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Chapter 20 Climate Change and Ozone Depletion

See bulleted list of questions on p. 465 of text.

1. Describe the greenhouse effect and what the Earth would be like without a greenhouse effect. List the two predo inant greenhouse gases. List four greenhouse gases which ha!e risen in the last few decades. List four hu an acti!ities which contribute greenhouse gases to the at osphere. Distinguish between greenhouse effect and global warming. Describe the pattern of the earth#s a!erage surface$te perature fluctuation throughout geologic ti e. Describe the period the earth has been experiencing for the last 1%&%%% 'ears. Describe the general trend of ean global te perature since 1)6%. List two factors other than the greenhouse effect that a' ha!e contributed to the general te perature change. State the consensus science !iew about the relationship between obser!ed te perature changes and the likelihood of global cli ate change brought on b' hu an acti!ities. *riefl' describe pro+ections of the a+or cli ate odels regarding changes in ean surface te perature and a!erage sea le!el. List eight i portant factors that lend considerable uncertaint' to cli ate odels and their pro+ections. State the range of te perature change which could cause real da age to ecos'ste s. Explain wh' a range so see ingl' s all can ha!e such a+or consequences. Su ari,e the pro+ections of possible effects of global war ing on -a. food production& -b. water supplies& -c. forests& -d. biodi!ersit'& -e. sea le!els& -f. weather extre es& -g. hu an health& and -h. en!iron ental refugees. Describe three schools of thought about global war ing and how we as a hu an societ' should act. List se!en strategies which would slow potential global war ing& including both pre!ention and cleanup approaches. Describe the origin of stratospheric o,one and the role it pla's in protecting life on Earth. *riefl' describe changes which ha!e been occurring in stratospheric o,one. Describe the scientific work on 010s and their relationship to o,one. Describe the political response to the scientific infor ation. Su ari,e the consensus science !iew of 010s and stratospheric o,one. Su ari,e alternati!e !iews that ha!e recei!ed uch attention. Explain the significance of a criticall' thinking citi,enr' to the de ocratic process. Explain the potential consequences of o,one depletion. 3ropose three wa's for slowing these changes.

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Ke Terms -4er s are listed in the sa e font st'le as the' appear in the text..
adaptation -p. 4)%. adaptation strategy -p. 4)5. amplify -p. 4/1. basal cell skin cancer -p. 4)). black carbon aerosols -p. 4/". burning fossil fuels -p. 46/. 1)% carbon dioxide -05". -p. 46/. carbon taxes -p. 4)". carbon tetrachloride -p. 4)/. chlorofluorocarbon -010) -p. 4)6. clearing and burning forests -p. 46/. climate skeptics (p. 470) 6nstructor#s 7anual8 0hapter "%

4/". global climate change -p. Copenhagen Protocol -p. early warning sentinels (p. !ontreal Protocol -p. #yoto Protocol -p. D. 4he earth<s a!erage surface te perature is about 15 degrees 0elsius. (. 4)/. methane hydrates -p. water )apor -p. warming effect -p. 46/. global !arming -p. 4)%. :eologic records and at ospheric easure ents pro!ide a wealth of infor ation about past at ospheric te peratures and cli ate. 7easure ents of 05" concentrated in glacial ice correlate fairl' closel' with esti ated !ariations in the a!erage global surface te perature during the past 16%&%%% 'ears. 4)/.cti!ities . greenhouse gases -p. wait'and'see strategy and thawing are known as glacial and interglacial periods. 4)/. soot -p. . 46/. mitigation -p. 0. 0ertain gases in the at osphere absorb heat and war the lower at osphere 1. o(one hole -p. technology transfer -p. 4he four a+or greenhouse gases in the lower at osphere are water !apor& carbon dioxide& ethane& and nitrous oxide. 465. methyl chloroform -p. 46/. . methyl bromide -p.ed for changes in che ical co position in the troposphere. 