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Information

Base Station System Technical Description (TED:BSS) BS-240/241 II
A30808-X3247-K22-1-7618

Technical Description (TED:BSS) BS-240/241 II

Information Base Station System

!

Important Notice on Product Safety
DANGER - RISK OF ELECTRICAL SHOCK OR DEATH - FOLLOW ALL INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS. The system complies with the standard EN 60950 / IEC 60950. All equipment connected to the system must comply with the applicable safety standards. Hazardous voltages are present at the AC power supply lines in this electrical equipment. Some components may also have high operating temperatures. Failure to observe and follow all installation and safety instructions can result in serious personal injury or property damage. Therefore, only trained and qualified personnel may install and maintain the system.

The same text in German: Wichtiger Hinweis zur Produktsicherheit LEBENSGEFAHR - BEACHTEN SIE ALLE INSTALLATIONSHINWEISE. Das System entspricht den Anforderungen der EN 60950 / IEC 60950. Alle an das System angeschlossenen Geräte müssen die zutreffenden Sicherheitsbestimmungen erfüllen. In diesen Anlagen stehen die Netzversorgungsleitungen unter gefährlicher Spannung. Einige Komponenten können auch eine hohe Betriebstemperatur aufweisen. Nichtbeachtung der Installations- und Sicherheitshinweise kann zu schweren Körperverletzungen oder Sachschäden führen. Deshalb darf nur geschultes und qualifiziertes Personal das System installieren und warten.

Caution:
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with EN 301489. Its class of conformity is defined in table A30808-X3247-X910-*-7618, which is shipped with each product. This class also corresponds to the limits for a Class A digital device, pursuant to part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This equipment generates, uses and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the relevant standards referenced in the manual “Guide to Documentation”, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. For system installations it is strictly required to choose all installation sites according to national and local requirements concerning construction rules and static load capacities of buildings and roofs. For all sites, in particular in residential areas it is mandatory to observe all respectively applicable electromagnetic field / force (EMF) limits. Otherwise harmful personal interference is possible.

Trademarks: All designations used in this document can be trademarks, the use of which by third parties for their own purposes could violate the rights of their owners.

Copyright (C) Siemens AG 2002.
Issued by the Information and Communication Mobile Group Hofmannstraße 51 D-81359 München Technical modifications possible. Technical specifications and features are binding only insofar as they are specifically and expressly agreed upon in a written contract.

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Technical Description (TED:BSS) BS-240/241 II

Reason for Update
Summary: First edition for release BR 5.5 and BR6.0 Details: Chapter/Section Reason for Update

Issue History
Issue Number 1 Date of issue Reason for Update

11/2002

First edition for release BR 5.5 and BR6.0

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Technical Description (TED:BSS) BS-240/241 II

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Technical Description (TED:BSS) BS-240/241 II

This document consists of a total of 78 pages. All pages are issue 1.

Contents
1 1.1 1.2 2 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.3 2.4 2.4.1 2.4.2 3 3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.2 3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 3.3.5 3.3.6 3.3.7 3.3.8 3.3.9 3.3.10 3.3.11 3.3.12 3.3.13 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.12.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Main features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Technical data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Hardware architecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Board redundancy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AC/DC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nominal power amplifier output level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carrier Unit (CU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Edge Carrier Unit (ECU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rack configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enhanced Observed Time Difference (E-OTD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Logical Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LMU Interconnection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modules Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Core (COBA and COSA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Core Basis (COBA2P8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Core Satellite (COSA6P16) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carrier Unit (CU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Edge Carrier Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mechanics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transmitter Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Receiver Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Local Test Loop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supported frequency range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power Supply Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functional description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functional structure of the EDGE Carrier Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Main differences between ECU and CU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EDGE Power Amplifier and Tranceiver Unit(EPATRX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signal processing unit (ESIPRO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EPSU (Power Supply Unit) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Duplexer Amplifier Multi Coupler (DUAMCO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DI(=2) Amplifier Multi Coupler (DIAMCO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filter Combiner (FICOM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tower Mounted Amplifier (TMA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . High Power Duplexer Unit (HPDU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DC Panel (DCP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DC Link Equipment Panel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alarm Collection Terminal (ACT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AC/DC converter (ACDC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DC and Battery Controller (DCBCTRL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 17 17 17 18 18 19 19 24 26 27 29 30 32 34 35 37 38 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 41 41 42 43 45 45 46 46 46 47 47 47 48 49 50

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3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 4 4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.1.1 4.2.2 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 5 5.1 6

Overvoltage Protection and Tracer (OVPT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Abis Link Equipment (LE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Cover parts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Backup Battery (BATTERY). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 FAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Heater Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Antenna combiners and receiving paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Methods of combining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Typical combiner losses (Tx path) and output power level . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Parameters of Tower Mounted Amplifier (TMA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Examples of possible BTSE configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Receiving paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Antenna diversity techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Antenna System Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Receiver sensitivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Transmit Diversity/Antenna Hopping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 CU-Pools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Algorithm for TX Diversity/Antenna Hopping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Power supply and battery backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Support of emergency operation for 3rd party BBU system. . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

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Illustrations
Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 BS-240 II indoor Cabinet (Base Rack). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Units and modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Redundant COREs and their interfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BS-240 base rack and 2 extension racks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BS-241 base rack and 2 extension racks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Possible configuration of Service1-Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Possible configuration of Service2-Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BS-240/241 II fully equipped with 24 carriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-OTD Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LCS Logical Reference Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LMU Connection to BTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Backplane slot configuration of core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COBA2P8 block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Structure of ACLK function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COSA6P16 block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carrier unit block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PATRX block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Principal data flow on SIPRO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Position of the ECU and CU in the BTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Epatrix and Esipro function block diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EPATRIX INTERFACES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Data flow in ESIPRO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alarm collection terminal (ACTM and ACTP). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example of battery backup systems connected to the AC/DC . . . . . . . Overview of combining options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DUAMCO 2:2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DUAMCO 4:2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DUAMCO 8:2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FICOM 8:1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DIAMCO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HPDU. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Configuration with HPDU, DUBIAS and TMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multi-cell (3,3,2): with 3 DUAMCO 4:2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multi-cell (3,3,2): with 2 DUAMCO 4:2 and 1 DUAMCO 2:2 . . . . . . . . . Single-cell (8,0,0): with FICOM and DIAMCO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Single-cell (8,0,0): with 2 DUAMCO 4:2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multi-cell (2,2,2): with 3 DUAMCO 2:2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Single-cell (11...16,0,0): FICOMs, DIAMCOs and HPDUs in 2 racks . . Initial Data Structure Necessary For Proposed Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . 14 15 17 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 28 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 39 41 43 44 49 51 53 55 55 56 58 59 60 61 65 66 66 67 67 68 74

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Tables
Tab. Tab. Tab. Tab. Tab. Tab. Tab. Tab. Tab. Tab. Tab. 1.1 1.2 2.1 2.2 3.1 3.2 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Technical data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Frequency bands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Nominal Power Amplifier Output Level (CU). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Nominal Power Amplifier Output Level (ECU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Units and modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Insertion loss of DUAMCOs, FICOMs, HPDU and TMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 S22 of the GSM and DCS/PCS FICOMs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Parameters of 900 MHz Tower Mounted Amplifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Parameters of 1800 MHz Tower Mounted Amplifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Parameters of 900/1800 MHz Tower Mounted Amplifier . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

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Technical Description (TED:BSS) BS-240/241 II

1 Introduction
This manual is common for both BR5.5 and BR6.0 releases. Below are listed the features not supported in BR5.5 line: • Enhanced Observed Time Difference features • Edge Carrier Unit • Transmit Diversity/Antenna Hopping • 850 MHz frequency The BS-240/241 II is an evolution of the existing BSS products. Some modifications have been introduced in the mechanical which represents the latest state of technology. The RF performance of the BTSs is not affected by the modifications.The architecture of BS-240/241 II provides maximum flexibility to develop higher capacity BTSs with reduced volume and an expanded number of 24 TRXs in 3 racks with a modularity of 8 TRXs per rack. The provision of a full spectrum of combining equipment allows high power and minimized number of antennae. High receiver sensitivity is also guaranteed. The BS-240/241 II primarily consists of: • carrier oriented boards called carrier unit (CU), • core boards (COSA/COBA) and • combining equipment The carrier unit(s) provide all analog and digital signal processing including an RF power stage necessary to process a single carrier (e.g., GSM 8 TCHs). The carrier unit(s) interface with the combining equipment on the one side and with the core modules on the other.The core boards provide functions common to all carriers within the BS-240/241 II (e.g., clock generation, O&M processing,...) as well as LAPD processing for the different carriers. Up to 8 PCM lines can be connected to the core boards. In order to provide cost effective solutions for small and large BTSs, the core boards are scalable (COBA, /COSA). In addition, the BS-240/241 II itself is scalable. It is possible to connect up to 2 extension racks to a base rack. The primary communication between the modules is provided by means of bi-directional serial link communications between the carrier units (CU) and the core boards. The serial link also provides an effective means to realize baseband frequency hopping. Despite the fact that synchronization information is transported via the serial links, no differential length constraints apply for the lines of the serial link. All alarms, except the alarms generated in the core and in the CU boards, are transported via the CAN bus. Alarms of the CU boards are transmitted via CC-Link. Core boards use their interface bus.

