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History of Colombia

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History of Colombia
This article deals with the history of Colombia, a country in South America.
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History of Colombia

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Pre-Columbian period Spanish colonization New Kingdom of Granada Viceroyalty of New Granada

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United Provinces of New Granada 1810€1816 Gran Colombia Republic of New Granada Granadine Confederation United States of Colombia Republic of Colombia
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1819€1831 1831€1858 1858€1863 1863€1886 since 1886

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The Muisca people had one of the most developed political systems in South America. the institution of the Spanish Royal Audiencia in Bogot• gave A Colombian mummy from the Colombian National Museum in Bogot•. Cartagena was founded on June 1. and the Muiscas in the highlands near Bogot•. Within Colombia. where they finally met. the two cultures with the most complex cacicazgo systems were the Tayronas in the Caribbean region. both of which belonged to the Chibchan language family. The Spanish made several attempts to settle along the north coast of today's Colombia in the early 16th century. the Viceroyalty of New Granada was originally created. and then it was temporarily removed. a pyramidal power structure headed by a cacique. The Viceroyalty had Santa F„ de Bogot• as its capital. under Jimen„z de Ques•da. from his raft. Although all three were drawn by the Indian treasures. that city the status of capital of New Granada. Ecuador and Panama.History of Colombia 2 Pre-Columbian period Approximately 10. fueled first by the gold in the tombs of the Sinƒ Culture. along with Lima and Mexico City. In 1549. was not established until 1525. Sebasti•n de Benalc•zar (known in Colombia as Belalc•zar) and Nikolaus Federmann. Cartegena grew rapidly. surpassed only by the Incas. at Santa Marta. groups of Amerindians developed a political system.000 years BC hunter-gatherer societies existed near present-day Bogot• (at El Abra and Tequendama).[2] In August 1538 Ques•da founded Santa Fe de Bogot• on the site of Muisca village of Bacat•.[citation needed] Colonial times The territory that became Colombia was first visited by Europeans when the first expedition of Alonso de Ojeda arrived at the Cabo de la Vela in 1499. and later by trade. This old Muisca tradition became the origin of the El Dorado legend. 1533 by Spanish commander Pedro de Heredia. In 1717. the cacicazgo. in the former location of the indigenous Caribbean Calamar‚ village. The Spanish advance from inland from the Caribbean coast began independently from three different directions. but their first permanent settlement. Beginning in the first millennium AD. none intended to reach Muisca territory. Bogot• became one of the principal administrative centers of the Spanish possessions in the New World. he offered treasures to the Guatavita goddess in the middle of the sacred lake. . The Zipa used to cover his body in gold and. and they traded with one another and with cultures living in the Magdalena River valley. So. This Viceroyalty included some other provinces of northwestern South America which had previously been under the jurisdiction of the Viceroyalties of New Spain or Peru and correspond mainly to today's Venezuela. to finally be reestablished in 1739. which comprised in large part what is now territory of Colombia.

but Cundinamarca did not recognize the new federation. Constant fighting between federalists and centralists gave rise to a period of instability. the long independence struggle was led mainly by Bol‚var and Francisco de Paula Santander in neighboring Venezuela. There were two fruitless attempts at establishing a congress of provinces in the subsequent months. and once again in 1814. that the Spanish Supreme Central Junta had dissolved itself.History of Colombia 3 The Patria Boba: The Beginning of the Struggle for Independence The period between 1796 and 1806 was marked by intense conflicts over the nature of the new government or governments. the Republic of New Granada. president of Gran Colombia and Santander. set up its own autonomous juntas. the Department of Cundinamarca (as established in Angostura) became a new country. vice president. which included all territories under jurisdiction of the former Viceroyalty of New Granada. From there he led an army over the Andes and captured New Granada after a quick campaign that ended at the Battle of Boyac•. (For more information. Cartagena de Indias established a junta on May 22. As the Federation of Gran Colombia was dissolved in 1830. but later moved to Tunja and Leyva to maintain independence from the capital city.) That year. including the viceregal capital. declarations of independence in Quito (1809). which came to be known as la Patria Boba (the Foolish Patriotism). Bol‚var returned to New Granada only in 1819 after establishing himself as leader of the pro-independence forces in the Venezuelan llanos. and even some cities. Bol‚var was elected first. 1819. and battles broke out between cities and towns as each tried to defend its sovereignty. Cartagena fell in December. on August 7. 1810. Each province. on July 20 (today Colombia's Independence Day). With the arrival of news in May 1810 that southern Spain had been conquered by Napoleon's forces. Gran Colombia: Independence Achieved From then on." which first met in Bogot•. It established a confederation called the United Provinces of New Granada on November 27. Bogot•. see Military career of Sim€n Bol•var. followed others. The Boyaca bridge crucial in the Battle of Boyac•. Cundinamarca convened a "Congress of the United Provinces. established their own governments. 1811. By mid-1815 a large Spanish expeditionary force under Pablo Morillo had arrived in New Granada. the Congress of Angostura established the Republic of Gran Colombia. Gran Colombia (1810). The Republic: Liberal and Conservative Conflict . By March 1811 the province of Bogot• had transformed itself into a state called Cundinamarca." it failed to provide political unity. Venezuela and Paraguay (1811) and other territories. which declared themselves sovereign from each other. and by May 1816 the royalists had control of all of New Granada. The dispute over the form of government erupted into civil war by the end of 1812. Although the Bogot• junta called itself a "Supreme Junta of the New Kingdom of Granada.