4)/. halons and hydrobromoflurocarbons -9*10s. .6? of the world<s population& the =.ers& burning forests& etc. 46). 46/. hydrogen chloride -p. o(one thinning -p. 465. (. 4)%. 4)".S. 4/ sa ples are collected at different locations and anal'. 46/. 4)2. .. >ith about 4. O"tline 3ast 0li ate 0hange and the :reenhouse Effect . ". 4)). 4)/. 47") energy taxes -p. malignant melanoma -p. 4/". greenhouse effect -p. 4)1. (. glacial and interglacial periods (p. natural process called the greenhouse effect war s the lower troposphere and surface. coupled global circulation models (C C!s) -p. global warming (p. :reenhouse gases are at higher le!els than in the past 16%&%%% 'ears. ". global cooling -p. 4)/. 466. 4/%. 0li ate shifts ha!e occurred due to !olcanic e issions changes in solar input& continents o!ing on shifting plates& eteor strikes and other factors. 4/%. planting rice and using inorganic fertili(ers -p. 4)/. 4)/. 4)". 6ntergo!ern ental 3anel on 0li ate 0hange -6300. 46/. ".lternating c'cles of free. also e its large quantities of 094& with ost co ing fro landfills& do estic li!estock natural gas and oil and coal ining. natural cooling process -p. 1. s*uamous cell skin cancer -p. 4)/. Direct te perature records go back to 1)61. 42%. 46/. =. produces about ""? of the total global the e ission 4. methane (C$4) -p. nitrous oxide (%&0) -p. 4. -p. -p. . 1. soil se*uestration -p. 4/(.cooling effect -p. 42%. 4he =nites States releases ore greenhouse gases per person than an' other countr'. o(one'depleting compounds (5D0s) -p. polar )ortex -p. 9u ans ha!e increased le!els of greenhouse gases in the troposphere b' use of fossil fuels& far ing& use of inorganic fertili.ed for pollen& fossils and other clues about the plant t'pes that li!ed in the past. ". 462. 4/". large process also takes place at the earth<s surface due to hat absorbed b' surface water. hexachlorobutadiene -p. dampen -p. 4e perature and cli ate ha!e been changing throughout the earth<s histor'. *.ntarctic ice cores indicate the current interglacial period could last another 15&%%% 'ears. 4)(. 4)/. 1. 0li ate 0hange and 9u an . 1)1 6nstructor#s 7anual8 0hapter "% . n'propyl bromide -p. Sedi ent cores are also anal'. 1.

6ncreased cattle raising and other li!estock has added ethane release. rapid increase in the te perature of the troposphere during this centur' would gi!e us little ti e to deal with its har ful effects. 4he world<s a!erage sea le!el rose b' 1%$"% centi eters -4$) inches.ffecting the Earth<s 4e perature . So e aerosolsBparticulates in the troposphere tend to cool the air& but black carbon aerosols a' be responsible for 15$(%? of global war ing during the past 5% 'ears. Since 1)61 the a!erage global te perature has risen %. 1.ore than 22? probabilit'. :lobal war ing refers to te perature increases in the troposphere& which can cause cli ate change.e that pollution can di sunlight in two wa's8 soot particles in the at osphere reflect so e of the sunlight back into spaceC airborne particles cause ore water droplets to condense out of the air& leading to thicker& darker clouds.rctic te peratures ha!e risen al ost twice as fast as those in the rest of the world. (. d. 0. >ar er nights are due to clouds that pre!ent stored heat fro dissipating into space. 0onclusions and pro+ections use se!eral le!els of certaint'8 !irtuall' certain .on rainforests are experiencing rapid changes in species co position apparentl' due to higher le!els of 05" in the at osphere. f. Se!eral factors will affect the net result of ore cloud co!er such as the a ount of water !apor in the troposphere& whether clouds are thin or thick& co!erage& altitude of the cloud& si. 1.. 5!er the past 5% 'ears& . :laciers and floating sea ice in so e parts of the world are elting and shrinking at increasing rates.