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1.1

Main features
The BS-240/241 II is designed for max. 24 carriers in 3 racks/shelters plus service racks/shelters, if needed. The minimum configuration is one rack or one shelter with a service shelter. Service racks/shelters can be configured to accommodate Backup Batteries and Link Equipment. A service rack/shelter can be equipped with AC/DC Converters. Easy rack/shelter extension is possible with one or two Extension Racks/Shelters. The BS-240/241 II can be configured for the systems D850, D900, D1800 and D1900 with the following configurations: – Dual band: D900/D1800, D900/D1900, D850/D1800 and D850/D1900 – GSM-DCS cell mixed cell configuration to enlarge GSM cells with DCS frequencies – Common BCCH channel for GSM-DCS cell (dual band) – Single cell – Multi cell Up to 6 cells per rack and up to 12 cells can be supported. A special case is the feature “concentric cell”; one cell with 2 supply areas (inner and complete area). This feature can be used in omnicells as well as in multicells with sectors. The following combining options are supported: – antenna combining with duplexers (DUAMCO) can be applied for 2, 4 and 8 carriers. RF amplifier and multicoupler for the RX path are integrated – antenna combining with Filter Combiners (FICOM) is possible for up to 8 carriers onto one TX antenna – cascading of multicoupler equipment (DIAMCO) is possible for up to 24 carriers – High Power Duplexer (HPDU) for reduction of the necessary numbers of antennas in case of FICOM per cell for up to 8 carriers can be applied – every BTSE has core equipment in the Base Rack/Shelter – sensitivity is better than GSM requirements at the rack entry by using DUAMCO or DIAMCO units – BTSplus sensitivity is better than GSM requirements at the antenna connector by using Tower Mounted Amplifiers (TMA) – EDGE Carrier Units (ECU) – Mixed Configurations of Cells/Sectors applying both EDGE Carrier Units (ECU) and “normal” Carrier Units (CU) Traffic Channels: – Full-Rate (FR) – Half-Rate (HR) – Enhanced Full-Rate (EFR) – Adaptive Multi Rate Codec (AMR) Services: – GPRS – HSCSD Frequency Hopping: – Baseband – Synthesizer Redundancy: – SW Support of Core Redundancy – SW Support of BCCH Redundancy

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Technical Description (TED:BSS) BS-240/241 II

AC/DC n+1 redundancy. (n+1) AC/DC Converters work in load sharing, but n AC/DC are able to supply the whole BS-240/241 II including Service Racks/Shelters

Abis interface: – Enhanced Full-Rate TCH – Full-Rate and Half-Rate TCH – submultiplexing 4 x 16 kbit/s onto one 64 kbit/s timeslot for handling Full-Rate TCH on Um interface – handling of 4x(2x8) kbit/s onto one 64 kbit/s timeslot for half-rate TCH on Um interface – drop and Insert feature on 2 Mbit/s and 1.5 Mbit/s (T1) links is available on a 16 kbit/s and a 64 kbit/s basis – star, loop and multidrop chain connections – cross connect function – change of PCM line configuration from star to multidrop or loop and vice versa is possible without any interruption of service – multiple Abis LAPD links; load sharing and LAPD fault recovery – external clock synchronization – over-voltage protection with OVPT (optional feature) Abis link media: – wire – fiber optic – W ave Fault procedures: – Automatic Recovery procedure of faulty objects in BTS – Online RF Loopback

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Technical Description (TED:BSS) BS-240/241 II

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1.2

Technical data
The BS-240/241 II family with 24 transceivers can be supplied in the following versions: – A BS-240 for indoor installation. – A BS-241 for outdoor installation (also equipped with: integrated power supply, battery, microwave equipment, integrated link equipment, heat exchanger and cross connector). BS-240/241 II consist in a split BTS architecture, with: - 1 base rack - 2 extension racks - up to 5 service racks (service1 or service2).

Characteristics Max. TRX per BTSE (in more than one rack) Max. TRX per cell (in more than one rack) Dimensions (mm) (HxWxD) (Base Racks) Volume net Maximum power consumption Weight of Basic Rack / Shelter Weight of Service1 Rack equipped with: 432 l 24 24

BS-240 (indoor) 24

BS-241 (outdoor)

24

1600x600x450 (5’3”x2’x1’6”)

1750x700x650 (5’9”x2’4”x2’2”) (incl. Plinth) 705 l 796 l (incl. Plinth) 1750 W ca. 66 kg (146 Lbs)

1600 W ca. 66 kg (146 Lbs)

- 1 Frame AC/DC incl. 6 AC/DC Modules (ca. 27 kg/60 Lbs) - 1 Frame for Battery incl. 1Battery (48V / 85 Ah) (ca. 140 kg/309 Lbs) - 1 Mounting Kit for Link Equipment incl. 1 Frame NTPM, Frame for Fan Unit and two FAN's (ca. 16 kg/ 35 Lbs) - 1 Rack (ca. 66 kg/146 Lbs) SUM: ca. 249 kg (549 Lbs) - 1 Frame AC/DC incl. 6 AC/DC Modules (ca. 27 kg/60 Lbs) - 1 Mounting Kit for Link Equipment incl. 2 Frame NTPM, Frame for Fan Unit and two FAN's (ca. 21 kg/46 Lbs) - 1 Rack (ca. 66 kg/146 Lbs) SUM: ca. 114 kg (251 Lbs) Sub-rack with Battery ca. 140 kg (309 Lbs) Sub-rack AC/DC with 6 AC/DC Modules ca. 27 kg (60 Lbs) Sub-rack with 4 CU's and 2 MUCO's ca. 40 kg (88 Lbs) Sub-rack with 4 ACOM's ca. 40 kg (88 Lbs) Rack (empty) ca. 66 kg (146 Lbs) Shelter (empty) ca. 27 kg (60 Lbs) 1 HEX ca. 5.6 kg (12 Lbs) -5 °C to +55 °C +23 °F to +131 °F -45 °C to +50 °C -49 °F to +122 °F

Weight of Service1 Rack equipped with:

Weight of sub-racks:

Temperature range (˚C)

Tab. 1.1

Technical data

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Technical Description (TED:BSS) BS-240/241 II

Frequency-Band GSM 850 P-GSM 900 E-GSM 900 R-GSM 900 GSM-RE 900 DCS 1800 PCS 1900 Tab. 1.2

Uplink (MHz) 824.2 - 848.8 890.2 - 914.8 880.2 - 914.8 876.2 - 914.8 876.2 - 901.0 1710.2 -1784.8 1850.2 -1909.8

Downlink (MHz) 869.2 - 893.8 935.2 - 959.8 925.2 - 959.8 921.2 - 959.8 921.2 - 946.0 1805.2 -1879.8 1930.2 -1989.8

Frequency bands

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2 Hardware architecture
The BS-240/241 II is designed to achieve commonality of boards to serve both GSM850/GSM900 with its different deviates (DCS1800/PCS1900) and standards selected for mobile communication systems. Moreover, the architecture of BS-240/241 II provides maximum flexibility to develop large and small BTSs which have similar costs per TRX. Fig. 2.1 shows the base rack cabinet.

