything is correct it should be "neutral. So. (I say "kind of" because this is AC. Well. metal cases on appliances. Video            16 kbit/s – videophone quality (minimum necessary for a consumer-acceptable "talking head" picture using various video compression schemes) 128–384 kbit/s – business-oriented videoconferencing quality using video compression 1.

As . Let's say hot 1 for load one is at +60V. this means that the neutral only carries the difference in power between the two hots. So.334A). one load to one hot. so the neutral has to carry the difference. we had +60 on hot 1 and -60 on hot 2. This also means that load 1 us underpowered by 2/3 of an an amp. through bulb one. by our signing above. and hot two for load two is -60V.) This is why you want to keep your neutrals in good shape. The fixture will not work. we add the currents for the two bulbs: 1A + -1A = 0A. the current of load one is now 2A. While you can have 400A of current flowing to 120V appliances all over your home. (No the light is not on. This is also why your neutral doesn't need to be twice as heavy as your hots. Make sense? Now. Your neutral carries 0A. let's say you take two loads with a resistance of 60 ohms. Let's go back to our last example. You hook the neutrals of the loads up to neutral. giving people a false sence of security. Load two has a current of 1A flowing out of the neutral. one hot goes positive while the other hot goes negative. let's say you have the same setup as above. This is because the load is "balanced. Let's say some unscroupulous DIYer used the conduit the feed is in for a neutral instead of a dedicated neutral wire. Let's do a testcase for a specific point in time." The amount of energy flowing through load one is equal to the energy flowing through load two. the fixture and the neutral between the fixture and the break go live. and back into the transformer on hot 2. and current out of the transformer on the neutral negative. We will call current into the transformer on the neutral positive. Because the hots have 240V across them (and not 0). Let's say a clamp to the pipe came off and now we have no neutral connection. Let's say you have 200A service. while load two is overpowered by one third of an amp. The neutral current is 2A + -1A = 1A. but it gets the point across. through bulb two. Now. How much energy flows through the neutral conductor? 0W. So our neutral has a current of 1A on it for load one. At our 60V test case. Now. Neutral Balancing With the neutral you have two hot wires both capable of producing 120V to neutral. and the other load to the other hot. (Again. yes it can knock you on your butt. So. This means that there is 1. not a totally correct analogy. bulb one would be dim while bulb two would be brilliant. The loads are no longer balanced. through load two. Well. Ignoring load two. When a hot wire goes open. To calculate the actual current on the neutral. our loads appear as a single 90ohm load to the supply. load 2 has a current of -1A on the neutral. When a neutral goes open.) This is why you shouldn't just bond ground to neutral when you don't have a ground wire at a fixture. now the neutral has to carry the extra amp of current. with the 60ohm and 30ohm light bulbs. it is actually +200A to half and -200A to the rest. So. only load 1 is 30ohms. fixtures simply fail to operate. If loads one and two were lightbulbs. Current is flowing out hot one.334A flowing through our circuit (120V/90ohms = 1. however. in this ideal test case. load one has a current of 1A (60V/60ohms=1A) flowing from hot one through the load and back to the transformer through the neutral. So our loads have 120V across them.the neutral will be live as it cannot "return" the energy to the transformer. not 400A. and back to the transformer on hot 2.

That porch light is going to burn out very quick.334A flowing through them. load one has 40V across it. In. there is a connection. but is much more subtle. Your appliances my be able to tolerate the former until you notice. etc. Also. This means that the lighter load will be overvoltaged. Now. waterheater. Loads one and two are all your 120V appliances. and load two could be the light in the drum. though. in the event neutral does fail. and a 100W porch light on for load 2. the more potential develops across it by ohms law. This point is the resistive connection. the neutral wire has 50V across it. it does cause a big headache in your home. The more current flows through the neutral.both loads have 1. it appears OK. for this very reason. say. Load 3 is your heavy appliances. Load 3 would be your heater. Resistive neutrals A resistive neutral is a nasty little problem. and will get hot as it dissipates all this power. So while an open neutral doesn't cause too much of a headache on your dryer. load 1 would be your timer. and you have 1500W of appliances on for load 1. while load 2 has 80V across it. You can never be sure. and has 2 ohms of resistance. light fixtures. With a resisive neutral. you would have a third load that is directly across the two hots. but it is bad. Also note that resistive neutrals get worse with time. it will burn a little further open. This will keep current in the neutral low. . if possible. Remember. Most appliance manufacturers actually avoid using both hots for 120V. it is dissipating 1250W at some point in the wire. oven. When no current is flowing through the neutral. and the circle continues. What you can do is when you plan your load and circuits. but is at 50V favoring whichever load (1 or 2. Let's say your service neutral comes open. try to balance them.. as above) is heavier. Since our example neutral has 25A at 50V on it. It has ultimately the same effects as an open neutral. If your neutral comes open you could toast your timer or bulb. if the loads are close to balanced you may only see 90V/150V instead of 10V/230V across your 120V loads. the other thing to keep in mind is your whole home functions as a 240V/120V appliance. This means that if your neutral has 25A flowing through it. the heaters in your dryer. Why this is something to worry about Our little set up above is how 240/120V applances work. As it gets hot. Why you should try to balance your load Now it is impossible to garuantee that load 1 will equal load 2 without being obsessivecompulsive. This also means that your neutral bus in your panel is not at 0V (with respect to the transformer). at this point they are both supposed to have 60V across them. which will prevent bad connections from burning open. etc. your dryer. they can't tolerate the latter.

If the voltages differ by more than a volt or two. Call an electrician. If you are not comfterable with this. This can be done at your panel. . Check the voltage from one hot to neutral. or at any other 240/120V outlet. call an electrician. The easiest way is with a AC voltmeter. at an oven outlet. Leaving everything on as you normally would. This is dangerous. at a dryer outlet. then from the other hot to neutral. as work on your main service must be done by someone licenced. and they have lots of experience with this. you may have a problem. They can check for this quickly and tell you exactly what you need to do to fix it.How can I check for a resistive neutral NOTE: This procedure involves probing your service panel or heavy outlet while live.