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Daftar simbol matematika

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Dalam matematika sering digunakan simbol-simbol yang umum dikenal oleh matematikawan. Sering kali pengertian simbol ini tidak dijelaskan, karena dianggap maknanya telah diketahui. Hal ini kadang menyulitkan bagi mereka yang awam. Daftar berikut ini berisi banyak simbol beserta artinya.

Simbol matematika dasar
Nama

Simbol

Dibaca sebagai

Penjelasan

Contoh

Kategori

Kesamaan x = y berarti x and y mewakili hal atau nilai yang sama.

=

sama dengan

1+1=2

umum

Ketidaksamaan x ≠ y berarti x dan y tidak mewakili hal atau nilai yang sama.

tidak sama dengan

1≠2

umum

x > y means x lebih besar dari y.7} ⇒ A1 + A2 = {(1.3. 3<4 5>4 order theory Ketidaksamaan ≤ ≥ x ≤ y berarti x lebih kecil lebih kecil dari dari atau sama dengan y. (4. (2.4. lebih besar dari x < y berarti x lebih kecil dari y.2). lebih x ≥ y berarti x lebih 5 ≥ 4 and 5 ≥ 5 besar dari atau besar dari atau sama sama dengan dengan y.1). (3. (5. (4.2). (7. tambah 2+7=9 aritmatika + disjoint union A1={1.2.Ketidaksamaan < > lebih kecil dari.4} ∧ A2={2. teori himpunan . atau sama 3 ≤ 4 and 5 ≤ 5 dengan.2). (2.5.1).2)} the disjoint union of … and … A1 + A2 means the disjoint union of sets A1 and A2.1). order theory Perjumlahan 4 + 6 berarti jumlah antara 4 dan 6.1).

4)} selected from X and the second element selected .Perkurangan 9 − 4 berarti 9 dikurangi 8−3=5 4. kurang aritmatika tanda negatif −3 berarti negatif dari angka 3. kali × aritmatika Cartesian product the Cartesian product of … X×Y means the set of all ordered pairs with the {1.4} = first element of each pair {(1.(2.3).(2.3).4} = minus.2} × {3.(1.4} − {1.2.4). − negatif −(−5) = 5 aritmatika set-theoretic complement A − B berarti himpunan yang mempunyai semua {1. set theory multiplication 3 × 4 berarti perkalian 3 7 × 8 = 56 oleh 4. without anggota dari A yang {2} tidak terdapat pada B.3.

−1) = product of vectors u and (−22. 2 ÷ 4 = .5) × (3. the from Y. square root √(-1) = i .4. 16.2.and ….5 12/4 = 3 / aritmatika square root √x berarti bilangan positif yang kuadratnya x. direct product of … and … teori himpunan cross product u × v means the cross (1. exp(iφ/2). − 2) v cross vector algebra division ÷ bagi 6 ÷ 3 atau 6/3 berati 6 dibagi 3. then √z = √r square root of. akar kuadrat √4 = 2 bilangan real √ complex square root if z = r exp(iφ) is represented in polar coordinates with -π < φ the complex ≤ π.

if A x = 2 ⇒ x2 = 4 is true... || nilai mutlak dari numbers factorial n! adalah hasil dari 1×2×. |-5| = |5| complex plane) between |i| = 1. → may mean the same as ⇒. |3+4i| = 5 x and zero. or it may have the . then A ⇒ B means if A is true then B is also true.×n. the standard normal distribution ~ statistika ⇒ → material implication implies. if . in general false (since x could be −2)..1). ! faktorial 4! = 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 = 24 combinatorics probability distribution X ~ D. is false then nothing is but x2 = 4 ⇒ x = 2 is said about B. means the has random variable X has distribution. X ~ N(0. the probability tidk terhingga distribution D.Bilangan kompleks absolute value |x| means the distance in the real line (or the |3| = 3.

material equivalence ⇔ ↔ A ⇔ B means A is true if if and only if. propositional logic logical negation ¬ not The statement ¬A is true if and only if A is false. ¬(¬A) ⇔ A x ≠ y ⇔ ¬(x = y) ˜ A slash placed through another operator is the same as "¬" placed in propositional front. n < 4 ∧ n >2 ⇔ n = 3 when n is a natural number. propositional logic.meaning for functions given below. x + 5 = y +2 ⇔ x + B is true and A is false if iff 3=y B is false. or it may have the meaning for superset given below. else it is false. ⊃ propositional ⊃ may mean the same as logic ⇒. lattice theory . logic logical conjunction or meet in a lattice ∧ and The statement A ∧ B is true if A and B are both true.

