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ANTENNA DESIGN OF PASSIVE RFID TAG

MUHAMMAD AZAM FAROOQ
MANSOOR AHMAD
DILJAN KHAN
SAMI ULLAH
DECEMBER 2012
Department of Electrical Engineering
COMSATS INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
WAH CANTT – PAKISTAN
PROJECT SUPERVISOR:
Engr. MAHRUKH KHAN
PROJECT MEMBERS:
SAMI ULLAH (SP09-BS (TE)-008)
AZAM FAROOQ (SP09-BS (TE)-067)
MANSOOR AHMAD (SP09-BS (TE)-037)
DILJAN KHAN (SP09-BS (TE)-068)
DECLARATION
“No portion of the work referred to in the dissertation has been submitted in support of an
application for another degree or qualification of this or any other university/institute or
other institution of learning”.
MEMBERS’ SIGNATURES
Acknowledgements
All praises to Almighty Allah, who gives us the strength and capability to meet our project
task successfully. We would like to acknowledge our project supervisor Engr. Mahrukh
Khan and project in charge Engr. Muhammad Bilal who sincerely Deserves our heartfelt
gratitude’s, for their support and guidance in accomplishing our project task. We would
also like to thank Engr. Muhammad Ali for analysing our work.
We dedicate our work as our struggle to our beloved parents whose prayers always stood
by and encourage us through our thick and thin....................................................................
Abstract
This work greatly revolves around Radio frequency identification (RFID) system,
In which a passive RFID tag design has been kept under consideration, as our project
task. An RFID tag IC used in the designing of this specific tag is Alien Higgs-2, the tag
antenna used is folded dipole antenna and the technique used for perfectly matching the
impedance between the tag antenna and tag IC is T-matching technique. This RFID
device is a unique identifier for an object, just like that of Barcodes or magnetic strip,
which are scanned to retrieve or get the required information. The reason why this
device is preferred over that of other identification devices is that it do not required a
line of sight to be identified and its large data storage capability. The steps in the design
procedure of this specific RFID tag are explained in detail along with its other
compulsory features and its possible alternatives.
Table of contents
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION..............................................1
1.1 HISTORY OF RFID SYSTEM.................................................................1
1.2 RFID SYSTEM..........................................................................................2
1.3 APPLICATIONS OF RFID.......................................................................3
1.4 ADVANTAGES OF RFID..........................................................................3
1.5 DISADVANTAGES OF RFID...................................................................4
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEWS...............................6
2.1 RFID TAG........................................................................................................6
2.1.1 TAG IC.............................................................................................6
2.1.2 SUBSTRATE...................................................................................7
2.1.3 TAG PACKAGING.........................................................................7
2.1.4 TAG ANTENNA.............................................................................7
2.2 WORKING PRINCIPLE OF AN RFID TAG............................................8
2.3 CLASSIFICATIONS OF RFID TAG........................................................10
2.3.1 POWER SOURCE.........................................................................10
2.3.2 FREQUENCY OF OPERATIONS................................................12
2.3.3 PROTOCOLS...............................................................................12
2.4 FUNDAMENTALS OF ANTENNA.......................................................13
2.4.1 OPERATIONAL FIELD REGIONS..........................................13
2.4.2 RADIATION PATTERN OF ANTENNA..................................14
2.4.3 ANTENNAS’s DIRECTIVITY...................................................17
2.4.4 ANTENNA’s BANDWIDTH..................................................18
2.4.5 POLARIZATION OF ANTENNA............................................18
2.5 CONJUGATE IMPEDANCE MATCHING TECHNIQUE..............19
2.5.1 T-MATCHING............................................................................20
2.5.2 GAMMA MATCH.....................................................................21
2.5.3 INDUCTIVELY COUPLED LOOP..........................................22
CHAPTER 3 DEIGNING METHODOLOGY..................24
3.1 FOLDED DIPOLE ANTENNA............................................................24
3.2 T-MATCHING TECHNIQUE..............................................................29
3.2.1 DESIGN PROCEDURE...................................................................30
3.3 TAG CHIP OR IC (ALIEN HIGGS-2)................................................32
3.3.1 DIFFERENT FEATURES OF HIGGS-2.........................................33
3.3.2 CONDITIONS OF HIGGS-2 IC OPERATION...............................33
3.3.3 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGGS-2 IC...................34
3.4 tag’s chip or IC (Murata (LXMS31ACNA)).......................................34
3.4.1 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MURATA
(LXMS31ACNA)...........................................................................35
CHAPTER 4 HFSS T-MATCH SIMULATIONS............36
(Part1) HFSS SOFTWARE............................................................37
(Part 2)
4.1 T-MATCH ANTENNA DESIGN FOR (ALIEN HIGGS-2 IC)......37
4.1.1 SIMULATION RESULTS FOR T-MATCH...........................38
4.2 ANTENNA DESIGN FOR (MORATA IC (LXMS31ACNA)…...44
4.2.1 SIMULATION RESULTS FOR T-MATCH………………..41
4.3 OBSERVARIONS………………………….……………...45
4.4 Results Comparison between Higgs-2 and Murata
(LXMS31ACNA) tags IC………………………………….46
FUTURE WORK RECOMMENDATIONS………………………..47
REFRENCES………………………………………………………....48
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION TO RFID SYSTEM
This chapter includes a brief introduction to an RFID system, in which it is explained in
an organized manner, along with its history. Different types of RFID applications had
been explained along with the advantages and disadvantages of this system.
Our main concern is the designing of an RFID tag, which is an important part on which
an RFID system greatly relies upon. Literature review for the designing of an RFID tag
is included in chapter 2; its designing methodology is explained in chapter 3 whereas
chapter 4 is on simulation.
In order to understand the contents of these chapters, one must have clear idea of an
RFID system, which is explained in this chapter.
1.1 History of RFID
RFID can be related back to the early World War 2 in which under the supervision of a
Scottish physicist Sir Robert Alexander Watson-Watt, the British installed a transmitter
on each British airplane and radar on the ground would be able to identify these planes
based on the transmitted signal from the transmitter.
In 1948 harry stockman discover the communication link through reflected power. Bar
codes one of the close rivals of RFID came out for a commercial usage in 1960s and
1970s.
