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The French Revolution      1789 Beginning of the political activation of the European masses Start of a system where all

classes shared in the political process Causes: absolutism of Louis XVI; financial problems; new philosophical ideas which advocated self-determination and natural rights Effects: Reorganization of the state on the basis of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen  Liberty of the individual; separation of the powers (church and state); Sovereignty of the people; civil equality Increased radicalism Progressive loss of democratic principles Economic problems

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Thomas Paine    Supporter of the French Revolution Saw the Revolution as a new beginning in the sense that a person’s natural rights were not taken away by those who had inherited land, power and wealth He had a grand vision for society: he was staunchly anti-slavery, and he was one of the first to advocate a world peace organization and social security for the poor and elderly In intellectual terms, his Rights of Man (Part 1: 1791) was his greatest political work and was certainly the best-selling radical political tract in late 18th century England The book ‘The Rights of Man’ was written in support of the French Revolution He was one of the greatest promoters of Human RightsIt is now accepted by the UK government that all people have the right to live in safety, have enough food and an equal opportunity to education and health care. His writing helped inspire a nation 'The Rights of Man' put forward a strong argument for certain basic 'natural rights', including: the right to be educated, the right to work, and the right to be looked after in old age. He said that governments which did not protect these rights were unlawful. The book was very critical of monarchies and the nobles, saying that, since people did not necessarily inherit wisdom, it was wrong that they inherited the right to rule. He promoted votes for all (men) and fairer representation in parliament. he provided a model for a fairer political system. He suggested that the House of Lords should be abolished and that all men over 21 should be given the vote. He felt that this would mean that the House of Commons would pass laws that were good for most people.

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the only legitimate government was that established by a contract between all members of society and one in which all men preserved all their natural rights. except the individual right to use force. and protecting their rights. which would make the House of Commons and the House of Lords a stable and balanced government. Paine argued rationally that all men had an equal claim to political rights and that government must rest on the ultimate sovereignty of the people. maintained that each age had the right to establish a political system which satisfied its needs.  In Rights of Man Paine is much more explicit than in Common Sense about the kind of government he would like to see instituted . acknowledging the natural equality ofindividuals. and hereditary rights He defended that the parliament should be composed of both people with ability and people with property  People with ability should be elected based on their competence. traditions. regarding them as dangerous fanatics. In his Rights of Man. John Locke). philosopher. rejecting the lessons of history.a republic organized on rational and efficient lines. pamphleteer. as they have the influence and power. intelligence and capacities as they are the ones that can lead the country in a good way.      . but he took a very different line towards the revolutionaries in France after 1789. whose activities were largely unjustified and who threatened to bring chaos and disorder not just to France but to Europe as a whole “There should be an evolution without revolution” Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790) was an extremely influential attack on the French Revolution and on the radical principles which he thought underlay it The book is one of the key foundational texts of modern conservatism He argued that we should be very cautious about making sudden and revolutionary political changes. He rested his case on the moral basis of the natural equality of men in the sight of God. British radicals sought a reform of Parliament which would grant to all men the vote for members of the House of Commons. Before Paine. Paine abandoned this approach and. Edmund Burke     Conservative Whig Irishman who became a politician. while people with property are also vital. Since government is a necessary evil that men accepted as a means of protecting their natural rights (cf. and that we ought to have the highest respect for customs. and member of parliament in Britain Initially welcomed the French Revolution but predicted the violence Burke defended the Americans.

Many radicals were arrested and laws passed to ban corresponding societies and unions. groups of radicals formed corresponding societies in some larger towns. Sheffield Constitutional Society. The shock resulted in the death of his pregnant wife. Society of the Friends of the People London Corresponding Society was very active  London Corresponding Society In 1800. At the end of the eighteenth century.g. They became very concerned when the French revolutionaries executed their king. It was the first radical group to be open to everyone. The government in Britain was worried that these societies might start a revolution too. London Corresponding Society. supporters of the government attacked Hardy's house. Alarmed by the events in France and by the popularity of the London Corresponding Society. later called radicals. He later moved to France and became involved in the French Revolution. where he played an influential role in drafting the Declaration of Independence. Paine wrote a book called 'The Rights of Man' which said that everybody should have the right to be involved in government. Their motto was that 'our members be unlimited'. Manchester Constitutional Society. during the late 1780s and the 1790s. some people. The most important radical writer at this time was Thomas Paine. questioned if this was the best method of government. Inspired by these ideas. Paine was born in Thetford and moved to America. Politics and the running of the government was limited to a small number of wealthy people. Thomas Hardy was a radical and the Secretary of the London Corresponding Society. His book sold half a million copies and was read by many more. officials arrested Thomas Hardy in May 1794 for high treason.   They wanted people to be equally represented in the parliament They wanted to unite the society to fight as a community for the same rights . They began to meet at the same time that a revolution was taking place in France.  Supporter of the monarchy and inheritance system Hierarchy is crucial and property has always been unequal Radical societies   Declaration of the Rights of Man gave radicalism a new lease of life Many radical societies were formed after 1792 e. passed around between groups of people and used as the discussion topic at political meetings. Shortly after his arrest. very few people had the right to vote. Hardy wanted to send a petition to Parliament in the hope that the political system would be reformed. working with the leaders to produce the Declaration of the Rights of Man.