Fig. 2.1

BS-240 II indoor Cabinet (Base Rack) The BTS functional blocks of the BS-240/241 II are shown in Fig. 2.2

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Technical Description (TED:BSS) BS-240/241 II

Cell 0

Base Rack
TMA 4xTX

CC-Links
Abis 2 PCM O V Ext. Sync. P 2 PCM T Sync. O 4 PCM V P T

DUAMCO
TMA Cell 1

RX RXDIV

CU 0

COBA

TMA H DUBIAS P D U

4xTX

FICOM
RX

Abis

CU 7

COSA to next ext. rack

RXDIV ACTC DIAMCO * FAN ACTM

TMA Cell 1 RXCA0 RXCA1 4xTX RX RXDIV CU 0

DCP

Extension Rack

FICOM
4xTX RX RX Cascading DIAMCO RXDIV CU 7 * ACTC FAN DCP ACTP

RXDIV

Service Rack
ACP AC/DC AC/DC

DCP

LE 0

LE 1

* DCBCTRL DCBCTRL ACTC FAN CAN BUS
BATTERY BATTERY

ACTP

* not present in case of BTSE with reduced number of fan
Fig. 2.2 Units and modules

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Technical Description (TED:BSS) BS-240/241 II

Information Base Station System

AC/DC ACP ACTC ACTM ACTP CAN COBA COSA CU

AC/DC converter AC Panel Alarm Collection Terminal Connection module Optional Alarm Collection Terminal for Master Rack Alarm Collection Terminal for Slave Rack Controller Area Network Core Basis (COBA2P8) Core Satellite (COSA6P16) Carrier Unit

DCBCTRL DCP DIAMCO DUAMCO FICOM HPDU LE TMA

DC and Battery Controller DC Panel DI(2) Amplifier Multi Coupler Duplex Amplifier Multicoupler Filter Combiner High Power Duplexer Link Equipment Tower Mounted Amplifier

The architecture of BS-240/241 II provides maximum flexibility to develop large and small BTSs which have similar costs per TRX. The BS-240/241 II mainly consists of: – carrier oriented boards called carrier unit (CU), – core boards (COSA/COBA) and – combining equipment Up to 8 PCM lines can be connected to the core boards. In order to provide cost effective solutions for small and for large BTSs, the core boards are scalable (COBA, /COSA). In addition, also the BTS itself is scalable. It is possible to connect up to 2 extension racks to a base rack. The main communication between the modules is provided by means of bi-directional serial link communications between the carrier units (CU) and the core boards. The serial link also provides an effective means to realize baseband frequency hopping. Despite the fact that synchronization information is also transported via the serial links, no differential length constraints apply for the lines of the serial link. All alarms, beside the alarms that are generated in the core and in the CU boards, are transported via the CAN bus. Alarms of the CU boards are transmitted via CC-Link. Core boards use their interface bus. The carrier unit(s) provide all analog and digital signal processing including a RF power stage necessary to process a single carrier (e.g., GSM 8 TCHs). The carrier unit(s) interface with the combining equipment on the one side and with the core modules on the other. The core boards provide functions common to all carriers within the BS-240/241 II (e.g., clock generation, O&M processing,...) as well as LAPD processing for the different carriers.

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Technical Description (TED:BSS) BS-240/241 II

2.1

Board redundancy
Redundancy in the SBS ensures survival of the system even in the event of multiple failures. Modular architecture, in conjunction with the concept of split functions, guarantees maximum survivability with a minimum of additional hardware.

2.1.1

AC/DC
Up to 6 AC/DC converters (only one Frame) can be equipped in the service1 rack which provide N+1 redundancy. AC/DC converters work in load sharing, but n AC/DC are able to supply the whole BS-240/241 II . .

2.1.2

Core
The Core can consist of up to 2 (without redundancy) or up to 4 (with redundancy) boards, which have a common backplane. The block diagram depicts the 2n CORE redundancy and the embedding of the active and the passive CORE into the BTS, and the interrelation of both COREs.

CU
SELIC SELIC BISON SELIC
µP

CU
SELIC SELIC RD Redundancy Link Interf. Switch Switch Logic Link Logic Route Clock (Frame Sync) CLK SELIC RD Interf. Switch Logic Route Clock CLK SELIC
µP

CU
SELIC SELIC BISON

FALC

Route Clock

FALC

CORE 0
ABIS CAN LMT Redundant COREs and their interfaces

CORE 1

Fig. 2.3

Both COREs (COBA0/COSA0 and COBA1/COSA1) have link interfaces to the ABIS lines, but only one (the active CORE) can physically be connected. On the backplane of the BTS, one connector provides a link of the LMT to the current active CORE. In the case of a CORE switch over, the switch logic switches that connector to the new active CORE. The same holds for the CAN bus (alarm bus), i.e., both COREs have the same CAN bus address where at any time at most one CORE is an active CAN bus node. Both the active and the passive CORE have links to the carrier units (CU); in reverse, each CU is linked with both COREs. The traffic data are transmitted transparently through the active CORE. Signal processing takes place only within the CUs.

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Technical Description (TED:BSS) BS-240/241 II

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The endpoints of each link are built up by SELIC ASICs (note: one SELIC contains double functionality), where on the CU, one SELIC serves two COREs. In the case of a switch over, the SELICs on the active CORE are disabled by the switch logic and the SELICs on the passive one are enabled. The SELICs on the CORE have to know whether they are on the active or on the passive CORE. For this reason the SELICs need a active/passive pin, which is served by the redundancy switch logic. When a switch over occurs, the switch logic sets the active/passive pin of the former active SELICs to "passive" and that of the former passive SELICs to "active". The SELICs on the CUs have to recognize automatically which link comes from the active CORE and which link from the passive one, i.e. it has to recognize a CORE switch over by itself. The RD interface (redundancy interface) is realized as a 2 Mbit/s HDLC link which provides a communication interface between the two main processors (mP). The switch logic is a flip-flop distributed over the two COREs. It manages the HW part of a switch over and enables the COREs to know about their states as active/passive. The ACLK of the active CORE is connected with the one on the passive CORE. It allows the passive ACLK to be synchronized to the active one. NOTE: the redundancy is implemented in a cold-standby mode, i.e., all calls will get lost if a CORE switch over occurs.

2.2
2.2.1

Nominal power amplifier output level
Carrier Unit (CU)
D900 output power at PA output 60 Watt Tab. 2.1 D1800 output power at PA output 40 Watt Nominal Power Amplifier Output Level (CU) D1900 output power at PA output 40 Watt

i

GSM: minimum guaranteed output power CU = 50 Watt tolerance value: 47.0 dBm 47.6 dBm (50 W - 57.5 W) DCS/PCS: minimum guaranteed output power CU = 34 Watt tolerance value: 45.3 dBm - 46.0 dBm (34 W - 39.5 W). The mentioned data are guaranteed form Module Factory Test only. The typical output power at CU output is for: GSM: 47,3 dBm DCS: 45.7 dBm To verify the typical output power values in field measurements, the tolerance value of the used measurement equipment, environmental conditions and GSM 05.05 specifications have to be considered.

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Technical Description (TED:BSS) BS-240/241 II

2.2.2

Edge Carrier Unit (ECU)
D850/D900 output power at PA output 70 Watt GMSK 44 Watt 8PSK Tab. 2.2 D1800 output power at PA output 54 Watt GMSK 34 Watt 8PSK D1900 output power at PA output 54 Watt GMSK 34 Watt 8PSK

Nominal Power Amplifier Output Level (ECU)

i

GSM: minimum guaranteed output power ECU = 63 Watt (GMSK) / 40 Watt (8PSK). DCS/PCS: minimum guaranteed output power ECU = 50 Watt (GMSK) / 32 Watt (8PSK). The mentioned data are guaranteed from Module Factory Test only.

