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Characterization of optical storage media aiming recycling

CHARACTERIZATION OF OPTICAL STORAGE MEDIA AIMING RECYCLING
Denis Massucatto MSc.,
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Polytechnic School of University of São Paulo Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, 2 !" #EP $%%$&'$"$ ( São Paulo ( SP ( )ra*il denis.massucatto+gmail.com

Lidia Go es !a"#osa
,aculdade de -ecnologia de São Paulo Pra.a #el. ,ernando Prestes, "$ #EP $//2 '$!$ ( São Paulo ( SP ' )ra*il

P"o$. D". C%&udio Pa""a de La''a"i
,aculdade de -ecnologia de São Paulo Pra.a #el. ,ernando Prestes, "$ #EP $//2 '$!$ ( São Paulo ( SP ' )ra*il

P"o$. D". (o")e A%#e"to Soa"es Ten*"io
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Polytechnic School of University of São Paulo Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, 2 !" #EP $%%$&'$"$ ( São Paulo ( SP ' )ra*il

P"o$. D". Denise C"occe Ro ano Es+inosa
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Polytechnic School of University of São Paulo Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, 2 !" #EP $%%$&'$"$ ( São Paulo ( SP ' )ra*il

A0stract
-he consumption of optical media for data storage is increasing over the years, follo1ing the trend of electronics populari*ation. 2t represents a portion of 1aste 1ith a great potential for material recovery. #ompact dis3s 4#D5 are made of a disc of polycar0onate 4P#5, 1ith a thin layer of metal, deposited 0y D# sputtering, and covered 1ith a layer of lac6uer to protect it. -he aim of this 1or3 1as to characteri*e 1hat materials are present in a sample of #D'78M. ,irst, an amount of 2 3g of a single 0rand #D'78M 1as comminuted in a 3nife mill, using a & mm grid, to reduce the loss of material 0y po1der formation. -he material 1as then 6uartered. -he polymer characteri*ation 1as /

Scanning Electron Microscopy 1as made to determine de 1idth of the metal layer and punctually determine the composition 0y Energy'dispersive ='7ay spectroscopy. several times the capacity of the hard'dis3s B2C. -he composition of >EEE is very heterogeneous. ceramics and polymers. metal and ceramic. discontinuously. setting the responsi0ility of the reverse logistic to the manufacturer. and is the most gro1ing stream in the Municipal Solid >aste 4MS>5. 1ith the presence of metals. for 2 h and 2% <#. to protect the reflective layer. it caused euphoria in the mar3et 0ecause its capacity of storage. miDed in small amounts. -he EU generated an estimated !. -he leached solution 1as characteri*ed using Atomic A0sorption Spectroscopy 4AAS5.Massucatto made 0y loss of ignition at &$$ 9# for / h. distri0utor. 2 80Fectives -he aim of this 1or3 is to characteri*e a set of o0solete compact dis3s read'only memory 4#D' 78M5. recycling. 2 . 1hich ma3es the recycling very difficult. %$ g of the sample 1as leached in nitric acid. -he characteri*ation of the metallic portion. e. 1hich allo1ed the user to access the content 0ut 1as not allo1ed to change it. government and consumer. >hen optical media 1as released in early &$Es.% million tonnes of >EEE per year. usually silver or aluminium and an outer layer of paint.o"ds/ electronic 1aste. 1ith an estimated /!'2&A gro1th every % years B/C. 1ith a solid to li6uid ratio of /:/$ 4g. >ith the #D'7 and #D'7> the user could record its o1n data -he #D'78M is composed 0y a disc of polycar0onate coated 1ith a thin layer of reflective metal. 0oth from industrial or end'user consumer. characteri*ation / 2ntroduction >aste of Electric and Electronic E6uipment 4>EEE5 is the general term for the 1aste generated 0y o0solete electric and electronic e6uipment.e-. the #D'78M. #D'78M.g. -he Directive 2$$2?@!?E# from European #ommission esta0lishes rules for the disposal of >EEE. -his characteri*ation is to determine the feasi0ility of a recycling system to 0e implemented in the future. polymer. '/5. . to identify the 6uali' and 6uantitatively its components.m. -he first optical media released 1as the compact dis3 read'only memory. 1eee.