new machines. end of traditions and taboos) Husband/Wife relationship in the 19th century:  The wife could not own property  She could not make a will  . of sound mind and not undergoing punishment for crime  Secret elections  No property qualification for members of parliament  Payment of MPs  Equal size constituencies  Annual parliaments 3 petitions  one man one vote only established in 1928  Trouble and Strife (1815-1820)  The industrial and agrarian revolutions caused widespread poverty and misery in both town and country  enclosures. price rises affected the trades  Radicals kept up a constant stream of criticism of the government and the way society was organised    Women in the nineteenth-century England   Working class women were divided into rural and urban women Common Female Images:  The leisured lady (submissive. government worried about the effect of the pamphlets on the population Chartism (1838-1858)   Political movement.  They wanted constitutional freedom They wanted to counteract the blackening of the reformers  Radical pamphlets were important. home-based. wage cuts. guardian family virtue) and the  The factory girl  The domestic  The spinster/old maid  The ‘Fallen Woman’ or the Magdalen  The ‘New Woman’ (economic independence. short-time working. bad working and living conditions in industrial towns The Corn Law  kept the price of bread high and restricted importation of corn Hidden taxes appeared Unemployment. demanding political rights and political participation Six points:  A vote for every man 21 years of age.

 She could not sue or be sued  He could chastise her ‘with a stick no thicker than his thumb’  She had no right to the custody of her children after separation             Debate over women’s proper place in society was increasingly intense throughout the 18th century In England every wife was under the legal authority of her husband A wife was not a citizen and so had no political rights Greatest women novelists of the time described the difficulties of girls and good education Women were the majority of the urban population  many moved from the countryside to get jobs in domestic service or shops Started participating in new kinds of charity and patriotic and political associations New types of paid work appeared  worries about female conduct and about the roles of the sexes Women were urged to stay at home and most upper-class women still stayed in the domestic sphere at this time It was believed that women were born to obey. to encourage to think for themselves  Women are also active citizens  She thinks that women must expand their knowledge in order to be good wives mothers  if children are educated to understand the principles of patriotism. then their mother must be a patriot (educated) as well.  School subjects for women should include extras  A better education would make women become aware of their capacities and increasingly demand to take part in the public sphere . which was often taken as the start of movement for the emancipation of women  She reflects on the concept of education  She believes that children shouldn’t be educated at home but in schools where they spend time with other children in their age. they were less clever and physically weaker than men and women were more dependent on men than vice versa Her role was to bring up the next generation and educate her children to be good patriots a force for change/emancipation was needed  the Suffragettes Mary Wollstonecraft wrote a book named “Vindication of the Rights of Women”. they should also be educated together. girls and boys.

low wages Factory Acts:      factory legislation gradually restricted working hours. physical punishment. +13 year old to work 12 hours daily. extended family.5 hours a day. daily working hours limited to 12 hours for under 16s Penalties allowed for parents who ignored the age limit 1833: extended the prohibition of child labour under 9 years old to all textile mills and factories. short breaks. children. 4 factory inspectors were appointed 1844: factory inspection was made more adequate. in the morning or afternoon 1847: max 10 hour day stipulated for women and children 1850: mills to close at 14:00 on Saturdays 1874: standard working week was limited to 56. women and young people were limited to 12 hour days. children from 9 to 13 years old were required to have 2 hours schooling per day and work a max. of 8 hours a day. children from 9 to 16 years old worked 6.5 hours for textile workers  Numerous factory laws were introduced during the Industrial Revolution but there weren’t really effective. long hours. accidents. imposed a minimum working age and provided for the education of working children first act 1802: regulated the apprenticeship system in cotton mills 1819: no child to be employed in cotton mills or factories. trade and occupational skills to family members  Productive unit Pre-factory work was ‘natural’ such as harvesting or milking The factory system caused a physical separation of members for many hours Wife/mother role affected by working outside the home  less time for domestic work and child care No land for growing food Position of the father within the family weakened Child labour became a necessary source income for poor families  Harsh working conditions. excessive heat. She insisted that British society as a whole must be changed so that women could possess rights as citizens rather than just as women The factory system – differences between pre.There were factory inspectors to 'enforce' these laws but they were so poorly paid. servants Spent much time together at work and play Passed on education. Also many     .and the post-industrial families          Included parents. poor ventilation. they were easily bribed. silk mills were included.