Thousand Days War (1899€1902) cost an estimated 100. When he did not restore democratic rule and occasionally engaged in open repression. and from 1953 to 1957 (under General Gustavo Rojas Pinilla). and a broadened suffrage. Civilian rule was restored within one year in the first two instances. and up to 300. violent conflict. sought strong centralized government. which resulted in the establishment of it as a nation. and in 1886 the country adopted its present name: "Republic of Colombia". Rojas enjoyed considerable popular support. after the dissolution of Great Colombia. a bipartisan confrontation which erupted after the assassination of Liberal popular candidate Jorge Eli„cer Gait•n. wanted a decentralized government. alliance with the Roman Catholic Church. Notwithstanding the country's commitment to democratic institutions. and a limited franchise. Bol‚var's supporters. . A military coup in 1953 toppled the right-wing government of Conservative Laureano G…mez and brought General Gustavo Rojas to power.History of Colombia 4 History of the Republic of Colombia Graphical timeline 1899€1902 1903 1932€1933 1939€1945 1948€1958 1958€1974 € € € € € € Thousand Days' War Separation of Panama Colombia-Peru War World War II La Violencia National Front Current internal armed conflict Economic Constitutional Military 1964€present € € € € In 1863 the name of the Republic was changed officially to "United States of Colombia". free elections. Two political parties grew out of conflicts between the followers of Bol‚var and Santander and their political visions•the Conservatives and the Liberals € and have since dominated Colombian politics.000 lives. who later formed the nucleus of the Conservative Party.000 people died during "La Violencia" (The Violence) of the late 1940s and 1950s. Initially. Colombia's history has also been characterized by widespread. Colombia maintained a tradition of civilian government and regular. Throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries. however. again in 1854 (by General Jos„ Mar‚a Melo). each party held the presidency for roughly equal periods of time. due largely to his success in reducing "La Violencia". he was overthrown by the military in 1957 with the backing of both political parties. state rather than church control over education and other civil matters. Two civil wars resulted from bitter rivalry between the Conservative and Liberal parties. Santander's followers. forerunners of the Liberals. United States activity to influence the area (especially the Panama Canal construction and control) led to a military uprising in the province of Panama in 1903. The military has seized power three times in Colombia's history: in 1830. and a provisional government was installed.