2.3

Rack configuration
The BS-240/241 II family, with 8 transceivers per rack, which is expandable up to 24 transceivers in 3 racks and can be supplied in two versions: – a BS-240 for indoor installation, and – a BS-241 for outdoor installation (also equipped with integrated link equipment, battery backup and a cooling system). There are 4 different types of rack: – Base Rack/Shelter (with Core modules) – Extension Rack/Shelter (for more then 8 CU’s) – Service1 Rack/Shelter (with AC/DC modules) – Service2 Rack/Shelter (for LE and batteries) It is possible to connect up to 3 Racks/Shelters together (1 Base Rack, 2 Extension Racks; the more possible racks/shelters called Service Rack/Shelter are not part of a Rack Extension in the proprietary sense) that realizes then the performance of a 24 TRX BTSE as shown in Fig. 2.4 and Fig. 2.5:

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Technical Description (TED:BSS) BS-240/241 II

Information Base Station System

SIEMENS
DC-PANEL ACT-C FAN 0 ACOM 0 ACOM 1 FAN 1

BS-240

SIEMENS
DC-PANEL ACT-C FAN 0 ACOM 0 ACOM 1 FAN 1 ACOM 2

BS-240

SIEMENS
DC-PANEL ACT-C FAN 0 ACOM 0 ACOM 1 FAN 1 ACOM 2

BS-240

ACOM 2

ACOM 3

ACOM 3

ACOM 3

FAN 2 CU 2 CU MUCO 0 MUCO 1 3

FAN 3 CU 6 CU 7 CU 2

FAN 2 CU 3

FAN 3 CU 6 CU 7 CU 2

FAN 2 CU 3

FAN 3 MUCO 1 CU 6 CU 7

FAN 4 * CU 0 CU 1 COBA COSA COBA COSA 0 0 1 1

FAN 5* CU 4 CU 5 CU 0

FAN 4* CU 1

MUCO 0

MUCO 1

FAN 5* CU 4 CU 5 CU 0

FAN 4* CU 1

MUCO 0

FAN 5* CU 4 CU 5

* not present in case of BTSE with reduced number of fans

Fig. 2.4

BS-240 base rack and 2 extension racks

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Technical Description (TED:BSS) BS-240/241 II

SIEMENS
DC-PANEL ACT-C FAN 0 CU 0 CU 1 COBA COSA COBA COSA 0 0 1 1 FAN 1 CU 4

BS-241

SIEMENS
DC-PANEL ACT-C FAN 0 FAN 1 CU 4

BS-241

SIEMENS
DC-PANEL ACT-C FAN 0 FAN 1 CU 4

BS-241

CU 5

CU 0

CU 1

CU 5

CU 0

CU 1

CU 5

FAN 2 CU 2 CU MUCO 0 MUCO 1 3

FAN 3 CU 6 CU 7 CU 2

FAN 2 CU MUCO 0 MUCO 1 3

FAN 3 CU 6 CU 7 CU 2

FAN 2 CU 3 MUCO 0 MUCO 1

FAN 3 CU 6 CU 7

FAN 4* ACOM 0 ACOM 1

FAN 5* ACOM 2 ACOM 3

FAN 4* ACOM 0 ACOM 1

FAN 5* ACOM 2 ACOM 3

FAN 4* ACOM 0 ACOM 1

FAN 5* ACOM 2 ACOM 3

* not present in case of BTSE with reduced number of fans

Fig. 2.5

BS-241 base rack and 2 extension racks Fig. 2.8 shows one of the possible configurations. The Base Rack and the Extension Racks can be located physically in any position. The Service Rack (see Fig. 2.6 and Fig. 2.7) satisfies various applications depending on number of CU units configured and/or number and kind of Network termination equipment provided and the Battery Backup time required.

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Information Base Station System

Fig. 2.6

Possible configuration of Service1-Rack

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Technical Description (TED:BSS) BS-240/241 II

Fig. 2.7

Possible configuration of Service2-Rack On the digital side there is an extension of the CC links (connection between Core Backplane and the CU’s not housed in the Base Rack) and the CAN Bus. The CAN Bus connection cannot be shown in the right way because it strongly depends on the number of Extension and Service Racks present. On the RF side there is an extension in the RX path only for omni and specific sector cell (e.g., 5/5/5) configurations and diversity reception with more than 8 TRX. Thus a maximum of 2 RF cables (cascading) are connected between two racks. There is no TX combining over rack borders thus the TRXs of different racks is combined on air only. Some configurations are not possible with 2 racks only e.g., 5/5/5 with FICOM because of the number of available ACOM slots.

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Technical Description (TED:BSS) BS-240/241 II

Information Base Station System

Service2 Rack

Service1 Rack
Base Rack

Extension Rack Extension Rack

Fig. 2.8

BS-240/241 II fully equipped with 24 carriers For the BS-241 II outdoor cabinet only one type of the Shelter exists to be used for all outdoor Base Shelter, Extension Shelters, Service1 and Service2 Shelters.

2.4

Enhanced Observed Time Difference (E-OTD)
In the GSM Location using an E-OTD Service, the LMUs (Location Measurement Unit) are used to provide timing measurements of broadcast channel synchronization frames (SCH). This is used within an E-OTD Service to provide location measurements for an E-OTD equipped mobile station (MS). In the E-OTD positioning method, the LMU measures the relative time of arrival of the signals from several BTSs. The position of the MS is determined by deducing the geometrical components of the time delays to an MS from the BTS. The Siemens LMU measures real-time differences between synchronization bursts of BTS pairs. The accuracy of the location estimate depends on the MS being able to receive signals from a sufficient number of BTSs whose timing is known. An E-OTD location service works as follows: • The MS takes measurements of the time differences between the SCH of at least three received BCCH. If it can see more than three BCCHs, it should take additional measurements, as these will improve the accuracy of the result.

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Technical Description (TED:BSS) BS-240/241 II

If the MS knew the location of the BTS transmitting the BCCH signals it receives and when the SCH portion was sent, it could calculate its position using a triangulation algorithm. However, the MS does not know this information, so it packages the measurement information it has into an RRLP (Radio resource locations services protocol) message and send this back to the SMLC (Serving mobile location centre) which makes the location calculation. A location calculation is normally only made when requested by the MS, either directly or implicitly by connection to a location service. The LMU provides information as to when the BTS transmitted the SCH frames. These make similar measurements as the MS, but from a known location. The results of the measurements are formed into an LLP (LMU Location services protocol) message and also sent to the SMLC. Additionally the SMLC requires a database of BTS locations, and with this data, the MS measurements and the LMU measurements it can calculate the position of the MS. The MS position information is either returned to the MS, and/or sent to the location service.

The figure below describes how this is done.

Fig. 2.9

E-OTD Calculation

ETSI, in GSM 03.71, describes two different LMU types, the Type A LMU and the Type B LMU. • Type A LMUs are accessed over the GSM air interface, • Type B LMUs are accessed via the Abis interface. The Siemens LMU Type B is a unit that is integrated into the BTS equipment, that

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Technical Description (TED:BSS) BS-240/241 II

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communicate with the PLMN via a fixed, wired interface. Two potential interfaces are provided, a CAN interface or a high speed serial interface. The Siemens Type B LMU is a dual band unit operating over the GSM850 BCCH band and the PCS1900 BCCH band. To improve measurement accuracy and allow for expendability, the LMU includes a GPS receiver based on the SiRF chip set. Serial output of the GPS data can be enabled, and a 1 PPS, TTL level signal is provided. The recommended GPS antenna for colocated installation is the Trimble Bullet III. This has high immunity to jamming and allows for both easier installation and less disruption of the GPS service. For location services, the LMU sends and receives LLP messages compliant with the ETSI standard, GSM 04.71.

2.4.1

Logical Architecture
The figure below shows the components of interest for the SMLC within the LCS logical architecture. Siemens has adopted a BSS centric architecture for its LCS.

Fig. 2.10

LCS Logical Reference Architecture LCS components of interest for the SMLC and their LCS-related functionalists: • BSC (Base Station Controller)

The BSC receives a location request for a particular MS from an LCS client via the GMLC and MSC. It may append additional information and forward the request to a BSS-based SMLC. It also transfers positioning related messages between the SMLC, the target MS, and LMU. The BSC forwards the location response received from the SMLC to the GMLC via the MSC. • BTS (Base Transceiver Station)

The BTS provides the radio interface to the MS. • GMLC (Gateway Mobile Location Center)

The GMLC provides external LCS clients with access to the GSM PLMN and its location service. There can be several GMLCs in one PLMN. The GMLC stores LCS subscription

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Technical Description (TED:BSS) BS-240/241 II

information on a per-LCS-client basis. It uses this information when receiving an LCS request to identify the requesting LCS client and to authorize it to use the specified request • LMU (Location Measurement Unit)

The LMU makes the radio measurements needed by different positioning methods and supplies the data to the SMLC associated with it. The radio measurements can be specific to one MS (location measurements) or specific to all MSs in a certain geographic area (assistance measurements). • MSC/VLR (Mobile Switching Center/Visitor Location Registry)

With a BSS based SMLC, the MSC relays location requests and responses between the GMLC and the BSC serving the MS to be located. • SMLC (Serving Mobile Location Center)

The SMLC manages the overall coordination and scheduling of resources required to position MS’s in a PLMN. There may be more than one SMLC in one PLMN. The BSSbased variant receives location requests from its associated BSCs. It determines the positioning method to be used based on the QoS, the capabilities of the network, and the MS’s location capabilities. It can instigate location-related measurements in the MS itself or in separate LMUs. The SMLC calculates the final location estimate and accuracy and returns it in a location response to the requesting BSC. • LCS Client

The LCS client provides location dependent services to the MS subscriber. It represents a location application. • MS (Mobile Station)

The MS is the target to be located. For MS-assisted and MS-based positioning methods, it generates additional measurement data or even calculates the location itself.

