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Baltimore County Public Schools

Russian
Heritage Resource Packet

Developed and Distributed by Office of Equity and Assurance 2008-2009

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Russian History and Culture Resource packet

Acknowledgments
The materials included in this document are distributed in recognition of Russian history and culture and are intended for use by schools and teachers. The learning activities address elementary through high school grades. The Baltimore County Public Schools Office of Equity and Assurance gratefully acknowledges the cooperation and contributions of several Websites referenced throughout this document in the production of this publication. The activities herein are either reproduced with permission or in the public domain.

Packet prepared by: Shirley Page Consultant Office of Equity and Assurance Kim Sappe Student Intern Crystal Johnson Student Intern Mrs. Carol Morgan Administrative Assistant Dr. Barbara Dezmon Assistant to the Superintendent

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Russian history and culture resource packet Table of Contents Acknowledgments Table of Contents Introduction History and Cultural Information Elementary Activities and Lessons Middle School Activities and Lessons High School Activities and Lessons Websites Used 2 3 4 5 24 69 101 126

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Introduction
The materials included in this document are distributed in recognition of Russian history and culture and are intended for use by schools and teachers. Russian culture is one of the many cultures that make up today’s society. The learning activities address elementary, middle, and high school grades. Celebrating this culture and making all students familiar and aware is essential because it enables our society to become sensitive to and to have respect for what Russia has accomplished and contributed in the United States. Also, we hope that this will instill in the present generation of Russian students a renewed confidence in their heritage. The Office of Equity and Assurance has prepared this packet to assist the faculties throughout the school system. The publication consists of four sections. The first section contains the history and cultural information. The second section contains activities and lessons for elementary students. The third section includes information related to middle schools. The fourth section contains activities and lessons for high schools. The suggested activities and lesson plans within the packet may be adapted or modified to meet the needs of students.

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Russian History and Culture

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Russia
Russian Federation is a transcontinental country extending over much of northern Eurasia. It is a semi-presidential republic comprising 83 federal subjects. Russia shares land borders with the following countries (counterclockwise from northwest to southeast): Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania (via Kaliningrad Oblast), Poland (via Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Abkhazia, South Ossetia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It also borders the Arctic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the Caspian Sea, the Baltic Sea, and the Black Sea. Russia is close to the United States (Alaska) and Japan. At 17,075,400 square kilometers (6,592,800 sq mi), Russia is the largest country in the world, covering more than an eighth of the Earth’s land area; with 142 million people, it is the ninth largest by population.[2] It extends across the whole of northern Asia and 40% of Europe, spanning 11 time zones and incorporating a great range of environments and landforms. Russia has the world's greatest reserves of mineral and energy resources,[10] and is considered an energy superpower. It has the world's largest forest reserves and its lakes contain approximately one-quarter of the world's unfrozen fresh water. The nation's history began with that of the East Slavs. The Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a noble Viking warrior class and their descendants, the first East Slavic state, Kievan Rus', arose in the 9th century and adopted Christianity from the Byzantine Empire in 988,[13] beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Kievan Rus' ultimately disintegrated and the lands were divided into many small feudal states. The most powerful successor state to Kievan Rus' was Moscow, which served as the main force in the Russian reunification process and independence struggle against the Golden Horde. Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and came to dominate the cultural and political legacy of Kievan Rus'. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland eastward to the Pacific Ocean and Alaska. Russia established worldwide power and influence from the times of the Russian Empire to being the largest and leading constituent of the Soviet Union, the world's first and largest constitutionally socialist state and a recognized superpower. The nation can boast a long tradition of excellence in every aspect of the arts and sciences. The Russian Federation was founded following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, but is recognized as the continuing legal personality of the Soviet Union. It has one of the world's fastest growing major economies and has the world's eleventh largest GDP by nominal GDP or seventh largest by purchasing power parity with the eighth largest military budget. Russia is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, a member of the G8, APEC and the SCO, and is a leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States. It is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the world's largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.

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Geography
Geography of Russia The Russian Federation stretches across a large extent of the north of the super-continent of Eurasia. Because of its size, Russia displays both monotony and diversity. As with its topography, its climates, vegetation, and soils span vast distances.[16] From north to south the East European Plain is clad sequentially in tundra, coniferous forest (taiga), mixed and broadleaf forests, grassland (steppe), and semi-desert (fringing the Caspian Sea) as the changes in vegetation reflect the changes in climate. Siberia supports a similar sequence but is taiga. The country contains 23 World Heritage Sites[17] and 40 UNESCO Biosphere reserves.[18]

Topography
The two widest separated points in Russia are about 8,000 km (5,000 mi) apart along a geodesic line. These points are: the boundary with Poland on a 60 km long (40-mi long) spit of land separating the Gulf of Gdańsk from the Vistula Lagoon; and the farthest southeast of the Kuril Islands, a few miles off Hokkaidō Island, Japan. The points which are furthest separated in longitude are 6,600 km (4,100 mi) apart along a geodesic. These points are: in the West, the same spit; in the East, the Big Diomede Island (Ostrov Ratmanova). The Russian Federation spans 11 time zones.

Central Russian Upland, Zaraysk

Sochi, Krasnodar Krai

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The plains of Western Siberia, Vasyugan River, Tomsk Oblast Russia has the world's largest forest reserves and is known as "the lungs of Europe", second only to the Amazon Rainforest in the amount of carbon dioxide it absorbs. It provides a huge amount of oxygen for not just Europe, but the world. With access to three of the world's oceans — the Atlantic, Arctic and Pacific — Russian fishing fleets are a major contributor to the world's fish supply. The Caspian is the source of what is considered the finest caviar in the world.

Saranpaul, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug Most of Russia consists of vast stretches of plains that are predominantly steppe to the south and heavily forested to the north, with tundra along the northern coast. Mountain ranges are found along the southern borders, such as the Caucasus (containing Mount Elbrus, Russia's and Europe's highest point at 5,642 m / 18,511 ft) and the Altai, and in the eastern parts, such as the Verkhoyansk Range or the volcanoes on Kamchatka. The Ural Mountains form a north-south range that divides Europe and Asia, rich in mineral resources. Russia possesses 10% of the world's arable land. Russia has an extensive coastline of over 37,000 kilometers (23,000 mi) along the Arctic and Pacific Oceans, as well as the Baltic Sea, Sea of Azov, Black and Caspian seas. The Barents Sea, White Sea, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, East Siberian Sea, Chukchi Sea, Bering Sea, Sea of Okhotsk and the Sea of Japan are linked to Russia. Major islands and archipelagos include Novaya Zemlya, the Franz Josef Land, the Severnaya Zemlya, the New Siberian Islands, Wrangel Island, the Kuril Islands and Sakhalin. The Diomede Islands (one controlled by Russia, the other by the United States) are just three kilometers (1.9 mi) apart, and Kunashir Island is about twenty kilometers (12 mi) from Hokkaidō. Russia has thousands of rivers and inland bodies of water, providing it with one of the world's largest surface water resources. The largest and most prominent of Russia's bodies of fresh water is Lake Baikal, the world's deepest, purest, most ancient and most capacious freshwater lake. Lake Baikal alone contains over one fifth of the world's fresh surface water. Other major lakes include Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega, two largest lakes in Europe. Of Russia's 100,000 rivers, The Volga is the most famous—not only because it is the longest river in Europe but also because of its major role in Russian history. Russia has a wide natural resource base unmatched by any other country, including major deposits of petroleum, natural gas, coal, timber and mineral resources.

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Climate
Climate of Russia The climate of the Russian Federation formed under the influence of several determining factors. The enormous size of the country and the remoteness of many areas from the sea result in the dominance of the continental climate, which is prevalent in European and Asian Russia except for the tundra and the extreme southeast. Mountains in the south obstructing the flow of warm air masses from the Indian Ocean and the plain of the west and north makes the country open to Arctic and Atlantic influences. Throughout much of the territory there are only two distinct seasons — winter and summer; spring and autumn are usually brief periods of change between extremely low temperatures and extremely high. The coldest month is January (on the shores of the sea—February), the warmest usually is July. Great ranges of temperature are typical. In winter, temperatures get colder both from south to north and from west to east. Summers can be quite hot and humid, even in Siberia. A small part of Black Sea coast around Sochi has a subtropical climate. The continental interiors are the driest areas.

History
Early Periods
Further information: Eurasian nomads, Scythia, Bosporan Kingdom, and Khazaria

Kurgan hypothesis: South Russia as the urheimat of Indo-European peoples In prehistoric times, the vast steppes of Southern Russia were home to disunited tribes of nomadic pastoralists. In classical antiquity, the Pontic Steppe was known as Scythia. Remnants of these steppe civilizations were discovered in the course of the 20th century in such places as Ipatovo, Sintashta, Arkaim, and Pazyryk. In the latter part of the eighth century BC, Greek traders brought classical civilization to the trade emporiums in Tanais and Phanagoria. Between the third and sixth centuries BC, the Bosporan Kingdom, a Hellenistic polity which succeeded the Greek colonies, was overwhelmed by successive waves of nomadic invasions, led by warlike tribes, such as the Huns and Turkic Avars. A Turkic people, the Khazars, ruled the lower Volga basin steppes between the Caspian and Black Seas until the 8th century.

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An approximate map of the cultures in European Russia at the arrival of the Varangians The ancestors of modern Russians are the Slavic tribes, whose original home is thought by some scholars to have been the wooded areas of the Pinsk Marshes. Moving into the lands vacated by the migrating Germanic tribes, the Early East Slavs gradually settled Western Russia in two waves: one moving from Kiev toward present-day Suzdal and Murom and another from Polotsk toward Novgorod and Rostov. From the 7th century onwards, the East Slavs constituted the bulk of the population in Western Russia and slowly but peacefully assimilated the native Finno-Ugric tribes, including the Merya, the Muromians, and the Meshchera. Kievan Rus'

Kievan Rus' in the 11th century The 9th century saw the establishment of Kievan Rus', a predecessor state to Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Scandinavian Norsemen, called "Vikings" in Western Europe and "Varangians" in the East, combined piracy and trade in their roamings over much of Northern Europe. In the mid-9th century, they ventured along the waterways extending from the eastern Baltic to the Black and Caspian Seas. According to the earliest Russian chronicle, a Varangian named Rurik was elected ruler (konung or knyaz) of Novgorod around the year 860; his successors moved south and extended their authority to Kiev, which had been previously dominated by the Khazars. In the 10th to 11th centuries this state of Kievan Rus' became the largest and most prosperous in Europe. The reigns of Vladimir the Great (980-1015) and his son Yaroslav I the Wise (101910

1054) constitute the Golden Age of Kiev, which saw the acceptance of Orthodox Christianity and the creation of the first East Slavic written legal code, the Russkaya Pravda. In the 11th and 12th centuries, constant incursions by nomadic Turkic tribes, such as the Kipchaks and the Pechenegs, caused a massive migration of Slavic populations to the safer, heavily forested regions of the north, particularly to the area known as Zalesye. Like many other parts of Eurasia, these territories were overrun by the Mongols. The invaders, later known as Tatars, formed the state of the Golden Horde, which pillaged the Russian principalities and ruled the southern and central expanses of Russia for over three centuries. Mongol rule retarded the country's economic and social development. However, the Novgorod Republic together with Pskov retained some degree of autonomy during the time of the Mongol yoke and was largely spared the atrocities that affected the rest of the country. Led by Alexander Nevsky, Novgorodians repelled the Germanic crusaders who attempted to colonize the region. Kievan Rus' ultimately disintegrated as a state because of in-fighting between members of the princely family that ruled it collectively. Kiev's dominance waned, to the benefit of Vladimir-Suzdal in the north-east, Novgorod in the north-west and Galicia-Volhynia in the south-west. Conquest by the Golden Horde in the 13th century was the final blow and resulted in the destruction of Kiev in 1240. Galicia-Volhynia was eventually absorbed into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, while the Mongol-dominated Vladimir-Suzdal and the independent Novgorod Republic, two regions on the periphery of Kiev, established the basis for the modern Russian nation. Grand Duchy of Moscow and Tsardom of Grand Duchy of Moscow and Tsardom of Russia

The growth of Russia, 1300—1796

A scene from medieval Russian history 11

The most powerful successor state to Kievan Rus' was Grand Duchy of Moscow. It would annex rivals such as Tver and Novgorod, and eventually become the basis of the modern Russian state. After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, Moscow claimed succession to the legacy of the Eastern Roman Empire. While still under the domain of the Mongol-Tatars and with their connivance, the Duchy of Moscow (or "Muscovy") began to assert its influence in Western Russia in the early 14th century. Assisted by the Russian Orthodox Church and Saint Sergius of Radonezh's spiritual revival, Russia inflicted a defeat on the Mongol-Tatars in the Battle of Kulikovo (1380). Ivan III (Ivan the Great) eventually threw off the control of the Tatar invaders, consolidated surrounding areas under Moscow's dominion and was the first to take the title "grand duke of all the Russias". In 1547, Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible) was officially crowned the first Tsar of Russia. During his long reign, Ivan IV annexed the Tatar khanates (Kazan, Astrakhan) along the Volga River and transformed Russia into a multiethnic and multiconfessional state. Ivan IV promulgated a new code of laws (Sudebnik of 1550), established the first Russian feudal representative body (Zemsky Sobor) and introduced local self-management into the rural regions. But Ivan IV's rule was also marked by the long and unsuccessful Livonian War against the coalition of Poland, Lithuania, and Sweden for access to the Baltic coast and sea trade. The military losses, epidemics and poor harvests weakened the state, and the Crimean Tatars were able to burn down Moscow. The death of Ivan's sons, combined with the famine of 1601-1603, led to the civil war and foreign intervention of the Time of Troubles in the early 1600s. By the mid-17th century there were Russian settlements in Eastern Siberia, on the Chukchi Peninsula, along the Amur River, and on the Pacific coast. The Bering Strait between North America and Asia was first sighted by a Russian explorer in 1648.

Imperial Russia
Russian Empire

Peter the Great officially proclaimed the existence of the Russian Empire in 1721 Under the Romanov dynasty and Peter I (Peter the Great), the Russian Empire became a world power. Ruling from 1682 to 1725, Peter defeated Sweden in the Great Northern War, forcing it to cede West Karelia and Ingria (two regions lost by Russia in the Time of Troubles), Estland, and Livland, securing Russia's access to the sea and sea trade. It was in Ingria that Peter founded a new capital, Saint Petersburg. Peter's reforms brought considerable Western European cultural influences to Russia. Catherine II (Catherine the Great), who ruled from

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1762 to 1796, continued the efforts to establish Russia as one of the Great Powers of Europe. In alliance with Prussia and Austria, Russia stood against Napoleon's France and eliminated its rival Poland-Lithuania in a series of partitions, gaining large areas of territory in the west. As a result of its victories in the Russo-Turkish War, by the early 19th century Russia had made significant territorial gains in Transcaucasia. Napoleon's invasion of Russia at the height of his power failed miserably as obstinate Russian resistance combined with the bitterly cold Russian winter dealt him a disastrous defeat, in which more than 95% of his invading force perished. The officers in the Napoleonic Wars brought ideas of liberalism back to Russia with them and even attempted to curtail the tsar's powers during the abortive Decembrist revolt of 1825, which was followed by several decades of political repression.

Napoleon's retreat from Moscow

The Russian Empire in 1866 and its spheres of influence The prevalence of serfdom and the conservative policies of Nicolas I impeded the development of Russia in the mid-nineteenth century. Nicholas's successor Alexander II (1855–1881) enacted significant reforms, including the abolition of serfdom in 1861; these "Great Reforms" spurred industrialization. However, many socio-economic conflicts were aggravated during Alexander III’s reign and under his son, Nicholas II. Harsh conditions in factories created mass support for the revolutionary socialist movement. In January 1905, striking workers peaceably demonstrated for reforms in Saint Petersburg but were fired upon by troops, killing and wounding hundreds. The abject failure of the Tsar's military forces in the initially-popular Russo-Japanese War, and the event known as "Bloody Sunday", ignited the Russian Revolution of 1905. Although the uprising was swiftly put down by the army and although Nicholas II retained much of his power, he was forced to concede major reforms, including granting the freedoms of speech and assembly, the legalization of political parties and the creation of an elected legislative assembly, the Duma; however, the hopes for basic improvements in the lives of industrial workers were unfulfilled. Russia entered World War I in aid of its ally Serbia and fought a war across three fronts while isolated from its allies. Russia did not want war but felt that the only alternative was German domination of Europe. Although the army was far from defeated in 1916, the already-existing public distrust of the regime was deepened by the rising costs of war, casualties (Russia 13

suffered the highest number of both military and civilian deaths of the Entente Powers), and tales of corruption and even treason in high places, leading to the outbreak of the Russian Revolution of 1917. A series of uprisings were organized by workers and peasants throughout the country, as well as by soldiers in the Russian army, who were mainly of peasant origin. Many of the uprisings were organized and led by democratically-elected councils called Soviets. The February Revolution overthrew the Russian monarchy, which was replaced by a shaky coalition of political parties that declared itself the Provisional Government. The abdication marked the end of imperial rule in Russia, and Nicholas and his family were imprisoned and later executed during the Civil War. While initially receiving the support of the Soviets, the Provisional Government proved unable to resolve many problems which had led to the February Revolution. The second revolution, the October Revolution, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Provisional Government and created the world’s first Communist state.

Soviet Russia
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, History of the Soviet Union, and Russian SFSR

Vladimir Lenin Following the October Revolution, a civil war broke out between the new regime and the Socialist Revolutionaries, Mensheviks, and the White movement. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk concluded hostilities with the Central Powers in World War I. Russia lost its Ukrainian, Polish and Baltic territories, and Finland by signing the treaty. The Allied powers launched a military intervention in support of anti-Communist forces and both the Bolsheviks and White movement carried out campaigns of deportations and executions against each other, known respectively as the Red Terror and White Terror. By the end of the Civil War, some 20 million had died and the Russian economy and infrastructure were completely devastated. Following victory in the Civil War, the Russian SFSR together with three other Soviet republics formed the Soviet Union on 30 December 1922. The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic dominated the Soviet Union for its entire 69-year history; the USSR was often referred to as "Russia" and its people as "Russians." The largest of the republics, Russia contributed over half the population of the Soviet Union. After Lenin's death in 1924, Joseph Stalin consolidated power and became dictator. Stalin launched a command economy, rapid industrialization of the largely rural country and collectivization of its agriculture and the Soviet Union was transformed from an agrarian economy to a major industrial powerhouse in a short span of time. This transformation came with a heavy price, however; millions of citizens died as a consequence of his harsh policies. 14

Stalingrad, 1942. The vast majority of the fighting in World War II took place on the Eastern Front.[61] Nazi Germany suffered 80% to 93% of all casualties there.