So the laws may have been good in theory. they were very difficult to enforce. he spent his time to clean chimneys and in the end of the day he was not even given a comfortable place to sleep but had to rest on the bags of soot that he would collect poem gives an idea of the miserable conditions and the cruel deprivations that these little children had to survive in speaker talks about a fellow friend named Tom Dacre who got his head shaved because of the belief that curly hair seeped the child’s energy children had to live with their miserable situation because they did not have the power to complain In the poem Tom goes to bed and has a dream  he sees all his friend in his age locked up in black coffins which refer to the early death which many chimney sweeper met when they were still kids Reason were the harmful exposure to dust at all hours which damaged their lungs and often caused cancer Many kids would lose their lives because they would accidently get burnt while sweeping chimneys The angel that Tom sees in his dream symbolizes the little kids hope for a better tomorrow His has the optimism that one day the miseries of his life will end                . “The Chimney Sweeper”  shed light upon the oppression that the underage children went through so that the upper class and their money-hungry parents who sold them off to suit their needs major social issue has been perceived through the eyes of a little boy this little boy is unaware of the gross injustice being done to him gives an insight of the miserable lives of the little kids who had to work as chimney sweepers speaker tells us that after his mother died he was sold off by his father little children were in demand for the job of sweeping chimneys in England as they could climb up chimneys easily and clean them by removing all the soot and dust the kid was sold off at a fairly young age when he had not even learn to speak properly he was in an age when he was supposed to play and get educated.working parents were desperate for money and they lied about the ages of their children to get them work in factories and mines.

the masters weren’t interested in their education  the majority couldn’t read or write their own name . god even the king are presented as the ones who make a contribution to the suffering of the child and to ruin his life They do nothing for the betterment of the children They are all equally building hell for these children instead of saving them from their suffering God in the first poem is shown as the poor child’s only hope of freedom from his suffering // in the second poem he has been portrayed as a conspirator against the child’s innocence as he lets the child suffer so mu ch The innocence version is optimistic whereas the experience version is darker and realistic  rise to protest against the evil agencies which exploit children            The Climbing Boys         Very young boys who cleaned the chimneys of England There were master chimney sweepers who had many apprentices It was a constant practice to borrow these young boys from one another They were sold for very less money The youngest were often in the service of the worst class of masters Slept on soot bags Got no real food Even if the children were sent to Sunday school as enjoined by the Act.   They wash themselves in a river which means that these kids get free from the miseries which would promise them a great future and give them a chance to prosper The kids are shown playing because their innocence and childhood that was captured has been returned to them Belief in god to bring an end to his pain. innocence of the child who blindly invests his hopes in God In the Songs of Experience we find a much darker message in the poem the little boy now realizes the unfairness of the society which has taken his innocence from him to work for the ones who enjoy a high rung the poem opens with the image of a little kid who is described as a little black thing as he is covered from head to toe in soot when the child is asked where his parents are he says that they have gone to pray in the church  direct attack upon the parents who go to the God’s house to pray while their kids move from one house to another cleaning chimneys he says that they pushed him into this world of misery which teaches him to sing the notes of woe he has accepted the harshness of his life and the parents think that they have not done him any wrong as he seems apparently content with the way things are because he still plays and sings Parents.

legs and arms because they are in an age where their bones are in a growing state and they need to carry heavy bags of soot Cancer is another disease they suffer from due to the dust as well as asthma and cough because they work at all hours and in all weathers  short life Don’t get enough clothes and when they get wet no one takes care that they get changed  necessary for health and comfort There are cases of boys suffocated overpowered by the soot or various burns appeared Some try to get masters themselves because don’t have any other options others turn into thieves The public ignored and tolerated the treatments of young children for very long it did not much to help them from their suffering because they depended on their work .                They started working very early Their bad habits and filthy clothes cut them off from the rest of society With about 16 they got too big to climb chimneys up and they got unemployed and drifted into crime and vice Small boys were mere valuable in the sense that they were more serviceable Parents lie about the age of their children in order to sell him and make him work  no other certificates are asked to give evidence of their ages Some children are not washed for six months and don’t receive any education Make their knees and elbows very sore and sometimes even get burnt by chimneys partly on fire Afraid to go back to their parents because there they will go through a life of starving Boys are forced to climb up the chimney even if they are afraid to do so  sometimes they got forced by punishment (a greater boy sticks a pin in his feet if he doesn’t want to go) Several little girls employed Many children suffer from deformity of the spine.