2.4.2

LMU Interconnection
The LMU module is controlled over the BTS CAN bus. The CAN bus will support LLP messages, for the support of LCS, and O&M functions. The LMU module is connected to external antennas and to the test signal ports of any DUAMCO’s, etc, that carry BCCH ‘sniffer’ signals for the collocated BTS, as shown in Figure 2.10

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Technical Description (TED:BSS) BS-240/241 II

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Fig. 2.11

LMU Connection to BTS The LMU module is provisioned for the connection of two external GSM antennas. The provisions for the use of a second antenna will cover those situations were a single antenna would not acceptably receive all of the desired BCCH signals. The LMU module is provisioned for the connection of an external GPS antenna. The LMU module is provisioned for the connection of three ‘sniffer’ signals, one for each sector. When multiple ‘sniffer’ signals need to be combined then all of those serving a particular sector will be combined into a single feeder cable using resistive combiners.

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Technical Description (TED:BSS) BS-240/241 II

3 Modules Description
i
In Tab. 3.1 "x" indicates the frequency range: G =GSM, D =DCS, P = PCS

Name Core modules: COBA COSA Carrier related modules: CUx ECUx Antenna system modules: DUAMCO2x DUAMCO4x DUAMCO8x DIAMCOx FICOMBx FICOMXx TMAx HPDUx

Freq. Var. no

Remarks Up to 8 PCM lines with COBA and COSA equipped (COBA and COSA can be equipped only in the base rack/shelter). Carrier unit and edge carrier unit can be equipped only in the base and extension racks/shelters (see also section 2.2) Antenna system modules can be equipped only in the base and extension racks/shelters. DIAMCO, FICOM and HPDU are not available for the PCS band. DUAMCO 2:2, DUAMCO 4:2 and HPDU working in shifted primary GSM band are available. A Diplexer can be used in all cases where GSM900 and DCS1800/PCS1900 or GSM850 and DCS1800/PCS1900 Feeder Cables have to be installed in parallel. ACTC is equipped in every rack/shelter. ACTM can be equipped only in the base rack/shelter. ACTP can be equipped in the extension or service racks/shelters. ACDC controller used for AC power and supervision of the ACDC converter can be equipped only in the service racks/shelters. 100 Ω / 120 Ω symmetric line 75 Ω coaxial asymmetric line. The OVTP is an optional feature. Link Equipment can be equipped only in service1 and service2 racks/shelters

Core basis Core satellite Carrier unit yes

yes Duplexer 2:2 Duplexer 4:2 Duplexer 8:2 Diversity multi coupler Filter combiner (base) Filter combiner (extension) Tower mounted amplifier High power duplexer

Alarm collection modules: ACTC (part of DC-Panel) ACTM ACTP Power supply modules: ACDC DCBCTRL

Alarm collection terminals

no

no ACDC converter DC battery controller

OVPT OVPTCOAX Abis Link Equipment: LE Tab. 3.1

Over voltage protection and tracer Link Equipment

no

no

Units and modules

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Technical Description (TED:BSS) BS-240/241 II

Information Base Station System

Name Cover Parts: CP:ACOM CP:CU CP:ACDC CP:DIAMCO CP:COBA/COSA CP:ACT CP:HEX BATTERY Cover Parts have to be inserted if the respective active module is not needed in a configuration

Freq. Var. no

Remarks the air flow inside the frame or shelter is not affected

Backup battery systems

no

up to 4 battery systems can be equipped (only in the service1 or service2 racks/shelters) for forced convection cooling Heat exchanger can be equipped only in the base or extension rack/shelter Base, extension, service1 and service2 Base, extension, service1 and service2 with HEX or MEF

FAN Heater: HEXV FRAME SHELTER

Central fan unit Heat exchanger compact rack shelter of the cabinet

no no no no

Tab. 3.1

Units and modules

3.1

Core (COBA and COSA)
The Core has the following tasks inside of the BTSE: – local controlling of the entire BTSE – generation of system clocks – providing of up to 8 Abis-interfaces to BSC or other BTSEs – routing of Abis-data to up to 24 CUs – providing an interface to the LMT/OMT – handling and processing of O&M-messages Therefore, the Core can consist of up to 2 (without redundancy) or up to 4 (with redundancy) boards, which have a common backplane. The following illustration provides an idea of the slot-configurations:

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Technical Description (TED:BSS) BS-240/241 II

CU

OVPT
CABLE Backplane COBA COSA COBA red. COSA red. Plugs Abis

Extension Rack

2 Abis

6 Abis

2 Abis

6 Abis CUs

8 CU

16 CU

8 CU

16 CU

other interfaces

Fig. 3.1

Backplane slot configuration of core

For a configuration with less or equal 2 PCM30/24-interfaces and no Extension Rack one COBA-board is required. The second slot can be used for an expansion of the BTSE up to 8 Abis- and 24 CU-interfaces or it can be used for future expansions, e.g. a GPS-Receiver for synchronization, better frequency-standards or other Abis-interfaces than PCM30/24 (e.g., SDH, ATM). The connection of the Abis- and CU-interfaces of the Core to the OVPT/Abis-interface and the CUs is done via cables, which are plugged into the backplane. The CU-interfaces of the Core and its redundancy are routed with separated wires via the backplane and cables to the CUs (2 interfaces on one CU required). The Abis-interface-ports of the Core and its redundancy-ports can only be switched to the same wires. Only one transceiver at the same time is allowed to be switched to the same wires (no simultaneous transmitting/receiving of Core and its redundancy on the same Abis-port possible). To find the physical place of a Abis-interface/CU out of the logical/memory-map address, appropriate configuration-rules are created and considered! Two Core-boards, COBA2P8 (see section 3.1.1) and COSA6P16 (see section 3.1.2), are developed. The first digit gives the number of Abis-Interfaces, the following letter the kind of Abis-interface (e.g. P for PCM30/24), and the following number the number of CU-interfaces, e.g., COSA6P16 (6 PCM30/24 Abis-interfaces, 16 CU interfaces). Hot Plug-in: A Hot Plug-in of the Core-boards (COBA and COSA) is possible. This means that these boards can be plugged in/out with voltage switched on and no other HW inside of the rack is disturbed (no loss of data on other boards) or a board is destroyed.

i

A COBA-board can only be pulled out, if before the COSA-board is pulled out

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Technical Description (TED:BSS) BS-240/241 II

Information Base Station System

After plug-in of a Core-board, this board is in the reset-state and all bus-drivers of external busses are in tristate. These drivers will be enabled not before initialization of the devices, which serve the external busses (e.g., BISONs, SELICs).

3.1.1

Core Basis (COBA2P8)
The COBA is the central board of the core. The functionality of the advanced clock generation (ACLK) and the base core controller (BCC) of the entire BTSE are integrated. Additionally two PCM30/24 Abis-interfaces are available on the COBA2P8. The controller maintains the SW of all BTSE units in FLASH-EPROMs, supervises the SW download and terminates all internal system alarms. Beside the O&M functions, the controller handles the signalling messages between the BSC (Abis) and CUs (CC-Link). For interface and feature extensions the COBA can be expanded with one satellite (COSA). To fulfill the CORE redundancy aspects, the COBA board with its satellite COSA board can be duplicated. In this case, one CORE (COBA+COSA) is "providing service" and works as the master and the other CORE is "cold standby" or is "disabled" if HW problems have occurred. The redundancy switch is controlled by the COBA board. Special links are provided for information exchange between the two board sets.

SESA OASI RDL TPC LMT/OTP LAPD

SMC2 SMC1 SMC4 SMC3 SMC2

SELIC

BCC
MPC860 MH SIU

ACLK

SELIC SELIC SELIC

TSA-SCC1

CU CU CU CU CU CU CU CU

SELIC-BUS

Abis1 Abis2 SAT-Interface SRAM 16MB FLASH 3 X 8MB WATCH RDL LOGIC DOG CAN I/O BISON

BISON-BUS Route clock ext CLK sync

EEPROMs A/D-Conv.