First human in space, Yuri Gagarin On 22 June 1941, Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union with the largest and most powerful invasion force in human history, opening the largest theater of the Second World War. Although the German army had considerable success early on, they suffered defeats after reaching the outskirts of Moscow and were dealt their first major defeat at the Battle of Stalingrad in the winter of 1942–1943. Soviet forces drove through Eastern Europe in 1944–45 and captured Berlin in May, 1945. In the conflict, Soviet military and civilian death toll were 10.6 million and 15.9 million respectively, accounting for half of all World War II casualties. The Soviet economy and infrastructure suffered massive devastation but the Soviet Union emerged as an acknowledged superpower. The Red Army occupied Eastern Europe after the war, including the eastern half of Germany; Stalin installed communist governments in these satellite states. Becoming the world's second nuclear weapons power, the USSR established the Warsaw Pact alliance and entered into a struggle for global dominance with the United States, which became known as the Cold War. After Stalin's death, Russian leader Nikita Khrushchev denounced Stalin and eased his repressive policies. He began the process of eliminating the Stalinist political system known as de-Stalinization and abolished the Gulag labor camps, releasing millions of prisoners. The Soviet Union launched the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1 and the Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first human being to orbit the Earth aboard the first manned spacecraft, Vostok 1. Tensions with the United States heightened when the two rivals clashed over the deployment of the U.S. Jupiter missiles in Turkey and Soviet missiles in Cuba. Following the ousting of Khrushchev, another period of rule by collective leadership ensued until Leonid Brezhnev established himself in the early 1970s as the pre-eminent figure in 15

Soviet politics. Brezhnev's rule oversaw economic stagnation and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, which dragged on without success and with continuing casualties inflicted by insurgents. Soviet citizens became increasingly discontented with the war, ultimately leading to the withdrawal of Soviet forces by 1989. From 1985 onwards, Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the policies of glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize the country. The USSR economy was the second largest in the world prior to the Soviet collapse. During its last years, the economy was afflicted by shortages of goods in grocery stores, huge budget deficits and explosive growth in money supply leading to inflation. In August 1991, an unsuccessful military coup against Gorbachev aimed at preserving the Soviet Union instead led to its collapse. In Russia, Boris Yeltsin came to power and declared the end of Communist rule. The USSR splintered into fifteen independent republics and was officially dissolved in December 1991. Boris Yeltsin was elected the President of Russia in June 1991, in the first direct presidential election in Russian history.

Russian Federation
History of post-Soviet Russia

1140th Anniversary of Russian statehood (2002) During and after the disintegration of the USSR when-wide ranging reforms including privatization and market and trade liberalization were being undertaken, the Russian economy went through a major crisis. This period was characterized by deep contraction of output, with GDP declining by roughly 50 percent between 1990 and the end of 1995 and industrial output declining by over 50 percent. In October 1991, Yeltsin announced that Russia would proceed with radical, market-oriented reform along the lines of "shock therapy", as recommended by the United States and International Monetary Fund. Price controls were abolished, privatization was started. Millions were plunged into poverty. According to the World Bank, whereas 1.5% of the population was living in poverty in the late Soviet era, by mid-1993 between 39% and 49% of the population was living in poverty. Delays in wage payment became a chronic problem with millions being paid months, even years late. Russia took up the responsibility for settling the USSR's external debts, even though its population made up just half of the

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population of the USSR at the time of its dissolution. The privatization process largely shifted control of enterprises from state agencies to groups of individuals with inside connections in the Government and the mafia. Violent criminal groups often took over state enterprises, clearing the way through assassinations or extortion. Corruption of government officials became an everyday rule of life. Many of the newly rich mobsters and businesspeople took billions in cash and assets outside of the country in an enormous capital flight. The long and wrenching depression was coupled with social decay. Social services collapsed and the birth rate plummeted while the death rate skyrocketed. The early and mid-1990s was marked by extreme lawlessness. Criminal gangs and organized crime flourished and murders and other violent crime spiraled out of control.

Moscow- City under construction. Moscow is the world's most expensive city to live in. In 1993 a constitutional crisis resulted in the worst civil strife in Moscow since the October Revolution. President Boris Yeltsin illegally dissolved the country's legislature which opposed his moves to consolidate power and push forward with unpopular neo-liberal reforms; in response, legislators barricaded themselves inside the White House, impeached Yeltsin and elected a new President and major protests against Yeltsin's government resulted in hundreds killed. With military support, Yeltsin sent the army to besiege the parliament building and disperse its defenders and used tanks and artillery to eject the legislators. The 1990s were plagued by armed ethnic conflicts in the North Caucasus. Such conflicts took a form of separatist Islamist insurrections against federal power, or of ethnic/clan conflicts between local groups. Since the Chechen separatists declared independence in the early 1990s, an intermittent guerrilla war (First Chechen War, Second Chechen War) has been fought between disparate Chechen rebel groups and the Russian military. Terrorist attacks against civilians carried out by Chechen separatists, most notably the Moscow theater hostage crisis and Beslan school siege, caused hundreds of deaths and drew worldwide attention. High budget deficits and the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis caused the financial crisis of 1998 and resulted in further GDP decline. On 31 December 1999 Boris Yeltsin resigned from the presidency, handing the post to the recently appointed prime minister, Vladimir Putin, who then won the 2000 election. Putin won popularity for suppressing the Chechen insurgency, although sporadic violence still occurs throughout the North Caucasus. High oil prices and initially weak currency followed by increasing domestic demand, consumption and investments has helped the economy grow for nine straight years, alleviating the standard of living and increasing Russia's clout on the world stage. While many reforms made during the Putin administration have been generally criticized by Western nations as un-democratic, 17

Putin's leadership over the return of order, stability and progress has won him widespread popularity in Russia. On March 7, 2008, Dmitry Medvedev was elected President of Russia.

RUSSIA - CULTURE - EDUCATION
Russian children begin school when they are 6 years old. Elementary school consists of the first 4 grades, middle school consists of 5 grades and high school is 2 grades. It is only required that children attend the first 9 grades. After that a child can go to work or do work/study. If a child wants to go to the University, however, he or she must complete all 11 grades. There are approximately 25-30 students in each class. All students learn at least one foreign language in school. Russian education system has three levels: school (called "school's education"), college ("middle education" and University ("high education"). A University education is more prestigious and higher than a College/middle education. Children either walk or take public transportation to get to school. The elementary, middle and high schools are located in 1 building, so all the children from the neighborhood go to the same place. School buses are only used by children who attend private schools. If parents want to send their children to a specialized school, they must arrange for the child's transportation to that school. All grades begin at 8:30 in the morning and children attend school Monday through Friday. There are 4 terms in a school year. Between the terms are vacations. The biggest vacation is for 3 months during the summer; the smaller vacation, in the fall is for 1 week. During the school day, children have a hot breakfast or snacks and dinners. It is very inexpensive to buy these things at school and children generally do not bring their own food from home. After classes children can stay at school, much like after-school programs in the U.S. until 6 pm. During this time the children can play, do homework, or participate in other activities such as dancing, singing, painting, or sports. These after-school programs are for free. Children are expected to be ready if the teacher calls them to answer homework questions or problems at the blackboard. If a student is not ready he or she will receive a bad grade. The grading system is: 5-excellent, 4 - very good, 3 - satisfactory, 2 - negative mark - if a student is not prepared or if his answer was very bad. Student's grades are not treated as confidential. All classmates know exactly who received which grade; the reason is to encourage children to compete for better grades. Poor grades are an embarrassment. If a student is graduating a school with only "5"s, and has had no lower grades in total marks for all 11 years, he or she will receive a "Gold medal". If the student has one "4" he or she will

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receive a "Silver medal". Earning a Gold medal is a big advantage for admission to a higher educational institution. There are many free (state) specialized schools in Russia. In addition to the curriculum taught in general schools, these schools also have a concentration in math or physics or foreign language. There are also separate music schools but this is an extra activity that a student would go to after their regular school day. Admission to these specialized schools is based on an entrance exam or a special aptitude. Some of these specialized schools are boarding schools; where the children live and only go home for vacation times. Unlike the U.S., students remain in the same classes with their first grade classmates from 1st through 11th grade. The classmates therefore know each other very well because they study and grow up together. After school classmates remain lifelong friends. Another very big difference between Russian and American schools is the amount of discipline and respect between teacher and student. Russian teachers are very strict and the children cannot talk, misbehave or be disrespectful in the classroom; it simply is not tolerated. This is true at the college and university level as well. As in the U.S., students usually perform a concert or some type of show for the holidays that is performed for the entire school. Russian students often go on field trips similar to the U.S.. They go to museums, theatres, exhibitions, or parks. In general, there are more similarities than differences between Russian and American schools. In Russia, as in the U.S., children are anxious to grow up and do adult things. Girls dream of having a good family; boys dream of having a good job.

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RUSSIA - CULTURE - HOLIDAYS
New Year Celebration

This is the most favorite holiday in Russia. It is anticipated as much as the Christmas holiday is in the U.S. When the communists came into power they forbid religious holidays. But Christmas tradition was so strong (the people continued to decorate the Christmas trees in an underhand way) and the government allowed the people to celebrate what was the Christmas holiday now in a different way and at a different time: now as a New Year holiday so long as the religious meaning was eliminated. Gradually the religious meaning to the holiday has deteriorated leaving the general meaning of the New Year holiday as one for a hope that the new year will be more happy and that all bad remains behind in the old year. The Christmas tree was renamed into a New Year tree. But the non-religious traditions of the Christmas holiday remain: Santa Claus, gifts, dancing around the Christmas tree and happy family times. Russian version of Santa Claus Old man Frost or "Ded Moroz" is the favored legend. Outwardly he resembles Santa Claus. He wears a long coat (usually red, sometimes blue), has a long beard and felt boots and carries a stick and a big sack. He comes by horses, usually 3. In the northern part of Russia he comes by deer. Old man Frost comes with his granddaughter, Snegurochka, the Snow Maiden, to help deliver the gifts. Snegurochka is made of snow; she is a beautiful young girl. Most often she is pictured as being around 17 to 20 years old; other times rarely, as a Preschool girl. She is always a blonde with big blue eyes and red cheeks. She too wears either a blue or red long coat. When the people decorate their apartments and Christmas tree, they place a Santa Claus and Snegurochka either under the Christmas tree or somewhere else in the room. Gifts are never put in stockings. Russian Santa Claus lays the gifts down under the tree (at midnight). If the children are too small and are sleeping on New Year's night (eve), they run to see under the tree when they awaken. If a family is celebrating the holiday together, all the gifts are put under the tree before midnight. After midnight everyone goes to the tree and opens gifts. After that they celebrate with a large festive dinner. It is a very late night. New Year's gifts are big and generous. Children dream about the holiday for a long time. Historically there was no tradition of writing a letter to Santa Claus as there is in the U.S. In recent times, that has changed and children are beginning to follow this western tradition as well. Russian New Year decorations are very similar to those in the U.S: garland, balloons, candles, and snowflakes. Many years ago another tradition was followed. Before New Years' families made Christmas tree decorations from color paper, fancy candy's wrappings, colored thread,

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and real candy. Russian Christmas tree's decorations are different from American and European trees. Russian trees are decorated in varied bright colors (not just one color or one style of ornament) with many different types of decorations: figures, icicles, and candy that kids can to finding and eating. Excitement and goodwill is felt long before the New Year. The streets are decorated and music is played everywhere. Long before New Year's, people begin their shopping. The gifts are purchased for everybody around. There are big decorated Christmas trees in the streets. There are free holiday shows in the public parks. You can see Santa Claus walking around on the streets. Television presents many holiday programs. And there are many New Year's parties. On New Year's Eve, people call and congratulate one another - relatives, friends, and colleagues. Russia has special children's New Year Parties (called "New Year Tree"). They take place one week before New Year and two weeks after (winter school vacations). This is special show for children (preschool, elementary and part of middle school age), with St.Claus, Snegurochka, gifts, singing and dancing around the Christmas tree. The parents buy a ticket for the child. The show is much like the Radio City Music Hall show in New York City. Russians do not celebrate Halloween, but at Christmas time people wear different costumes at New Year's parties. In country areas, children dress in costumes and go from neighbor to neighbor and are given candy and treats, much like Halloween. The children will dance and sing when they visit the neighbors. Very often the costumes are sewn by the parents. There are many popular children's Christmas songs (like American "Jingle Bells"). Eventually you will find a link here so you can hear some of the songs. Another very popular New Year tradition is for parents to hire people dressed as Santa Claus and Snegurochka to come to house parties. They come knocking at the door much to the delight of the children. They talk with the kids, and sing and dance and present gifts to the children (which the parents have either purchased themselves or have told the "actors" what they want them to bring). Most often the actors are college students trying to earn money. New Year's Eve (called New Year's Night in Russia) is a big celebration. There are many people in the streets celebrating. Families with young children celebrate at home just with their own family. Young single people like to go out from home. In the big cities there are many choices: many clubs and restaurants have special programs. The theatres and ballet are also popular on December 31 and January 1. Nobody wants to be alone on this night. Russia has one more special detail: they have two New Years. The tradition of greeting the New Year twice comes from the beginning of the twenty century. Before the communists, Russia had its own calendar. It was exactly the same as the western calendar, just delayed by two weeks. The new government adopted the western calendar but the Church continued using the old Russian calendar.

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Gradually, everyone has forgotten about the old calendar or have stopped celebrating religious holidays. Today, people celebrate New Year's even on December 31 and then some celebrate, or at least remember Orthodox Christmas and then New Year's on January 12 and 13. It is called Old New Year. Old New Year is not celebrated with quite as much "celebration" but TV stations repeat all New Year's programs. Young people, of course, have a New Year party again! Then, after January 13 everybody removes the decorations and Christmas trees. The holiday has come to an end. Russian Orthodox Easter Pascha is the highest celebration of the Orthodox Church. Russian Orthodox churches herald in the glorious event with a service, beginning at midnight on Pascha Sunday. After the service, proclaiming Christ's Resurrection, Easter baskets are blessed and shared. This signifies the end of the Great Lent, a forty day period of fasting. May Day - May 1-2 Originally the "Day of International Solidarity of Workers", it became just a holiday of spring and labor, though communists make their traditional demonstrations on that day. (Also called "International labor Day.)" Victory Day - May 9th On this holiday, the President of Russia sends congratulatory letters to all the veterans. There are parades, feasts, presents and flowers to give thanks to the people who fought for the defense of Russia. In all the cities there are meetings in which a leader or the mayor of the city gives speeches about the achievement of people in the war and veterans tell about their adventures in the war.

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Elementary Activities and lessons

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THE RUSSIAN FLAG
WHAT ARE THE COLORS ON THE RUSSIAN FLAG?

1._____ 2._____ 3._____
Why did you choose these colors? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

What do you believe these colors represent? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

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ANSWER PAGE!!!

History on the Russian Flag:
Russia's flag (sometimes called the "Imperial flag") was adopted on August 21, 1991. It consists of three equal horizontal bands of white (on the top), blue and red (on the bottom). The height is two-thirds the width. The design of the flag is over 300 years old and was first used by Peter the Great (it was adapted from the flag of the Netherlands). It was the official flag of Russia from May 7, 1883, until November 1917, when the communist Bolshevik revolution took place. When the communist regime fell, the old tri-color flag was reinstated.
Here are just some of the meanings of the Russian flag White - peace and honesty Red - hardiness, bravery, strength Blue - vigilance, truth and loyalty, perseverance & justice

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Russia Coloring Page

Russian girl

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Russian musician

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Russian Dessert!!!
Brief description: Children learn about Russian culture by eating a Russian fruit cake Food name: Russian fruit cake Ingredients: 3/4 c raisins, rinsed and chopped 3/4 c dried apricots, rinsed and chopped 1 c mixed candied fruits, chopped 1/2 c sherry 1/2 c sugar 1/2 c brown sugar 1/3 c butter 1 egg, beaten 1/2 c sourdough starter 1/2 c flour 1/2 Ts. baking soda Salt Cinnamon Nutmeg Sliced almonds 3 Tbs. sherry Directions:
Combine all fruits with sherry and let stand overnight. Cream sugars, butter and spices together until fluffy. Beat in an egg and then stir in sourdough starter. Stir in fruit mixture and almonds. Sift flour, baking soda and a pinch of salt together into batter and mix thoroughly. Turn into a prepared loaf pan (lay a loaf pan with baking paper and grease it with oil). Bake in a preheated oven center (about 275 degree F) until done. Remove from a pan and cool well before removing paper. Sprinkle 3 tablespoons of sherry over a cooled loaf before serving.

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RECIPE
Cheese Babka Ingredients: 2 packets cream cheese - soft 1 teaspon vanilla extract 1/2 cup butter 1/3 cup chopped red candied cherries 1 cup large curd cream style cottage 1/4 cup golden raisins 1/4 cup cheese 2 Tablespoons diced candied pineapple 1/2 cup sugar 1/4 cup toasted almonds 1 tablespoon fine shredded orange peel 1 tablespoon fine lemon peel FIRST , combine the first 7 ingredients, beat until smooth; SECOND, mix in remaining ingredients. THIRD, with a moistened piece of cheesecloth, line a clean flower pot whole. Put in mix and put on a rack to drain in refrigerator overnight or longer FOURTH, unmold and garnish with candied cherries.

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MOSCOW FUN FACTS
Capital Russia is: Moscow

Moscow: Is one of the largest populated cities in the world could you imagine living with so many people and you thought your family was big!

Major industries: Machine building, metal working, oil refining, and publishing. This would make a great place to live for people who enjoy building and creating things!

Population: More than 10 million people are living in Moscow; among them are representatives from other nations and ethnic groups. Being in a diverse place can help you learn and relate with other cultures and nationalities!