The journey for an RFID started after the bar codes and until 1979 RFID research was
only confined to the laboratory. However the first RFID commercial usage was tested
on by an animal tracking in the early 1980s in United States, which was further
followed by the vehicles toll collection in 1987 in Norway, and then further on in rail
cars in 1994 in United States.
1n 1999 Massachusetts institute of technology (M.I.T) Established an Auto.ID centre
for the research and development of a worldwide protocols and standards for RFID
technology.
1.2 RFID System
It is an identification technology which is based on the concept of using radio
(frequencies) waves, for tracking and automatic identification purposes. The main
components of this system are Transponders or Tags that are attached to an object and
Interrogators or Readers that continuously communicate with these tags to enable
tracking or identification.
Below the fig 1.1 shows the basic RFID system that contains two components: (1) the
tag that is attached to an object to be identified and
(2) The reader that is designed in such a manner as to communicate with the tag as by
performing read or read/write operation. The operation of an RFID system is as follows:
the reader continuously transmits or broadcast signals through it attached antenna., the
tag on the other hand responds as it receives these signals by either writing the receive
data in to the IC memory or replying with another signal that contain data usually the
identification code also in addition the tag may rebroadcast the signal to the reader with
a predetermine time delay. The reader is further attached to the data base computer
system.
Fig 1.1 RFID Systems
1.3 Applications of an RFID
RFID is used in a verity of applications throughout the world. It is widely used in
manufacturing, tracking, logistic and supply chain, which include livestock,
pharmaceutical, etc, and to make the idea of RFID application more clearly two of the
examples are given below from manufacturing and supply chain.
(1) Manufacturing industry:
When manufacturers sent there items or products to the port yard for transportation so
do they also tracked there each and every item along with the boxes and pallets at
which it is placed, so in this way the manufacturers also had a detail record of the
numbers of items and pallets sent for transportation.
(2) Supply Chain management:
At the port the items are read and all the information such as time, date, place and
numbers of items are stored in the data base, and this could act as evidence if any
problem occurs. In this way any missing item which may be stolen is reported at once.
Besides these two examples RFID has many other applications some of them are
mansion below.
(1) Library books are tracked by attaching RFID tag.
(2) Used in a positive identification of animals by attaching the tag to their body.
(3) Security purpose (sensitive security buildings can be unlocked by using RFID
technology)
(4) Used as a sensors (mainly helpful in the hospitals)
(5) Used in toll tax collection.
1.4 ADVANTAGES OF RFID
RFID has many advantages which mainly depend on specific application for which it is
being used. RFID is considered as a preferable technology over other identification or
tracking systems. The main advantage of using RFID for payment system is that you
can handle a large number of transactions in a very short interval of time, thereby
avoiding congestion at toll booth and also saving employers expenditures
Another main advantage of RFID is that it can be enclosed in plastic so as to face and
resist harsh conditions.
In case of bar codes and other identification labels, they do not work properly if cover
with snow or mud.
Some of the advantages of RFID over bar codes and other identification techniques are
mansion below.
RFID is the Best Automatic-Identification Technology.
Bar Codes necessarily need a person to scan them where as RFID do not require human
interference which shows its dominance over bar codes.
RFID Require No Line of Sight
If we are suppose to receive a box containing 40 pairs of shirts , so either we have to
open the box and count the no of shirts manually or scan each barcodes to make it sure
that they are really 40 pairs. With RFID we can count it within seconds because the tag
just had to be in a close proximity to the reader which can access multiple tags at a time.
ACCURACY
Bar Codes mainly require a person to scan them , and sometimes by mistake a person
forget to scan a barcode or he may scan the wrong bar code, so the result cannot be fully
trusted where as with RFID the results can be fully trusted which can lead to a
successful business planes.
1.5 Disadvantages of RFID
High Cost of Installation
Installation of RFID is more expensive than that of a barcode
Interference
Interference also plays a key role in RFIDs as its waves are sensitive and can easily be
interrupted by other waves such as from cell phone towers.
RFID an Invasive Technology
This technology has been criticized as a technology that is invasive, which Clarify that
it can spread very quickly, and is difficult to stop. People normally get anxious on their
privacy, the moment they purchase items containing these tags. A person can be
followed by tracking and personal or private information can be obtained or collected.
Chapter 2 is mainly and specifically based on the literature review of an RFID tag, all
the components that formed an RFID tag are discussed in detail manner, along with the
basic antenna fundamentals, different matching techniques and different tag
classifications.
Chapter 3 is mainly on the designing method we have implied so far an RFID tag, the
specifically used antenna, tags IC and most important the specific impedance matching
technique are explained in order.
Chapter 4 is based on the T-match simulations, different results are shown along with
the antenna patterns.
Chapter 5 contain the future recommendations for an RFID tags.
CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW OF AN RFID TAG
Our project is really on the designing of an RFID Tag, for which the literature review is
explained in detail manner. This chapter includes the detail information about an RFID
tag along with its working principle and its different classification. Furthermore Tag
antenna along with all of its fundamentals and different radiation patterns are defined in
this chapter. Different matching techniques, to match the impedance between the tag IC
and tag antenna are defined in detail manner.
Different parts of RFID tag such as tag IC, its antenna, the substrate used and its
packaging are given in detail.
2.1 RFID Tag
Tags are attached to the object to be tracked. RFID tags consist of antenna along with
integrated circuit chip. Besides it also contain other components such as substrate and
packaging.
2.1.1 Tag IC
This is a semi conductor based circuitry which is divided in to three parts:
(1) Analogue front end
(2) Encoding/Decoding unit
(3) Memory unit.
Analogue front end is responsible for power controlling. the power source may be a
battery or external electromagnetic fields radiations. This part consists of components
such as clock cycle generator, modulators, and voltage regulators and so on.
Encoding/Decoding unit is responsible for the modulations and demodulations of
signals and also the received signals is encoded in to bits to be stored in to the memory
units of the IC. Memory unit is divided in two blocks which may be read/write or read
only depending on the application. The error checking codes, unique identification
codes, passwords etc are stored in the IC memory.
2.1.2 Substrate
The substrate is a dielectric material which forms the base of the RFID tag. the
conductive material which may be copper or aluminium is attached on the top of the
substrate and the IC is attached to the either end of the conductor. The substrate must be
thin, flexible and must stands harsh environmental conditions. Some commonly used
materials for RFID substrates are PVC, FR4, polyester and PET etc
2.1.3 Tag Packaging
After the manufacturing of tag it is important to make sure that the tag is package
properly in order to keep it safe from the harsh environmental conditions. Some
important TAG packaging terms are listed below
(1) Strap: in this case the IC pads are small; two pads are provided so as to help attached
an antenna and an IC.