such as stealing a sword that had belonged to Colombia's Independence hero Simon Bol‚var. which resulted in the defeat of the relatively populist candidate Gustavo Rojas. demanding the completion of true land and political reform. Both groups claimed to represent the poor and weak against the rich and powerful classes of the country. Citizen exhaustion due to the conflict's newfound intensity led to the election of president Belisario Betancur (1982€1986). many social and political injustices continued. the 1886 Colombian constitution • in effect until 1991•required that the losing political party be given adequate and equitable participation in the government which. At the same time. By 1974. its larger profile soon made it the focus of the state's counterinsurgency efforts. for most of the previous 30 years. former Conservative President Laureano G…mez (1950€1953) and former Liberal President Alberto Lleras (1945€1946. The National Front ended "La Violencia". a Conservative who won 47% of the popular vote. though of some military value against the M-19 in particular. Initially. from an openly Communist perspective. In the end. and negotiated a 1984 cease-fire with the FARC and M-19 after a 1982 release of many guerrillas imprisoned during the . together with the relative success of the government's efforts against the M-19 and ELN. By 1982. The presidency would be determined by an alternating conservative and liberal president every 4 years for 16 years. directed peace feelers at all the insurgents. Under the latest such decree. different presidential administrations chose to focus on ending the persistent insurgencies that sought to undermine Colombia's traditional political system. and National Front administrations attempted to institute far-reaching social and economic reforms in cooperation with the Alliance for Progress. but it managed to reconstitute itself and escape destruction. the perceived passivity of the FARC. especially after what was apparently later confirmed as the fraudulent election of Conservative candidate Misael Pastrana in 1970." whereby the Liberal and Conservative parties would govern jointly. Although the system established by the Sitges agreement was phased out by 1974. according to many observers and later analysis. The ELN guerrilla had been seriously crippled by military operations in the region of Anor‚ by 1974. Post-National Front years From 1974 until 1982. the M-19 attracted a degree of attention and sympathy from mainstream Colombians that the FARC and National Liberation Army (ELN) had found largely elusive earlier due to extravagant and daring operations. Despite the progress in certain sectors. but subsequent administrations have tended to include members of opposition parties. president Turbay had implemented security policies that. a mostly urban guerrilla group founded allegedly in response to an electoral fraud during the final National Front election of Misael Pastrana (1970€1974) and the defeat of former dictator Gustavo Rojas. eventually resulted in some increase in corruption and legal relaxation. were considered highly questionable both inside and outside Colombian circles due to numerous accusations of military human rights abuses against suspects and captured guerrillas.History of Colombia 5 The National Front regime (1958€1974) In July 1957. the contradictions between each successive Liberal and Conservative administration made the results decidedly mixed. another challenge to the state's authority and legitimacy had come from 19 April Movement (M-19)." in which they proposed a "National Front. the two parties would have parity in all other elective offices. enabled the administration of the Liberal Party's Julio C„sar Turbay (1978€1982) to lift a state-of-siege decree that had been in effect. "Movimiento 19 de Abril" (19 April Movement). would eventually be founded in part as a response to this particular event. The current 1991 constitution does not have that requirement. in part due to the administration of Alfonso L…pez Michelsen (1974€1978) allowing it to escape encirclement. 1958€1962) issued the "Declaration of Sitges. The National Front system itself eventually began to be seen as a form of political repression by dissidents and even many mainstream voters. hoping to initiate a peace process with the group. on and off. The M-19 guerrilla movement.

including extradition. extorting and politically intimidating voters even as the UP was already participating in politics. Nevertheless. violence continues as these drug organizations resort to violence as part of their operations but also to protest government policies. as it continued to advance high profile negotiations with the FARC. scores of people lost their lives. The ELN rejected entering any negotiation and continued to recover itself through the use of extortions and threats. individual FARC members initially joined the UP leadership in representation of the guerrilla command. which stemmed both from private proto-paramilitary organizations. as well as kidnapping. which led to the creation of the Patriotic Union (Colombia) (UP). the growing illegal drug trade and its consequences were also increasingly becoming a matter of widespread importance to all participants in the Colombian conflict. Political violence against FARC and UP members (including presidential candidate Jaime Pardo) was blamed on drug lords and also on members of the security forces (to a much lesser degree on the argued inaction of Betancur administration). Pressure from the U. In the ensuing crossfire that followed the military's reaction. origin. as the Medell‚n Cartel and its hitmen. 1985. whose assassination in 1984 made the Betancur administration begin to directly oppose the drug lords. as did most of the guerrillas. including several high-ranking operatives.S. in addition to continuing to handle the difficulties of the complex negotiations with the guerrillas. smaller and often-competing trafficking organizations. Narcoterrorists assassinated three presidential candidates before C„sar Gaviria was elected in 1990. increasingly powerful drug lords and a number of would-be paramilitary-sympathizers within the armed forces. though most of the guerrilla's chiefs and militiamen did not demobilize nor disarm. paramilitaries. which culminated in the elections for a Constituent Assembly of Colombia that would . Tension soon significantly increased. Eventually the kidnapping of drug cartel family members by guerrillas led to the creation of the 1981 Muerte a Secuestradores (MAS) death squad ("Death to Kidnappers").S. indiscriminate acts of violence associated with that organization have abated as the "cartels" have broken up into multiple. On November 6. intending to put president Betancur on trial. Meanwhile. Members of the government and security authorities increasingly accused the FARC of continuing to recruit guerrillas. as both sides began to accuse each other of not respecting the cease-fire. also inherited a particularly chaotic confrontation against the drug lords. Victims of cartel violence. The M-19 and several smaller guerrilla groups were successfully incorporated into a peace process as the 1980s ended and the 1990s began. and also questioning the government's real willingness to implement any accords. 6 Post 1990 Following administrations had to contend with the guerrillas. narcotics traffickers and the violence and corruption that they all perpetuated. Guerrillas and newly wealthy drug lords had mutually uneven relations and thus numerous incidents occurred between them. politicians and others who stood in its way by supporting the implementation of extradition of Colombian nationals to the U. both through force and negotiation. the M-19 stormed the Colombian Palace of Justice and held the Supreme Court magistrates hostage. Both sides blamed each other for the outcome. as that was not a requirement of the process at that point in time. The UP also suffered an increasing number of losses during this term (including the assassination of presidential candidate Bernardo Jaramillo). As these events were developing. bribed or murdered numerous public officials. The Virgilio Barco (1986€1990) administration. a legal and non-clandestine political organization.S.History of Colombia previous effort to overpower them. government and critical sectors of Colombian society was met with further violence. This included Justice Minister Rodrigo Lara. Since the death of Medell‚n cartel leader Pablo Escobar in a police shootout during December 1993. who were engaged in a campaign of terrorism and murder in response to government moves in favor of their extradition overseas. claiming that the cease-fire had not been fully respected by official security forces. The Betancur administration in turn questioned the M-19's actions and its commitment to the peace process. in particular against foreign oil companies of European and U. saying that several of its members had suffered threats and assaults. The first negotiated cease-fire with the M-19 ended when the guerrillas resumed fighting in 1985.