Climate: Hot summers and very cold winters. In the summer better bring your sunscreen and in the winter better bring a cool winter coat!

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Russia Key Words Word Search
Name: ___________________ Date: _________________

O A I S A C H L O G X Q L Z W M

N I Q L T T T F L H I V D W Z L

R T R S M U E J L W O W M I T Y

C Y E O I A R T G I V N S R Z S

L L T W D C Q D I Z B S E B R Y

P Q R F D R T A A H T S I S Q B

I Z A I U G Z U Y R W C A R T S

Q Z W O C S O M E D D U V U E Y

M A O I D K P N I I W C S Q G J

G I U F V P G P V L L B X D C B

G S M K V T M E L J Q D E R J Q

R S I K H H R F P W J I Z A L M

I U W F Z S Z Z U G V C O N R A

A R F P E D R D X D U F I T F E

U I A I N Z W Z Y R C Y D Z H U

J A L K S D F G E F N I V H J L

P B R A V E R Y R J R Z S V M B

S S M I T R Z D P L T D F U G K

W U U D R O J L F H L B M T M E

RED RUSSIA STRENGH

WHITE BLUE MOSCOW BEAR BRAVERY ASIA

HONESTY DIVERSE MUSIC ARTS

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Russia Key Words Answer Sheet
Name: ___________________ Date: _________________

O N R A I T I Q R S L S A T C L G T F H T O L X I Q V L Z D U J L

C Y

L L

P

I A I U G Z U Y

Q Z

M G G A I S

R S

I

A U J P

S

W U

Q Z

U R I

A B S

E T R O W F D D C R Q T I A Z B T A

W O U M I O I F K K C S O E D U V U E Y D V V K P I P T H

W F A L F P I K

R M U A I D R O J F H L M M E

M I E R G

H Z

E N S V T R Z P L T

S D Z D E R

G M R Z R W F E F P J V L U X Y D R U F Y V C

T D A

M N P I L W L C B S X Q D G J C B

Z D Z G Y D L E R F J I Z

H W I O V M S R Z S T Y

H R C A R T S

W G

W D

Q J D I E Z R J L

C N R D V

W N S S E I B R Y S Q B

D B U T K

O I

S F

W I

A N T Z H V E U L B

W Z M L

R F H J M G

Q M A

RED RUSSIA STRENGH

WHITE MOSCOW BRAVERY

BLUE BEAR ASIA

HONESTY DIVERSE MUSIC

ARTS

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Facts about Russia!
1. Russia: largest country in the world 2. Russia population:

+

Russian, Tatar, Ukrainian, Chuvash, Bashkir, Belarusian, Moldavian, other 3. Religion: Russian Orthodox, Muslim, other 4. Capital: Moscow 5. Symbol: Bear 6. Flag: three equal bands of white, blue and red 7. Location: Northern Asia 8. Independence (Soviet union): August 24,1991 9. National Holiday: 12 June

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RUSSIAN FOLK TALES

1. Little Snow Girl 2. The Magic Wild Geese 3. The Twelve Months

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LITTLE SNOW GIRL
Russian folk tale retold by Vladimir Dahl Once upon a time there was an old man and his wife, who had no children, no grandchildren at all. One feast day they went outside and watched other people's children making snowmen and throwing snowballs at one another. The old man picked up a snowball and said to his wife: "If only you and I had a little daughter as white and chubby as this, wife!" The old woman looked at the snowball, shook her head and said: "Well, we haven't and there's no getting one now, so there!" But the old man took the snowball into the cottage, laid it in a pot, covered it with a piece of cloth and placed it on the window-sill. When the sun rose, it warmed the pot and the snow inside began to melt. Suddenly the old couple heard a lisping sound in the pot under the piece of cloth. They ran up to take a look, and there in the pot lay a little girl, as white and chubby as a snowball. "I am Little Snow Girl, rolled from the snow of spring, warmed and browned by the sun of spring," she said to them. The man and his wife were beside themselves with joy. They took her out, and the old woman began sewing her some pretty clothes, while the old man wrapped her in a towel, rocked her and sang this lullaby: Sleep, Little Snow Girl, sleep, our tasty bun so sweet, Rolled from the snow of spring, Warmed by the sun of spring. We'll give you drink a-plenty; we’ll give you food galore, and make you such a pretty dress and teach you four times four. . So Little Snow Girl grew up, a joy to the old couple. She was good and clever, as little girls are in fairy tales, but very rarely in real life. Everything was going well for the old couple and their livestock. The cattle got through the winter safely, and in spring they put the chickens back into the yard. But no sooner had the moved them from the house to the hen-coop, than the trouble started. A fox came up to the old man's dog Zhuchka, pretending to be ill, and begged her in a whining voice: "Dear little Zhuchka of the white paws and silky tail, please let me go and warm up in the hen-coop!" Zhuchka had been with the old man in the forest all day and she didn't know that the old woman had put the chickens back into the coop. So she took pity on the fox and let her in. The fox killed two chickens and dragged them off home. When the old man found out, he gave Zhuchka a beating and drove her out of the yard. "Be off with you," he said. "You're no good to me as a watchdog!" So Zhuchka left the old couple's house, whimpering, and only the old woman and Little Snow Girl felt sorry for her. Summer came, the berries ripened, and Little Snow Girl's friends asked her to come berry-picking in the forest with them. The old man and his wife would not hear of it. But Little Snow Girl's friends promised faithfully not to let go of

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her hand, and Little Snow Girl herself begged the old couple to let her go berry-picking and see what the forest was like. So in the end they gave her a basket and a piece of pie and let her go. The girls set off holding Little Snow Girl's hand, but as soon as they got to the forest and saw all the berries, they forgot about everything else and ran off in all directions, picking berries and hallooing to one another. They filled their baskets with berries, but lost Little Snow Girl in the forest. Little Snow Girl called out, but no one replied. The poor mite began to cry. She tried to find the path, but got even more lost than before. So she climbed a tree and shouted: "Halloo! Halloo!" Up came Bear, crunching the dry branches and bending the bushes. "What's the matter, my pretty one?" "Halloo! I'm Little Snow Girl, rolled from spring snow and browned by the spring sun. My girlfriends asked my grandparents to let me go with them into the forest, but now they've left me all alone!" "Come down," said Bear. "I'll take you home." "No, Bear," Little Snow Girl replied. "I won't go with you. I'm afraid of you. You'll eat me!" So Bear went away. Up ran Grey Wolf. "Why are you crying, my pretty one?" "Halloo! I'm Little Snow Girl, rolled from spring snow and browned by the spring sun. My girlfriends asked my grandparents to let me go berry-picking with them in the forest, and now they've left me all alone!" "Climb down," said Wolf. "I'll take you home!" "No, Wolf, I won't go with you. I'm afraid of you. You'll eat me." So Wolf went away. Then Fox came up. "Why are you crying, my pretty one?" "Halloo! I'm Little Snow Girl, rolled from spring snow and browned by the spring sun. My girlfriends asked my grandparents to let me go berry-picking with them in the forest, and now they've left me all alone!" "Never mind, my poor little pretty one! Come down quickly, and I'll take you home!" "No, Fox of the honeyed words. I'm afraid of you. You'll lead me to Wolf or give me to Bear. I'm not going with you!" Fox began stalking round the tree, looking at Little Snow Girl and trying to lure her down, but the little girl would not go. "Wuff, wuff, wuff!" barked a dog in the forest. "Halloo there, Zhuchka!" cried Little Snow Girl. "Halloo, my darling doggy! It's me, Little Snow Girl, rolled from spring snow and browned by the spring sun. My girlfriends asked my grandparents to let me go berry-picking with them in the forest, and now they've left me all alone. Bear wanted to carry me off, but I wouldn't go. Wolf wanted to take me away, but I refused. And Fox tried to lure me down, but I wouldn't be tricked by her. But I'll go with you, Zhuchka!" At the sound of the dog barking, Fox turned tail and fled for dear life. Little Snow Girl climbed down the tree. Zhuchka rushed up, licked her face all over and set off home with her. Bear was hiding behind a tree-stump, Wolf was skulking in a glade and Fox was lurking in the bushes. Zhuchka barked loudly, and they were so frightened that they dared not come close. They arrived home, and the old couple wept for joy. They fed Little Snow Girl, put her in her nice cozy bed and sang:

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Sleep, Little Snow Girl, sleep, Our tasty bun so sweet, Rolled from the snow of spring, Warmed by the sun of spring. We'll give you drink a-plenty, We'll give you food galore, And make you such a pretty dress And teach you four times four. Zhuchka was forgiven. They gave her a nice saucer of milk and put her back in her old kennel to guard the house again.

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Little Snow Girl Questions
Grade: 4th -5th grade students How was the little snow girl created? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

Were little snow girls parents happy or sad when she came about? Explain ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Why did the old man’s dog Zhuchka let the fox in the hen coop? What did the fox do when he
got there?

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

Why do you think the little snow girl wouldn’t let anyone take her home accept for the Zhuchka her dog? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

What do you think was the purpose of this story? What did the author want you to learn? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 40

Little Snow Girl Sample Answers
Use these sample answers to grade your student’s work. Although their may be different answers your students work should at least resemble these sample answers☺ How was the little snow girl created? The old man took a snowball put in a pot and warmed it by the sun. When the snow inside began to melt a little girl appeared. (Paragraph 3)

Were little snow girls parents happy or sad when she came about? Explain Happy because they did not have any children or grand children of their own and as they would watch the other children play they wanted to have a child. (Paragraph 1-2)

Why did the old man’s dog Zhuchka let the fox in the hen coop? What did the fox do when he
got there?

The fox came up to her pretending to be ill; when the fox got there he killed two chickens and dragged them home. (Paragraph 9) Why do you think the little snow girl wouldn’t let anyone take her home accept for the Zhuchka her dog? She new that the rest of the animals wanted to do harm to her and the dog was the only one she trusted because she had lived with her. (Paragraph 24) What do you think was the purpose of this story? What did the author want you to learn? The purpose of this story might have been to learn who to trust and who not to and the people who love you will always be there for you. The author may have wanted you to learn that things are not always what they appear and to be responsible

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THE MAGIC WILD GEESE

An old man lived with his old wife; they had a daughter and a little son. "Daughter, Daughter," said the mother, "we are going to work; we shall bring you back a bun, sew you a dress and buy you a kerchief. Be very careful, watch over your little brother, and do not leave the house". The parents went away and the daughter forgot what they had told her; she put her brother on the grass beneath the window, ran out into the street, and became absorbed in games. Some magic swan geese came and seized the little boy, and carried him off on their wings. The girl came back and found her brother gone. She gasped, and rushed to look in every corner, but could not find him. She called him, wept and lamented that her father and mother would scold her severely; still her little brother did not answer. She ran into the open field; the swan geese flashed in the distance and vanished into the dark forest. The swan geese had long had a very bad reputation; they had done a great deal of damage and had stolen many little children. The girl had guessed that they had carried off her little brother, and so she rushed after them. She ran and ran and saw a stove. "Stove, stove, tell me whither have the geese flown?" "If you eat my cake of rye I will tell you." "Oh, in my father's house we do not eat cakes of wheat!". The stove did not tell her. She ran farther and saw an apple tree tree. "Apple tree, apple tree, whither have the geese flown?" "If you eat some of my wild apples, I will tell you". " Oh, in my father's house we do not even eat sweet apples." She ran farther and farther and saw a river of milk with shores of pudding. "River of milk, and shores of pudding, whither have the geese flown?" "If you eat my simple pudding with milk, I will tell you". "Oh in my father's house we do not even eat cream." She would have run in the fields and wandered in the woods for a long time, if she had not luckily met the hedgehog. She wanted to nudge him, but she was afraid that he would prick her, when she asked:

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"Hedgehog, hedgehog, have you not seen whither the geese have flown?" "Thither", he said and showed her. She ran and saw a little hut that stood on chicken legs and turned round and round. In the little hut lay Baba Yaga with veined snout and clay legs, and the little brother was sitting on a bench, playing with golden apples. His sister saw him, crept near him and seized him, and carried him away. But the geese flew after her: if the robbers overtook her, where would she hide? There flowed the river of milk and the shores of pudding. "Little mother river, hide me!" she begged. "If you eat my pudding." There was nothing to be done; she ate it and the river hid her beneath the shore, and the geese flew by. She went out and said: "Thank you", and ran on carrying her brother; and the geese turned back and flew toward her. What could she do in this trouble? There was the apple tree. "Apple tree, apple tree, little mother, hide me!" she begged. "If you eat my wild apple." She ate it quickly. The apple tree covered her with branches and leaves; and the geese flew by. She went out again and ran on with her brother. The geese saw her and flew after her. They now came quite close, they began to strike at her with their wings; at any moment they would tear her brother from her hands. Luckily there was the stove on her path. "Madam stove, hide me", she begged. "If you eat my cake of rye." The girl quickly stuck the cake in her mouth, went into the the stove, and sat there. The geese whirred and whirred, quacked and quacked, and finally flew away without recovering their prey. The girl ran home, and it was a good thing that she came when she did, for soon afterward her mother and father arrived.

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The Magic Wild Geese Questions
Grade: 3rd- 5th grade students What did the parents of the little girl say they were going to do when they came home from work? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

Who took the girls little brother, how did she know? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Who helped the girl find where her brother was? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

When the girl made it home what was she thankful of? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

What do you think was the purpose of this story? What did the author want you to learn? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 44

The magic wild Geese sample answers
Grade: 3rd- 5th grade students Use these sample answers to grade your student’s work. Although their may be different answers your students work should at least resemble these sample answers☺ What did the parents of the little girl say they were going to do when they came home from work? The parents said they were going to bring back a bun, sew her a dress and buy her a handkerchief. (Paragraph 2)

Who took the girls little brother how did she know? The swan took the little’s girls brother she knew because they had a reputation of stealing little children (Paragraph 5) Who helped the girl find where her brother was? The hedgehog pointed to the place where her brother was being held. (Paragraph 19)

When the girl made it home what was she thankful of? She was thankful that she had made it home in just enough time, because soon after her parents had arrived home. (Paragraph 29)

What do you think was the purpose of this story? What did the author want you to learn? The purpose of this story was to obey your parents and listen when they tell you to do things because it may keep you out of trouble. The other wanted you to learn to be more responsible.

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THE TWELVE MONTHS
THERE was once a widow who had two daughters, Helen, her own child by her dead husband, and Marouckla, his daughter by his first wife. She loved Helen, but hated the poor orphan because she was far prettier than her own daughter. Marouckla did not think about her good looks, and could not understand why her stepmother should be angry at the sight of her. The hardest work fell to her share. She cleaned out the rooms, cooked, washed, sewed, spun, wove, brought in the hay, milked the cow, and all this without any help. Helen, meanwhile, did nothing but dress herself in her best clothes and go to one amusement after another. But Marouckla never complained. She bore the scoldings and bad temper of mother and sister with a smile on her lips, and the patience of a lamb. But this angelic behavior did not soften them. They became even more tyrannical and grumpy, for Marouckla grew daily more beautiful, while Helen's ugliness increased. So the stepmother determined to get rid of Marouckla, for she knew that while she remained, her own daughter would have no suitors. Hunger, every kind of privation, abuse, every means was used to make the girl's life miserable. But in spite of it all Marouckla grew ever sweeter and more charming. One day in the middle of winter Helen wanted some wood-violets. "Listen," cried she to Marouckla, "you must go up the mountain and find me violets. I want some to put in my gown. They must be fresh and sweet-scented-do you hear?" "But, my dear sister, whoever heard of violets blooming in the snow?" said the poor orphan. "You wretched creature! Do you dare to disobey me?" said Helen. "Not another word. Off with you! If you do not bring me some violets from the mountain forest I will kill you." The stepmother also added her threats to those of Helen, and with vigorous blows they pushed Marouckla outside and shut the door upon her. The weeping girl made her way to the mountain. The snow lay deep, and there was no trace of any human being. Long she wandered hither and thither, and lost herself in the wood. She was hungry, and shivered with cold, and prayed to die. Suddenly she saw a light in the distance, and climbed toward it till she reached the top of the mountain. Upon the highest peak burned a large fire, surrounded by twelve blocks of stone on which sat twelve strange beings. Of these the first three had white hair, three were not quite so old, three were young and handsome, and the rest still younger. There they all sat silently looking at the fire. They were the Twelve Months of the Year. The great January was placed higher than the others. His hair and mustache were white as snow, and in his hand he held a wand. At first Marouckla was afraid, but after a while her courage returned, and drawing near, she said: -"Men of God, may I warm myself at your fire? I am chilled by the winter cold."

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The great January raised his head and answered: "What brings thee here, my daughter? What dost thou seek?" "I am looking for violets," replied the maiden. "This is not the season for violets. Dost thou not see the snow everywhere?" said January. "I know well, but my sister Helen and my stepmother have ordered me to bring them violets from your mountain. If I return without them they will kill me. I pray you, good shepherds; tell me where they may be found." Here the great January arose and went over to the youngest of the Months, and, placing his wand in his hand, said: -"Brother March, do thou take the highest place." March obeyed, at the same time waving his wand over the fire. Immediately the flames rose toward the sky, the snow began to melt and the trees and shrubs to bud. The grass became green, and from between its blades peeped the pale primrose. It was spring, and the meadows were blue with violets. "Gather them quickly, Marouckla," said March. Joyfully she hastened to pick the flowers, and having soon a large bunch she thanked them and ran home. Helen and the stepmother were amazed at the sight of the flowers, the scent of which filled the house. "Where did you find them?" asked Helen. "Under the trees on the mountain-side," said Marouckla. Helen kept the flowers for herself and her mother. She did not even thank her stepsister for the trouble she had taken. The next day she desired Marouckla to fetch her strawberries. "Run," said she, "and fetch me strawberries from the mountain. They must be very sweet and ripe." "But whoever heard of strawberries ripening in the snow?" exclaimed Marouckla. "Hold your tongue, worm; don't answer me. If I don't have my strawberries I will kill you," said Helen. Then the stepmother pushed Marouckla into the yard and bolted the door. The unhappy girl made her way toward the mountain and to the large fire round which sat the Twelve Months. The great January occupied the highest place. "Men of God, may I warm myself at your fire? The winter cold chills me," said she, drawing near. The great January raised his head and asked: "Why comest thou here? What dost thou seek?" "I am looking for strawberries," said she. "We are in the midst of winter," replied January, "strawberries do not grow in the snow." "I know," said the girl sadly, "but my sister and stepmother have ordered me to bring them strawberries. If I do not they will kill me. Pray, good shepherds, tell me where to find them."