*urning of fossil fuels has generated uch of the 05" increase. ".e and nu ber of water droplets or ice cr'stals for ed in clouds. *. Scientists don<t expect aerosol pollutants to ha!e a a+or effect on global war ing since the' are onl' in the at osphere for a short ti e and the' are also being reduced. 4. (. . . =se of inorganic fertili. . 6.. a. Scientists h'pothesi. 0.laska and Aussia are elting the per afrost& releasing ore greenhouse gases into the troposphere. D. Se!en findings of the 6300 that support the scientific consensus that the troposphere is !er' likel' getting war er are8 a. /. 1. c. 5. 6ncreased 05" in the troposphere could increase photos'nthesis and re o!e ore 05"& but se!eral factors can li it or offset this effect. 4he 6ntergo!ern ental 3anel on 0li ate 0hange -6300. *. nu ber of natural and hu an$influenced factors ight a plif' or da pen pro+ected changes in the a!erage te perature of the troposphere. 4here is e!idence that the earth<s troposphere is war ing& ostl' because of hu an actions. 4here is uncertaint' about how uch carbon dioxide and heat the oceans can re o!e fro the troposphere and how long the heat and carbon dioxide ight re ain there. 4here is strong e!idence that hu an acti!ities will pla' and i portant role in changing the Earth<s cli ate during this centur'. was for ed in 12)) to e!aluate possible future cli ate changes.dditional clouds a' ha!e a war ing effect b' absorbing and releasing ore heat into the troposphere& or a cooling effect b' reflecting ore sunlight back into Depletion 1)" ".6 degrees centigrade& with ost increase occurring since 12)%. ".. (.erosol pollutants and soot can war or cool the troposphere& but these effects will decline with reduction in outdoor air pollution. >hen these larger trees reach aturit' and die out it could lead to a decrease in the a ount of 05" absorbed. . Deforestation and clearing grasslands release 05" and @"5. . ". So e clouds ha!e a high albedo and reflect ore sunlight back into space during the da'. g.& !er' likel' -2%$22? probabilit'. :lobal cli ate change is a broader ter that refers to changes in an' aspects of the earth<s cli ate. and likel' -66$2%? probabilit'. e. 0o puter odels are used to pro+ect future changes in the earth<s a!erage te perature. 4he 1% war est 'ears since 1)61 ha!e occurred since 122%. 5ne of the largest unknowns in global war ing is the change in distribution of clouds. 4he "%th centur' was the hottest centur' in the past 1&%%% 'ears b. 1actors . 5ld$growth . 4. 1. ".ers in rice culti!ation releases @"5 into the troposphere. >ar er te peratures in . E. 0li ate 0hange and 5.

flood agricultural lowlands and deltas where uch of the world<s rice is grown e. 1%. D. d. 4he big proble area a' well be :reenland if the ice pack co pletel' elts. war er troposphere can decrease the abilit' of the ocean to re o!e and store carbon dioxide b' decreasing the nutrient suppl' for ph'toplankton and increasing the acidit' of ocean water. 1)( 6nstructor#s 7anual8 0hapter "% . 4. threatening half the world<s estuaries and wetlands and coral reefs b. ". 4his would shift the stor $guiding +et strea northward and result in less spring and su er water for areas such as 0alifornia. :. . 3er afrost is war ing and elting in so e parts of . (. 6ce for ations are i portant for helping to cool the earth b' reflecting )%$2%? of inco ing light back into space. 1. :lobal sea le!els are !er' likel' to rise during this centur'. 2.frica a' be ice free within 15 'ears. 1loating ice is elting faster than it is being for ed. >ar er te peratures are elting glaciers and snow in parts of . 6t would raise sea le!els b' / eters -"( feet. 4he pro+ected rise in sea le!el is about )) centi eters -(5 inches. of wild species& shift locations of ecos'ste s and threaten so e protected reser!es and coral reefs. disruption of an' of the world<s coastal fisheries c. E. 0hanges in the h'drologic c'cle a' affect global precipitation patterns. :lobal war ing could alter ocean currents and cause excessi!e war ing in so e parts of the world and se!ere cooling in others.. conta ination of freshwater coastal aquifers with salt water f. 4. 