true for all x. A ⊕ A is always false. Boolean algebra The statement A ⊕ B is true when either A or B.logical disjunction or join in a lattice ∨ The statement A ∨ B is true if A or B (or both) propositional are true. P(x) is true. for any. x := y or x ≡ y means x is defined to be another cosh x := (1/2)(exp x + is defined as name for y (but note that exp (−x)) ≡ can also mean other things. but not both. \ theory n≥4 ∨ n≤2 ⇔n≠ 3 when n is a natural number. for each predicate logic ∀ n ∈ N: n2 ≥ n. such as A XOR B :⇔ everywhere congruence). logic. xor ⊕ ⊻ ||exclusive or universal quantification propositional logic. ∀ ∃ ∃! := ≡ ∀ x: P(x) means P(x) is for all. ∃! x: P(x) means there is exactly one x such that ∃! n ∈ N: n + 5 = 2n. ∃ n ∈ N: n is even. existential quantification there exists predicate logic uniqueness quantification there exists exactly one predicate logic definition ∃ x: P(x) means there is at least one x such that P(x) is true. lattice the statement is false. A⊻B means the same. if both are false. (A ∨ B) ∧ ¬(A ∧ B) P :⇔ Q means P is . (¬A) ⊕ A is always true. are true.

{a.1.. R ⊃ Q . union from B.. A ∩ B ⊆ A. A ⊆ B means every element of A is also element of B.. teori himpunan himpunan kosong himpunan kosong teori himpunan set membership is an element of. teori himpunan set builder notation the set of .:⇔ set brackets defined to be logically equivalent to Q. {x | P(x)} is the {0.c} means the set N = {0.. A ∪ B ⊇ B. {n ∈ N : 1 < n2 < 4} = {} juga berarti hal yang ∅ sama.. set-theoretic union A ∪ B means the set that contains all the elements A⊆B ⇔ A∪B=B the union of . ∅ berarti himpunan yang tidak memiliki elemen. a ∉ S means a is not an 2−1 ∉ N element of S.b. teori himpunan subset is a subset of {x : P(x)} means the set of all x for which P(x) is {n ∈ N : n2 < 20} = true.4} same as {x : P(x)}.. is not an element of everywhere.} {:} {|} ∅ {} ∈ ∉ ⊆ ⊂ ⊇ ⊃ ∪ the set of .. Q ⊂ R teori himpunan A ⊂ B means A ⊆ B but A ≠ B. and c.} consisting of a..3. b. a ∈ S means a is an (1/2)−1 ∈ N element of the set S..1...... teori himpunan A ⊃ B means A ⊇ B but A ≠ B. {. superset A ⊇ B means every element of B is also is a superset of element of A. such that . but no others. from A and also all those and .2.2.

such composed with that (fog)(x) = f(g(x)). but see the article on natural numbers for a Bilangan different convention.}... then (fog)(x) = 2(x + 3)..2.. 3... teori himpunan if f(x) = 2x.q ∈ Z.2.4} \ {3. f:X→Y o from . (8/4)/2 = 2/2 = 1.teori himpunan set-theoretic intersection A ∩ B means the set that contains all those {x ∈ R : x2 = 1} ∩ N = intersected elements that A and B {1} with.−1.−2. to teori himpunan function composition f: X → Y means the Let f: Z → N be function f maps the set X defined by f(x) = x2.4. but 8/(4/2) = 8/2 = 4. N Bilangan bulat Z Bilangan Bilangan {|a| : a ∈ Z} = N Z berarti {a : |a| ∈ N} = Z {.3.1.3. into the set Y. and g(x) = x + 3. without elements of A that are not in B.3. Jika f(x) := x2. Bilangan asli N ℕ Z ℤ N berarti {0. fog is the function.}. teori himpunan ∩ \ set-theoretic complement A \ B means the set that contains all those minus. () teori himpunan precedence grouping umum function arrow Perform the operations inside the parentheses first.14 ∈ Q ..−3. maka f(3) = 32 = 9.1....2} function application of f(x) berarti nilai fungsi f pada elemen x.5. Q berarti {p/q : p.0. intersect have in common.2.. teori himpunan {1.6} = {1.