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The great January arose, crossed over to the Month opposite him, and putting the wand in his hand, said: "Brother June, do thou take the highest place." June obeyed, and as he waved his wand over the fire the flames leaped toward the sky. Instantly the snow melted, the earth was covered with verdure, trees were clothed with leaves, birds began to sing, and various flowers blossomed in the forest. It was summer. Under the bushes masses of star-shaped flowers changed into ripening strawberries, and instantly they covered the glade, making it look like a sea of blood. "Gather them quickly, Marouckla," said June. Joyfully she thanked the Months, and having filled her apron ran happily home. Helen and her mother wondered at seeing the strawberries, which filled the house with their delicious fragrance. "Wherever did you find them?" asked Helen crossly. "Right up among the mountains. Those from under the beech trees are not bad," answered Marouckla. Helen gave a few to her mother and ate the rest herself. Not one did she offer to her stepsister. Being tired of strawberries, on the third day she took a fancy for some fresh, red apples. "Run, Marouckla," said she, "and fetch me fresh, red apples from the mountain." "Apples in winter, sister? Why, the trees have neither leaves nor fruit!" "Idle thing, go this minute," said Helen; "unless you bring back apples we will kill you." As before, the stepmother seized her roughly and turned her out of the house. The poor girl went weeping up the mountain, across the deep snow, and on toward the fire round which were the Twelve Months. Motionless they sat there, and on the highest stone was the great January. "Men of God, may I warm myself at your fire? The winter cold chills me," said she, drawing near. The great January raised his head. "Why comest thou here? What does thou seek?" asked he. "I am come to look for red apples," replied Marouckla. "But this is winter, and not the season for red apples," observed the great January. "I know," answered the girl, "but my sister and stepmother sent me to fetch red apples from the mountain. If I return without them they will kill me." Thereupon the great January arose and went over to one of the elderly Months, to whom he handed the wand saying: -"Brother September, do thou take the highest place." September moved to the highest stone, and waved his wand over the fire. There was a flare of red flames, the snow disappeared, but the fading leaves which trembled on the trees were sent by a cold northeast wind in yellow masses to the glade. Only a few flowers of autumn were visible. At first Marouckla looked in vain for red apples. Then she espied a tree which grew at a great height, and from the branches of this hung the bright, red fruit. September ordered her to gather some quickly. The girl was delighted and shook the tree. First one apple fell, then another. "That is enough," said September; "hurry home."

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Thanking the Months she returned joyfully. Helen and the stepmother wondered at seeing the fruit. "Where did you gather them?" asked the stepsister. "There are more on the mountain-top," answered Marouckla. "Then, why did you not bring more?" said Helen angrily. "You must have eaten them on your way back, you wicked girl." "No, dear sister, I have not even tasted them," said Marouckla. "I shook the tree twice. One apple fell each time. Some shepherds would not allow me to shake it again, but told me to return home." "Listen, mother," said Helen. "Give me my cloak. I will fetch some more apples myself. I shall be able to find the mountain and the tree. The shepherds may cry `Stop!' but I will not leave go till I have shaken down all the apples." In spite of her mother's advice she wrapped herself in her pelisse, put on a warm hood, and took the road to the mountain. Snow covered everything. Helen lost herself and wandered hither and thither. After a while she saw a light above her, and, following in its direction, reached the mountain-top. There was the flaming fire, the twelve blocks of stone, and the Twelve Months. At first she was frightened and hesitated; then she came nearer and warmed her hands. She did not ask permission, nor did she speak one polite word. "What hath brought thee here? What dost thou seek?" said the great January severely. "I am not obliged to tell you, old graybeard. What business is it of yours?" she replied disdainfully, turning her back on the fire and going toward the forest. The great January frowned, and waved his wand over his head. Instantly the sky became covered with clouds, the fire went down, snow fell in large flakes, an icy wind howled round the mountain. Amid the fury of the storm Helen stumbled about. The pelisse failed to warm her benumbed limbs. The mother kept on waiting for her. She looked from the window, she watched from the doorstep, but her daughter came not. The hours passed slowly, but Helen did not return. "Can it be that the apples have charmed her from her home?" thought the mother. Then she clad herself in hood and pelisse, and went in search of her daughter. Snow fell in huge masses. It covered all things. For long she wandered hither and thither, the icy northeast wind whistled in the mountain, but no voice answered her cries. Day after day Marouckla worked, and prayed, and waited, but neither stepmother nor sister returned. They had been frozen to death on the mountain. The inheritance of a small house, a field, and a cow fell to Marouckla. In course of time an honest farmer came to share them with her, and their lives were happy and peaceful.

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The Twelve Months Questions
Grade: 5th grade students Why did the mother dislike her step daughter Marouckla? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

Why do you think the mother and Helen kept making Marouckla go in the mountains to get them things? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

Why are the twelve month Shepherds important in this story? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

Why do you think the twelve months disliked the mother and Helen? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

What moral does the story teach? Did you like the ending? Why or why not? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 50

The Twelve Month Sample Answers
Use these sample answers to grade your student’s work. Although their may be different answers your students work should at least resemble these sample answers☺ Grade: 5th grade students Why did the mother dislike her step daughter Marouckla? The mother disliked the step daughter Marouckla because she disliked the fact that she was prettier than her own daughter Helen. (Paragraph 1) Why do you think the mother and Helen kept making Marouckla go in the mountains to get them things? After the first timed they became greedy and they wanted Marouckla to get more and more stuff because they new she would if her life was at stake because the mother threatened to kill her if she didn’t get the items. (Paragraph 8) Why are the twelve month Shepherds important in this story? They are the ones that helped Marouckla and got rid of the evil stepmother and Helen ending in Marouckla finally living a happy and peaceful life. (Paragraph 69)

Why do you think the twelve months disliked the mother and Helen? They probably disliked the mother and Helen because of the way they treated Marouckla and then when they went up the mountains they were rude and try to steal the apples. (Paragraph 64-65)

What moral does the story teach? Did you like the ending? Why or why not? The story teaches that greed only leads to more greed. Also, that good things happen to those who wait. I enjoyed the ending because it had a positive outcome when the beginning of the story was negative.

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RUSSIAN NESTING DOLLS
History on Russian nesting dolls: The Russian nesting doll or matryoshka is one of the most popular Russian souvenirs. A Russian nesting doll is a doll within in smaller dolls. The first nesting doll was created in the 1890s. Russian wooden dolls within smaller dolls were called matryoshka which has the Latin root word "mater" which means mother. This name was associated with the image of a mother of a big peasant family who was very healthy and had a portly figure.

How to make a Russian Nesting

DOLLS
Paper Matryushka Doll 1. Print off Template 1 and Template 2 for just one large doll. For five nesting dolls print Template 3 and Template 4 as well. Print onto stiff card or attach paper to cereal box card to make sure that the doll is firm enough to stand on its own. (templates can be found on next pages 2. Color and decorate each doll with flowers, stripes, polka-dots and bright colors. For young children, add a flower sticker to the front for additional decoration. 3. Cut out. Fold top tab of both front and back in and glue so that top of heads meet.

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4. Fold bottom tabs of both sides in and glue so that they overlap and allow doll to stand. Experiment with the amount of overlap needed for doll to stand on its own. 5. Stand all five dolls in a row or sit inside each other to put away!

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Template #1

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Template 2

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Template 3

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Template 4

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After Creating Russian Dolls

Focus Questions 1. What made you choose the colors on your doll? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

2. How is your doll important to you? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

3. What have you learned about Russian nesting dolls? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

4. What is one thing you could have improved on when creating your doll? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

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Russia Activity
Grades: 3rd-5th grade Brief Description: Have students write a paragraph informing others on the things that they have learned about Russia from reading and completing this packet. Objective: After reading and completing this packet students will complete a graphic organizer on the things that they have learned about Russia. Then they will write a paragraph informing others of what they have learned. Prompt: One of your friends is writing about Russia but they need some help coming up with information. Write a descriptive paragraph informing your friend on the things you have learned about Russia. You may use this packet, internet sources, books, etc. Make sure you include examples and details. Lesson plan: Teachers review this packet with students; provide resources such as book and or internet articles related to Russia. Have students create a graphic organizer on the things they have learned about Russia and some examples of the Russia culture. Then have students write a rough draft of their paragraph followed by a final copy Activity: Have students present their paragraphs to the class! Assessment: Create a rubric based on the students paragraph and presentation skills

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Title: "Russian/Ukrainian Egg Designs" Grades: K-5 MATERIALS: crayon scratchboard sharpened drawing stick egg template rectangle template ruler symbols and eggs visuals (Optional: storybook relating to Russian egg design.) OBJECTIVES: Students will: learn where Ukraine is located. learn information concerning the art and craft of Russian egg design. follow directions to create a layout of eggs and border. create their own egg designs and border design. DISCUSSION: Today we are going to use the scratchboard we made in our last art class to make Russian/Ukrainian egg designs. Ukraine used to be part of Russia. Now it is an independent country. (Point to Ukraine on world map.) These beautifully designed eggs are created to celebrate Easter, but are often enjoyed year round as an art form. In fact, many artists work all winter long creating these eggs to be finished by Easter. (Show around the egg examples.) Here are two examples of hand-painted Russian eggs. These eggs are made of solid wood. They belong to the librarian at Chapman Elementary. A friend of hers brought them to her from Moscow, the capital of Russia. These are different from the Ukrainian egg designs, because they are paintings of scenes. The Ukrainian egg designs are more geometric and symbolic like the ones in the poster. The eggs on the poster are made by a method called "pysanka". Pysanka designs are drawn with a needle-like pen which uses hot melted wax instead of ink. The designs are drawn on the egg with the wax and then the egg is dipped into the dye. The dye does not stick to the wax. The wax is then remove and the white lines remain. Some of the egg dying kits we use have a white or clear crayon to draw on an egg to do the same type thing. The fine lines and detail cannot be done with a crayon. That's why the Ukrainians use the hot wax pen. The Ukrainians use symbols on their eggs which have special meanings. ACTIVITY: Get out the two sheets that are on your table. One has words on it, the other is a picture of the poster. Look at the one with words on it and follow along as I tell you about some of the different symbols they use. (Read over the sheet with students.) I would like for you to use some of these symbols in your egg designs. Look at the picture sheet. See how the symbols are used as part of the designs on these eggs. The symbols are not just "stuck" on the eggs. They are organized into a design using other lines and shapes. Try not to let your

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symbols "float" on your egg. "Anchor" them down by repeating them, putting them in rows, or inside lines or shapes. You can use other designs or symbols as you wish. Do not use any words or letters on your scratchboard. First, trace the egg pattern to make three eggs. Trace one. Trace the next one, making it touch the first egg. Trace the third egg, making it touch one of the other eggs. If the eggs overlap, do not trace over another egg. Skip over where they overlap. (You can demonstrate on the board.) After all three eggs are traced, take the rectangular pattern, put in the center of the page and trace. Make sure it is centered with the same amount of space on all sides. If the rectangle goes over an egg, just stop at the egg and hop over it, and keep on going. After all three eggs are traced, and the frame is traced, then you can design your eggs. Be sure to thicken up some of the lines, especially the outside of the eggs and the rectangular frame line. Also fill in some spaces to bring out more color. Do not color the eggs in solid. That is not a design. You may put stripes on the egg and color in every other one, or dots, or hearts, or other shapes. Be sure to use some of the special Russian symbols in your designs. The artists of the day will get a piece of scratchboard and a toothpick. When I call your name, come up and get your scratchboard. As soon as you get your board, you may start tracing your eggs and frame. Kindergarten: Have children sit up front on the floor and read them the storybook, showing them the pictures. After the story, have them sit down in their seats. Follow above procedures, only hand out the scratchboard before explaining the egg/frame directions. Then do the egg/frame directions step by step. The continue the above procedures. VOCABULARY: Russia, Ukraine, pysanka, scratchboard

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The Faces of Russia
Grade Level: Fifth Grade Presented by: Teresa Beazley, Hardy Oak Elementary School, San Antonio, TX Laura Eberle, Hardy Oak Elementary, San Antonio, TX Length of Unit: 2 weeks (9 lessons) ABSTRACT This is a unit written for fifth grade on the early growth and expansion of Russia, from the time of Ivan the Great to Catherine the Great. It covers in detail the topics outlined in the world civilization strand of the Core Knowledge Sequence, as well as the related geography topics. Students will look at the many faces of Russia to understand how her history has been shaped by the geography of the region, the cultures that influenced her beginning, and the strong leadership of the early czars. The unit is comprised of nine lessons that are designed to be covered in a two-week period. II. OVERVIEW A. Concept Objectives 1. Understand how geography influences the development of a country. 2. Understand how political systems gain and exercise power over people and land. 3. Appreciate how cultures honor their heritage through their arts, architecture, literature and symbols B. Content covered from Core Knowledge Sequence 1. Russia as the successor to Byzantine Empire 2. Moscow as the new center of Eastern Orthodox Church and Byzantine culture 3. Ivan III (The Great); “czar” 4. Ivan IV (The Terrible) 5. Peter the Great: modernizing and “Westernizing” Russia 6. Catherine the Great 7. Geography of Russia 8. Moscow and St. Petersburg 9. Ural Mountains, Siberia, steppes 10. Volga and Don Rivers 11. Black, Caspian, and Baltic Seas 12. Search for a warm-water port C. Skills 1. The student reads and listens to increase knowledge of his/her own culture, the culture of others, and the common elements of cultures 2. The student understands the location and patterns of settlement and the geographic factors that influence where people live 3. The student understands the relationship between the arts and the times during which they were created. 4. The student expresses and supports responses to various types of texts. 5. The student analyzes and critiques the significance of visual images, messages, and meanings. 6. The student comprehends selections using a variety of strategies.

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7. The student writes for a variety of purposes and audiences, and in a variety of forms. III. BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE A. For Teachers 1. Baker, Rosalie and Charles F. Peter and Catherine: Two Russian Greats.
The Faces of Russia, Grade 5 2001 Conference 2

1. Petersborough, NH: Cobblestone Publishing, Volume 7, No. 5, May/June 1997. 2. ISBN 0382407954. 2. Chase, Marilyn. Russia. St. Louis: Milliken Publishing Company. 3. ISBN 1-55863-529-7. 3. Strickler, James E. Russia of the Tsars: World History Series. San Diego: Lucent 4. Books, 1998. ISBN 1-56006-296-9. B. For Students 1. Background knowledge on the Roman Empire and its split into the Eastern and Western empires (3rd grade) 2. Background knowledge about the Vikings and their trading expeditions (3rd grade) 3. An understanding of the Byzantine Empire (3rd grade) IV. Resources A. Chase, Marilyn. Russia: Transparency book published by Milliken. B. Calliope Magazine. Peter and Catherine, Two Russian Greats. (May/June, 1997) C. E.D. Hirsch. What Your Fifth Grader Needs to Know. D. Stanley, Diane. Peter the Great. E. Nickles, Greg. Russia The Land and Russia the Culture. F. Copies of Appendices A-L V. LESSONS Lesson One: Mother Russia A. Daily Objectives Concept Objective: Understand that cultures honor their heritage through their arts, architecture, literature and symbols 2. Lesson Content: Geographic and physical characteristics of Russia National symbols of Russia 3. Skill Objectives Read nonfiction text for detail Produce visual images Identify main idea B. Materials 1. Reading selection on Mother Russia (from Russia, A History to 1917) 2. Template of Mother Russia (Appendix B) 3. Poster board or white construction paper 4. Crayons/markers 5. Pictures of various symbols of the United States (ex. flag, eagle, Liberty Bell, Statue of Liberty cards 6. 3x5 blank cards 7. Books with pictures of Russia, such as Nickles' Russia The Land C. Key Vocabulary: 1. Symbol: something used for or regarded as something else, especially a material object

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representing something immaterial. 2. Heritage: something acquired from a predecessor 3. Nomad: a person with no fixed residence but moves from place to place within a well defined territory. 4. Serfs: peasant farmers who were almost slaves; serfs were under the control of the landowners and were sold with the land D. Procedures 1. Focus: Distribute five cards to student groups and have them illustrate a symbol on one side and the word that it represents on the back. After a set time, allow students to share their symbols and let the class guess what each one is and what it means. (Examples: love=heart, peace=dove or peace sign, the Olympics=5 rings intertwined, etc.) 2. Pose the question: What symbols represent our country? Have available pictures of the eagle, US flag, Statue of Liberty, Liberty Bell, etc.). Lead a discussion on our country’s symbols and what they tell about our nation’s past or what we value. RESOURCES 1. Discuss: Why are national symbols important? Explain that all cultures have national symbols, and because we are beginning a unit on Russia, we will be looking at Russia’s symbols. Briefly discuss student’s prior knowledge of Russia. 2. Pass out reading selection for students to read independently or with a partner. Have students pay particular attention to “Mother Russia’s” characteristics. 3. After reading, students will work to visually represent the figure of “Mother Russia.” 4. Give each pair of students the outline of a Matryoshka enlarged on poster board (see appendix B). They will fill it in by illustrating the features of Mother Russia as discussed in the reading. It is very helpful at this point to have books with photographs of Russia's land to which students may refer (Russia The Land is great). Partners will share their illustrations and point out “Mother Russia’s” specific features and what they represent. 5. In closing, go back to the key question posed at the beginning of lesson – “Why are national symbols important?" and generate a list to summarize student input: • Symbols instill pride • Symbols unify a group of people • Symbols reflect a nation’s past • Symbols reflect and promote important national values and ideals • Symbols honor a nation’s heritage E. Assessment/Evaluation 1. Assess student drawings for inclusion of the characteristics of Mother Russia 2. Assess student presentation of their figure for understanding of what each characteristic tells about Russia’s past or identity

Lesson Two: Geography of Russia A. Daily Objectives

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1. Concept Objective Understand that geography influences the development of a country. 2. Lesson Content a. Rivers: Don, Volga b. Seas: Black, Caspian, Baltic; Arctic Ocean c. Mountains: Ural d. Siberia, Kiev, Moscow, St. Petersburg e. Regions of Russia: tundra, taiga, forest, steppe, desert steppe 3. Skill Objectives: a. Locate places on a map b. Read nonfiction text for detail c. Make predictions from prior knowledge d. Support predictions by locating information in text B. Materials 1. Russia the Land, by Greg Nickles 2. Overhead transparency from Milliken p.1 (if available) 3. List of opposites 4. Pre-made flip books 5. Copies of student maps

C. Key Vocabulary 1. Steppe: a large, level, grassy and treeless meadow 2. Taiga: damp, swampy forest 3. Tundra: a large, flat or gently rolling treeless plain D. Procedures Before this lesson, the teacher or students should prepare their Russia flipbooks, which will be used for the remainder of the unit. The flipbook consists of six pages staggered together one inch apart and "flipped" over, and is designed to show the geographic expansion of Russia from the reign of the czars through present day. Appendix C shows what the flipbook looks like when closed. Above each czar's name, under the flap, is a map of the outline of Russia. Students then fill in the extent of Russia's size at the time of that czar. The back part of the flipbook is where we had students journal each day.
Focus Activity: Students will discover that Russia is a country of opposites. Pass out appendix B and give students a few moments to circle one word in each pair that they believe best describes Russia. Students will then read pages 8-11, 14-15, and 18-19 in Russia the Land (Nickles) to confirm or change their ideas. For each word chosen, students should note a page number n the book that supports their choice. Go over the pairs of opposites together, sharing student responses. (Note that both of the words in some of the pairs could be circled-- mountainous/flat, wet/dry). Acknowledge our preconceptions about places and our need to learn more. Pass out a map of Russia (Appendix D) to each student. Go over with students each item to be found and labeled on the map. Students will use the map on page 8 of Russia the Land and /or the transparency on page 1 of the Milliken book to help them. Emphasize the importance of neatness and accuracy in completing the maps. When finished, the completed maps will be placed in the last section of the flipbooks.(See Appendix D) Close lesson by reviewing key points in how the geography of Russia has affected its development.