4here is an increase in infestation of the spruce bark beetle because of lack of cold spells that help to control the .2 iles. 5. 6ncreasing te perature tend to be greater in the polar regions. 1.laska pipeline ha!e suffered sinking& shifting and so eti es a break up.cceleration of global war ing can occur because of two a+or sources of wetlands and fro ethane h'drates trapped under arctic per afrost. 3h'sical oceanographers ha!e found that the tropical oceans are saltier and the polar oceans are less salt' than the' were +ust 4% 'ears ago. ethane gas release8 bogs and Effects of :lobal >ar ing . 5.E. ). flood low$l'ing barrier islands and gentl' sloping coastlines will erode and retreat inland about %. 6t is not known whether the shrinkage of ice is a result of natural polar cli ate fluctuation or caused b' an$ ade increases in greenhouse gases or a co bination of these. war er troposphere could ha!e both beneficial and har ful effects. 6t a' result in regional cooing because of changes in the distribution of water !apor and o!e ent of ocean currents. 5cean currents are also i portant for storage of 05" and transfer of heat. 4he elting of so e of the world<s ice eans that less sunlight is reflected back into space& and helps war the troposphere further. .laska and buildings& roads& utilit' lines and the . Aich& te perate countries are likel' to benefit fro oderate global war ing while the poorer tropical and subtropical countries will see ore har ful effects.en water eans a loss of reser!oirs of water for war er onths of the 'ear. 6. (. Loss of fro. 5ceans help oderate the earth<s a!erage surface te perature b' absorbing both 05" and heat fro the at osphere. . /. sub ergence of so e low$l'ing islands in the 3acific 5cean and 6ndian 5cean. 1. *. ".laska. 9ar ful effects of this rise in sea le!el include8 a.rctic sea ice could disappear b' "%5%. Aesearchers esti ate that up to half of the . ". war er troposphere will change the distribution and population si. 6t suggests that global war ing a' be accelerating the global water c'cle. 7o!e ent and speed of the ocean currents a' contribute to significant alterations in te perature patterns in the northern he isphere. Scientists consider these areas as earl' warning sentinels of changes in a!erage te perature of earth<s troposphere. 7t Dili an+aro& . 0... . :lobal war ing will lead to prolonged heat wa!es and droughts in so e areas and prolonged hea!' rains and increased flooding in other areas.

1. :o!ern ents can tax e issions and energ' use& increase subsidies and tax breaks for sa!ing energ' and using renewable energ'& and decrease subsidies and tax breaks for fossil fuels. 4here are two basic wa's to deal with global war ingC one is itigation& the other is adaptation. 9. (. 3lant trees that will store 05" in bio ass. 1. 4. Ae o!e 05" fro s okestacks and pu p it deep underground or in+ect it into the deep ocean. :lobal war ing will increase deaths fro heat and disruption of food supplies in so e areas& spread so e tropical diseases to te perate areas& and greatl' increase the nu ber of en!iron ental refugees fro drought and flooding. ". Ecos'ste s ost likel' to be disrupted are coral reefs& polar seas& coastal wetlands& arctic and alpine tundra and high$ele!ation ountaintops. 1. D. Less snow packs in high$ele!ation areas could result in increasing water shortages in areas that are Depletion 1)4 . 1. 5. 6. 0rop and fish production could be reduced in so e areas b' rising sea le!els that would flood ri!er deltas. *. 6300 sa's it is !er' likel' that tree deaths will increase fro ore disease and higher pest populations. 1ood production in so e areas a' increase in so e areas and decrease in others. 4he proble is global. war er cli ate could expand the ranges and populations of plant and ani al species that can adapt to war er cli ates. So e scientists suggest adding iron to the oceans to increase production of algae to re o!e 05" through photos'nthesis. >ar ing could also threaten plants and ani al species that can<t igrate rapidl' enough to new areas. 