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Guide Questions: 1. Differentiate Chain Polymerization from condensation polymerization. Chain polymerization is adding polymers.

It is made by chain reactions which is the addition of monomers to the “end” (radical, cation, or anion) of the growing chain. While condensation or step growth polymerization, it is made by combining two molecules while in most cases, removing a small molecule like water or alcohol. The “end” of this polymer is mostly a reactive functional group. 2. Discuss the different types of chain polymerization process. There are three types of Chain polymerization, radical polymerization, cationic polymerization and anionic polymerization. There difference just lies on the structure of the monomer and the initiator used. In radical polymerization, the radical initiator is used to convert monomer molecules into radicals so the process will be the addition of two radicals. In cationic polymerization, the initiator is an electrophile that adds to the alkene, causing it to become a cation. The cation formed in the initiation step reacts with a second monomer, forming a new cation that reacts in turn with a third monomer. As each subsequent monomer adds to the chain, the positively charged propagating site always ends up on the last unit added. And in anionic polymerization, the initiator is a nucleophile that reacts with the alkene toform a propagating site that is an anion. The process is the same with cation polymerization the only difference is the monomer is mow an anion. 3. The use of phenols such as tert-butylcatechol as free radical scavengers is based on the fact that phenolic hydrogens are readily abstracted by radicals, producing relatively stable phenoxy radicals, which interrupt chain processes of oxidation and polymerization. Alcohols such as cyclohexanol, on the other hand, do not function as radical scavengers. Explain why the two . types of molecules differ in their abilities to donate a hydrogen atom to a radical, R Stability of the radical or conjugated base is the factor in determining the ability to give off hydrogen. The more stable the radical or the conjugated base, the easier it is to remove the hydrogen. Comparing phenolic and cyclohexane radical, phenolic radical is more stable because of resonance ( the radical can move from one carbon to another).

4. Write an equation for the reaction involved in the removal of tert-butylcatechol from styrene by extraction with sodium hydroxide. C10H14O2 (in styrene) + 2NaOH → Na2C10H12O2 + 2H 5. In principle, radicals could add to styrene at the carbon atom bearing the phenyl group rather than the other one, yet they do not. Explain the basis of this selectivity for the addition reaction. The radical did not bind to that carbon where the phenyl group is attached because it will have an unstable intermediate. 6. Would you expect the polystyrene generated in this experiment to be atactic, syndiotactic, or isotactic. Explain. The experiment achieved the regular atactic tacticity. Atactic tacticity means it has a random pattern. There is no regular location the phenyl group is place. It is atactic because it can’t be isotactic because of steric effect and syndiotactic can be only achieved in a certain process which is adding metallocene as a catalyst. So, it is most probably atactic polymer since it also has low melting point.

. What are thermosetting polymers? What is the difference versus thermoplastic polymers? Thermosetting polymers are materials that have sufficient crosslinking present so that they are prevented from being soluble and melting when heated. They can be recycled more easily through heating and reforming. Thermoplastics are materials that melt on heating and generally contain little or no crosslinking. Linear polymers are thermoplastic materials. Such materials are therefore difficult to recycle.7.