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E. Assessment/Evaluation 1. Map in flipbook 2. Journal entry: How has the geography of Russia affected its development? Lesson Three: The Roots of Russian Civilization A. Daily Objectives 1. Concept Objective :Understand how political systems gain and exercise power over people and land. 2. Lesson Content: (review of background knowledge from previous grades) a. Viking trade routes b. Byzantine empire as a cultural and commercial hub of Europe c. Mongol influences in Asia 3. Skill Objectives a. Produce visual images, messages and meanings that communicate with others b. Synthesize information to share orally with class c. Speak clearly and appropriately to different audiences for different purposes and occasions B. Materials 1. Manila file folders 2. Russia transparency book (Milliken press) 3. Copies of Appendices E and F to glue into the file folders (see Procedures #1)
The Faces of Russia, Grade 5 2001 Conference 5

C. Key Vocabulary 1. Missionary: a person who travels to spread his religion, usually Christianity 2. Cyrillic: an alphabet of 33 letters used for writing Russian 3. Orthodox: conventional D. Procedures 1. Before this lesson, the teacher will need to prepare the file folders, which explain the project students will complete in this 2-day lesson. The two appendices (E and F) should be glued inside the file folder. 2. To begin the lesson, show an overhead transparency of Appendix E. Discuss with students how early Russia was not the size that it is today. Nomadic tribes had migrated onto the Eurasian plain and were not organized in any way. Explain that three “groups” were influential in Russia’s early development: the Vikings, the Byzantine empire (missionaries), and the Mongols. Show on the map where each group originated. 3. At this point, divide the class into 3 groups. Each group will be responsible for presenting one of the three influences--Viking, Mongol, or Byzantine. (Teacher may assign roles or the group can come to an agreement.) As a team, they must read the fact sheet (Appendix F) for their group and plan a presentation which explains their force shaped the development of early Russia. Groups will work together for the rest of the class period to plan their presentation. Presentations might include a poster, a skit, an interview, a commercial, etc. 4. The following class period, allow groups to present and explain how the Byzantine Empire, the Vikings, and the Mongols influenced the development of Russia. 5. Close the lesson by reviewing each of the three groups and their impact on Russia. (A visual representation in the form of a tree with 3 roots might be a good way to summarize what was learned--See Milliken book for ideas.) E. Assessment/Evaluation 1. Assess student presentations

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2. Optional journal entry: “I think the ____________ were the most influential group in Russia’s early development because…”

Middle School
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Activities and lessons

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CULTURAL INFORMATION KOKOSHNIK The Russian Sarafan is an A-line jumper-style dress, worn over a rubakha, or shirt. A Kokoshnik (pronounced kah-KOSH-nick) is the headdress worn by a married woman in the central and northern regions of Russia. The headdress was worn in other regions as well, but it did not have any status symbolism to it. It is shaped as a high shield, of various designs above the forehead. The name kokoshnik comes from the ancient Russian “kokosh” for a broon-hen, as opposed to a “kokot” for hencock, and is based on the form of the bird’s crest. The shape of the kokoshnik varies from region to region. Pearls, beads and thick gold thread embroidery adorn the kokoshnik. BALALAIKA A three-stringed Russian instrument with a distinctive triangular body and long-neck that produces sounds similar to those of a mandolin. Typically used to accompany song and dance, it is played either as a solo instrument or in balalaika orchestras that use the six different sizes of the instrument. ST. BASIL'S CATHEDRAL The cathedral, sitting at the far end of Red Square, with its instantly recognizable and colorful, onion-shaped domes and spires, has graced the square for over four centuries. Built to commemorate Ivan the Terrible's capture of the Mongol stronghold of the Kazan in 1552, its popular name commemorates St Basil the Blessed who foretold the Moscow fire of 1547 and whose remains were buried in the former cathedral that stood on this site. (According to legend, Ivan the Terrible had the architects blinded so they could never build anything more beautiful). Originally the façades and domes of the Cathedral were not painted different colors. The carved decorative details of white stone stood out boldly against the original red brick walls. The sixteenth-century monument was colorfully decorated over the following 200 years. The chapel and tent-roofed bell-tower were also added during that period. In spite of its stunning exterior, the inside is somewhat plain and cramped. For more than four centuries this remarkable building has survived numerous fires, natural disasters and enemy invasions to delight and astound all who see it. DANCER Folk Dances: Russian folkloric dance, just like folkloric dance forms from many other countries, is a mixture of traditional music and dances done in villages and cities, on the streets and in ceremonial situations, in parties and celebrations, combined with classical movement forms such as ballet, modern dance, and sometimes gymnastics or acrobatics. By mixing these genres, dances are created which use the stories, music, and costumes of a nation or region, yet which have integrated aesthetic styles which are popular on the international stage with varied audiences. and have become household names in the west.

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MATROYSHKA Russian wooden dolls within smaller dolls were called Matryoshka. The first Russian Matroyshka appeared only at the end of the 19th century and was greatly acclaimed as one of the all-embracing symbols of Russian folk art. In provincial Russia before the revolution the name Matryona or Matryosha was a very popular female name. It was derived from the Latin root 'mater' that means 'mother'. This name was associated with the image of a mother of a big family who was very healthy and had a portly figure. Subsequently, it became a symbolic name and was used specially to describe brightly painted wooden dolls made in such a way that they could be taken apart to reveal smaller dolls fitting inside one another. Even now Matryoshka is considered to be a symbol of motherhood and fertility. A mother doll with numerous doll-children perfectly expresses the oldest symbol of human culture. The basic technique of Matroyshka making remains unchanged and as a rule is typically made from lime, birch, alder and aspen. Making a doll on a turning lathe requires much skill and precision in working with the smallest of knives and chisels. SAMOVAR Samovars are a necessary feature of the Russian mode of life and consequently a part of Russian applied art. It is difficult to say when the first ever samovar was made, but they became widely spread throughout the country with the introduction of tea and coffee. Samovars were produced in many towns of Russia, but most famous was Tula, an old center of metalworking. Russian samovars vary in interior construction and exterior decoration and purpose. They were made of different metals - copper, iron, silver, silver plating on copper, steal, cast iron, and their decoration testifies to different stylistic art trends echoing the general tendencies in the artistic tastes of different periods. The samovars became the symbol of Russian hospitality and family comfort as well as the sign of prosperity. Step by step a peculiar ritual of tea-drinking emerged and was adopted in every Russian home. In compliance with it, a hostess or her elder daughter poured the tea. Some families held two samovars, one, more plain, for everyday use, and a dearer one - for receptions and festivities. There were homes with separate samovar-rooms whose interior was crowned by the samovar.

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Lesson: Expansion Under Ivan the Great A. Daily Objectives 1. Concept Objective(s): a. Understand how political systems gain and exercise power over people and land. b. Understand how geography influences the development of a country. 2. Lesson Content: a. Ivan III (the Great) 3. Skill Objectives: a. Listen actively for a variety of purposes b. Organize information graphically B. Materials: Internet research C. Key Vocabulary 1. Port: a harbor town or city where ships may pick up or deliver cargo 2. Landlocked: surrounded by land 3. Tsar/czar: emperor or supreme ruler of Russia from 1547-1917 D. Procedures 1. On the board, draw three “amoeba” shapes, one inside the other. Label the innermost shape “Country X”, the middle layer “Country Y”, and the outermost layer “Trade route.” Lead a brief discussion of what problems country X faces and its need for access to the trade route in order to meet its needs and expand. (Adapted from Baltimore Curriculum Project) 2. Give students a few minutes in groups to brainstorm ways in which a leader of country X could interact with country Y in order to gain access to the trade route. (Hopefully, they will come up with some of the tactics used by Ivan III: war, marriage, treaties, diplomacy, etc.). Share ideas. 3. Explain that in today’s lesson, students will learn about an important ruler of Russia, Ivan III—otherwise known as Ivan the Great because of the great expansion that took place in Russia under his rule. Show the transparency of the map and point out what Russia looked like in 1462. Compare it to “Country X.” Make the connection that Russia’s leader faced a similar problem of needing to expand in order to gain access to trade routes. Ivan the Great met that challenge. 4. Lecture on the achievements of Ivan the Great, using the graphic organizer. The point to make is that Ivan did not gain territory simply by going to war. He employed a variety of strategies to extend Russia’s borders. To absorb the empire of Novgorod, he waited patiently while internal strife weakened them, and then cut off their food supply to bring them to subjection. Before attacking Poland, he made friends with other countries such as Hungary, Moldavia, Denmark and Turkey who could join forces with him. He made alliances and signed treaties, such as the one with the Crimean Tatars. He imprisoned and tortured those who stood in his way. He took over land that belonged to his brothers. He took his time and slowly achieved his goal of forming a powerful Russian nation, centralized around Moscow and ruled by an absolute ruler. 5. Show the map of Russia at the death of Ivan the Great in 1505 and compare it to the one in 1462, noting the growth and expansion. 6. In their flipbooks, students will draw in the approximate extent of expansion under Ivan the Great. E. Assessment/Evaluation 1. Assess note-taking sheet for completion and accuracy 2. Assess flip book for approximate accuracy 3. Journal entry for homework: “How was Ivan the Great able to gain power over the regions surrounding Russia in order to expand?”

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Lesson : Ivan the Terrible and the Social System A. Daily Objectives 1. Concept Objective Understand how political figures gain and exercise power over people and land. 2. Lesson Content a. Ivan the Terrible b. Class system in early Russia 3. Skill Objectives: a. Write in letter format. b. Read to increase knowledge of his/her own culture, the culture of others, and the common elements of cultures c. Identify point of view B. Materials 1. A selection that briefly discusses the reign of Ivan the Terrible, such as a. Russia: A History to 1917 (Resnick), pp.39-41 b. What Your Fifth Grader Needs to Know, pp.150-151 c. The Russian Federation (Jacobsen), pp.19-21 d. Transparencies from the Milliken book e. “The Russian Peasant,” p.11 f. “The Russian Church,” p. 9 2. Peter and Catherine: Two Russian Greats (Calliope magazine) for background on the social system and peasant class 3. Stationery or paper on which students can write letters 4. Transparency of “Growth of Russia” map (from What Your Fifth Grader Needs To Know, p. 151) C. Key Vocabulary 1. Oprichniks: private security force under the reign of Ivan the Terrible D. Procedures 1. Tell students that today, they will learn about Ivan the Great’s grandson, who is remembered as Ivan the Terrible. Spend a few moments brainstorming how he might have earned that title. 2. Read a short overview on Ivan the Terrible as suggested in the materials section. 3. Compare your findings with class predictions. Point out that he did do some things to help Russia expand. Show the transparency of St. Basil’s Cathedral, whic h was constructed during his reign. Show map on the overhead and allow students to draw in the growth of Russia at the time of his death. 4. The reading selection ends with a discussion of the peasants, which is a good transition into the next part of this lesson about the social structure in Russia at this time. On the board, draw a “pyramid of power”—a large triangle divided into 5 vertical sections. Use the background information to fill in the triangle with the 5 classes and tell a little about each one. 5. Elaborate on what life was like for the peasants using the Milliken transparency or Calliope magazine. Discuss some of the struggles that have resulted from all the expansion that is taking place under the czars:

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• Freedom vs. tyranny • Rich vs. poor • Power vs. helplessness 6. Assignment: Say, “Imagine you are a serf under the reign of Ivan the Terrible. Write a letter to him explaining your existence and what you would like him to do differently.” (Of course, you may want to point out that serfs were not educated and couldn’t really write letter to the czar!) E. Assessment/Evaluation: 1. Assess letter for letter format and content 2. Assess map in flip books for approximate accuracy 3. Optional journal entry: Draw the Russian pyramid of power and explain each level of their Society Lesson : Peter the Great A. Daily Objectives 1. Concept Objective: a. Understand how political systems gain and exercise power over people and land. 2. Lesson Content: a. Peter the Great b. Expansion and "westernization" of Russia 3. Skill Objectives: a. Draw conclusions from reading b. Sequence events on a story map c. Identify supporting details B. Materials: 1. Peter the Great by Diane Stanley (one copy to read aloud) 2. White construction paper (one piece for each student) 3. Student flip books 4. Transparency on Peter the Great (Milliken book p.3) 5. Chart paper and marker 6. Student copies of Calliope magazine for additional information 7. Transparency of “Growth of Russia” map (from What Your Fifth Grader Needs To Know, p. 151) C. Key Vocabulary 1. Modernize: to make more modern or up-to-date 2. Ukazes: Russian proclamations that had the force of law 3. Conscript: forced enlistment in the military D. Procedures 1. Review what students learned about Ivan the Great and discuss his title—do you think he deserved/earned the right to be remembered as “Great” for all of history? What makes a leader great? Tell them we will be learning about two more important Russian leaders, both of whom are remembered as “the Great.” Ask them to consider whether the titles are deserved as they learn about these leaders.

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2. Gather students around you and read aloud Peter the Great. As you read, keep track on chart paper the important events of his life and when they occurred. 3. When you finish reading, discuss the major accomplishments of his reign and add them to the chart. (Also discuss the cost of these accomplishments to the peasants.) Peter’s accomplishments included: a. Expansion to the Baltic Sea b. Western practices introduced c. Tsar’s power increased d. New capital city of St. Petersburg e. Government bureaucracy created f. Serfdom increased g. Church controlled by the tsar 4. Highlight accomplishments by showing the transparency from the Milliken book if available. 5. In flipbooks, students will draw in the extent of Russia at the end of Peter’s reign. Use Transparency of “Growth of Russia” map (from What Your Fifth Grader Needs To Know, p. 151) as a guide. 6. To demonstrate their understanding, students will create a story map of Peter’s life and reign. Pass out the white paper and go over expectations. They will work independently to illustrate six important events in Peter’s life/reign on a story map timeline. They may refer to the chart created in Procedure #2 and Calliope magazine for ideas. 7. Close with a discussion of Peter’s “greatness.” Ensure that students understand both the positive and negative results of his reign. E. Assessment/Evaluation 1. Assess story map using rubric 2. Journal entry: Students will write two paragraphs about Peter the Great with these sentence starters: a. Peter the Great was great because… b. Peter the Great was not so great because… Lesson: Catherine the Great A. Daily Objectives 1. Concept Objective: Understand how political systems gain and exercise power over people and land. 2. Lesson Content: a. Catherine the Great b. Geographic expansion of Russia 3. Skill Objectives: a. Identify main idea and supporting details b. Summarize key points in an acrostic poem B. Materials 1. Student copies of Peter and Catherine (Calliope magazine) 2. Costume jewelry, a crown, and a gown to dress up as Catherine the Great

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3. Student flip books 4. Paper for acrostic poem 5. Crayons, colored pencils, or markers for student use 6. Chart paper and marker 7. Transparency of “Growth of Russia” map 8. Catherine's monologue C. Key Vocabulary 1. Czarina/tsarina: a female czar 2. Extravagant: exceeding the limit of necessity 3. Coronation: act of crowning, usually accompanied by a ceremony 4. Autocracy: government where one person possesses unlimited power 5. Annex: to join together; unite 6. Aristocrat: one believed to be superior; noble D. Procedures 1. Tell the story of Catherine’s rise to power through a dramatic monologue (Appendix I). Dress up with extravagant jewelry and a queenly robe and retell in first person the story of Catherine’s early life as told in Calliope magazine pages 32-34. Be sure to include her birth in Prussia, her parents, her marriage to the grandson of Peter the Great, her name change, the ousting of her husband, and her coronation as tsarina. 2. Tell students that they will read independently to find out more about Catherine and what she did while tsarina. There are two articles in Calliope magazine on this topic, “Catherine the Ruler,” and “Catherine II, The Committed Convert.” Students will choose one to read silently. When they are done, each student will write 2 important facts they learned about Catherine. 3. Share what students learned. Go around the class and let each student share one of his/her important facts. Record these on a chart. Encourage students to try not to duplicate what another student has shared. 5. In flipbooks, students will draw in Russia as it had grown during the reign of Catherine. “Growth of Russia” map. 4. To show what they have learned about Catherine, students will create an acrostic poem. Each letter of her name should begin a word or phrase that describes her reign, her accomplishments, or a result of her leadership. E. Assessment/Evaluation 1. Assess acrostic poems for accuracy of content 2. Journal entry: Two paragraph entry with the following sentence starters: Catherine was great because… Catherine was not so great because…
The Faces of Russia, Grade 5 2001 Conference 10