(2) Inlay: when strap and antenna are added along with some substrate, it forms inlay.
(3) Smart Label: the inlay is inserted inside the paper label which has readable
information printed outside it like a bar code. This is called smart label.
(4) Encapsulated tag: in certain applications the tag needs to be protected from the
environmental conditions so they are encapsulated in to hard RF translucent outer
covers such as poly acetate etc, so as to protect the tag from damage.
2.1.4 TAG Antenna
In UHF TAGS the desired antenna is usually a dipole or patch structures. The main
consideration while choosing the antenna for design are listed below
(1) Should be small enough to be attached to an object (typically 50.8mm*101.6mm)
(2) Should be of Omni directional radiation pattern
(3) Avoid polarization mismatch
(4) Must have minimum turn on impedance for the tag IC
(5) Should be cheap and be very robust
2.2 Working principles of an RFID tag
The working modes for an RFID tag is ‘receiving mode’ and ‘transmitting mode’. The
tag’s antenna receives radio frequency signals from an RFID reader; this received signal
empowered the tag’s IC or chip, while in transmitting mode the tags IC or chip act as a
source and send out signals through tag’s antenna. The equivalent circuits for an RFID
tag at receiving mode and transmitting mode are shown in the Fig 2(a) and 2(b).
Fig 2 receiving mode
Fig 2(a) equivalent circuit at receiving mode
Where
Zs – chip impedance
Za – antenna impedance
Va – the equivalent voltage source for receiving radiations from the reader
Fig 2 transmitting mode
Fig 2(b) equivalent circuit at transmitting mode.
Where
Zs – chip or source impedance
Za – antenna impedance
Vs – The equivalent voltage source of the chip from received power
2.3 Classifications of RFID Tag
Tags are separated on the basis of criteria such as power source, frequency of operation,
protocols etc.
Fig 2.1 classifications of tag
2.3.1 Power Source:
As we know that tags depend on a power source so it can be divided in to four classes:
active, passive, semi-active and semi-passive.
(1) Active tags uses a battery powering for the communication and logic links which
results in a greater read-range when compared to passive or semi-active tags. These tags
solely rely on batteries which have to be replaced once it is expired. These tags have
greater range and are costly.
(2) Passive tags do not have any power source such as batteries instead it solely
depends on the power that is rectified by the reader to power the tag. These tags use
back-scattering process to communicate with the reader. These tags have small range as
compare to active tags and also these tags are cheaper then active tags.
(3)Semi-active tags are also called as energy harvesting. These tags take energy from
their environment to power the logic and communication link. These tags can use solar
energy, vibration energy or some other source to power the logic on the tag.
(4)Semi-passive tags uses batteries to power only the logic part of the tag once the tag
is activated through energy from the reader. These tags use back-scattering mechanism
to communicate with the reader.
The table below shows the RFID tag types based on power system.
FIG 2.1(A) classifications of tag
SEMI-ACTIVE TAGS
ACTIVE TAGS
PASSIVE TAGS SEMI-PASSIVE TAGS
∑ Communication and logic powered by
onboard battery
∑ No on-board battery, relies on RF
waves emitted by the reader to power
logic
∑ Logic powered by energy harvesting methods
( solar , vibration etc)
∑ Communications enabled by back scattering
∑ Logic powered by onboard battery
∑ Communications enabled by back
scattering incident signal
∑ Increased range
∑ Communications enabled by back
scattering
2.3.2 Frequency of Operation
RFID tags operate on certain frequency bands namely low frequency 125-134 KHZ
(LF), high frequency 13.56 MHZ (HF), ultra high frequency 400-960 MHZ (UHF), and
microwave frequency 2.4 GHZ , 5.8 GHZ. However the operation of frequency for
RFID is changed by each country, like the UHF frequency for North America is 915
MHZ, but for Europe it is 860 MHZ.
All of the above mansion frequencies are explained in detail.
(1) Low Frequency Tags (125-134 KHZ): they were among the first to be
used for an RFID application. Its advantage was that it could be read easily
while attached to the animal tissues, wood, liquids and metal. However its
drawbacks were that it could only be used in short distance readable range,
also its data storage capacity is very low.
(2) High Frequency Tags (13.56 MHZ): these tags are currently used widely in RFID
applications. Advantage of this tag is that it has better readable range, also it has high
storage capacity and a good anti-collision measures for the readers to communicate or to
access multiple tags. All these features make RFID the best option or an ideal option to
be used in applications such as assets tracking, and credit cards etc.
(3) Ultra High Frequency Tags (433 MHZ and 860-960 MHZ): these tags used back
scatter coupling mechanism. Its advantage is its high memory capacity up to 240 bits,
and also it has a very long readable range up to 20 meters. Its disadvantage is that it
cannot be tracked when attached to an animal tissues, wood and liquids.
(4) Microwaves Tags (2.4GHZ and 5.8GHZ): these tags have high data transfer rate
which enables communication at a very high rate. These tags are used in real-time assets
tracking. Its main disadvantage is that it needs a high cost to develop. It is used in
highway toll collection.
2.3.3 Protocols
Sets of codes that are required to enable communications between a reader and a tag.
They are divided in to the following categories
(1) Open Protocols. They are available worldwide and can be used by any one.
(2) Proprietary Protocols: these types are designed by the manufacturers for their own
business such as Texas instrument.
(3) Data Content Protocols: these protocols define the layout of memory structure,
making it easier to locate specific data on the tag IC.
2.4 Fundamentals of Antenna
Operational fields and the pattern of radiation are important factors to be understood
before going further towards the designing of an antenna.
2.4.1 Operational Field Region
The surrounding area or space round the antenna is divided in to the following regions.
∑ Region of Far-field
∑ Region of Near-field
∑ Region of Reactive near-field
Far field region
Fraunhofer region is the other name given to this region. In this region fields radiate,
their angular variation does not depends, on the distance from the antenna, where as the
components of the fields compulsorily lie transversely to the direction of propagation.
In this region the fields radiates dominantly. The decay rate in this region =
1
¡
Where r = distance between the observation point and an antenna.
