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Attribution License, version 1.0. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0/, or send a letter to Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford, California 94305, USA. The terms and conditions of this license allow for free copying, distribution, and/or modiﬁcation of all licensed works by the general public. Resources and methods for learning about these subjects (list a few here, in preparation for your research):

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Questions Question 1 Identify each of these logic gates by name. and complete their respective truth tables: A B A 0 0 1 1 B Output 0 1 0 1 Output A B A 0 0 1 1 B Output 0 1 0 1 Output A B A 0 0 1 1 B Output 0 1 0 1 Output A B A 0 0 1 1 Output B Output 0 1 0 1 A B A 0 0 1 1 Output B Output 0 1 0 1 A A Output 0 1 Output A B A 0 0 1 1 Output B Output 0 1 0 1 A B A 0 0 1 1 Output B Output 0 1 0 1 A B A 0 0 1 1 Output B Output 0 1 0 1 ﬁle 02776 Question 2 Add the following binary numbers: 10010 + 1100 1011101 + 1000000 10011 + 1111101 + 10011001 100111 + 11000011 101111 1001100 + 1100101 ﬁle 01220 2 .

then determining the necessary gate circuitry to fulﬁll each output function. ﬁle 01479 Question 5 Explain the diﬀerence between a ripple adder and a look-ahead adder. Why is this circuit referred to as a half adder? How would a full adder circuit diﬀer from this? ﬁle 01478 Question 4 Design a circuit that adds two binary bits and a ”Carry in” (Cin ) bit together. What does the term ”ripple” mean in this context? Why is ”ripple” potentially a bad thing for a digital adder circuit? ﬁle 02846 3 .Question 3 Design a circuit that adds two binary bits together. then determining the necessary gate circuitry to fulﬁll each output function. writing a boolean SOP expression for each output. This circuit will have two inputs (A and B ) and two outputs (Sum and Carry): A Adder B Sum Carry Begin the design process by drawing a truth table for the circuit. producing a ”Sum” (Σ) and a ”Carry out” (Cout ) output: Adder A Σ B Cin Cout Begin the design process by drawing a truth table for the circuit.

Question 6 Compare the following two circuits. subtraction. the ﬁrst one being a digital adder and the second one being an analog summer: A B 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 74LS283 0 1 2 3 Σ R − + TL071 R R VA R VB VΣ These two circuits perform the same mathematical function. yet the manners in which they perform this function are quite diﬀerent. or functions. ﬁle 02845 4 . citing any advantages or disadvantages of each. comparison) are selected. does it perform? ﬁle 02847 Question 8 Research the datasheet of an integrated arithmetic logic unit such as the 74AS181. Compare and contrast the digital adder and the analog summer circuits shown here. What function. ﬁle 02849 Question 7 Explain the purpose of a magnitude comparator IC such as the 74LS85. and determine how its various modes of operation (addition.

A similar ”trick” with similar results. when the ”binary point” is shifted in (ALU) circuit to see if and how this A VCC 4 B 4 74LS181 S0 S1 S2 S3 4 S F ﬁle 02848 5 . F. ﬁle 02850 Question 10 Explain the meaning of the digital lines A. Research the datasheet of an arithmetic logic unit function is implemented. and S in the following schematic diagram: system is multiplication-by-ten and may be applied to binary numbers. B. Determine what sort of multiplication or division is accomplished a binary number.Question 9 An arithmetic trick often used when working with the metric division-by-ten via shifting of the decimal point.

then carefully re-analyze the circuit and re-measure.Question 11 Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to analyze digital circuits requires much study and practice. Draw the schematic diagram for the digital circuit to be analyzed. rather than building a whole new circuit for each practice problem. While this is good. This way. 5. 2. Always be sure that the power supply voltage levels are within speciﬁcation for the logic circuits you plan to use. Another time-saving technique is to re-use the same components in a variety of diﬀerent circuit conﬁgurations. to verify the accuracy of your analysis.0 volts DC as possible. 3. Typically. students practice by working through lots of sample problems and checking their answers against those provided by the textbook or the instructor. the power supply must be a 5-volt regulated supply. Carefully build this circuit on a breadboard or other convenient medium. determining all output logic states for given input conditions. Check the accuracy of the circuit’s construction. You will learn much more by actually building and analyzing real circuits. carefully check your circuit’s construction against the diagram. you won’t have to measure any component’s value more than once. there is a much better way. If TTL. and verifying these elements one-by-one on the diagram. Carefully measure those logic states. 4. One way you can save time and reduce the possibility of error is to begin with a very simple circuit and incrementally add components to increase its complexity after each analysis. Analyze the circuit. letting your test equipment provide the ”answers” instead of a book or another person. For successful circuit-building exercises. If there are any errors. adjusted to a value as close to 5. 6. following each wire to each connection point. ﬁle 00805 6 . follow these steps: 1.