Lesson: A Russian Internet Scavenger Hunt A. Daily Objectives

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1. Concept Objective: Appreciate how cultures honor their heritage through their arts, literature, and architecture. 2. Lesson Content a. Russian art and architecture b. Russian literature 3. Skill Objectives a. Inquire and conduct research using the Internet. b. Listen to enjoy and appreciate spoken language (story read aloud on Internet in Russian). c. Read to increase knowledge of his/her own culture, the culture of others, and the common elements of culture. B. Materials 1. Computer(s) 2. Internet connection capability 3. “A Russian Scavenger Hunt” C. Key Vocabulary 1. Icon: religious symbol that comes from the Greek eikon, meaning image. 2. Image: Traditionally painted on wood, they were believed to be a direct link between the soul of mortals and those of the sacred figures. D. Procedures 1. Students will independently complete the worksheet, “A Russian Scavenger Hunt” to take them sequentially through various Internet sites containing Russian folktales, art, architecture, virtual museum tours and a look at Russian language. 2. Students should turn in their finished sheet upon completion. E. Assessment/Evaluation 1. Completion of “A Russian Scavenger Hunt”

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Lesson: The Faces of Russia A. Daily Objectives: Concept Objectives: a. Political systems gain and exercise power over people and land. b. Understand how geography influences the development of a country. 2. Lesson Content: a. Leadership of czars of early Russia b. Geographic expansion of Russia 3. Skill Objectives: a. Compare and contrast accomplishments of Russia's czars b. Analyze the effects of leadership c. Draw conclusions based on knowledge learned in unit B. Materials 1. Chart paper and markers 2. Flip books to use for information 3. Chart of "Faces of Russia" 4. Ingredients for Russian Tea a. 1 Cup Tang b. 1 Cup instant tea c. 1 Cup granulated sugar d. 1 tsp. Ground cloves e. 1 package lemonade mix (Mix all ingredients together. Store in a jar. Add 2-3 teaspoons of the mix to a cup of hot water.) 5. Jeopardy Questions C.. Procedures 1. Create a large chart on butcher paper that looks like Jeopardy. 2. Students will use trade books, their flipbooks, and any other sources available to work in groups to fill out their copies of the chart. 3. When they are done, share with the class as a whole and teacher will fill in the large chart. Have a culminating discussion about the “faces” of Russia’s past. If desired, take a class vote on whom students believe to have been the greatest of the czars in early Russia. 4. Enjoy a cup of Russian tea as you close this unit. You may wish to have students choose their best journal entry to share aloud with the class. 5. To review topics taught in the unit, play a game of Russian Jeopardy. Use Appendix L for suggested answers and questions. E. Assessment/Evaluation 1. Assess student charts for completion and accuracy 2. Collect student journals for a grade.

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VI. BIBLIOGRAPHY Baker, Rosalie F. and Charles F. Peter and Catherine: Two Russian Greats. Petersborough, NH: Cobblestone Publishing, Vol. 7, No. 5, May/June 1997, ISBN 0382407954 Chase, Marilyn. Russia. St. Louis, MO, Milliken Publishing Company, #MTDS22, ISBN 1-55863-529-7 Davenport, Merle. Russia, An Interdisciplinary Unit. Grand Rapids, MI: Instructional Fair, 1998. ISBN: 1-56822-445-1 Hirsch, E.D. What Your 5th Grader Needs to Know. New York, NY: Core Knowledge Foundation, 1993. ISBN 0-385-31464-7 Jacobsen, Karen. The Russian Federation – A New True Book. Chicago, IL: Children's Press, 1994. ISBN 0-516-01060-3 Nickles, Greg. Russia the Land. New York: Crabtree Publishing Company, 2000. ISBN 086505-318-9 Nickles, Greg. Russia the Culture. New York: Crabtree Publishing Company, 2000. ISBN 0-86505-320-0 Resnick, Abraham. A History of Russia to 1917. Chicago: Children's Press. (out of print but available at some libraries)
The Faces of Russia, Grade 5 2001 Conference 12

Stanley, Dianne. Peter the Great. New York, NY: Morrow Junior Books, 1986. ISBN 0-688-16708-X Strickler, James E. Russia of the Tsars. World History Series, San Diego: Lucent Books, 1998. ISBN #1-56006-296-9. "Peter the Great": Discovery Channel Film, ISBN #1-56331-524-6. "Russia" Video Visits European Collection Film, ISBN #1-56345-284-7.

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The Bolshoi Theater

The Bolshoi Theatre of Moscow, Russia The Bolshoi Theater (Russian: Большой театр, Bol'shoy Teatr, Large Theater) is a theater and opera company in Moscow, Russia, which gives performances of ballet and opera. The theater was home to the Ballet of the Moscow Imperial Bolshoi Theater. During its early years the Bolshoi in Moscow was overshadowed by the Imperial (after the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Kirov Ballet), but during the Soviet era it grew in importance as the center of power shifted from Saint Petersburg to Moscow, and even some of the dancers from the Imperial Ballet joined the troupe at the Bolshoi Ballet. The Bolshoi has been home to some of the world's greatest dancers and directors. Russian ballet and opera have produced some of the great cultural high points in world history. Significance of the Name The name comes from the Russian word, Большой "Bolshoi," which means either "large" or "grand." In Moscow and St Petersburg, there were only two theaters, one of them intended for opera and ballet (these were known as the Bolshoi Theaters) and another one for tragedies and comedies. As opera and ballet were considered nobler than drama, the opera house was named the "Grand Theater" and the drama theater, or "Small Theater" was known as the "Maly" theater (Малиый "Maly" is the Russian for "little").

History
During the Imperial era of Russian history, St. Petersburg was the most important cultural center. The Imperial Ballet School in Saint Petersburg first opened in 1738. It later became known as the Vaganova St. Petersburg Academy. The first Bolshoi Theater was the Imperial Bolshoi Kamenny Theater in Saint Petersburg. It stood next to the Circus Theater (rebuilt in 1860 as the Mariinsky Theater), but it was replaced in the 1890s by the present-day building of the St. Petersburg Conservatory. It was at St. Petersburg's Bolshoi that the first Great Russian operas, Glinka's A Life for the Tsar and Ruslan and Lyudmila, were premiered.

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The Bolshoi Company in Moscow was founded in 1776 by Prince Peter Urussov and Michael Maddox. Initially it gave performances in a private home, but in 1780 it acquired the Petrovka Theater and began producing plays and operas.

Main Hall of the Bolshoi Theatre The current building was built on Theater Square in 1824 to replace the Petrovka Theater, which had been destroyed by fire in 1805. It was designed by architect Andrei Mikhailov, who had built the nearby Maly Theatre in 1824. At that time, all the Russian theaters were imperial property. The Bolshoi Theater built in Moscow was originally called the Imperial Bolshoi Theater of Moscow. The theater was inaugurated on January 18, 1825. Initially it presented only Russian works, but foreign composers entered the repertoire starting from 1840. A fire in 1853 caused extensive damage; reconstruction was carried out by Albert Kavos, son of Caterino Kavos, an opera composer, and reopened in 1856. During World War II, the theater was damaged by a bomb but was promptly repaired. The Bolshoi has been the site of many historic premieres including Tchaikovsky's Voyevoda and Mazeppa, and Rachmaninoff's Aleko and Francesca da Rimini.

Ballet

At the Bolshoi Theatre School in Joinville, Brazil. 80

The Bolshoi has been associated from its beginnings with ballet, and is home to the Bolshoi Ballet troupe. Many of the world's great ballets have played there, including a number of important premieres, such as Tchaikovsky's ballet Swan Lake which premiered at the theater on Saturday, March 4, 1877. The Bolshoi was also the site of the premiere of the great French director, Marius Petipa's, production of Don Quixote, a Grand Ballet in 4 Acts-8 Scenes, with music by Léon Minkus. It premiered on December 14, 1869. Later Alexander Gorsky, once Premier Danseur to the Imperial Ballet, staged a new version of this work for the Moscow Imperial Bolshoi Theater in 1900, with additional music composed by Anton Simon, including the Variation of the Dryad Queen from the scene of Don Quixote's Dream (AKA The Garden of Dulcinea or The Kingdom of the Dryads) that is still retained as part of the ballet's performance tradition (later added by Rudolf Nureyev to be danced by Margot Fonteyn in the Le Corsaire Pas de Deux in 1961).

Current status of the Bolshoi
The main Bolshoi is currently closed for restoration work. The New Bolshoi theater, adjacent to it, continues to stage an extensive repertory of concerts and performances.

Music directors

Theatre Square in Moscow. The quadriga above the portico was sculpted by Peter Clodt von Jürgensburg.
• • • • • • • • • • •

Alexander Vedernikov (2001–) Mark Ermler (1998–2000) Alexander Lazarev (1987–1995) Yuri Simonov (1970–1985) Gennady Rozhdestvensky (1965–1970) Evgeny Svetlanov (1963–1965) Alexander Melik-Pashayev (1953–1963) Nikolai Golovanov (1948 –1953) Ari Pazovsky (1943–1948) Samuil Samosud (1936–1942) Fuat Mansurov

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Russia Activity Brief description: Have students create a KWL chart based on the things they know about Russia, would like to know, and what they have learned. Know Want to Know Learned

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Present Russia
One of the most notable features of present day Russia is a renewed celebration of the wealth of its past and its potential for the future. Throwing off the blanket of communist uniformity, Russia today is a nation of enormous diversity and tremendous vitality. It is as if the cultural traditions of a century ago have re-awakened with a newfound strength ancient cathedrals are being rebuilt and restored, colorful markets hum with activity once again and literature and the arts are quickly regaining the creative renown they enjoyed decades ago. A new Russia is now in full bloom. For most westerners, Russia is associated with its European cities--Moscow, St. Petersburg and Murmansk. This is the heartland of Imperial Russia, and these great and ancient cities often become the focus for most tourists. However there is much more to Russia, a country that spans eleven time zones and two continents, ending less than 50 miles from North America. Within this vast expanse lie the largest freshwater lake in the world, rivers and forests teeming with fish and wildlife, awe inspiring volcanoes, and towering mountains. Russia is the largest country on earth, with enormous tracts of land.

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Largest cities in Russia Word Search Name_______________________ Date __________________________

X K X L X P J S C M T S G C L H C F

H H F A E A M P K V Z X J G J B B D

J M S L B Q D Y E N W U J Y L P S I

N T A A P W C R T Q K S T E P I L D

Z X S N P C U K O A I C F R C F T S

N N F R E N I U D S U A K V Y X Y G

A R C P I K N S F Q T N R D T G C M

Z N G F K A A A F P V O R I K O U F

A S A M A R A W S H E Y V E D N N T

K M O S C O W E X A T R J E V D W J

A V E E L H A Q O A S O M S K T K A

G W A A L K I L D R O F A W F G J Y

K W L X B Z G T U A S O E W H H P Q

A X L U T K V W A T Z K E A T A F P

I D P L T I U P G H B N H E O P V B

V M F J H Z E N O R O V E P M L J K

Y J D C N Y U D T Y J Q T P S R H W

Z W O X A A A D Z E V U L O K Y E R

K S A D O F E M V A Q G T T U N V P

V A I D V H U V F W C L W F Y D F L

WORD BANK MOSCOW TULA TOMSK UFA ORSK

OMSK PENZA SAMARA SOCHI

KAZAN LIPETSK VORONEZH TVER

PERM KIROV ROSTOV CHITA

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Largest cities in Russia word search Name_______________________ Date __________________________

X H J

N Z X

N A Z N R F E I C P I N G F K A

A S A A R A S H E V E

K O C O

A E E L

G

K

A I L T K V P T I U

V F J

Y D

Z

K

V

K H M T L A L X E B P

M V

W W X D A L L B Z A X U L

M J

W S A O A I D D O V F E V H U F

X F S A S P P U

A N R

M S

C X A

H N A Z Y E U A N D D O T R Y O J E T P L J K Z E V L

A Q W C Y R K T

N K

H K Q A S L R O

J M D C S P C K E

N A F

W A X A T R J E V D J

I G

U S A S Q P U K V Y Y T V R D T C R I A N

W E

T W P U A G A T H S O Z B K E H

M V A W Q C G L T W U Y N D V P F L

O D F

O D

M V N Q A T Z W K I S X U G J J C G Y L J L H B P C B S F D I S C T F E R P C I F L T D S

O Y

O F

N V Q U

M A E K F J Y H P

S W W A E T G A H A P F V B Q P

P O T F R Y

K D U N T

T O M S K H E W R

X G O N G M F

W K

WORD BANK MOSCOW OMSK TULA PENZA TOMSK SAMARA UFA SOCHI

KAZAN LIPETSK VORONEZH TVER

PERM KIROV ROSTOV CHITA

ORSK
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Famous Russians Hall of Fame
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Ed. Technology Grade: 6-8

Brief Description
Students write biographies of famous Russians. This is a web-based research activity. You may use the fee-based database to research.

Objectives
Students demonstrate abilities to use various sources to research information. Students Demonstrate abilities to write short biographies.

Keywords
Russians, fame, wall, history, biography, Internet

Materials Needed
Computers with Internet access or library sources, paper, pens, markers or crayons.

Lesson Plan
• Have students use library sources or the Internet to research information about Russian heritage and the people who have made achievements and contributions in various areas. • Have each student draw an illustration of the person in his or her biography. Post the biographies on a classroom or hall wall.

Assessment
Evaluate students' biographies.

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My country is________________________________________________________ Topics Geographical information (I.e. capital, land forms, etc.) Life of children Research Resource

Food

Customs/holiday Other

Other

Student Name:

Date:

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Russia quiz
Brief description: Students may use this packet, an online database, and or books that relate to the Russian culture. 1. What is the capital of Russia? Circle correct answer A. Washington B. Karachi C. Moscow D. Vermont 2. What are the three colors on the Russian flag? Circle correct answer A. B. C. D. Blue, White, Green Green, Purple, White Yellow, White, Blue White, Blue, Red

3. What year was the new Russian flag adopted? Circle correct answer A. 2002 B. 1985 C. 1991 D. 1918 4. Russia is the ________country in the world. Circle the correct answer A. Largest B. Smallest C. Poorest D. Riches 5. Which one is a Russian symbol? Circle correct answer A. Rose B. Bear C. Sun D. Dog 6. Where is Russia located? Circle correct answer A. North America B. India C. Northern Asia 88

D. France 7. When did Russia gain its independence (Soviet Union)? Circle correct answer? A. July 28, 1990 B. August 24, 1991 C. October 12, 1918 D. June 18, 1912 8. What day is Russia’s national holiday (Russia day)? Circle correct answer? A. June 12 B. September 17 C. April 1 D. July 12

Russia Quiz Answers
Brief description: Students may use this packet, an online database, and or books that relate to the Russian culture. 1. What is the capital of Russia? Circle correct answer A. Washington B. Karachi C. Moscow D. Vermont 2. What are the three colors on the Russian flag? Circle correct answer C. D. E. F. Blue, White, Green Green, Purple, White Yellow, White, Blue White, Blue, Red

3. What year was the new Russian flag adopted? Circle correct answer A. 2002 B. 1985 C. 1991 D. 1918 4. Russia is the ________country in the world. Circle the correct answer A. Largest

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B. Smallest C. Poorest D. Riches 5. Which one is a Russian symbol? Circle correct answer A. Rose B. Bear C. Sun D. Dog 6. Where is Russia located? Circle correct answer A. North America B. India C. Northern Asia D. France 7. When did Russia gain its independence (Soviet Union)? Circle correct answer? A. July 28, 1990 B. August 24, 1991 C. October 12, 1918 D. June 18, 1912 8. What day is Russia’s national holiday (Russia day)? Circle correct answer? A. June 12 B. September 17 C. April 1 D. July 12

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Can You Speak Russian?

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Russian classroom items

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Russia on the Map! Russia is located in Northern Asia:

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Russian Traditional Foods

Borshch:

Is beet soup and it is a traditional soup in Russian culture. It is filled with vegetables and meat.

Pirozhki:

Pastries that are filled with many different things such as cabbage, potatoes, meat, cheese, etc.

Blini:

Served rolled with a variety of fillings such as jam, cheese, onions, and or chocolate syrup

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Shashlyk:

Russian kebabs, they are usually a combination of vegetables and meat

Pelmeni:

Pastry dumplings filled typically with meatballs.

Morozhenoe:

Russian ice cream

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Russian food word search
Name: ____________________ date: ___________________

V I F K K A Z A K H N A R M F G K S H Q
Galushki

L K L K Y L H S A H S N A B Z H O R K A

Y H S L E E R B L Y A O I Y L A N Q M V

W S Y V O K D O Y I U H V C U K K Y F L

I U E K G M J C O A E C A N A O F C N A

J L G Z O R H K Q T R A C G K Z B H F H

M A K R Q Z W Y I S K R W Q H I D E H K

P G P R Y Z K N S U R D B X O N Y B Y E

S I V T N B E L Y P A K E D L A G U U Q

F N R B P M O O B A U E S G O K I R R Q

Y Q G O L O S S Y K T Z B F D I J E C V

P N F E Z Q T S N F O J K Y N D F K G J

M H P F U H M A E S H D P B I J E I C B

U J O I E J K R R Y T I C X K U T R D U

A Z D N F B M I H B H P F W F B P H J Q

H C H N J J A F K F A R M Z R T C M C W

Chebureki

Eels

Kazakh

Kozinaki Khren

Khalva Drachona Caviar Sauerkraut Squid Abzhorka

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Rassolnyk

Kholodnik

Kapusta

Pelmeni

Shashlyk

Pirozhki

Russian food word search answer key
Name: ____________________ date: ___________________

V I F K K A Z A K N R M F G K S H Q

L K L K Y L

Y

W I J M P E G K K Z R P R

S F I N V R T B N P B E O O A Y B P A U K E E S D G O

Y G L

P F Z

M U A H H J Z C P F O D H I N N J J

H S U L A G S Y L V E K

Q N O E

E O G O Q Y M R Z Z K Y D J H W K O C Y I O Q I S A T S U R D

U E F M A S D P B I J E I C B

M O S Y K T Z B F D I J E C

Q H J B S F O J K Y N D F K G J R

H R S B A L

S T

K M A I F F R M R T C C R H K Y B I P

N L

N E

H H Y

S A U E R K A I B Y Z L H A V C

H T H A C F K F U B T P D J

A N O H C A R

A C W B N G Q X

X W Z

U A K H O L K O Z I C H E A H K F B D Y B E N F H Y

N A K G I U R U R

O N K R Q Y K M F A V L

R H M U Q W

Q Q V

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Galushki

Chebureki

Eels
Rassolnyk

Kazakh
Kholodnik

Kozinaki Khren Kapusta

Khalva Drachona Caviar Sauerkraut Squid Abzhorka Pelmeni Shashlyk Pirozhki

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High school Activities and lessons

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Travel Guides
Humanities, Social Sciences Grade: 9-12

Brief Description
Students design travel guides for a place in Russia

Objectives
Students research information about different places in Russia. Students use researched information to create travel guides about different places in Russia

Keywords
Russia, travel guide, brochure, country, language

Materials Needed
Samples of travel guides or brochures, student-researched library sources or computers with internet access, student-select materials for creating travel guides

Lesson Plan
• Prior to the lesson, contact a local travel agency to get several samples of travel guides or brochures. • Define the term travel guide for students. Show students samples of travel guides. Discuss the kinds of information included in each sample. • Have students choose or assign each student a city or place in Russia to research on • Tell students to use library sources or the Internet to research information about their chosen or assigned places. Tell students their guides must include general background information about the place, activities for visitors, and interesting facts • After students complete their research, have them design and create the guide using any materials they choose.