These waves are responsible for carrying of EM-waves to activate the semi-passive and
passive UHF tags.
Radiating near field region
Fresnel region is the other name given to this region. This field is situated in-between,
reactive near field and far field region.
In this region the fields radiates predominately, and the angular field distribution
depends on the distance from the antenna. This region does not exist in case of small
antenna, where as in case of larger antenna the inside radius of the region which is
spherical is given as
R =
2D
2
2
Reactive near field Region
This is immediate region surrounding antenna. The fields do not predominately radiate
in this region.
For small electric antenna the spherical radius is given as (on the next page)
R = u.62
_
Ð
3
z
Fig 2.2 fields regions
2.4.2 Radiation pattern of antenna
We have to create an approximate model for dipole radiation pattern as it is difficult and
complex to form its exact model. This can be attained by studying the small parts or
segments of the dipole, for which every individual segment is considered having
uniform current.
The examined dipole is called as Hertzian dipoles, shown in fig 2.3 (a)
R = distance from the observation point to point z on the dipole, and is given as
R = ¸x
2
+y
2
+(z −z′)
2
R > 2l
2
/λ = far-field dipole region as shown in fig 2.3 (b)
For determining the radiation pattern, the approximation which we made are given as
R ≈ r, Terms of amplitude
R ≈ r −z′ cos 0, phase terms
We have assumed the current (I) along the wire to be constant and solely flowing in z-
axis, because of the length of the wire, which is too small.
I (x

, y

, z

) = Ioẑ
Where
l = Length of dipole and p =Observation point
Fig 2.3(a) finite length dipole
Fig 2.3 (b) approximation of far field
The pattern of radiation for the dipole of different various lengths are shown in the
below figure 2.4
Increase in length of antenna results in the increase in the Directivity and narrowing of
the beam.
As the dipole length exceeds a wavelength, results in the appearance of extra lobes in
the radiation pattern.
Fig 2.4 radiation pattern of various lengths of dipole
Electric field intensity is given as
E = −
]I
Os¡n0
2s
c
cd
L
x
c
-](ot-kd)
Where
e
o=
Free space permittivity.
C=speed of light.
K =
2n
x
and æ =2n¡
2.4.3 Antenna’s directivity
It is defined as the ratio between the radiation intensity in a specific direction, from an
antenna and radiation intensity transmitted by an ideal isotropic radiator (which
transmits same power in all directions).
Radiation intensity averaged = antenna’s total power radiated, which is further divided
by 4n. Directivity of a non isotropic source = radiation intensity’s ratio, over an
isotropic source.
It is given as
B =
U
U
o
=
4¬U
P
¡ad
And directivity as its maximum, is expressed as
B
max= D
O
=
U
max
U
O
=
4πU
max
P
¡ad
Where
Ð
0
= mox Jirccti:ity
D represents directivity
U = intensity of radiation (w/unit)
u
mux
= max intensity of radiation (w/unit)
P
¡ud
= power totally radiated (w)
u
0
= isotropic source radiation intensity (w/unit)
The directivity is unity for an isotropic source.
2.4.4 Antenna’s bandwidth
It can be defined as the range of frequencies, on all the sides of the centre frequency (for
dipole it is resonant frequency) where the characteristic of antenna like beam width,
polarization, input impedance, radiation pattern, gain beam direction and gain etc, are
present within an acceptable value of those at centre frequency. For an acceptable
broad band antenna’s operation, it is expressed as ‘the ratio of the upper to lower
frequencies’.
Pattern bandwidth associates, beam width, gain, level of the side lobe direction of the
beam and polarization. Whereas bandwidth impedance associates input impedance and
radiation efficiency
2.4.5 Polarization of an antenna
It can be define as the sum of electric field plane, orientation over time projected on to
an imaginary plane, perpendicular to the direction of the motion of radio waves.
This consideration is very important while choosing an antenna for installation in a
specific tag. The antenna converts radio frequency in to electromagnetic signals or
waves and vice versa, which are further transmitted in to space. Thus the electric fields
plane clearly shows or determines the Polarization of these radio waves.
The orientation of these electric fields of radio waves with respect to the surface of the
earth is called as polarization. So we can say that it is determined by antenna’s physical
structure and its orientation.
A straight wire antenna will have one polarization when it is fixed or mounted in a
vertical direction, and will have different polarization in case, if fixed or mounted in a
horizontal direction.
Polarization is generally affected by reflections. In case of radio waves, ionosphere is
the main common reflector, which causes a change in its polarization, so signals or
waves reflected from an ionosphere cannot be trusted or relied upon.
For communication which is of ‘line of sight’, we can fully rely upon polarization.
Classifications of polarizations are briefly discussed below.
Light which is a transverse electromagnetic wave is said to be linearly polarized if it is
present in the form of a plane wave in space. Let us say that if light consists of two
plane waves which are having similar amplitude, and are 9u
0
in phase, then it is said to
be circularly polarized. If the two plane waves have different amplitudes, and are 9u
0
in phase or other then9u
0
, then it is said to be elliptically polarized.
FIG 2.5 shows different types of polarization
2.5 Conjugate Impedance Matching Techniques
These are different techniques on behalf of which the impedance between the tag
antenna and microchip is balanced.
As we know that passive tags microchip get activated by getting the radio frequency
energy from the reader. We are also aware of the fact that these passive microchip or
ICs are highly capacitive so as to store more power which is required to bias the IC
which is further drawn through electromagnetic coupling. Furthermore to match the
input impedance of the tag IC, an antenna should be of a very low resistance value and a
high inductance value.
The perfect impedance matching results in a desirable result value.
It is necessary to mansion that the specific impedance value of the IC is actually the
turn-on impedance value of that IC which is provided by the IC designer or
manufacturers.
Here are several impedance matching techniques which includes
∑ T-MATCHING
∑ GAMMA MATCH
∑ INDUCTIVELY COUPLED LOOP
2.5.1 T-Matching
This matching technique is explained in detail manner in a chapter 2. We have used it,
so far in our project.
T-matching is one of the most balanced and symmetric system.
In the FIG 2.6, T-matching connection as a shunt-matching technique is shown, in
which the radius a, and dipole of length l is connected to the transmission line through
another dipole of radius a’ and length l’ where l’ is less than
The two dipoles i:e smaller dipole and larger dipole are separated by a distance ‘s’ from
each other whereas the smaller dipole is attached or tapped to the larger dipole by a
distances of l’/2 from the centre, and the transmission line is connected to the smaller
dipole in the centre.