which later was reversed). 1998. The military also suffered several setbacks in its fight against the guerrillas. The new Constitution. the new Constitution inaugurated an era that was both a continuation and a gradual. The Colombian Army's assault on the FARC's Casa Verde sanctuary at La Uribe. but significant. Additionally. Pastrana defeated Liberal Party candidate Horacio Serpa in a run-off election marked by high voter turn-out and little political unrest. and in many cases. to protest what it called "paramilitary terrorism" but returned to the negotiating table in February 2001. seeking to eventually defeat the military in the field). thus slowing. following 2 days of meetings between President Pastrana and FARC leader Manuel Marulanda. President Ernesto Samper assumed office in August 1994. mutually reinforcing problems. but was ultimately unable to do so due to the state's 1997€1998 economic crisis. were temporarily cut off in 1990 under the presidency of C„sar Gaviria (1990€1994). The FARC suspended talks in November 2000. endemic violence. a political crisis relating to large-scale contributions from drug traffickers to Samper's presidential campaign diverted attention from governance programs. humanist. and strengthen the democratic and social institutions of the country. followed by a FARC offensive that sought to undermine the deliberations of the Constitutional Assembly. the Pastrana administration unveiled its Plan Colombia in late 1999. . unemployment has risen to over 20%. halting progress on the nation's domestic reform agenda. improve respect for human rights. In order to confront these challenges. democratic and politically open than those in the 1886 constitution. the Pastrana administration also has had to combat high unemployment and other economic problems. A member of the Conservative Party. an integrated strategy to deal with these longstanding. which had irregularly continued despite the generalized de facto interruptions of the ceasefire and the official 1987 break from negotiations. The main stated objectives of the original Plan Colombia were to promote peace. and social inequities. departure from what had come before. such as the fiscal deficit and the impact of global financial instability on Colombia. and smaller movements. corruption and the spread of even more violent paramilitary groups such as the United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC) has made it difficult to solve the country's problems. the expansion of illicit drug cultivation. Although the FARC and ELN accepted participation in the peace process. Colombia planned to finance US$4 billion of the estimated US$7. most of which would go towards the social portion of the project. However. revive the Colombian economy. Contacts with the FARC. During his administration. Meta. brought about a considerable number of institutional and legal reforms based on principles that the delegates considered as more modern. Practical results were mixed and mingled emerged (such as the debate surrounding the constitutional prohibition of extradition. they did not make explicit commitments to end the conflict. Andr„s Pastrana was sworn in as the President of Colombia. The Colombian Government and ELN in early 2001 continued discussions aimed at opening a formal peace process. the growing severity of countrywide guerrilla attacks by the FARC and ELN.History of Colombia write a new constitution. but together with the reincorporation of some of the guerrilla groups to the legal political framework. On August 7. 7 Plan Colombia No single explanation fully addresses the deep roots of Colombia's present-day troubles. when several of its rural bases began to be overrun and a record number of soldiers and officers were taken prisoner by the FARC (which since 1982 was attempting to implement a more "conventional" style of warfare. but they include limited government presence in large areas of the interior. The new president's program was based on a commitment to bring about a peaceful resolution of Colombia's longstanding civil conflict and to cooperate fully with the United States to combat the trafficking of illegal drugs. as well as the growth of drug production.5 billion overall cost. combat the narcotics industry. began to highlight a significant break in the uneven negotiations carried over from the previous decade. which took effect in 1991. While early initiatives in the Colombian peace process gave reason for optimism.