Assessment
Evaluate students' completed travel guides.

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Name That City
Brief description: Allow students to use internet resources to find the correct answer for the blanks. Use the word box below to fill in the blanks; use the words that best fits the selection 1. ____________ is the capital and largest city in Russia. 2. Togliatti a small town in ____________, Russia is world famous for its engineering industry and machinery construction. 3. _____________ is the most eastern city of Europe and therefore its province is often referred to as Eurasia. 4. The ____________ Bridge across the Volga River is one of the longest in Europe. 5. ______________ is located in the Central Federal District of Russia. 6. ______________is the largest city in Siberia. 7. ______________ is a city of west-central Russia on the Volga River east of Moscow. 8. The city of _____________ is located on the southwest federal district. 9. _______________ is a city in Samara Oblast, Russia. 10. _____________ is an important industrial city in Russia. Word box Tomsk Kazan Moscow Tolyatti Samara Lipetsk Perm Kemerovo

Novosibirsk Saratov

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Name That City Answers
Brief description: Allow students to use internet resources to find the correct answer for the blanks. Use the word box below to fill in the blanks; use the words that best fits the selection 1. Moscow is the capital and largest city in Russia. 2. Togliatti a small town in Samara, Russia is world famous for its engineering industry and machinery construction. 3. Perm is the most eastern city of Europe and therefore its province is often referred to as Eurasia. 4. The Saratov Bridge across the Volga River is one of the longest in Europe. 5. Lipetsk is located in the Central Federal District of Russia. 6. Novosibirsk is the largest city in Siberia. 7. Kazan is a city of west-central Russia on the Volga River east of Moscow. 8. The city of Tomsk is located on the southwest federal district. 9. Tolyatti is a city in Samara Oblast, Russia. 10. Kemerovo is an important industrial city in Russia. Word box Tomsk Kazan Moscow Tolyatti Samara Lipetsk Perm Kemerovo

Novosibirsk Saratov

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Famous Russian Inventors Brief description: Have students read about each Russian inventor then have them pick one to right a brief essay about. Dmitri Mendeleev: Dmitri lived in Tobolsk, Siberia he is credited for his invention of the periodic table. A periodic table can be defined as an arrangement of chemical elements based on their atomic numbers and similarity of properties. Vladimir Zworykin: Vladimir lived in born in Murom, 200 miles east of Moscow, and studied electrical engineering at the Imperial Institute of Technology. He is credited for his invention of the cathode-ray tube also know as the kinescope. A kinescope can be defined as a film of a transmitted television program. Zworykin was one of the first to demonstrate a television system with all the features of modern picture tubes. Igor Sikorsky: Igor lived in Kiev, Russia he is credited for creating the world’s first practical helicopter. In 1943, the R-4 became the world's first production rotary-wing craft. This then led to many other successful helicopters. Samuel Born: Was a Russian immigrant who invented the lollipop machine. The machine mechanically inserted sticks into lollipops. David Sarnoff: David was born in Uzlian, Russia, he later moved to America. He eventually became the founder of The National Broadcasting Company in 1926 which was the first radio network. Sarnoff is credited with suggesting that radios could be used for entertainment, predicting that they would become commonplace household items, and he was instrumental in the development of TV.

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Famous Inventor’s Activity
Lesson plan: After reviewing the famous Russian inventers on the previous pagewith students, have students answer the famous inventors question which will help them organize their ideas for their essays Go over the steps in completing a successful essay. Then have students complete a rough draft then a final copy Go over plagiarism details with students and have them write a brief paragraph about it to test their knowledge on the topic. Then show students how to correctly site their resources. After the essay is done have students present to the class. Then have students grade and critique each others work on what was successful and what they could have been done better Brief response: From learning about each of these Russian inventors pick one that you’re most interested in learning more about. After you have answered the questions below you will be asked to research the inventor of your choice. Write about the inventor’s early life, accomplishments, inventions, and any other interesting facts you found. Make sure you include a works cited page listing the resources you used. You must use at least three different resources such as but not limited to: internet, books, articles, etc. Paper should include: 2. Cover page: includes inventors name and picture, your name, date, teachers name and room 3. Essay: topic sentence which is followed by a beginning paragraph, body paragraphs, and a conclusion paragraph( at least two pages double spaced) 4. Bibliography page: Includes proper works cited, website address, authors name, etc. Assessments: follow the rubric created to grade your students work. You may edit the rubric so it can better fit your own lesson plan.

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Famous Inventor Questions What inventor did you find the most interesting? Explain. _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ What inventor do you believe had the largest impact on society? Explain. _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Why do you believe inventors are important to society? Explain. _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ If you could invent something what would it be; what kind of impact would it have on society? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

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Russian Inventors Essay Rubric Each category is worth 10 points witch equals up to a grand total of 100%. If the essay clearly matches the category place a 10 on the line. If the essay fits the category but not in its entirety place a 5 on the line if not leave blank or place a 0 on the line. To calculate the total add up all of the numbers on each category. 10 = The essay clearly fits the description 5 = The essay fits the description but not in its entirety Leave blank = The essay fails to fit the description ____ The beginning of the essay captures the readers interest ____ The essay describes one Russian inventor from the list ____ The essay is well written with less or none spelling and grammar errors ____ The essay is typed in at least two pages (12font/times new roman) ____ The essay includes a cover page ____ The essay includes a bibliography page and is correctly sited ____ The essay includes valid information about the Inventor ____ The essay is well organized and stays on topic throughout the paragraphs ____ The essay is presented to the class effectively ____ The student critiques other classmates work in a respective manner

_____ Total points _____ Grade

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Russian Folktales Lesson

Audience: High school students (9th-12th) Text “The Language of the Birds” (Russian Folktale) Brief description: Russian folk tales play an important role in Russian culture. In this activity students will be given the opportunity to read a Russian novel in order to better understand Russian Folktales. ActivitiesBefore reading Teachers ask students questions on what they know about folk tales and fictional characters. Teachers then share with students’ information on Russian culture and Russian folktales. Teachers also explain the importance of Russian Folktales. During reading Students will read the Russian folktale After reading Students will complete comprehension questions Teachers should have a class discussion with students to discuss what are the principles of creating a Russian folktale Students will then be asked to create their own Russian folktale to share with the class

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THE LANGUAGE OF THE BIRDS SOMEWHERE in a town in holy Russia, there lived a rich merchant with his wife. He had an only son, a dear, bright, and brave boy called Ivan. One lovely day Ivan sat at the dinner table with his parents. Near the window, in the same room hung a cage, and a nightingale, a sweet-voiced, gray bird, was imprisoned within. The sweet nightingale began to sing its wonderful song with trills and high silvery tones. The merchant listened and listened to the song and said: "How I wish I could understand the meaning of the different songs of all the birds! I would give half my wealth to the man, if only there were such a man, who could make plain to me all the different songs of the different birds." Ivan took notice of these words and no matter where he went, no matter where he was, no matter what he did, he

Ivan learns the language of the birds Always thought of how he could learn the language of the birds. Some time after this the merchant's son happened to be hunting in a forest. The winds rose, the sky became clouded, the lightning flashed, the thunder roared loudly, and the rain fell in torrents. Ivan soon came near a large tree and saw a big nest in the branches. Four small birds were in the nest; they were quite alone, and neither father nor mother was there to protect them from the cold and wet. The good Ivan pitied them, climbed the tree and covered the little ones with his "kaftan," a long-skirted coat which the Russian peasants and merchants usually wear. The thunderstorm passed by and a big bird came flying and sat down on a branch near the nest and spoke very kindly to Ivan. 109

"Ivan, I thank thee; thou hast protected my little children from the cold and rain and I wish to do something for thee. Tell me what thou dost wish." Ivan answered; "I am not in need; I have everything for my comfort. But teach me the birds' language." "Stay with me three days and thou shalt know all about it." Ivan remained in the forest three days. He understood well the teaching of the big bird and returned home clever than before. One beautiful day soon after this Ivan sat with his parents when the nightingale was singing in his cage. His song was so sad, however, so very sad, that the merchant and his wife also became sad, and their son, their good Ivan, who listened very attentively, was even more affected, and the tears came running down his cheeks. "What is the matter?" asked his parents; "what art thou weeping about, dear son?" "Dear parents," answered the son, "it is because I understand the meaning of the nightingale's song, and because this meaning is so sad for all of us." "What then is the meaning? Tell us the whole truth; do not hide it from us," said the father and mother. "Oh, how sad it sounds!" replied the son. "How much better would it be never to have been born!" "Do not frighten us," said the parents, alarmed. "If thou dost really understand the meaning of the song, tell us at once." "Do you not hear for yourselves? The nightingale says: 'The time will come when Ivan, the merchant's son, shall become Ivan, the king's son, and his own father shall serve him as a simple servant.'" The merchant and his wife felt troubled and began to distrust their son, their good Ivan. So one night they gave him a drowsy drink, and when he had fallen asleep they took him to a boat on the wide sea, spread the white sails, and pushed the boat from the shore. For a long time the boat danced on the waves and finally it came near a large merchant vessel, which struck against it with such a shock that Ivan awoke. The crew on the large vessel saw Ivan and pitied him. So they decided to take him along with them and did so. High, very high, above in the sky they perceived cranes. Ivan said to the sailors: "Be careful; I hear the birds predicting a storm. Let us enter a harbor or we shall suffer great danger and damage. All the sails will be torn and all the masts will be broken." But no one paid any attention and they went farther on. In a short time the storm arose, the wind tore the vessel almost to pieces, and they had a very hard time to repair all the damage.

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When they were through with their work they heard many wild swans flying above them and talking very loud among themselves. "What are they talking about?" inquired the men, this time with interest. "Be careful," advised Ivan. "I hear and distinctly understand them to say that the pirates, the terrible sea robbers, are near. If we do not enter a harbor at once they will imprison and kill us." The crew quickly obeyed this advice and as soon as the vessel entered the harbor the pirate boats passed by and the merchants saw them capture several unprepared vessels. When the danger was over, the sailors with Ivan went farther, still farther. Finally the vessel anchored near a town, large and unknown to the merchants. A king ruled in that town who was very much annoyed by three black crows. These three crows were all the time perching near the window of the king's chamber. No one knew how to get rid of them and no one could kill them. The king ordered notices to be placed at all crossings and on all prominent buildings, saying that whoever was able to relieve the king from the noisy birds would be rewarded by obtaining the youngest korolevna, the king's daughter, for a wife; but the one who should have the daring to undertake but not succeed in delivering the palace from the crows would have his head cut off. Ivan attentively read the announcement, once, twice, and once more. Finally he made the sign of the cross and went to the palace. He said to the servants: "Open the window and let me listen to the birds." The servants obeyed and Ivan listened for a while. Then he said: "Show me to your sovereign king." When he reached the room where the king sat on a high, rich chair, he bowed and said: "There are three crows, a father crow, a mother crow, and a son crow. The trouble is that they desire to obtain thy royal decision as to whether the son crow must follow his father crow or his mother crow." The king answered: "The son crow must follow the father crow." As soon as the king announced his royal decision the crow father with the crow son went one way and the crow mother disappeared the other way, and no one has heard the noisy birds since. The king gave one-half of his kingdom and his youngest korolevna to Ivan, and a happy life began for him. In the meantime his father, the rich merchant, lost his wife and by and by his fortune also. There was no one left to take care of him, and the old man went begging under the windows of

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charitable people. He went from one window to another, from one village to another, from one town to another, and one bright day he came to the palace where Iva

"The old man went begging from town to town" lived, begging humbly for charity. Ivan saw him and recognized him, ordered him to come inside, and gave him food to eat and also supplied him with good clothes, asking questions: "Dear old man, what can I do for thee?" he said. "If thou art so very good," answered the poor father, without knowing that he was speaking to his own son, "let me remain here and serve thee among thy faithful servants." "Dear, dear father!" exclaimed Ivan, "thou didst doubt the true song of the nightingale, and now thou seest that our fate was to meet according to the predictions of long ago." The old man was frightened and knelt before his son, but his Ivan remained the same good son as before, took his father lovingly into his arms, and together they wept over their sorrow. Several days passed by and the old father felt courage to ask his son, the korolevitch: "Tell me, my son, how was it that thou didst not perish in the boat?" Ivan Korolevitch laughed gayly. "I presume," he answered, "that it was not my fate to perish at the bottom of the wide sea, but my fate was to marry the korolevna, my beautiful wife, and to sweeten the old age of my dear father."

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The Language of the Birds Questions

1. What do you believe is the purpose of this folk tale? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2. Why do you believe the son forgave his father at the end? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 3. In your opinion what do you believe could have been done to make the story better? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 4. After reading this story what do you believe a folktale is? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 5. Why do you think folktales are important to Russian culture? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

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Create Your Own Russian Folk Tale Brief description: After reading The Language of the Bird’s, students will create their own Russian folktale. A folk tale can be defined as a traditional narrative, usually anonymous, handed down orally, fables, fairy tales, legends, etc. From reading “The language of the birds” you will be given a chance to create your own Russian Folktale. Your audience will be elementary students Folktale should include: Characters: These can be but not limited to animals, people, objects, etc. Plot: Problem, Solution, ending Moral: Should teach some kind of lesson Mythical events: Imaginative, magic, etc. Humor: Funny parts, humorous events that take place Lesson plan: -Teachers should go over steps on creating a story (folk tale) -Teachers should then have students fill out a graphic organizer - Students should then complete a rough draft copy followed by a final Activity: Invite a kindergarten class over to present folk tales to. Have them pick their favorite ones Assessment: Create a rubric that pertains to the lesson

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Russian Customs, Holidays and Traditions
Those who are interested in Russian crafts can note that they have roots in Russian traditions and history. In order to make easier understanding of subjects and styles of Russian lacquer boxes, nesting dolls, brooches, eggs we try to select necessary information and place in this section. This part of the site is devoted to Russian history, customs, religion and traditions. Now the list of articles is short but with time it may get longer # 1 Article Russian Christmas Description When Russian Christmas is celebrated, what dishes are served for Christmas Eve, some words about Russian New Year and Russian Father Frost History of one of the most favorite and popular Russian icon Kazanskaya Description of wedding ceremony in Russian Orthodox church Story of life of the most know in Russia Saint Nicholas who was not Russian but consider to be from Russia. A little bit strange old Russian fun with bears Why Russian Orthodox Church is different from other Christian missions, its short history. Why Russians like to have hot bath, what's Russian bath and how it works Short description of Romanov Russian tsars dynasty Description of Russian spirits, they still exist, to be correct people still believe that they exist How it was made in old Russia Main Russian national (official) holidays and what they mean Educational system in Russia Most popular recipes of Russian cuisine. An article about Russian Orthodox Easter Story of life of St. George.

2 3 4

Kazanskaya Icon Marriage in the Orthodox Church St. Nicholas

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Russian bear fight History of Russian Orthodox Church Russian bath Romanov Dynasty Russian spirits Old wedding ceremony Russian National Holidays Education in Russia Russian cuisine and Russian cooking recipes Russian Easter St.George icon

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Russian tea drinking ceremony

Russian tradition of tea drinking

Russia fact sheet
Brief description: research Russia and fill out the information below Place name: Capital: Weather: Russia

Population:

Land density:

Languages spoken:

Religions practiced:

Government:

Location:

Activities:

Food:

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Flag colors: Symbols: National Holidays

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The Russian Revolution
By Peter Litwin EURO 344, Spring 2002

Introduction
The Russian Revolution of 1917 is also called the Bolshevik Revolution or the October Revolution. In 1917 there were actually two revolutions in Russia. One was the February Revolution in which the Tsar abdicated his throne and the Provisional Government took power. The other was the October Revolution in which the Provisional Government was overthrown by the Bolsheviks. The Russian Revolution of 1917 played a very important role in world history and also a major role in the history of the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Baltic peoples also played a major role in the 1917 Revolution, particularly the Latvian Bolsheviks who comprised a key portion of the Red Guards that defended the Bolsheviks at a crucial time in its early existence. Earlier, during the 1905 Revolution in Russia, the peasants in the Baltic took this as their cue to revolt against their rulers. At different times in history, the Estonian and Latvian peasants had been ruled by Tsarist Russia, the Kingdom of Sweden, and the Baltic German nobility; Lithuanian peasants were governed by Russia and before it, by the Kingdom of Poland (1569 to 1791). They saw this time period as an opportunity to finally take control over their destiny and to rule them selves. Though it didn't lead to independence at this time, it independence did emerge from 1918 till 1940 for the people of the Baltic States. I. Years of Repression/Serfdom The people of the Baltic territories where today the countries of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania exist were enslaved by serfdom from about the time of the 12th century to about the 19th century. The Baltic has been fought and ruled over by many different people, most notably ethnic German nobles, Poland, Sweden, and finally Tsarist Russia. The natives of the Baltic who comprised the majority of the population, the Estonians, Latvians, and Lithuanians, did not own the land and thus they did not have political power. The peasants did the back breaking labor but the result of it was not their own enrichment but that of the local German and Polish nobles. At the start of the 1800's the Baltic peasants received some freedom from the Baltic German nobles in Estonia and Latvia, while Lithuanian serfs were emancipated in 1861, together with all serfs in the Russian Empire.