In this t-matching connection the two legs are of different sizes and diameter from each
other so we can say that it is a general form a folded dipole.
T-matching network is greatly suited for the used in parallel-conductor transmission
lines due to the fact that it is highly balanced and symmetric system.
Fig 2.6 T-match
2.5.2 GAMMA MATCH
Gamma match is one of the most convenient method to obtain the best match by
connecting the dipole or other antennas such as Yogi etc, to a coaxial cable of 50-ohams
or 75-ohams, as shown in Fig 2.7(a)
Fig 2.7 (a) gamma match
AN EQUIVALENT CIIRCUIT
The equivalent circuit of Gamma match is shown in the Fig 2.7(b).Gamma match
requires a capacitor in series with the Gamma rod and so is Gamma match equivalent to
the half of the T-match.
Fig 2.7(b) equivalent of gamma match
The input impedance is equal to
Z
ìn
= −]X
c
+
Z
g
|(1 +o)
2
]
2Z
g
+(1 +o)
2
Z
u
Za = centre point free space impedance of the antenna when gamma match connection
is absent.
2.5.3 Inductively coupled loop
In this type of impedance matching technique the dipole is situated in an inductive small
loop, which is further on situated near the main conductor.And the reactance is
controlled by varying the distance between them. Microchip or IC is further more
connected to the terminals of the inductive loop as shown in the Fig 2.8
Fig 2.8 inductive coupled feed and its equivalent circuit
Equivalent inductance is added in the antenna by this type of arrangement
It can be modelled by, transformer,
Impedance resulting on, loops terminals is given as
Z
ìn
= Z
Ioop
+
(2n]M)
2
z
c
(1)
In the above equation (1)
The total input impedance depends on the loop inductance, I
Ioop
.
Loop input impedance is equal to Z
Ioop
= ]2n¡I
Ioop
W
l
b
a/2
a/2
d
W’
ZA
CA
RA
LA
M
LLoop
CHIP
TERMINALS
Zin
Transformer mutual inductance = M
R
ìn

0
) =
(2n]
0
M)
2
R
A
(]
0
)
(2)
X
ìn

0
) = (2n¡
0
I
Ioop
) (3)
In equation 3 and 4
The ingoing resistance depends on the distance of the loop and size of the loop.
Antenna’s resistive impedance = R
A
Mutual inductance of the transformer = M
Inductance of the loop = I
Ioop
For design purpose to match the chip reactance, the loop size is first setup. To control
the reactance after it is being setup, the loop-dipole distance can be adjusted.
Loop fed dipole matching chart. Where,
l =
x
2
, w =
x
100
,w
i
=
w
3
and a = b
CHAPTER 3
DESIGN METHODOLOGY
This chapter gives detail information about the specifically used tag antenna type
(folded dipole), the impedance matching technique (T-matching) and the specific used
tag IC (Alien higgs-2).
3.1 Folded-Dipole antenna
Our goal is achieve a good directional pattern as well as to providing a good matching
to coaxial lines with the impedances, 50-ohms or 75-ohms. Single-wire element length
is usually chosen as
x
4
≤ l < z. Dipole with overall length ofl ≃
x
2
, input impedance of
z
ìn
≃ 7S +]42.S and directivity of Ð
o
≃ 1.64S, is widely used.
Single dipole element is used so as to provide better matching characteristics.
Folded wire geometry achieved these characteristics and a very thin (s ≪ z) rectangular
loop is formed as shown in the fig 2.1.
Folded dipole is formed when the space between the two larger sides is too small
(s < u.uSz), and it plays the role of step-up impedance transformer.
The below figure 3.1 shows folded dipole with its equivalent models of transmission
line mode and antenna mode.
Fig 3.1 (a) folded dipole = (b) transmission line mode (c) antenna mode
The operating ability of a folded dipole is balanced system, and it can be stated, as we
assumed the decomposition of its current in to two distinct modes which are the
transmission line mode as shown in fig 3.1 (b) and antenna mode as shown in the fig
3.1(c).
Coming to the derivation of an equation for the input impedance we considered the
modelling in the above fig 3.1
The input impedance at the terminals (a - b or e - f), for transmission line mode is
obtained from the below impedance transfer equation
Z
t
= Z
0
j
z
L
+]z
0
tan(kI
|
)
z
0
+]tun(kI
|
)
[ l
i
=
I
2
= ]Z
0
ton(k
I
2
)
Z
L =
u
Z
0
= impedance of two wire transmission line.
Z
0
=
q
n
cosℎ
-1
[
s
2
,
u
¸ =
q
n
ln|
s
2
, +_(
s
2
)
2
-u
2
2
]
Which is approximated for
S
2
≫ o as
Z
0
=
q
n
ln _
s
2
, +
_
[
s
2
¸
2
-u
2
2
_ ≅
q
n
ln(
s
o
⁄ ) = u.7SS p log
10
(
s
u
)
v
2
Is the voltage between point a and b, which is applied to the transmission line of
length
L
2
and the current for the transmission line is given as
I
t
=
I
2
Z
t
Now to form a dipole for an antenna mode, as shown in the fig 3.1 (c) the point of
generators which are c – d and g – h are both having the same potential, are connected.
Closely space wire pairs (S ≪ z) are extended from the feed (g – h or c - d) to the
shorter end to form a dipole.
And thus the current for an antenna mode is given as
I
a
=
v
2
Z
d
Z
d
= The input impedance of the linear dipole, of length l, and diameter d
o
c
= equivalent radius which is related to the actual wire radius a, as
a
c
= √as
The Expected equivalent radius yields an accurate result, so the total current on the left
side of the folded dipole, feed leg will be
I
ìn
= I
t
+
I
c
2
=
v
2z
t
+
v
4z
d
=
(2z
d
+z
t
)
4z
t
z
d
And the input impedance on the feed will be
Z
ìn
=
v
I
in
=
2z
t
(4z
d
)
2z
t
+4z
d
=
4z
t
z
d
2z
d
+z
t
It can be shown that
Z
In
= 4Z
d
When l =
\
2
So this equation shows that the folded dipole impedance is four times greater than that
of the isolated dipole with similar length.