Answers Answer 1 NAND A B A 0 0 1 1 B Output 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 XNOR A B A 0 0 1 1 B Output 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 Output A B A 0 0 1 1 B Output 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 Neg-OR Output A 0 0 1 1 B Output 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 A B A 0 0 1 1 B Output 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 Output A B A 0 0 1 1 B Output 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 Output A B A 0 0 1 1 B Output 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 OR Output A A Output 0 1 1 0 NOR Output A B A 0 0 1 1 B Output 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 NOT Output AND Output Neg-AND A B XOR Output Answer 2 10010 + 1100 11110 1011101 + 1000000 10011101 10011 + 1111101 10010000 + 10011001 100111 11000000 + 11000011 101111 11110010 1001100 + 1100101 10110001 7 .

Answer 3 Adder A B Sum Carry Answer 4 Σ = A BC + A BC + AB C + ABC Cout = ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC Adder A Σ B Cin Cout Answer 5 ”Ripple” adders update their output bits one at a time rather than simultaneously. transient output states. Answer 6 I won’t directly give away answers here. This leads to false. but I will list a few criteria you might want to use for comparing and contrasting: • • • • Resolution Accuracy Speed Cost Answer 7 I will let you research the datasheet for a magnitude comparator on your own to discover the answer(s)! 8 .

I show this here only for your beneﬁt.” respectively. In case you were wondering. and why they are classiﬁed diﬀerently. B.Answer 8 This is a small research project I leave up to you! Be sure to bring a copy of your IC datasheet to class for discussion! Follow-up question: an interesting feature of the 74AS181 is that it provides ”arithmetic” functions as well as ”logic” functions. and F (with the slash marks and the number ”4”) represent four actual conductors. Answer 10 Lines A. Answer 9 Shifting the ”binary point” results in either multiplication or division by two. For example. to see that there is more than one ”standard” way to draw it. show what steps you could take to multiply any binary number by ﬁve (1012 ). The thick line (S) is also a four-bit ”bus” but is denoted by a slightly diﬀerent convention. Answer 11 Let the electrons themselves give you the answers to your own ”practice problems”! 9 . A multiplicative shift is performed by the 74AS181 ALU by arithmetic function selection 11002 (C16 ). Challenge question: explain how multiplication or division by any binary quantity may be accomplished using successive bit-shifts and additions. These two modes could also be referred to as ”binary” and ”boolean. using only ”binary point” shifting and addition(s). carrying four bits of digital information. Explain what distinguishes these two operating modes from one another. it is unusual to mix two diﬀerent bus symbol conventions in the same schematic diagram.