MUX

DC/DC Converter Fig. 3.2

CAN-BUS, ALARMs

LEDs, Redundancy Control, CU_DC_OFF ect.

COBA2P8 block diagram

The ACLK generates the system specific timing signals that are distributed by the SELIC2s to the CUs. Fig. 3.3 shows the structure of the ACLK function.

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reference clock to redundant ACLK reference clock input reference clock divider master clock divider

phase/ frequency detector BCC interface

D A

OCVCXO 32, 768 MHz

TOP
tracking oscillator processor controlled master sync input from redundant ACLK

master clock

LTG
loadable timing generator

S Y N C 1966080 master counter BCC Interface

2 4 8 16 4096

16,384 MHz 8,192 MHz 4,096 MHz 2,048 MHz 8 kHz 60 ms

SYNC Driver Stage system clocks

master sync master counts master sync to redundant ACLK

Fig. 3.3

Structure of ACLK function The tracking oscillator TOP synchronizes the oven controlled VCXO to the selected frequency reference source. The TOP is realized as a phase/frequency locked loop. The regulation parameters (P and I constant) are variable by SW. The regulating algorithm is also implemented by SW. The output clock of the oscillator is called the master clock. The cut-off frequency of the TOP depends directly on the pulling gradient of the used OCVCXO. Since the ACLK must synchronize to jittered lines, the scattering of the cut-off frequency is very critical. The cut-off frequency must choose very low to eliminate lowest frequency wander and is therefore near the range of the temperature’s cut-off frequency. To guarantee less deviation of the required cut-off frequency, also with components from different manufactures (2nd and 3rd source), the OCVCXO is calibrated on the COBA in the factory. The pulling gradient is measured against an atomic clock and the calibration values are stored on the COBA in a serial EEPROM. Uncalibrated ACLKs must not work in the field. This can be achieved by the software, which should check whether or not the ACLK is calibrated. The clock line of the current select so synchronization source is also linked to the redundant ACLK function, which may also track this frequency. For redundancy switch-overs, no warm up and only a short synchronization phase (because of the effects at the switch-over) of the redundant ACLK is necessary. The loadable timing generation hardware LTG is implemented in a FPGA device, which can be loaded by the BCC with the current hardware function. In this stage, all necessary system clocks and the master sync pulse are generated. Also, the master counter is realized. The count value of the master counter is fed via a serial interface to the SELIC. In active redundancy mode, the master sync pulse is forwarded to the standby ACLK. In standby redundancy mode, the generator is synchronized with the master sync pulse coming from the active ACLK function. Therefore, both redundant ACLKs generate their clocks in alignment. If necessary, a very fast redundancy switch-over is possible.

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Technical Description (TED:BSS) BS-240/241 II

Information Base Station System

The FPGA is configured after a power-on reset from the BCC. Until the configuration has finished, no output clocks are available, i.e., a communication via Abis or CUs is not possible. The communication path from the LMT to the BCC is not affected, i.e., a SW-download via the LMT is possible.

3.1.2

Core Satellite (COSA6P16)
The COSA6P16 board (COSA6P16) has the following functions: – 6 PCM30/24-interfaces for Abis – 16 CU-interfaces The board is controlled from the COBA via the SAT-interface (satellite-interface; 32bit data). Fig. 3.4 shows a block diagram of the COSA6P16:

PCMport1 PCMport2 PCMport3 PCMport4 PCMport5 PCMport6

OVPT & FALC54 for PCM30/24 OVPT & FALC54 for PCM30/24 OVPT & FALC54 for PCM30/24

SELIC SELIC
BISON

SELIC SELIC
to CUs

RCLK1-6 CLKX1-6 Route Clock Preselector

SELIC SELIC SELIC SELIC
Interfaces to COBA

DC/DC Converter

SAT-Interface (32bit data)

Working Clocks Fig. 3.4

BISON BUS

Route Clocks

Real-Time BUS (Hopping) Non-Real-Time BUS (O&M)

COSA6P16 block diagram

The key-element of the PCM-interfaces is the FALC (Framing and Line Interface Component for PCM30 and PCM24). It has the following tasks: – analogue receive and transmit circuitry for PCM30 and PCM24 – data- and clock-recovery – frame alignment/synthesis – line-supervision – timing-adaptation to BISONs Data arriving from the Abis-Interface via a PCM-port can be switched non-blocking and bitwise (8 kbit/s and n x 8 kbit/s data-rate possible) with the BISONs to another PCM-Port or via a SELIC2 to a CU.

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The route-clocks of one FALC can be switched with the route-clock multiplexer to the COBA for synchronization purposes. The COSA6P16 gets its working-clocks from the COBA. The COSA6P16 is switched with relays to the PCM-lines. In case of failures, the PCM-port 1(3)(5) and 2(4)(6) can be short-circuit with each other via appropriate relays. There is a power-on device on the COSA6P16, which generates a reset at power-on (board-reset). Via a line, the COSA6P16 can be reset from the COBA (board-reset). Additionally, single devices on the COSA6P16 can be reset from the COBA via the SAT-interface.

3.2

Carrier Unit (CU)
The Carrier Unit (CU) takes care for all carrier oriented tasks. In the uplink (UL) direction two RF signals (diversity) are received and finally converted into TRAU frames and signalling data. In the downlink (DL) direction, TRAU frames and signalling data are received and converted into a GMSK modulated RF signal, which is amplified to the desired power level. The CU consists of the following sub-units: • Power Amplifier and Transceiver Unit (PATRX) • Signal Processing Unit (SIPRO) • Power Supply Unit (PSU) There are four variants of the CU for the frequency bands GSM850, R-GSM900, DCS1800 and PCS1900. The differences of the variants arise mainly on the sub-unit PATRX.

Display

Test PC/OMT, SCC, Layer 1 Trace, JTAG, PID, Vcce Loop

Rx inputs Tx output

PATRX

SIPRO

CC-Link

PSU
Fig. 3.5 Carrier unit block diagram

-48V DC

Power Amplifier and Transceiver Unit (PATRX) PATRX provides the main analog functions of the CU: – receives the two (diversity) RF signals from the antenna combining equipment and dawnconverts them to IF. The downconverted RF signals are then transmitted to SIPRO where they are sampled and digitally downconverted to baseband. – receives the GMSK modulated signal from the SIPRO. The signal is then I/Q modulated, upconverted, levelled, power amplified, and transmitted to the antenna combining equipment. – supports the synthesizer frequency hopping – provides an RF loop between downlink and uplink path for the unit test of the CU

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Information Base Station System

The power control loop implements 6 static power steps (each 2 dB) and an additional 15 dynamic power levels (each 2 dB). For low output power versions of the CU, a further reduction of 2 dB is provided.

RXFEM
Rx input (diversity)

RXFED RXLO LTL TXLO
Tx output

to SIPRO for downconversion to baseband

LCLK from SIPRO RF Control from SIPRO GMSK modulated signal from SIPRO TXBB

PWSTG PWRDET
Fig. 3.6 PATRX block diagram

MODUP

from SIPRO

The functional sub-unit PATRX consists of three PCBs: – RXA: Analog receiver board with modules RXFEM, RXFED, RXLO and LTL – TXA: Analog transmitter board with modules MODUP, TXLO,and PWRDET – PWRSTG: Power stage including heat sink Signal Processing Unit (SIPRO) The SIPRO-Board is a part of the Carrier Unit. It contains all digital functions of the carrier unit, including the following: • Signal Processing in uplink and downlink • Control of RF on PATRX • Baseband and synthesizer hopping • Channel Control • Radio Link Control • O&M parts relevant for carrier unit • Link to Core via CC link Additionally, following analog functions are located on SIPRO: • Analog to digital conversion (IF) • Digital to analog conversion (baseband) • Local clock of CU Due to the analog functions, SIPRO is specific for the different frequency variants. There are two types of SIPROs (one for GSM850/GSM900, and one for DCS1800/PCS1900). Fig. 3.7 illustrates the principal data flow on SIPRO: – receives two (diversity!) IF signals from the receiver, then analog to digital conversion takes place. The next step is digital down conversion to the base band and filtering. The output of the filter is equalized. The soft decisions from the equalizer are then deciphered. The deciphered data stream is processed by the decoder. After

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Technical Description (TED:BSS) BS-240/241 II

decoding (including bad frame indication), the data stream is packed into TRAU frames and sent to the TRAU. Signalling data (e.g., FACCH) are processed by layer 3 of BTS software receives the TRAU frames or signalling data. The TRAU frames are unformatted and sent to the coder. After encoding, data are ciphered. Now, baseband hopping takes place. Training sequence is inserted in the data received via the hopping bus. These bursts are sent to the GMSK modulator. This stream is converted into an analog baseband signal leaving the SIPRO. parallel to the data stream, the PLLs for synthesizer hopping are programmed. Therefore, both for uplink and downlink, a data stream to the PLLs is generated. Uplink

diversity

2

A D
Hopping PLL Central

Digital DownConversion

2 Equalization Deciphering Decoding TRAU Frame Formatting

Signalling

Downlink A D
Hopping PLL Control GMSK Modulation Ciphering Coding TRAU Frame Deformatting

Signalling

Fig. 3.7

Principal data flow on SIPRO Power Supply Unit (PSU) The PSU is the DCDC converter for the CU for all applications. The PSU generates the voltages +26/28V, +6V (only DCS/PCS), +12V, +5.3V and -5.3V for the analog circuitry and +3.35V for the digital circuitry from a -48V primary input voltage. The PSU is mechanically incorporated in the CU.