Materials -he sample of o0solete #D'78M for the eDperiments 1as a donation from the #enter of Disposal and 7euse of >aste #omputers 4#ED275 of the University of São Paulo.$$ $. only one 0rand 1as used.@" . Methods -he comminution 1as made using a 3nife mill. -he sample 1as uniform.Characterization of optical storage media aiming recycling " Materials and Methods a. model . -he punctual composition 1as done 1ith an EDS e6uipment. -his classification 1as done 0y /% min. After the material 1as dried in a stove for 2 h. " . the solution 1as filtered in a 6uantitative filter paper previously 1eighted and the solid remaining 1as 1ashed 1ith small portions of distilled 1ater to remove the acid eDcess. model 2#S"$$$. it 1as 1eighted and then the percentage of metals 1as calculated.A2"$% 1ith a & mm diameter grid. 0rand 7one.2% /$ /& "% !$ @ /! "2 !$ AS-M %?/!I MESG %?/!I -he electron microscope images 1ere ta3en in a Philips e6uipment.H! 2. After de dissolution. -he metal content 1as evaluated 0y a6ua regia dissolution. a portion of 2 3g of #D'78M from a single 0rand 1as ground. model =.%$ $. coupled in MEJ. -he material 1as 6uartered 0y alternated heaps and several fractions of distinct mass 1ere stored in clean 0ags. at 2%<# for 2 h. Particle si*e classification 1as made using the sieves at -a0le /. -a0le /: Si*e of the sieves used in particle si*e classification. -he nitric acid and sulphuric acid 1ere used 1ithout further purification. 1ith a solid to li6uid ratio of /:/$."$.$$ /.e. i. 0ecause the sample could contain gold. 2nitially. 1ith and 1ithout gold metalli*ation. -he chemical analysis 1as performed 0y ion chromatography. mm H. 0rand EDA=. 0.

-he loss of material in the comminution 1as "A 41?15../$ $.$$ $. and held at that temperature for / h. 1as used. '/ solution of nitric acid could remove the metallic layer of a #D not grounded. 7esults and Discussion 2n one previous eDperiment. An oven.// $.$$ . . the milling 1as performed 1ith & mm grid to get a coarse grind and reduce the loss of material due to fine po1der. -hus.min '/ rate.@" .min '/. mm H.@H $. -he results of the particle si*e analysis are sho1ed at ta0le 2 and the cumulative mass distri0ution can 0e seen on figure /. -1o grams of the sample 1as put in a porcelain cruci0le. 2t 1as purged for " h 1ith argon fluD of . it 1as sho1ed that a 2 mol.%$ $.$$ /.2% )ottom /$ /& "% !$ ' @ /! "2 !$ ' AS-M %?/!I MESG %?/!I Mass fraction 4A5 $.H" /&. not reported here. the temperature 1as raised to &$$ 9# at /% <#. and then cooled.&H H%. previously 1eighted and dried in a stove.oss on ignition 1as performed to determine the polymer fraction of the sample. al1ays 1ith argon fluD. After that.$% -he si*e classification sho1ed that more than @& A 41?15 of the material has a si*e greater or e6ual than / mm and there 1as a small accumulation of fines and po1der. 0rand Krion.H! 2.Massucatto .. -he material 1as 1eighted and the fraction of polymer 1as calculated as percentage. -a0le 2: Si*e of the sieves used in particle si*e classification.

confirmed 0y the a6ua regia leaching.igure 2.%H A. % . .Characterization of optical storage media aiming recycling .igure /. -he mass fraction of metal calculated this 1ay resulted in $. -he theoretical calculation of the metal content in the #D'78M 1as made considering the eDternal and internal diameters. 1ith traces of aluminium and iron. -he 6ualitative and 6uantitative analyses of the a6ua regia leaching are not finished yet and they 1ill 0e reported in the final manuscript. SEM image and EDS spectrum are sho1ed in figure ". 1hich resulted in $. SEM image and ED= spectrum of #D'78M fragment. the thic3ness of the metal layer and the density of the silver. -he metal layer is a0out &%$ nm 1ide.! A of mass loss. and the ED= spectra revealed silver as the most a0undant metal. Particle si*e distri0ution of 3nife milling #D'78M.

D. Article in Press. present as $. >aste Managment. M. #omputer #ompacts. -he metal identified 1as silver.. it 1as possi0le to determine 6uantitatively the amount of polymer. corresponding to the polycar0onate. 1as present in &$ A 41?15. 8. B2C S-E7L ).. and despite its lo1 price. 2$$'2$/.-. >2. % #onclusions >ith the methodology descri0ed herein. !. -he other 2$ A correspond to metal plus ceramic 4oDides5 content.Massucatto -he loss on ignition of the ground #D'78Ms sho1ed a &$ A of mass loss. 7eferences B/C 8LK8LD8 . 1hich is the most added'value material.2AM 2. 4/@&%5: -he conundrum of optocal storage. -. -he polymer. #GE77E.. metal and ceramic present in a #D'78M. . 42$/$5: Go1 are >EEE doingN A glo0al revie1 of the managmentof electrical and electronic 1astes. the amount can ma3e the recycling of this material profita0le.!A 41?15. ! . polycar0onate.