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Final Exam Review

Biology

Biology
• Biology is the Study of Life
– Study of living things!

• • • • • • • • •

Forceps – Pick up small objects Graduated Cylinder – Measure Volume Scalpel – Cut during dissection Bunsen Burner – Gas/ Heat Solutions Striker – Lights Bunsen Burner Pipette- Dispense small amounts of liquid Funnel – Filter out solids from liquids Test Tube- Hold Small samples Mortal and Pestle – Grind solids into powder

Lab Equipment

Lab Safety
• Waft, wear goggles, wear gloves, keep area clean, do not mix unauthorized chemicals, follow directions, tell teacher if supplies are broken, clean up spills and glass immediately, use broken glass container, etc.

Microscope
• • • • • • • • • 1-2 Body Tube 3 – Revolving nosepiece 4- Objective lenses 5- Stage 6- Diaphragm 7- Light Source 8 – Base 9- Eyepiece with ocular lens 10- Arm 11 -12 Fine and Coarse Knob

Total Magnification
• Ocular Lens x Objective Lens 10 x 4 = 40 TM

• Prokaryote
– Has NO nucleus – Bacteria

• Eukaryote
– Has a nucleus – Plant and animal cells

Scientific Method
• • • • • • • • Problem/Question Research Hypothesis Design Experiment Collect/Analyze Data Results Conclusion Share Results

• • • • • • • • • • • •

Nucleus – Brain/ Controls Cell Nucleolus – Ribosomes made here Chloroplast- (Plants) Photosynthesis Ribosomes- Make proteins ER – Cell Highway Mitochondria – Makes ATP Golgi Body – Packaging Plant Cytoplasm – Jelly-like substance Central Vacuole – (Plants) Storage Lysosome- Garbage disposal Cell Membrane – Wall/barrier Cell wall- Plant – Shape and structure

Cell Parts

Phospholipid Bilayer
• • • • 2 layers surrounding cell Make up the cell membrane Hydrophilic heads Hydrophobic tails

Reproduction
• Sexual
– 2 organisms – Male and Female

• Asexual
– 1 organism – regeneration, budding, runners

Adaptations
• Help organisms survive

Metabolism vs. Homeostasis
• Metabolism
– Energy your body uses

• Homeostasis
– Body maintaining a stable environment

Endo vs Exo
• Endocytosis – Taking in nutrients • Exocytosis – Waste materials exiting the cell

• Hypertonic – Cell Shrinks • Hypotonic – Cell Swells • Isotonic – Cell stays the same

• Active Transport – Requires Energy • Passive Transport – No energy

• Osmosis- Diffusion of water (No Energy) • Diffusion – Movement from high to low (No Energy) • Facilitated Diffusion – Help of proteins (No Energy)

Organisms
• Autotroph – make own food

• Heterotroph – must eat other organisms

Photosynthesis

Organization
• • • • • • • Atom Organelle Cell Tissue Organ Organ System Organism

Organization
• • • • • • Organism Population Community Ecosystem Biome Biosphere

• Mitosis – body cells, growth, repair
– Identical, 46 chromosomes, diploid – I PMAT C

• Meiosis- Sex Cells
– Different, 23 chromosomes, haploid – PMAT 1 and 2

• Phenotype – Physical characteristics
– What you can see

• Genotype – Genetic make up

• Heterozygous- Different alleles (Aa) • Homozygous- Same alleles (aa, AA)

Punnett Square
• Gregor Mendel – Father of Genetics, monk, worked on pea plants • Make sure you can fill in a punnett square correctly!

• Dominant – capital letters
– Controls a trait

• Recessive – lowercase letters
– Hidden traits

DNA vs. RNA

• Replication – copies DNA • Transcription- makes RNA • Translation – makes protein

• Angiosperms – Have Flowers and juicy fruits • Gymnosperms, No flowers and has cones

• Food Chain
– Carrot -> Rabbit -> Fox

• Food Web – Collection of food chains • All food chains start with plants eho have the most energy • 10% of energy passes on to next level

• Producers make their own food • Consumers must eat other organisms
– Herbivore eats plants – Carnivore eats meat – Omnivore eats plants and meat

• Density dependent – Depends on the number of organisms there
– Sickness

• Density independent – Does not matter how many organisms
– Natural disasters

Symmetry
• Assymetrical – No symmetry (Coral) • Bilateral – 2 sided (Human, Cat) • Radial – Arranged in circle (jellyfish)

Atom

Bonds
• Covalent – Sharing of electrons • Ionic- Transfer of electrons

• Abiotic- Non-Living
– Wind, Rock, Temperature, water

• Biotic – Living
– Bacteria, Animals, Plants

Symbiotic Relationships
• Parasitism – One organism benefits while other is harmed • Mutualism – both organisms benefit • Commensalism- One organism benefits while other is unaffected