3.3

Edge Carrier Unit
The ECU unit is a modified CU using the same interfaces as CU but supporting EDGE functionality in uplink and downlink. In downlink direction, the signalling and traffic data are received from the core network and converted into GMSK or EDGE modulated signal, which is amplified to the desired power level. With the introduction of EDGE it is possible to mix EDGE and non EDGE timeslots on the same carrier. The ECU carries two independent receivers (normal and diversity channel) to provide the antenna diversity function. In uplink direction, the received signal is converted to IF-band. The IF-band is converted to a digital GMSK/8PSK-signal. The 8PSK is a linear modulation, where three consecutive bits are mapped to symbol as shown in table 3.2.

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Technical Description (TED:BSS) BS-240/241 II

Information Base Station System

Modulating bits (1,1,1) (0,1,1) (0,1,0) (0,0,0) (0,0,1) (1,0,1) (1,0,0) (1,1,0) Tab. 3.2

Symbol 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

With the 8PSK modulation, the payload/burst is three times more. The mechanical design of ECU is identical to that of CU versions. ECU and CU modules may be installed in any kind of mixed configurations concerning BS-240/241 hardware (Base/Extension Cabinets). Further, any cell/sector configuration with a mixture of EDGE CU and “normal CUs” can be implemented.

3.3.1

General
The EDGE Carrier Unit (ECU) takes care for all carrier oriented tasks of the BTS. In uplink (UL) direction, two RF signals (diversity) are received and finally converted into TRAU frames and signalling data. In downlink (DL) direction, TRAU frames and signalling data are received and converted into a GMSK or EDGE modulated RF signal, which is amplified to the desired power level. An BTS rack can be equipped by any combination of ECU and CU (see fig 3.8)

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Fig. 3.8

Position of the ECU and CU in the BTS

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Technical Description (TED:BSS) BS-240/241 II

Information Base Station System

3.3.2

Mechanics
Mechanical design of the ECU 1800 is identical to that of CU versions for BTSplus. The EPATRX , ESIPRO and PSU Blocks are integrated in one insert-card. In EPATRX Block are situated the ERXA, ETXA and EPWRST groups.

3.3.3

Transmitter Function
In the downlink direction, the EPATRX receives from ESIPRO a GMSK-or 8PSK modulated signal in baseband (I and Q modulated), which is upconverted to final transmit frequency. Linearization of the transmitter is done by means of an adaptive predistortion.

3.3.4

Receiver Function
The EPATRX carries two independent receivers (normal and diversity channel) to provide the antenna diversity function. In uplink direction, the received signal is converted via one frequency to IF-band. This IF-band signal is direct A/D converted to a digital GMSK/8PSK-signal.

3.3.5

Local Test Loop
A local test loop allows a basic functional test of ECU (EPATRX and ESIPRO groups). This test is initiated and controlled by ESIPRO group. In contrast to the CU, the LTL test of the ECU includes the EPWRSTD.

3.3.6

Supported frequency range
PCS-band: RX band:(1850 - 1910) MHz TX band:(1930 - 1990) MHz GSM-band: RX band: (824 - 849) MHz TX band: (869 - 894) MHz

3.3.7

Power Supply Unit
The ECU is supplied by -48 V DC and uses incorporated DC/DC converters.

3.3.8

Functional description
The ECU unit is a new developed and enhanced CU unit which supports the GMSK and 8PSK Modulation in uplink and downlink. It is a HW compatible to the CU unit and fits into the BTSplus rack. A functional description of the whole receive and transmit path including the EDGE Carrier Unit and the antenna combining equipment can be found in [3.3.9].

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3.3.9

Functional structure of the EDGE Carrier Unit
The ECU (Figure 3.9) consists of following functional subunits: Power Amplifier and Transceiver Unit (EPATRX) Signal Processing Unit (ESIPRO) EDGE Power Supply Unit (EPSU)

Fig. 3.9

Epatrix and Esipro function block diagram.

3.3.10

Main differences between ECU and CU
The design approach of this early ECU was to support the EDGE capability by minimizing the changes to the CU HW. The following major changes to the CU HW were made to support the EDGE functionality: 1. New Power Amplifier with better linearity and approximately 3 dB higher peak power capability 2. New power levelling concept including a digital power control loop 3. New TX-VGA and PWRDET due to new power control 4. Adaptive predistortion to linearize the transmitter 5. New module Predistortion receiver (PDRX) 6. New IQDEM (IF-sampling ADC) with higher dynamic 7. RXA adaption to new IQDEM 8. New Power Supply Unit (EPSU) with higher power capability

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Technical Description (TED:BSS) BS-240/241 II

Information Base Station System

3.3.11

EDGE Power Amplifier and Tranceiver Unit(EPATRX)
EPATRX (figure 3.10) provides the main analog functions of the CU. In uplink direction, two (diversity) preamplified and filtered RF signals are received from the antenna combining equipment. These signals are down converted to IF and channel filtered in the RXFE stage. The IF signals are then transmitted to ESIPRO, where they are sampled and digitally down converted to baseband. In downlink direction, the GMSK or 8PSK modulated signal is received from the ESIPRO, I/Q modulated and up converted by the MODUP stage, which also provides the levelling of the output power. The obtained RF signal is then power amplified by the module EPWRST and transmitted to the antenna combining equipment. A part of the transmitted power is fed to the module PWRDET, which performs the power detection. This signal is used to close the digital power loop. The Predistortion Receiver (PDRX) down converts the transmit signal to the TX-IF for the I/Q-Demodulation and adjusting the predistortion values. The transmitter is linearized by means of an adaptive digital predistortion which is applied to the baseband signals. For the introduction of the ECU (BR6.01), a static predistortion was choosen for linearization of the transmit path. The HW is able to do adaptive predistortion, which can be installed by SW update during BR 7.0. EPATRX is able to support synthesizer frequency hopping by the implementation of the synthesizer modules RXLO and TXLO. The unit test of the ECU is supported by the module LTL, which provides an RF loop between downlink and uplink path.

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Fig. 3.10

EPATRIX INTERFACES

3.3.12

Signal processing unit (ESIPRO)
The ESIPRO-Board of the BTSPLUS is a part of the Carrier Unit. It contains all digital functions of the Carrier Unit: – Signal Processing in uplink and downlink – Control of RF on EPATRX – Baseband and synthesizer frequency hopping – Channel Control – Radio Link Control – O&M parts relevant for carrier unit – Link to Core via ASIC SELIC – Digital Modulation – Predistortion signal processing – Digital part of Power control Additonally, following analog functions are located on ESIPRO: – Analog to digital conversion (RXIF) – Digital to analog conversion (TX-baseband, TX-ramping) – Analog to digital conversion (PDRX)

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Technical Description (TED:BSS) BS-240/241 II

Information Base Station System

– – –

Analog to digital conversion of Diode voltage Analog to digital conversion of temperature Local clock of CU

To understand the functional structure of ESIPRO, knowledge of the principal data flow (see Figure 3.11) on ESIPRO is very useful. In uplink direction, an IF-signal with a frequency of more than 100 MHz (GSM 151.2MHz, DCS/PCS/GSM850 - 248.6MHz) arrives from ERXA at the ADC (Analog Digital Converter). The ADC output is processed by a DDC (Digital Down Converter). The DDC transforms the signal into baseband and filters the useful part of the signal. The quasi analog signal at the output of the DDC is converted into bits with reliability information (soft decisions) in the equalizer block. The soft decisions are deciphered and decoded. Traffic channels (e.g., TCH/FS) are sent via TRAU/PCU frames to TRAU/PCU. Signalling channels (e.g., SDCCH) are sent to the CORE of the BTS.In downlink direction traffic channels arrive as TRAU/PCU frames from TRAU/PCU and signaling data come from CORE. The data symbols are coded and ciphered. Afterwards base band hopping takes place via the CC link. ESIPRO sends the ciphered data to another ECU and receives data to be transmitted. The received data are modulated as GMSK or 8 PSK signals and given as a base band signal to ETXA.Both in uplink and downlink direction PLLs have to be programmed once each burst to implement synthesizer hopping.