4he har ful and beneficial i pacts of cli ate change are not spread e!enl'. ". >ar er te peratures could shift growing areas farther north& but les fertile soils in these areas a' reduce food production. ". . Aeduce release of 05" and nitrous oxide fro soil b' altering agriculture practices to include no$till culti!ation and letting fields lie fallow. E. 5. 0. Dealing with :lobal >ar ing . 4he effects will last a long ti e. 4. 6. 4here is disagree ent o!er what we should do about the threat of global war ing. 4here are se!eral proble s with this approach at present. 0li ate 0hange and 5. 4he solutions offered for slowing the rate and degree of global war ing co e down to three a+or strategies8 i pro!e energ' efficienc' to reduce fossil fuel use& shift fro carbon$based fossil fuels to a ix of carbon$free renewable energ' resources& and sequester or store as uch 05" as possible in soil& in !egetation& underground& and in the deep ocean.. 4here are tow schools of thought concerning what we should do now to reduce or itigate the effects of global war ing. ". 4he proble is a long$ter political issue. Soil sequestration is a possibilit'& but war er te peratures can increase soil deco position with 05 " then being returned to the troposphere. (. 6. (. 1. Scientists& econo ists& business leaders& and political leaders debate the causes& how rapidl' the changes ight occur& the effects on hu ans and ecos'ste s and the responses that should be taken. 0li ate change is hard to deal with because it has an' causes& its effects are une!en and long$ter & and there is disagree ent o!er what should be done. (. 4. (. >e can re o!e and store so e 05" we produce as shown in figure "%$15. 4his is a !er' te porar' solution and we do not know the effects of adding iron to the ocean<s ecos'ste s. ". 3re ature deaths fro the side effects of global war ing and increased incidences of disease are esti ated to double b' "%(%. 5ne is to adopt a wait$and$see strateg'C the other is to act now.1. 5. 7an' actions that ight reduce the threat of cli ate change& such as phasing out fossil fuels& are contro!ersial because the' can disrupt econo ics and lifest'le. 4hese characteristics confront us with difficult scientific& econo ic& political& and ethical questions. >ildfires in forests and grasslands are !er' likel' to increase and destro' wildlife habitats with a large release of 05" into the troposphere. 7an' wildlife reser!es& wilderness areas& wetlands and coral reefs would be threatened with so e loss of biodi!ersit'.

one Depletion in the Stratosphere . 6n 12/4& che ists Aowland and 7olina found that 010s were lowering the a!erage concentration of o. 1. *. *' id$"%%4 it had been ratified b' ore than 1"% countries. 1. 6t will probabl' cost less to help slow and adapt to global war ing now than to deal with its har ful effects later. 5. 4he first chlorofluorocarbon -010. 1our a+or conclusions ca e fro their research8 1)5 6nstructor#s 7anual8 0hapter "% . (.one le!els in the stratosphere. So e indi!iduals -see 1ig. 4. (. Support and action is needed b' the world<s largest greenhouse gas e itters the =. *ush withdrew the =. De!eloping countries would not ha!e to ake cuts until a later date. ". "%$16."? below 122% le!els b' "%1". 0he ists de!eloped a fa il' of useful 010s. (. So e studies indicate that i ple enting conser!ation strategies would boost the global and =. 1reons are the ost widel' used of these. (. :reatl' increase go!ern ent subsidies for energ'$efficienc' and carbon$free renewable$energ' technologies. econo ies. and schools are reducing greenhouse gas e issions and wasting less energ'. ". 0ountries could work together to de!elop a new international approach to slowing global war ing. (. 