This circuit diagram is easy enough to discover in the pages of a textbook. and an investigation of the two operating modes of this ALU highlights the distinction. used to symbolize real numbers using only two states per place. as it may ﬁrst appear. so don’t be surprised if students simply copy what they see without trying to understand how it works! Deriving the two cascaded Ex-OR gates from the boolean expression is a bit tricky. so don’t be surprised if students simply copy what they see without trying to understand how it works! Notes 4 Have your students explain their design process to you. Remind your students if necessary that the boolean equivalent for the Ex-OR function is AB + AB . This is an important concept for students to grasp. Since both binary and boolean have something to do with two-valued quantities. they are not. It is very easy to obtain datasheets online (over the internet). Notes 7 Be sure to ask students where they obtained their information. and that the Ex-NOR function is AB + A B . Notes 8 Although the 74181 ALU is a somewhat dated IC (in fact. Notes 6 This question is not really speciﬁc to adder/summer circuits. However. many students believe the two to be interchangeable terms and concepts. I like to given them practice with identiﬁcation and truth tables each day. making it convenient to assign short research projects such as this. some versions are obsolete as of this writing – 2005). Students need to be able to recognize these logic gate types at a glance. The fundamental comparison being drawn in this question is between digital and analog. step by step. step by step. as both have their roles in modern electronics. but the truth is that both digital and analog have their respective strengths and limitations. A circuit such as this provides a good example of the power of integration. Binary is a place-weighted numeration system. it stands as a simple example for students to learn from.Notes Notes 1 In order to familiarize students with the standard logic gate types. Notes 2 Ask your students to describe what diﬀerences exist between manually adding binary numbers and manually adding decimal numbers. This circuit diagram is easy enough to discover in the pages of a textbook. 10 . Notes 5 The ”ripple” eﬀect seen in simple binary adder circuits is not limited to adders! Some Gray-to-binary code converters and counter circuits also exhibit ripple. as opposed to constructing a similar logic function from individual gates (not to mention discrete transistors!). The follow-up question brings up a point many students are confused on: the distinction between binary (numerical) and boolean (bitwise) operations. if any. but not impossible. or else they will have diﬃculty analyzing circuits that use them. Boolean is a number system characterized by having only two possible values. A common fallacy is that ”digital is better” in all circumstances. with the same deleterious eﬀects. Notes 3 Have your students explain their design process to you.

” and students gain practical proﬁciency they wouldn’t gain merely by solving Boolean equations or simplifying Karnaugh maps. Furthermore. rather than simply telling them what they should and should not do. then stick with abstract analysis. So. This way. Notes 11 It has been my experience that students require much practice with circuit analysis to become proﬁcient. and often used by shrewd computer programmers to execute fast multiply-by-two or divide-by-two operations when ”conventional” multiplication commands take more time. Students will also develop real troubleshooting skills as they occasionally make circuit construction errors. Notes 10 The answer pretty much says it all. and provide answers for students to check their work against. with slight revision. I suggest the following alternative approach: students should build their own ”practice problems” with real components. having students build their own practice problems teaches them how to perform primary research. In most sciences. Students don’t just need mathematical practice. That is ﬁne. Discuss these issues with your students in the same Socratic manner you would normally discuss the worksheet questions. They also need real. biology. This is a popular one. geology. I never cease to be amazed at how poorly students grasp instructions when presented in a typical lecture (instructor monologue) format! I highly recommend CMOS logic circuitry for at-home experiments. The fact that the IC is an ALU is quite incidental. so fears of students harming these devices by not having a ”proper” laboratory set up at home are largely unfounded. To this end. in the binary numeration system as well. Some students may research the part number to get a better understanding of what is going on. If your goal is to educate theoretical physicists. Exploit the convenience inherent to your science. The ”wasted” time spent building real circuits will pay huge dividends when it comes time for them to apply their knowledge to practical problems. Modern CMOS circuitry is far more rugged with regard to static discharge than the ﬁrst CMOS circuits. A note to those instructors who may complain about the ”wasted” time required to have students build real circuits instead of just mathematically analyzing theoretical circuits: What is the purpose of students taking your course? If your students will be working with real circuits. While this approach makes students proﬁcient in circuit theory. by all means! But most of us plan for our students to do something in the real world with the education we give them. and chemistry professors would just love to be able to have their students apply advanced mathematics to real experiments posing no safety hazard and costing less than a textbook. They can’t. Spend a few moments of time with your class to review some of the ”rules” for building circuits before they begin. thus empowering them to continue their electrical/electronics education autonomously. logic state predictions) by performing a real experiment. and get those students of yours practicing their math on lots of real circuits! 11 . where students may not have access to a 5-volt regulated power supply. hands-on practice building circuits and using test equipment. realistic experiments are much more diﬃcult and expensive to set up than electrical circuits. Nuclear physics. Another reason for following this method of practice is to teach students scientiﬁc method: the process of testing a hypothesis (in this case. then they should learn on real circuits whenever possible. instructors usually provide their students with lots of practice problems to work through. but you can.Notes 9 A lot of arithmetic tricks existing in the decimal numeration system are applicable. and try to predict the various logic states. it fails to fully educate them. but my emphasis in this question is the schematic diagram convention(s) for multi-conductor busses. the digital theory ”comes alive.

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