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II. The 1905 Revolution In Russia in 1905, the people's faith in Nicholas II, the Russian Tsar, was waning. In that year, Russia was defeated by the Japanese in number of navy battles. "But the one event that unleashed a fury of mass action and set Russia well and truly on the path to revolution was the cold-blooded shooting of hundreds of unarmed demonstrators in St Petersburg on 22 January 1905. 'Bloody Sunday' triggered a wave of massive demonstrations and strikes throughout the empire (Kirby 228)." Not only in Russia did the workers react, but throughout the empire. The empire that included the Baltic, where in Riga 50,000 workers went on strike (Kirby 228). In Kurland, today Western Latvia, 184 estates were burned and 82 Baltic Germans were killed by angry farmers (Von Rauch 14). In Estonia, farmers saw these revolts as a chance to grab land that had previously been noble land (Raun 89). The Tsar reacted harshly to these uprisings and in so doing he "provided symbols and martyrs.... In other words, 1905 made revolution for Latvians concrete (Ezergailis 21)." Nearly one thousand people in the Baltic were captured and executed and thousands were exiled to Siberian prison camps (Von Rauch 14). But there was a positive outcome to these uprisings. Not only did the people feel more empowered than ever before but one concession that the Tsar made was to grant people representation in the Russian government in the form of the Imperial Duma. Though the Dumas may not have had much real power, they did teach the Baltic political leaders valuable lessons, which they would later use in their countries when revolution appeared yet again. Some of the lessons learned by Baltic leaders were ones of political leadership, coalition building, and "parliamentary debate and procedure" (Von Rauch 15). Both the Estonian leaders Jaan Tonisson and Konstantin Pats were schooled in the Dumas (Von Rauch 15). It is important to mention that Lenin met with and supported the Latvian Social Democratic Party (LSDP) in 1901 in Riga (Von Rauch, 12). The importance of these meetings is that the LSDP would later form a coalition with the Bolsheviks. When the October Revolution in 1917 finally came to pass, the Latvian Strelki (or Latvian Rifleman) were instrumental in protecting the newly formed Bolshevik government (Council of People’s Commissars) from counterrevolutionaries. Not only did they protect the newly formed Bolshevik government in Petrograd but they blocked Kornilov and his troops from getting to Petrograd via railroad stations in Latvia. They later performed basic police duties throughout the city of Petrograd and were members of the Cheka, the Soviet secret police (Ezergailis 15). III. February Revolution In 1917 Russia was again at war (WWI) and they were losing to the Germans mainly because they lacked the modern industry to support its war effort and didn't have an adequate railroad system to get supplies to the front. As in 1905 when revolution broke out, confidence was not very high in the Tsar Nicholas II. The situation in Petrograd (formerly St Petersburg) was dire for most of the population. Because of the war, food supplies were low, unemployment was high, and inflation was out of control. Because of these conditions many workers became politicized and joined

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revolutionary organizations known as soviets. The miserable conditions coupled with 385,000 workers on strike in Petrograd led to a combustible situation. "It was the lack of bread that provided the spark to light the dry tinder of revolution, in a city whose military garrison sided with the insurgents at the crucial moment (Kirby 245). Fed up with the Tsarist regime, the workers, peasants, and soldiers rose up and demanded the redistribution of land. On February 28, 1917 Nicholas II abdicated his throne, tsarist forces surrendered, and the Tsar’s ministers were arrested. This was to be the end of the last of the tsarist regimes in Russia. Put in its place was the Provisional Government which consisted of a coalition of conservative, moderate, and liberal socialists. More specifically, the Provisional Government was made up of Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries. Aleksandr F. Kerensky, the minister of justice, was one of the key people of the Provisional Government. It is important to note that when the Provisional Government first took power in Russia, that for a time there existed both the Provisional Government and the worker soviets. So in a sense there was a duality of power. Soon after the Provisional Government took power the worker soviets consolidated their power. One of the first things they voted on was to free political prisoners. This brought some of the most radical leaders back into Petrograd. It also brought other leaders back from abroad who fled the country to escape tsarist persecution (Le Blanc 5). IV. The October Revolution/The Struggle For Power and the Rise of the Bolsheviks On the one hand, “The property owning classes were becoming more conservative and the masses more radical (Reed 1)” Soon after the Provisional Government was in power many of the problems that helped them overthrow the Tsar still existed: Russia was still doing badly in the war, bread was still scarce and the people were calling for more drastic changes. The newly released radical leaders were whipping the common people into a frenzy and the policies of the Provisional Government were not helping them. The Provisional Government began arresting radicals and the recently returned political prisoners and shut down what they deemed as radical newspapers. As the American eyewitness John Reed points out, “The policy of the Provisional Government alternated between ineffective reforms and stern repressive measures (Reed 3),” which had the result of alienating the working class. One of the key people to return to Russia from exile was Vladimir Ilich Lenin. He provoked the workers with statements like “Bread, Peace, and Land” and “Down with the Provisional Government-All Power to the Soviets! (Le Blanc 5)” The Bolsheviks were continually organizing workers, peasants, and soldiers. The soldiers would later play a key role when the Bolsheviks seized power. Another focal point of the Bolshevik agitation was a call for peace. The Bolsheviks felt that Russia should make peace with Germany and get out of the war immediately. Kerensky, who by mid-summer had become somewhat of a dictator, appointed Lavr Kornilov to the head of the armed forces. A couple of months later Kornilov started to march on Petrograd with designs on seizing power for himself and a coalition he created. Kerensky, fearing for his life and that of his newly formed government, freed the Bolsheviks he had arrested and armed them so they could help stop Kornilov (Le Blanc 6). The Bolsheviks, who at this time played a key role in defending the Provisional Government, helped themselves to

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gain even deeper support from the Russian people. When in the month of September elections took place, the Bolsheviks won a majority of the seats in the soviets in Petrograd, Moscow, and other cities. On October 24-25, 1917, pro-Bolshevik soldiers, sailors, and Red Guards stormed the Winter Palace and arrested members of the Provisional Government. This is often referred to as the "bloodless coup" that put the Bolsheviks in power. The following day elections handed the majority of seats to the Bolsheviks (Le Blanc 7). But one month later when elections were held again, the Bolsheviks failed to gain a majority of the seats. The next day the Bolsheviks simply dissolved the Constituent Assembly and took control. This immediately led the Bolsheviks into a Civil War with the "Whites" (White Guard Volunteer Army) led by General Kornilov. The Whites were a group of different factions including former officials, Cossacks, moderate socialists, nobles, and military leaders that wanted a return to monarchy or at least an end to the Bolsheviks (Kirchner 242). Other than their desire to oust the Bolsheviks the Whites weren't a very unified coalition. Latvian troops were instrumental in helping the Bolsheviks defeat the Whites. They defended against revolts in Moscow in July of 1918 and fought against the Whites, now led by Denikin, on the southern front in 1919 (Von Rauch 56). In September of 1918, Jukums Vacietis, the Latvian commander was promoted to Commander-in-Chief of the Red Army (Von Rauch 57). Other Latvians were also promoted to high ranks in the Red Army and a number of Latvians held important positions in the Communist Party. Though the Bolsheviks (now called the Communists) were besieged from not only the Whites, but also the Allies (Great Britain, France, and the United States), and Japan, they somehow survived this onslaught with the help of the Latvian regiments. Great Britain landed troops not only in Soviet Russia but also in what would become Estonia as well. When the Allies finally withdrew their troops from the Soviet Union in 1920 the Civil War came to an end (Kirchner 243). V. Independence for the Baltic What the people of the Baltic became very aware of near the end of World War I (19141918) was that the Russians and the Germans were busy. The Russians were engrossed in a revolution and then immediately afterwards a civil war. The Germans had their hands full with the Allies and the Allied bombing of the German cities of Berlin, Leipzig, and Dresden. Independence for the Baltic countries was repeatedly declared and finally recognized. “The Brest-Litovsk Treaty instead of being a block became a stepping stone to Baltic Independence (Hiden 30).” The Brest-Litovsk Treaty was the peace treaty signed that ended WWI in 1918. “Estonians exploited the Allied fears of German ambitions so successfully that Britain, France, and Italy recognized Estonian Independence in May 1918 (Hiden 32)” Estonia and Lithuania were the first to declare their independence in February of 1918 and Latvia declared independence in November, 1918. All three of the new Baltic States set up a democratically elected single-chamber parliaments. In Latvia and Lithuania, presidents were elected to head the new governments but in Estonia no president was elected. Instead in Estonia, a Prime Minster would take care of any official duties as necessary. In Estonia Konstantin Pats led the newly formed government. In Latvia, the new government was headed

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by Karlis Ulmanis and Antanas Smetona was to be Lithuania's first President (Von Rauch 7678). In all three of the newly formed Baltic States, none of the governments lasted for very long and all of the governments, after a short-lived democratically elected government, became dictatorships. Interestingly, all of the dictatorships were led by the men (Pats, Ulmanis, and Smetona) that were the leaders of their respective countries when they first achieved independence. According to Kirby, all three leaders "eschewed the Hitler model in favor of a more modest projection of themselves as fathers of the nation (Kirby 325-326)". In Lithuania the democratic government was overthrown in 1926, in Estonia and Latvia it took until 1934.

Sources Cited
Ezergailis, Andrew, The Latvian Impact on the Bolshevik Revolution The First Phase: September 1917 to April 1918 (Boulder: East European Monographs, 1983) This book is a fascinating and in depth view of how Latvians helped the Bolshevik Revolution succeed. Many people don’t realize or do not want to admit the impact that Latvians had on the Bolshevik Revolution according to Ezergailis. It includes a look at the various Latvian armed forces that helped Lenin and the Bolsheviks seize power and remain in power at the beginning of the October Revolution. This book is filled with maps, photos, and tables that help to explain the subject at hand. Halsall, Paul, “Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Russian Revolution”, Fordham University <http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook39.html> Created 1997: Last revised 1/18/1999. (Accessed April 10, 2002). This website is an extensive source of data on Russian history including the Russian Revolution and Post-revolution. This website includes important quotes and documents of the day. Hiden, John and Salmon, Patrick, The Baltic Nations and Europe (Essex: Longman, 1991), 25-88. This book briefly documents the earl stages of the October Revolution and then looks at what it took to create the three independent states of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Next it explores what these three states were up against in gaining their independence and what it took to survive in this revolutionary climate. It also looks at the economics of the Baltic States during this time. Kirby, David, The Baltic World 1772-1993: Europe's Northern Periphery in an Age of Change (London: Longman, 1995). This book gives a view of history from the common people of the Baltic's not merely from the viewpoint of the major leaders and nations. The book has a wealth of information and tells it from a more personal stand point than is often found in history books. Kirchner, Walter, Russian History, 7th Ed. (New York: HarperCollins, 1991), 228-246. A condensed history of Russia and the Soviet Union. Book is written in outline form with short descriptions of major events.

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Le Blanc, Paul, “Russian Revolutions of 1917”, Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia <http://www.encarta.msn.com> Created 2001. (Accessed April 13, 2002). This website has an extensive overview of the Russian Revolution compiled in a summarized fashion. Without having a subscription to Encarta access is limited. Marxists.org Internet Archive, “Soviet History: Revolution” <http://www.marxists.org/history/ussr/revolution/> (Accessed April 10, 2002). This website contains excerpts from John Reed's "Ten Days That Shook the World" which is a fascinating book and well worth reading. The movie “Reds” was based on John Reed’s life. The website also contains excerpts from Leon Trotsky's "History of the Russian Revolution." Page, Stanley W., The Formation of the Baltic States (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959) This book looks briefly at the period of time leading up to the early 1900’s and then the remainder of the book details the 20-year period up to about 1920. Interestingly enough, Page has an opposing view from Toivo Raun. In Raun’s book Estonia and the Estonians he suggests that the Estonians were indeed supportive of the Bolsheviks during the Russian Revolution. On the other hand, Page spends a whole chapter on this same subject called “Estonia Rejects Bolshevism”. Rauch, George Von, The Baltic States, trans. Gerald Onn (London: C. Hurst, 1970n), 1-106. Von Rauch looks at the Baltic’s as a whole instead of from a country-by-country basis. I believe it is good to look at history in a regional way as Von Rauch is doing in his book, The Baltic States. This book gives some historical background leading up to the Russian Revolution and then looks at the short lived period of independence for Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Raun, Toivo U., Estonia and the Estonians, 2nd ed. (Stanford: Hoover Institution, 2001), 57-111. This book is a source of how the 1905 revolution affected Estonia at this time in its history. It explains how the Estonians were very supportive of the over throw of the Tsar Nicholas II and how some Estonians saw this as an impetus to attack noble estates. The Tsar put down this civil upheaval very harshly and revolution in Estonia failed. But the seeds of revolution and political interest were now planted in the minds of the peasant’s. Reed, John, Ten Days That Shook the World (New York: International Publishers, 1934). This book is a first hand account and a primary source of the Bolshevik Revolution seen through the eyes of the American Socialist and author, John Reed. A book that even Lenin labeled a wonderful description of the revolution. Though a dry book, it is an excellent documentation of the Bolshevik Revolution and one I find very fascinating. It chronicles the fairly bloodless ten days that led to the switch from the Provisional Government to a Socialist state. It also describes the siege the new Socialist State defended itself against. Author: Peter Litwin Class: SCAND/EURO 344 Instructor: Guntis Smidchens April-June 2002

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Comments or suggestions: mailto:pglitwin@u.washingtion.edu ACTIVITY Create a time line of the major events in Russian history that begins with the 1905 Russian Revolution and ends with 2009. Use the internet for the information.

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WEBSITE
RESOURCES

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LIST OF WEBSITES
(Special thanks to all websites used in completion of the Russian packet, if you would like to get more information on these sources please visit their websites) Russian flag http://www.russianstory.com/flag.html Russian flag http://www.flags-flags-flags.org.uk/russian-flag.htm Russian coloring page (musician) http://www.edupics.com/en-coloring-pictures-pages-photo-russian-musician-i9337.html Kid’s culture center http://www.kidsculturecenter.com/index.htm Russian food http://www.ruscuisine.com/cooking-recipes/index.php/Breads-andPastry/Cakes/?recipe=474&offset=0 Russia facts http://www.visitrussia.com/guide/quickfacts.htm The world fact book https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/rs.html Moscow information http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.newspapers24.com/images/cities/mosco w.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.newspapers24.com/world-cities/moscownewspapers/&h=400&w=300&sz=31&hl=en&start=1&tbnid=TEJuydnW1gBBM:&tbnh=124&tbnw=93&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmoscow%26gbv%3D2%26hl%3Den Moscow information http://bearinahat.blogspot.com/2008/02/moscow-fun-facts.html Russian holidays http://www.cdi.org/russia/johnson/2007-264-3.cfm Quick facts about Moscow http://www.moscow-hotels.com/quickfacts.htm Russian crafts (Little Snow Girl) 126

http://russian-crafts.com/tales/lit_snow.html Russian crafts (The magic wild geese) http://russian-crafts.com/tales/geese.html Russian crafts (nesting dolls) http://russian-crafts.com/nesting-dolls/history.html Paper dolls http://www.mssscrafts.com/crafts/matryushka/ Template one http://www.msssbible.com/crafts/matryushka/matryushka1.htm Template two http://www.msssbible.com/crafts/matryushka/matryushka2.htm Template three http://www.msssbible.com/crafts/matryushka/matryushka3.htm Template four http://www.msssbible.com/crafts/matryushka/matryushka4.htm New Russia http://www.geographia.com/russia/ Russia largest cities http://www.mongabay.com/igapo/Russia.htm Russian holidays http://www.rusconshouston.org/eng_rusholidays.htm Russian database http://www.russiandatabase.supanet.com/img37.gif Russian food http://www.music-opera.com/villedumois/villephotos_stpetersburg/Borshch.jpg http://zharkov.ru/julia/pic/pirozhki.jpg http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1222/1448503579_5be cf2e13c_o.jpg&imgrefurl=http://inmy-element.blogspot.com/2007/09/cornmealblini.html&h=500&w=415&sz=58&hl=en&start=3&um=1&tbnid=sBjC8bWeKovs_M:&tbnh =130&tbnw=108&prev=/images%3Fq%3DBlini%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG Russian food and drink

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http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.russia-ukraine-travel.com/imagefiles/food-shashlyk.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.russia-ukraine-travel.com/russianfood.html&h=116&w=140&sz=12&hl=en&start=4&um=1&tbnid=YDaHSgYhU8yzkM:&tbn h=77&tbnw=93&prev=/images%3Fq%3DShashlyk%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den Russian food http://www.ladinamo.org/lolito/wp-content/uploads/2008/05/pelmeni.jpg Russian food http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.liveinternet.ru/images/attach/272/272671 _161MOROZHENOE.jpg&imgrefurl=http://forumkiev.com/t2324159/&h=350&w=299&sz=21&hl=en&start=29&um=1&tbnid=dzyOG13A4U1EqM:&tbnh=12 0&tbnw=103&prev=/images%3Fq%3DMorozhenoe%26start%3D18%26ndsp%3D18%26um %3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN http://www.ruscuisine.com/shopping/index.php/specials/Cooking%20Molds/Item6421/ Samara Region http://www.russia-ic.com/regions/3341/ Perm travel guide http://www.world66.com/europe/russia/perm Information on Saratov Russia http://www.saratov-russia.net/about-saratov.php Krasnodar Russia http://www.russiakrasnodar.com/ Russian inventors http://www.chemistry.co.nz/mendeleev.htm http://inventors.about.com/od/xzstartinventors/a/Zworykin.htm http://www.sikorskyarchives.com/siksky2.html http://www.allstar.fiu.edu/AERO/sikorsky.htm http://www.answers.com/topic/david-sarnoff The Language of the birds (Russian folktale) http://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/ftr/chap03.htm

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