but also including a small amount of social aid. The Plan would fit within the broader social. and other countries.3 billion assistance package. has also shown some positive signs according to observers. but met with little cooperation as the would-be donors considered that the U. that the security situation must be stabilized in favor of the government before any other social concerns can take precedence. two years after its implementation began. the former liberal politician of conservative leanings †lvaro Uribe. and reforming Colombia's judicial system. the European Union. was sworn in as Colombian president. the security situation of inside Colombia has shown some measure of an improvement and the economy. In the fall of 2002. in May 2002. which had been stalled numerous times and finally ended due to a guerrilla kidnapping of a congressman and other political figures. Some critical observers consider that Uribe's policies. and political goals of Plan Colombia. the Cagu•n demilitarized zone was terminated by the Pastrana administration. it can be argued that a certain polarization between both supporters and opponents of President Uribe seems to be forming both inside and outside the country. but relatively little has yet to have been accomplished in structurally solving most of the country's other grave problems. 8 Recent developments As of 2004[3]. supporting alternate means of development. with the intention of financing the social component of the original plan. economic.History of Colombia The United States approved a US$1. in the long term. . the administration released the much-awaited Colombian national security strategy. Uribe was reelected in 2006 after a change in the constitution allowed presidents to be reelected. while still fragile. Soon after that. might be too slanted in favor of a military solution to Colombia's internal war. entitled Democratic Security and Defense Policy. the administration also is spending significant time on issues such as expanding international trade. focus more actively on reducing most wide-scale abuses and human rights violations on the part of both the armed groups and any rogue security forces that might have links to the paramilitaries. approved aid represented an undue military slant and additionally lacked the will to spend such amounts of money. The Colombian Government sought additional support from the IFIs. mostly of military and counternarcotics nature. Uribe's supporters in turn believe that increased military action is a necessary prelude to any serious negotiation attempt with the guerrillas and that the increased security situation will help to. In short. With such conflicting perspectives. possibly in part due to legislative and political conflicts between the administration and the Colombian Congress (including those over the controversial project to eventually re-elect Uribe). whose father had been killed by left-wing guerrillas. After the eventual breakup of the peace negotiations. protecting civilians and reducing any abuses committed by the armed forces. and a relative lack of freely allocated funds and credits.S. They ask for Uribe's government to change this position and make serious efforts towards improving the human rights situation inside the country. while admittedly reducing crime and guerrilla activity. Though much attention has been focused on the security and military aspects of Colombia's situation. neglecting grave social and human rights concerns to a certain extent. He immediately began taking action to crush the FARC including the employment of citizen informants to help the police and armed forces track down suspected members in all three armed groups.

wikipedia. [3] http:/ / en.History of Colombia 9 Further reading € Earle.S. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. org/ w/ index. Rebecca. php?title=History_of_Colombia& action=edit External links € U. Accessed 6 May 2013. 2000.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/35754. Anthony. ISBN 0-7195-5566-3 € McFarlane. 1810-1830". 1810€1825. ISBN 0-85989-612-9 € Harvey. com/ colombia/ history. Exter: University of Exter Press. wikipedia.htm) . "Liberators: Latin America`s Struggle For Independence. lonelyplanet. "History of Colombia". ISBN 978-0-521-41641-2 she died in 2012 Notes [1] http:/ / en. and Politics under Bourbon Rule. London (2000). Robert. http:/ / www. 1993. John Murray. org/ w/ index. Society. State Department Background Note: Colombia (http://www. php?title=Template:History_of_Colombia& action=edit [2] Lonely Planet. Colombia Before Independence: Economy.state. Spain and the Independence of Colombia.

