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indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona.In 1535. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata.The name Canada comes from the St. by 1545. . meaning "village" or "settlement". but the entire area subject to Donnacona (the chief at Stadacona). Cartier later used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village. European books and maps had begun referring to this region as Canada.

having responsibility for social programs such as health care. the provinces can opt out of these. and Northern Canada ("Eastern Canada" refers to Central Canada and Atlantic Canada together). Provinces have more autonomy than territories.[ .Canada is a federation composed of ten provinces and three territories. Atlantic Canada. In turn. such as the Canada Health Act. but rarely do so in practice. Central Canada. an almost unique structure among federations in the world. the federal government can initiate national policies in provincial areas. and welfare. education. Together. Using its spending powers. the provinces collect more revenue than the federal government. these may be grouped into four main regions: Western Canada. Equalization payments are made by the federal government to ensure that reasonably uniform standards of services and taxation are kept between the richer and poorer provinces.

59 Agriculture forestry fishing and hunting  07. With a long coastal line. Canada is one of the global leaders of the entertainment software industry. had a relative weighting by value of GDP:  01. As with other developed nations.46 Utilities  10. with the logging and oil industries being two of Canada's most important.ECONOMY OF CANADA Canada has the eleventh-largest economy in the world (measured in US dollars at market exchange rates).748 million. Key industries The Canadian economy in 2012. and is a member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Group of Eight (G8). Canada also has a sizable manufacturing sector.41 Retail trade  04. the Canadian economy is dominated by the service industry.41 Wholesale trade  05. composed of the industries below.96 Mining quarrying and oil or gas extraction  02. Canada is unusual among developed countries in the importance of the primary sector. which employs about three quarters of Canadians. In their 2011 report Canada's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was $CDN 1. Canada has the 8th largest commercial fishing and seafood industry in the world.55 Finance and insurance  12.31 Information and cultural industries  06.76 Management of companies and enterprises .21 Professional scientific and technical services  00. with the automobile industry and aircraft industry especially important. centred in Central Canada.34 Real estate and rental and leasing  05.86 Manufacturing  05.20 Transportation and warehousing  03.720. is one of the world's wealthiest nations. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) The OECD provides data for example comparing labour productivity levels in the total economy of each member nation.

03 Health care and social assistance 00. plus they provide hydropower. Also due to its large size .90 Public administration MAP OF CANADA . especially in the interior provinces and prairie . Canada occupies most of northern North America . north and west .       02. stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west. snow can cover the ground for almost six months (more in the north) . but can drop below -40 ° C . Canada has more lakes than any other country . including a large area of the Canadian Shield taiga . have led to a wide variety of climates throughout the country. with average daily temperatures of -15 ° C . By total area (including its waters ) .38 Educational services 07. north bordering the Arctic Ocean. sharing land borders with the contiguous United States to the south and with state and territory of Alaska to the northwest.3 inhabitants per square kilometer. where you experience a continental climate . The average temperature in summer and winter vary by location . is the second largest in the world. after Russia . Lawrence River . The vastness and variety of geography . 3. ecology . Winters can be harsh in many regions of the country. The population density . For its land area ranks fourth ( land area is the total area minus the area of lakes and rivers). and from the last glacial period has eight distinct forest regions . Coastal British Columbia has a temperate climate with . The Niagara Falls are among the most plentiful water falls in the world. Canada has a long coastline to the east .58 Administrative and support. waste management and remediation services 05.04 Other services (except public administration) 06. is among the lowest in the world.10 Accommodation and food services 02.75 Arts entertainment and recreation 02. The most densely populated part of the country is the area of Quebec City and Windsor corridor (located in southern Quebec and Ontario ) to the shore of the Great Lakes and the St.126 in landlocked regions . There are also fresh-water glaciers which in the Rockies and the Coast Mountains . so it also contains much of the world's freshwater . vegetation and relief of Canada .

with occasional heat waves inside exceeding 40 ° C. cougars can be found . In the Arctic wildlife is typical of the tundra and is home to many seals and polar bears . coyotes . . Much of the Canadian territory is covered by forests of timber . wolves . In some regions may see beavers. the average summer high temperature ranges between 25 and 30 ° C . highlighting pine. while flora mosses and lichens predominate. average temperatures generally do not exceed 20 ° C .a warm but rainy winter . moles and many rodents. among other carnivorous animals . cedar and maple and there are also large areas dominated by grasslands. The fauna is very similar to that of northern Europe and Asia . while between the coasts . porcupines . the country has a varied topography and important climatic differences . In the east and west coasts .127 FLORA AND FAUNA Given its enormous size . deer and elk. providing a very diverse flora and fauna . so bears. Some areas of Canada are also home to antelope.