7an' countries and cities are looking for wa's to cope with the har ful effects of cli ate change. ".S. 3ro+ected costs of global war ing will cost the world E(%% billion annuall' b' "%5%. third strateg' is technolog' transferC transfer knowledge fro de!eloped countries to de!eloping countries. >hat is *eing Done to Aeduce :reenhouse :as E issionsF . ".1.e concentrations at their present le!els. 4he o!erwhel ing consensus of researchers is that o. was disco!ered in 12(% b' 4ho as 7idgle'. 4he D'oto 3rotocol& de!eloped in 122/ would require () de!eloped countries to cut e issions of so e gases b' about 5. ". 1.. (. ". 0. 4he' had an' uses and beca e !er' popular since the' were inexpensi!e to anufacture and see ed to be drea che depletion is a serious threat to hu ans& other ani als& and so e of the pri ar' producers that support earth<s food.S. *. Less o. 1. ". Esti ates are that current e issions of greenhouse gases ust be cut b' at least 6%? b' "%5% to stabili.& 0hina& Aussia and 6ndia.S. 4he European =nion plan to increase use of renewable energ' to 1"? b' "%1% and cut energ' use "%? b' "%"%. 0hina is atte pting to reduce it 05" e issions b' phasing out coal subsidies& shutting down inefficient coal$fired electric plants& stepping up to a "% 'ear co it ent to energ' efficienc'& and restructuring it econo ' toward use of renewable energ' resources. Establish ent of a global e issions trading progra that includes de!eloping countries o itted fro the trading plan under the first phase of the D'oto 3rotocol. 4. So e econo ic odels indicate the costs exceed the benefits& but these do not include the huge cost sa!ings of the strategies and the' underesti ate the abilit' of the arketplace to act rapidl' when one' is to be ade. 5ne possible solution is to phase in carbon taxes on fossil fuel use and at the sa e ti e decrease taxes on inco e& labor& and profits to offset the consu ption in the stratosphere.. 1. So e a+or global co panies ha!e established targets to reduce their greenhouse gas e issions b' 1%$ 65? fro 122% le!els b' "%1%. . 6n "%%1& 3resident :eorge >. 1. 1or political and econo ic reasons& such a reduction is extre el' unlikel'. >e should begin to prepare for possible effects of long$ter at ospheric war ing. 1. fro the D'oto 3rotocol. 7an' countries& states& cities& co panies& schools& and indi!iduals are reducing their greenhouse gas e issions& i pro!ing energ' efficienc'& and increasing their use of carbon$free renewable energ'.one in the stratosphere will allow ore har ful =G radiation to reach earth<s surface. D. >idespread use of a nu ber of useful and long$li!ed che icals has reduced o.

6t kills a fourth of its !icti s .one depletion has been cooling the troposphere and helped to disguise as uch as (%? of the global war ing fro greenhouse gas e issions. 0hlorine is released and is highl' reacti!e. E.ntarctica and a s aller a ount o!er the .one hole& but it is actuall' o.ost under the age of 4%. 4hese 010 olecules can last in the stratosphere for 65$()5 'ears. 4he changes include prolonged periods of global cooling and global war depletion we ust stop producing all and agreed to stop anufacture of the . 4o reduce o. 1luorine& bro ine and iodine are also released. 4he pri ar' cause of squa ous cell and basal cell skin cancers is 'ears of exposure to =G$* radiation. 4he goal of the 12)/ 7ontreal 3rotocol was to cut e issions of 010s b' about (5? between 12)2 and "%%%. 6. ". During four onths of each 'ear up to half of the in the stratosphere o!er . stud' in 122) b' the >orld 7eteorological 5rgani.e in che istr' for their work. >o en who used tanning parlors at least once a onth increased chances of de!eloping elano a b' 55?. 1ortunatel'& 2%$25? of these cancers can be cured if detected earl' enough. 4he total area of stratosphere that suffers fro o.. #"mmar loss is often called the o. 5. E!idence suggests that exposure to =G$.one la'er to return to 12)% le!els and about 1%% 'ears to return to pre$125% le!els. 6ce cr'stals in this ass collect 010s and other che icals and set up conditions for for ation of 065& the olecule ost responsible for seasonal loss of o. 4.s sunlight returns to .one$depleting che icals.