Referring to the below figure 3.2, we can also derived the relation for impedance as
Z
ìn
= 4Z
d
.
Fig 3.2 (a) folded dipole (b) regular dipole
As we know that for folded dipole the two arm are having identical current and is
shown in the figure, they are closely spaced (S ≪ z).
As shown in the fig 3.2 (a), the Regular dipole (b) acts as an ordinary dipole and it is an
equivalent of the folded dipole.
The currents of the two arms of folded dipole are equal to the one arm of ordinary
dipole.
Which is given as
2I
I
= I
d
Equation (a)
Where
I
]
= current of the folded dipole.
I
d
=current of the ordinary dipole.
The power input of the two dipoles are the same or identical and is given as
P
I

1
2
I
2
I
Z
I
= P
d

1
2
I
2
d
Z
d
Now by putting equation (a) in the above equation we get
Z
I
= 4Z
d
Where
Z
I
= folded dipole impedance and Z
d
= ordinary dipole impedance.
Line of Transmission model for folded dipole is test for validity, by making a number of
computations and comparing it with the data obtained by the moment.
Fig 3.3 (a) input resistance of the folded dipole
Fig 3.3 (b) Input reactance of folded dipole
In fig 3.3 (a) and (b) the input resistance and input reactance of the folded dipole is
drawn, as a function of
I
\
, and the diameter of the each wire is d = 2a =0.001z, whereas
the spacing between the elements is s = 0.00613z. Whereas, 300 ohms is the impedance
of such a transmission line.
3.2 T-Matching technique
T-matching is one of the most balanced and symmetric system.
In the fig 2.4 T-matching connection as a shunt-matching technique is shown, in which
the radius a, and dipole of length l is connected to the transmission line through another
dipole of radius a’ and length l’ where l’ is less than < l
The two dipoles i:e smaller dipole and larger dipole are separated by a distance ‘s’ from
each other whereas the smaller dipole is attached or tapped to the larger dipole by a
distances of l’/2 from the centre, and the transmission line is connected to the smaller
dipole in the centre.
In this t-matching connection the two legs are of different sizes and diameter from each
other so we can say that it is a general form a folded dipole.
T-matching network is greatly suited for the used in parallel-conductor transmission
lines due to the fact that it is highly balanced and symmetric system.
Design process for the t-matching is highly related to the folded dipole.
T-matching is muddled by antenna gain and transmission line in the similar manner as
shown for the folded dipole in the fig 3.4. The total input terminal current is divided
between the two conductors and spacing between them.
Antenna mode current division will not be unity due to the fact that the two conductors
are not of the same radius.
Fig 3.4 T-match
3.2.1DESIGN PROCEEDURE
The steps for the design procedure for the T-matching are,
1. Calculate the current division factor α using the following relation
α =
cosh
-1
(
¡
2
+u
2
+1

)
cosh
-1
(
¡
2
+u
2
-1
2¡u
)

In (¡)
In(¡)-In (u)
u =
u
u
|
and v =
s
u
|
2. We can write the equivalent radius of two wire arrangement as
ln (o
c
) ≅
1
(u
|
+u)
2
|o
i2
ln o
i
+o
2
lno +2o
i
o ln s]
Since s
1
= 2no
i
, s
2
= 2no so the above equation can be reduced to
ln(o
c
) = ln o
i
+
1
(1+u)
2
(u
2
lnu + 2u ln :))
3. In this step we have to calculate the impedance at input terminal for the transmission
line mode (as shown in fig 3.5 (a)
z
t
= ]z
0
ton(k
I
|
2
)
Fig 3.5(a) shorted transmission line equivalent.
Where,
z
0
= 6ucosℎ
-1
(
s
2
-u
2
-u
|2
2uu
|
) ≅ 276log
10
(
s
√uu
|
)
z
u
= Two-wire transmission line impedance
a= radius
s = separation between them.
as shown in fig 3.5(b))
FIG 3.5(b) Two wire transmission line
4. The total input impedance is equal to
Z
ìn
= R
ìn
+]X
ìn
=
2z
t
|(1+u)
2
z
c
]
2z
t
+(1+u)
2
z
c
The above equation is proved as
Antenna Impedance Z
ìn

= (
N
p
N
s
)
2
Z
u
Z
ìn
i
= (1 +o)
2
Z
u
(1 +o)
2
Z
u
Z
ìn
=
2z
t(1+o)
2
Z
c
2z
t
+(1+u)
2
z
c
And the input admittance is equal to
¥
ìn
=
1
z
in
=
¥
c
(1+u)
2
+
1
2z
t
Z
a
=
1
Y
a
Is the input impedance of antenna when T-match connection is absent
2ZT Za
NS
NP
Zin
2Zt Z’in
Zin
3.3 tag chip or IC (alien higgs-2)
Higgs-2 is a 2nd generation UHF tag IC which is kept under consideration, so far in our
project. Its an integrated single chip, which performs for a broad range of RFID
applications. This tag has the capability of performing or operating on a very low power
level, and yet it can provide a back scattering signal so as to read the tag at an extended
distance, at a low power level.
Furthermore this tag IC is capable of being programmed at a low radio frequency power.
Fig 3.6 Higgs-2 IC
3.3.1Different features of Higgs-2
It has certificate of conformance for EPCgloble generation 2 specifications. It is used
throughout the world for operation, in RFID UHF bands (860 to 960 MHZ) ,
This IC is featured with 4 unique memory maps, which contained 192-Bits of non-
volatile memory
One of its features is its low power operation for programming as well as reading. Other
includes its long range of operation which is 10 meters using appropriate antenna.
Furthermore it has the ability of accepting all types of commands which may be
mandatory or may be optional, except the command to erase/write.
3.3.2 Condition of Higgs-2 IC operation.
I
A
represents the operating temperature of this IC. The minimum temperature for its
operation is -50c
o
, and which ranges to a maximum range of 80c
o
.
¡
ìn
Represent its operating frequency which ranges from a minimum of 860MHZ to the
maximum range of 960MHZ.