wikipedia. Indrian. Hmains. Cmdrjameson. Rich Farmbrough. Why Not A Duck. DARTH SIDIOUS 2. Andre Engels. Zero Gravity. DO'Neil.0 ‡Contributors: Martin St-Amant (S23678) Image:Puente Boyaca. R'n'B. Bryan Derksen. Gromlakh. Markan80.php?title=File:Puente_Boyaca. CharlotteWebb. PranksterTurtle. Escape Orbit. Chris the speller. TriniMu‰oz. Sir Nicholas de Mimsy-Porpington. AxelBoldt. T6435bm. Descendall. Discospinster. Rpf. Bobo192. MartinHarper. Ubuibiok. Conversion script. Aitias. Sesel. Cymru.svg ‡Source: http://en.php?title=File:Flag_of_Colombia. Juancarlos2004. Leuqarte. Dr Brains.php?title=File:Coat_of_arms_of_Colombia. Tide rolls. Nucleusboy.php?title=File:55_-_Bogota_-_D„cembre_2008. Dan100. Geneb1955. PBP.svg ‡Source: http://en. Whipsandchains. SWAdair.org/w/index. WhaleyTim. Koven. DrAwesome. PeterHuntington. Dougweller. Rbraunwa. Solipsist.org/w/index. Darwinek. Melsaran. GreatWhiteNortherner.org/w/index. Slyguy.Bogota . Lmcm1990. Licenses and Contributors File:Coat of arms of Colombia. DD2K. Mav. Tovk909.jpg ‡Source: http://en. Sportsguy17. Computerjoe. The Thing That Should Not Be. Modster. Gobonobo. Baiji. Miguel Andrade. Luna Santin. S23678. Penwhale. Sardanaphalus. NekoDaemon. Xevious. Egmontaz. The Storm Surfer.wikipedia. Iceman0108. Gaius Cornelius. Chrislewisuk. Marianocecowski.C.wikipedia. Koyaanis Qatsi. Warofdreams. Monegasque.wikipedia. Grafen. Occur Curve. Calliopejen1. Damiens.JPG ‡License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.org/w/index. Thatguyflint. Adhalanay. Spangineer. Ikip. Gilliam.org/w/index. WikiUserPedia. Misza13. Yamamoto Ichiro. PeReIrAnO14. Cromulant. Joel amos. Wikiwind. Jusdafax. Kyphe. Youssefsan. Specs112.wikipedia. Materialscientist. Š. Wik. Nick Number.jpg ‡Source: http://en. Qader123. CommonsDelinker. Superbeecat. Accurizer.org/licenses/by-sa/3. JRHorse. Joy. Khoikhoi. Gillian Tipson.php?title=File:Muisca_raft_Legend_of_El_Dorado_Offerings_of_gold.svg ‡License: Public Domain ‡Contributors: SKopp File:Muisca raft Legend of El Dorado Offerings of gold. Dolovis.JPG ‡Source: http://en.Article Sources and Contributors 10 Article Sources and Contributors History of Colombia ‡Source: http://en.jpg ‡License: Creative Commons world66 ‡Contributors: Andrew Bertram File:55 . Moyogo. RagingR2. THB. Gzornenplatz. Conocimientoabierto. Kitkatcrazy. 344 anonymous edits Image Sources. Schizobullet. Jason M. Attilios. Robwingfield. Nethency. Seans Potato Business. Andres rojas22. Corlyon. Jewls25.wikipedia. Ctalmer.0/ . Malix. Pekinensis.D€cembre 2008. Antipastor. Marek69. Kozuch. Allens. Udufruduhu. Excirial. AnnaFrance.rm. Legis. CUSENZA Mario. Ahoerstemeier. ChrisGualtieri. Vervin.svg ‡License: Public Domain ‡Contributors: Shadowxfox File:Flag of Colombia. Choster. Sarcelles. RHaworth. Joyof. Woohookitty. Sunquanliangxiuhao. TexasAndroid. Kingv19.rf.0 //creativecommons. Pauly04. Darkstar8799. Giraffedata. Sam Hocevar. Wikilibrarian. Ruhrjung. Dukeofomnium. Thisnewnerd. THEN WHO WAS PHONE?.php?oldid=585350185 ‡Contributors: 1966batfan. Davewild. Sciurinˆ. Kulkuri.org/w/index. Er Komandante. Peter. LeaveSleaves. Alansohn. Lexor. Maashatra11. Hr oskar. Everyking. Vaquero100. Firetrap9254.lass. Epbr123.jpg ‡License: Public Domain ‡Contributors: Frank Ballesteros License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. Juglar. Bejnar. BertK. Canaima.