. 16 = 30 aritmatika product ∏k=14 (k + 2) = (1 + product over . geometry pi limx→0 1/|x| = ∞ pi π norm A = πr² adalah luas lingkaran dengan jarijari (radius) r || || ∑ ||x|| is the norm of the norm of. the limit exists}. of k=1 k 2) = 3 × 4 × 5 × 6 = 360 aritmatika ∏i=0nYi means the set of all (n+1)-tuples ∏n=13R = Rn ∏ Cartesian product ... from . of . π∉Q R berarti {limn→∞ an : ∀ n ∈ N: an ∈ Q. to .. + an. π∈R √(−1) ∉ R C means {a + bi : a.. ∑k=1n ak means a1 + a2 + 2k=1 2 3 +4 =1+4+9+ from . π berarti perbandingan (rasio) antara keliling lingkaran dengan Euclidean diameternya. it often numbers occurs in limits.b ∈ R}.. i = √(−1) ∈ C ∞ is an element of the extended number line infinity that is greater than all real numbers. length element x of a normed of vector space. 2)(2 + 2)(3 + 2)(4 + ∏ n a means a1a2···an... linear algebra summation ||x+y|| ≤ ||x|| + ||y|| ∑ 4 k2 = 12 + 22 + sum over ..Q ℚ R ℝ C ℂ ∞ rasional Q Bilangan Bilangan real R Bilangan Bilangan kompleks C Bilangan infinity q ≠ 0}..... to ..

. the slope of f '(x) = 2x the tangent there. …. to . the function f between with respect to x = a and x = b. xn).. product of. 3x.. with all ∂f/∂x = 2xy other variables kept constant.y) = x2y. xn) is the vector of partial derivatives (df / dx1. gradient ∇ del.. derivative of … kalkulus indefinite integral or antiderivative indefinite ∫ f(x) dx means a integral of ….. then respect to xi. …. …. gradient of kalkulus partial derivative partial derivative of kalkulus boundary boundary of topology If f (x.. kalkulus ∇f (x1.. ∂f/∂xi is the derivative of f with If f(x. of . nabla..y. ∫x2 dx = x3/3 + C f '(x) is the derivative of the function f at the If f(x) = x2.yn).e. 2z) ∂ With f (x1.. i. then point x. function whose the derivative is f.z) = 3xy + z² then ∇f = (3y. the direct product of set theory derivative … prime. ∂M means the boundary ∂{x : ||x|| ≤ 2} = of M {x : || x || = 2} x ⊥ y means x is If l⊥m and m⊥n then l ⊥ perpendicular . df / dxn). ' ∫ ∫0b x2 dx = b3/3.. antiderivative of … kalkulus definite integral ∫ab f(x) dx means the signed area between the integral from x-axis and the graph of ..the Cartesian (y0.

is perpendicular to y. {a. G ≈ H means that group is isomorphic where Q is the G is isomorphic to group to quaternion group and V H is the Klein four-group. group theory Mathematical alphanumeric symbols Pranala luar . model theory B is also true. a. b} = {{0. b+a. −1} ≈ V. or perpendicular more generally x is to orthogonal to y. b+2a}} Q / {1. inference |- infers or is derived from propositional logic. b}. ∀x : x ∧ ⊥ = ⊥ |= A ⊧ B means the sentence A entails the entails sentence B. x = ⊥ means x is the smallest element. {0. geometri bottom element the bottom element lattice theory entailment || n. that is every A ⊧ A ∨ ¬A model in which A is true. {2a. b+2a} / {0. 2a. Z(G) ◅ G G/H means the quotient of group G modulo its subgroup H. ◅ / ≈ See also  is a normal subgroup of group theory quotient group mod group theory isomorphism N ◅ G means that N is a normal subgroup of group G. b+a}. predicate logic normal subgroup x ⊢ y means y is derived A → B ⊢ ¬B → ¬A from x. b.

depending on your browser.wikipedia. Even if you have ensured that your browser is interpreting the article as UTF-8 encoded and you have installed a font that supports a wide range of Unicode. question marks. you may still need to use a different browser. as browser capabilities in this regard tend to vary. Such characters may be rendered as boxes. Kategori:     Artikel yang perlu diterjemahkan dari bahasa Inggris April 2013 Simbol matematika Daftar bertopik matematika Daftar bertopik simbol http://id. most computers would not display some special characters in this article. Lucida Sans Unicode or one of the free software Unicode fonts.org/wiki/Daftar_simbol_matematika .Institute of Physics Special characters Technical note: Due to technical limitations. or other nonsense symbols. such as Code2000. and installed fonts.  Jeff Miller: Earliest Uses of Various Mathematical Symbols TCAEP . Arial Unicode MS. operating system.