3.3.3 Electrical characteristics of Higgs-2 IC
These characteristic includes s
¡
which represents sensitivity of the IC which is -14dBm
during reading since this tag has the ability to read. Furthermore s
p
represents
sensitivity during programming which is -10dBm, R
p
represents the parallel input
equivalent resistance at the input power of -14dBm, which is 1500 Ohms. C
p
Represents
the equivalent parallel input capacitance at the input power of -14dBm, which is 1.2 PF
(Pico farad). Ð
¡ct
represents the data retention of the IC, which starts from the date of
manufactured up to 10 years, which means that this tag IC is functional for the duration
of 10 years. The programming cycles for this tag IC are 10000 cycles and it is
represented asP
c¡cI
.
3.4 tag’s chip or IC (Murata(LXMS31ACNA))
Murata (LXMS31ACNA), is also a 2nd generation UHF tag IC which is kept under
consideration, so far in our project beside using Higgs-2. It’s an integrated single chip,
which performs for a broad range of RFID applications. It has many Radio frequency
features. It also support a wide frequency range, like Higgs-2 (from 860Mhz to
960Mhz ) which covers the whole of UHF band . It also has the certificate of
conformance for EPCgloble generation 2 specifications. It is highly durable because of
its small size. It is compatible with STM process. Memory available for users is 512bit.
Fig 3.7 block diagram
3.4.1 Electrical characteristics
It has a frequency range from a minimum of 865 MHz to a maximum of 955 MHz
Where as its minimum operating power is -8dBm.
This IC can operate at a minimum temperature of -40 degree centigrade, to a maximum
of +85 degree centigrade.
Electrical characteristics at minimum power are shown below in the table.
Table 3 electrical characteristics at minimum operation power
CHAPTER 4
HFSS T-MATCH SIMULATION
This chapter includes a brief introduction about HFSS software in its 1
st
part. T-match
simulation is explained in its 2
nd
part which is the process for perfectly matching the
impedance between the tag chip and tag antenna (through HFSS software).
This process has be carried out, for two different types of tag chips or IC’s, which
includes ‘Alien higgs-2’ and Morata magic strap (LXMS31ACNA-010). Both the IC’s
are having different impedance values and the simulation results for both the chips are
shown in this chapter.
The material used for substrate is FR4, and the material of which antenna is made up of
is copper matel.
Different simulation results are explained for both of the tag IC’s and are shown in this
chapter.
Part 1
HFSS SOFTWARE
HFSS stands for high frequency structured stimulated software, which is industry
software for S-Parameters and is also used in electromagnetic simulations of high
frequency and high speed components. HFSS is widely used for the design of on-chip
embedded passives; PCB interconnects, antennas, components of RF/microwave
and high frequency IC packages. Engineering productivity is greatly improved by this
software, besides it greatly reduces development time, and better assures the success of
first pass design.
The latest release of HFSS delivers significant productivity gains to Microwave/RF
Engineers and expands electromagnetic co-design to a new segment of engineers
working in the areas of RF/analog IC and multi-gigabit designs as well as EMI/EMC.
Ansoft Desktop Terms
The Ansoft HFSS Desktop has several optional panels:
• A Project Manager which contains a design tree which lists the structure of the
project.
• A Message Manager that allows you to view any errors or warnings that occur
before you begin a simulation.
• A Property Window that displays and allows you to change model parameters or
attributes.
• A Progress Window that displays solution progress.
• 3D Modeler Window which contains the model and model tree for the active
design.
Part 2
4.1 T-MATCH ANTENNA DESIGN (Alien higgs-2)
In the first stage the T-match antenna designed is for alien higgs-2 chip (Z=12-j140).
The antenna (copper) is having the thickness of 0.035 mm, and is made up of copper
metal. Whereas the substrate is having a thickness of 1.5 mm, with dielectric lose
tangent 0.02 and Relative permittivity 4.4, and is made up of FR4.
Substrate Width = 16.5mm and length = 180mm are dimensions of antenna.
Its geometrical parameters are
l= 163 mm
a= 19mm
b= 8.5mm
w= 3mm
w’= 1mm
Separation of port = 2 mm.
The impedance IC which is used for its designing at 915 MHZ is equal to
12 −]14u oℎms (Alien Higgs-2).
DIFFERENT PARAMETERS OF ANTENNA ARE DERIVED FROM
EQUATIONS AND GRAPHS.
It is clear that for conjugate impedance matching, the load antenna impedance should
be 12 +j140 ohms
Fig 4.1 Design layout of RFID antenna
Fig 4.2 planner dipole T-match configuration
4.1.1 Simulation results for T-match
These are the simulations results for Impedance and Return loss factor.
Fig 4.3 antenna’s return loss simulation results
Fig 4.3 shows the simulation results for the return loss of an antenna. FOR GOOD and
efficient result the return loss must be less than -20 dB. Our result is calculated to be
-56.8, which is an excellent result.
r
mux
=
z
4n
_
P
t
0
t
0
¡
¡
P
th
Where
¡ =
4R
c
R
c
|z
c
+z
c
|
2
u ≤ ¡ ≤ 1
The below figure 4.4 shows the radiation pattern for a T-match antenna. It is showing an
Omni directional radiation pattern, which are in the, phi = 0 to phi = 360.
The dipole which is half wave does not have a uniform current distribution over its
length, so at resonance, it is a half sine wave.(centre current is large, which reduces to
zero at its ends).
Fig 4.4 simulated antenna 3-D gain pattern and directivity for (phi=0 to phi=360
degrees)
Field intensity follows a pattern as shown in the above figure 4.4.
Fig 4.5 Impedance (Real & Imaginary values)
Fig 4.6 Voltage standing wave ratio
cos
(
n
2
cos 0)
sIn0
≈ sin 0
The above equation is an approximation for
sin0
which is a better for the field intensity
radiation pattern. The line at the bottom shows that there is maximum radiation s at the
broad side direction of the dipole and it goes on to the direction of the poles, where it is
zero.
These results are obtained for the T-match, since the dipole is placed in a horizontal
direction; therefore the radiation intensity is maximum at the broad side direction and null
or zero at the poles, which makes the antenna linearly polarized.
It provides maximum power to the tag antenna for communication and avoid polarization
miss match.
Impedance
(Ohm)
Return Loss
(dB)
Gain
(dB)
Directivity
(dB)
Theoretical
Read Range
12.8+j143 -56.83. -9 -2 1.5m
Table 4.1 the parameters for the simulated antenna.