$depleting che icals. . c. 4his causes thinning will be between "%1% and " is reduced b' 4%$5%? on a!erage. b. 4hese agree ents ha!e now been signed b' 1)% countries. 6n 12))& after 14 'ears of dela' tactics& the 010 industr' acknowledged that 010s were depleting the o. 6f we i ediatel' stop producing all o. 5!er 11$"% 'ears these che icals are lifted into the stratosphere& ostl' b' con!ection currents and turbulent ixing of air. 4. 0aucasians are ost susceptible to elano as. 4he pri ar' culprits are 010s and other 5D0s. within 5 ' thinning !aries fro 'ear to 'ear. 4. 4he earth<s a!erage surface te perature and cli ate has changed in the thinning. (. La'er . 5. /. (. .rctic is depleted. 6t is unlikel' that the .one depletion. Aepresentati!es et again in 122% and 122" and adopted the 0openhagen 3rotocol& an a end ent that accelerated the phase out of ke' o. 010s re ain in the at osphere because the' are insoluble in water and che icall' unreacti!e. 1igure "%$"1 lists the effects of o. a' also contribute to skin cancer. to be broken down faster than it is for ed. ". (.one$depleting che icals it will take 6% 'ears for the o. 010 olecules break down under the influence of high$energ' =G radiation. ". 4he polar !ortex is a swirling ass of !er' cold air that is isolated fro the rest of the at osphere for se!eral onths. 1. 1. Aowland and 7olina recei!ed the @obel 3ri.ntarctica& but it is predicted that the worst o. 6ncreased =G radiation reaching the earth<s surface fro o. 6n 12)) it was disco!ered that a less se!ere o.ation stated that o. depletion in the stratosphere is har ful to hu an health& crops& forests& ani als& and aterials such as paints and plastics. 0. 3rotecting the 5.ntarctica in 5ctober& the light sti ulates 065 olecules and within a atter of weeks the Depletion 1)6 . Exposure to =G radiation is a a+or cause of skin cancers.rctic thinning will be as se!ere as that o!er . 1. D. 7alignant elano a is a third t'pe of skin cancer that a' occur an'where on the bod'.one depletion occurs o!er the .a. 5. 0li ate 0hange and 5.rctic during the arctic spring and earl' su er with seasonal loss of 11$()?.

4o slow and e!entuall' eli inate depletion of the o. 5. /. .ones& increased respirator' diseases and allergies& increased deaths& and igration. ust ban use of all the che icals that cause 4. 6. (. 9u an acti!ities that cause o.". 4o pre!ent global war ing we should li it fossil fuel use& shift fro coal to natural gas use& place energ' efficient technologies in de!eloping countries& i pro!e energ' efficienc'& shift to renewable resources& reduce deforestation& use sustainable agriculture& li it urban sprawl& reduce po!ert'& and slow population growth. 6n the future there will be increased e issions of carbon dioxide& increased natural greenhouse effects. 3ossible effects fro a war er earth include shifts in plant$growing areas& crop 'ields& and pests& extinction of so e species& loss of habitats& prolonged heat wa!es and droughts& increased flooding& changes in water supplies& decreased water qualit'& changes in forest co position& increased fires& rising sea le!els& beach erosion& conta ination of aquifers& spread of tropical diseases into te perate . 1)/ 6nstructor#s 7anual8 0hapter "% .one la'er& we it. ethane& and nitrogen oxide leading to 1actor<s influencing changes of earth<s a!erage surface te perature include changes in the solar output& the earth<s reflecti!it'& the abilit' of oceans to store carbon dioxide& the ocean currents& the a!erage sea le!el& cloud co!er& and air depletion include e issions of chlorofluorocarbons& eth'l bro ide& h'drogen chloride& carbon tetrachloride& eth'l chlorofor & and others.lso& see +ntroduction to the +nternet. >e should care about the depletion because it causes sunburns& cataracts& skin cancers& i une suppression& reduced crop 'ields& reduced seafood supplies& decreased forest producti!it'& increased acid deposition& increased photoche ical s og& and global war ing.