0 = c
¡ud
Ð = antenna radiation efficiency
Where
G = gain of antenna
D = directivity of antenna and c
¡ud
= radiation efficiency
r
mux
=
x
4n
_
P
t
u
t
u
r ¬
P
th
(a)
¡ =
4R
c
R
c
|z
c
+z
c
|
2
u ≤ ¡ ≤ 1 (b)
The above two equations gives the reading range.
The chip or IC used is Alien Higgs-2 (P
th
= −11 JBm) whereas the reader which is
used is Alien ALR 9650 (p
t
= Su JB onJ 0
t
= 6JBi)
By using the above equations antenna parameters such as reading range and it gain is
calculated ….
4.2 T-match antenna design (Morata magic strap (LXMS31ACNA))
The geometric parameters for chip impedance Z = 12-j107 are
L = 163
a = 14.5
b = 8.5
w = 3
w’= 1
different parameters of antenna are derived from equations and graphs
4.2.1 Simulation results for T-match
These are the simulations results for Impedance and Return loss factor.
Fig 4.6 antenna’s return loss simulation results
The below figures shows the radiation pattern for a T-match antenna
Fig 4.7 directivity for (phi=0 degrees to phi=360 degrees)
Fig 4.8 simulated antenna 3-D gain pattern
Fig4.9 shows simulated voltage standing wave ratio
Impedance
(Ohm)
Return Loss
(dB)
Gain
(dB)
Directivity
(dB)
Theoretical
Read Range
12+j109 -30.79 -9 -2 1.5m
4.3 Observations
The T-matching techniques which we had kept under considerations in chapter 4,
consists of different parameters, which have different effects on simulated results.
Different parameters are, length of main dipole (l), length of small dipole (a) and
difference between the small dipole (center point) to large dipole (center point) denoted
by b.
By changing the length of main dipole (l), effect on gain of antenna occurs. Increasing
dipole’s length results in increasing gain of antenna.
Increasing the length of small dipole ‘a’ maximum return loss peaks moves towards low
frequency and vice versa.
Increasing “b”
4.4 Results Comparison between Higgs-2 and Murata
(LXMS31ACNA) tags IC
The simulation results for Higgs-2 and Murata (LXMS31ACNA) are shown in this
chapter. These results are compared and are mentioned below. Different results for
return loss and voltage standing wave ratio for both the chips are compared.
The impedance IC which is used for the designing of Alien Higgs-2 at 915 MHZ is
equal to 12 −]14u oℎms where as for Murata (LXMS31ACNA) the impedance IC
used is 12 + j107. The geometric parameters ‘a’ and ‘b’ are different for both the chips
where as the length and width are the same. For higgs-2 ‘a = 19mm’ and ‘b=8.5’
whereas for Murata ‘a= 14.5’ and “b=8.5’.
The voltage standing wave value graph shows us that the value for VSWR for Alien
higgs-2 is 1.0031 whereas for Murata (LXMS31ACNA) the VSWR is 1.0598.
The return loss figures shows us that the return loss for an antenna using higgs-2 chip is
-56.8339 dB where as antenna return loss using Murata (LXMS31ACNA) IC is -
30.7437 dB. Simulated results for both the chips are given and shown graphically.
FUTURE WORK AND RECOMMENDATIONS
RFID is one of the most efficient technologies, which provides the modern world with
many beneficial features.
There is much positive vision for the future improvement of this technology, in broad
terms.
Coming towards RFID tags which is our main concern, it can be stated that Besides
using T-matching, which is one of the technique for matching the impedance between
tag IC and tag antenna, other matching techniques such as “inductively coupled loop”,
“gamma match”, and “nested slot” can be used for a perfect impedance matching, and to
get more efficient response.
Also length of the dipole can be minimized (meander dipole), and the size of the tag can
be reduced further in order to make it possible for installment in smaller objects and to
get desirable and efficient results.
The tag chips used in RFID tags can be reduced further in size with greater storage
capability so as to contain as much data as needed.
Current passive RFID tags are designed with limited read range i: e of about 10 feet’s,
so it can be increased, so as to make it possible for the use in other applications.
RFID tags can more efficiently be designed for use in many complex tracking and
identification purposes such as ‘identifying gas pipe lines or any cable line’, ‘in airport
for baggage tracking’, ‘in schools and colleges for automatic attendance, and security’
etc …….
The near modern world is going to be facilitating with this developing technology in
every possible field of their life.
References
[1]. “LIMITATIONS OF THE UDA MODEL FOR T-MATCH
ANTENNAS” K. R. Demarest and D. D. Deavours\
[2]. Microwave Engineering by D M.Pozar
[3]. UHF RFID Transponder Chip and Antenna Impedance Measurements
Jasmin Grosinger, Christoph F. Mecklenbr ¨ auker and Arpad L. Scholtz
Vienna University of Technology
[4]. “Antenna design for UHF RFID tags K.V.S. Rao, P.V. Nikitin, and S.Lam,
a review, "IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propag.,vol.53,pp.3876
[5]. “Design criteria for the RF section of UHF and microwave passive RFID
transponders”, EEE Trans. on Microw. Theory and Tech., vol. 53(9)
[6]. “T-matching Networks for the Efficient Matching of Practical RFID Tag”
J.Choo#1, J. Ryoo#1, J. Hong#1, H. Jeon#1, C. Choi#1and Manos
M. Tentzeris*2# RFID Research Lab., LS Industrial Systems 533 Hogye-dong,
Dongan-gu, Anyang-si,Gyeonggi-do 431-080, Korea1 jychoo@lsis.biz
*Georgia Electronic Design Center, School of Electrical and Computer
Engineering, Georgia. Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0250, USA
[7]. ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF UNIVERSAL COMPACT FLEXIBLE UHF
RFID TAG ANTENNAT. G. Abo-Elnaga1, *, E. A. F. Abdallah1 and H. El-
Hennawy
[8]. “Systemization of RFID Tag Antenna Design Based on Optimization
Techniques and Impedance matching Charts “By Munam Butt
[9]. Antenna Design for Passive RFID tag Author: Lee Pan Shing
[10]. Marrocco_IEEE_2008_(art_of_RFID_antenna_design)
[11]. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OFNOVEL RADIO FREQUENCY
IDENTIFICATION (RFID) TAG STRUCTURES
[12]. A Slim RFID Tag Antenna Design for Metallic Object Applications
(Sung-Lin Chen, Student Member, IEEE, and Ken-Huang Lin, Member, IEEE)