Fig. 3.11

Data flow in ESIPRO

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Technical Description (TED:BSS) BS-240/241 II

3.3.13

EPSU (Power Supply Unit)
The EPSU is the DC/DC converter for the ECU for all applications. The EPSU generates the voltages +26V/+28V, +12V, +5,3V and -5,3V for the analog circuitry and +3.3V for the digital circuitry from a -48V primary input voltage. The only interface relevant change was the change of the analog bias voltage for the EPWRSTD to +12V. The EPSU is mechanically incorporated in the ECU. The EPSU is a slightly modified version of the PSU of the GSM CU. In this document, not all Interface names are changed to EPSU. Therefore, PSU can be seen as a synchronym for EPSU in this document.

3.4

Duplexer Amplifier Multi Coupler (DUAMCO)
The DUAMCO consists of two identical modules. Every module contains a duplex filter, which combines the RX and the TX path together, to be fed to a common antenna. The DUAMCO combines 1 (see Fig. 4.2), up to 2 (see Fig. 4.3) or up to 4 (see Fig. 4.4) carriers to one antenna and consists of two branches constituted by: • a LNA (Low Noise Amplifier) which takes care of a low system noise figure • an attenuator (in case of installed TMAs, additional gains greather than the cable losses must be adjusted by means of the attenuator) • a second low noise amplifier • a power splitter which distributes the received band to the CUs (Carrier Units) • a transmit path which consists of: – an isolator which protects the PAs (Power Amplifiers) inside the CUs from each other in order to assure the required intermodulation suppression – a hybrid coupler which provides the reference signal for dynamic and static power control. The corresponding not transmitted power is terminated in a load including a cooler (for DUAMCO 4:2 and DUAMCO 8:2) – an ASU (Antenna Supervision Unit) which is responsible for detecting certain reflection factors at the antenna connector. The ASU detects the VSWR failure and generates a failure information towards the O&M (CAN bus interface). This information is subdivided in several levels with the following characteristics: - VSWR < 2 neither generation of warning nor of an alarm - 2 ≤ VSWR ≤ 3 generation of warning 'Antenna not Adjusted' - VSWR > 3 generation of VSWR alarm 'Antenna Faulty'. and a common part constituted by: • a PDU (Power Distribution Unit) for two TMAs (Tower mounted Amplifier) connected to the TMAs by means of an antenna feeder cable • an O&M interface which transmits error messages to the BTS core via a slow O&M bus (CAN bus) The DUAMCO amplifier has two different operation modes: – the AMCO mode where no TMA is used – in case a TMA is used the DUAMCO is configured in the MUCO mode The PDU provides the DC power supply and the alarm supervision of the TMAs. Alarm monitoring is done with a signalling interface between DUAMCO and TMA, modulated onto a IF carrier at 7.86 MHz.

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3.5

DI(=2) Amplifier Multi Coupler (DIAMCO)
For the uplink direction, the DIAMCO is used to filter and distribute the received signals to the Carrier Units in one rack. The DIAMCO consists of two branches constituted by: – a receive filter – a low noise amplifier (LNA) which takes care of a low system noise figure – an attenuator – a second low noise amplifier – a power splitter which distributes the received band to the CUs (Carrier Units) and a common part constituted by: – a PDU (Power Distribution Unit) for two TMAs (Tower mounted Amplifier) connected to the TMAs by means of an antenna feeder cable – an O&M interface which transmits error messages to the BTS core via a slow O&M bus (CAN bus) The DIAMCO RX amplifier has two different operation modes: – the AMCO mode where no TMA is used – in case a TMA is used the DIAMCO is configured in the MUCO mode

3.6

Filter Combiner (FICOM)
With the FICOM, it is possible to combine up to 8 frequencies in downlink direction (TX) in one rack. For the uplink direction (RX), the DIAMCO has to be used to filter and distribute the received signals to the Carrier Units. The FICOM consists of remote tunable narrowband filters (TNF). The advantage of this filter combining technique is the very low insertion loss, if e.g., 8 transmitters are combined to one antenna. In principle, the FICOM offers the following functions: • RF Functions: – RF Power Combining – Transmitter Spurious Signal Suppression – Isolation between inputs – Isolation output to input • Control / Monitoring Functions: – Antenna VSWR alarm thresholds setting and status reporting – Internal Performance Monitoring – Interfacing with BTSE • LED Display: – Antenna VSWR alarms – Tuning alarms – Presence of DC • Lightning Protection at the RF output connector (7/16)

3.7

Tower Mounted Amplifier (TMA)
The TMA connects the antenna with the BTSE in order to amplify the receive signal and pass through the transmit signal. The TMA contains two duplex filters, each on one RF connector, to separate and combine the receive and transmit path inside of the TMA. The TMA consists of the following: – RX parts of the duplex filter and – LNA (Low Noise Amplifier) that takes care of a low system noise figure of the RX part – TX parts of the duplex filter

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The DC power for the TMA is feed into the triplexer by the PDU (Power Distribution Unit) functionality of the DUAMCO/DIAMCO. The Encoder/Decoder units of the TMA signalling interface generate an alarm for each TMA separately by supervising the DC current consumption of each unit. Note: When the TMA is used the DUAMCO/DIAMCO works in the so called MUCO (multi coupler) mode. In the MUCO mode, the DUAMCO/DIAMCO mainly works as multi coupler to split the receive signal for the following CUs.

3.8

High Power Duplexer Unit (HPDU)
The High Power Duplexer has the task of combining the TX- and the RX-path into one antenna, in order to minimize the number of antennas when FICOM is used. The HPDU contains a duplex filter for the transmit frequency band and for the receive frequency band, but no Low Noise. Amplifier in the RX path.If the TMA shall be used together with a HPDU a so called BIAS-T (DUBIAS) for powering and signalling of the TMA is required. Up to two HPDU can be integrated on top of the rack below the cover and also up to two HPDU could be fit in the gap between the inner side wall and the sub-rack in the shelter. Note: HPDU is available working in the GSM-PS Primary Shifted band.

3.9

DC Panel (DCP)
The DC Panel contains the circuit breakers to protect the DC power lines for the modules, the ACTP, FAN units, HEX, LE units. The LMT connector is integrated into the front of DC panel located in the Base rack. The DC Mains Supply Unit is located at the EMI-Panel of the BS-240/241 II Base rack, Extension rack, and Service 2 rack. The DC Mains Supply Unit comprises the lightning protection (optional feature), the EMI-filter, and the terminal clamps for external DC supply cable (-48V, 0V). The lightning protection element indicates a fault condition at an alarm output (Lightning Protection Alarm - LPA). The LPA signal is linked to the Alarm Collection Terminal.

3.10

DC Link Equipment Panel
The DC Link Equipment Panel provides the distribution of the –48 V supply voltage to the modules within the BS-240/241 II Service 2 Racks and integrates the required DC breakers for the different circuits. If link equipment is installed into Service 1A and Service 2 cabinets then the associated DC:LE-panel can be equipped with breakers. The LE breakers can be plug-in during installation of link equipment at the BTSE site. At the front of panel, the high-current clamp terminals are located for connecting the DC supply lines (-48V, 0V). The Alarm Collection Terminal module (ACT-C) is also integrated into the DC:LE-Panel assigned to Service 2 cabinet. The ACT-C module is capable for collecting up to 8 cabinet alarms, and the alarms generated by fan units, battery temperature sensors, lightning protection alarm (LPA / OVP), and rack door open sensor.

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3.11

Alarm Collection Terminal (ACT)
The physical function of the ACT is to transfer the alarm and command signals from the alarm command connectors of the BTSE subsystem via the CAN BUS to the Core Controller. The ACT functionality is realised by a set of modules : – processor board - ACTP – interface board for external signals - ACTA – interface module for internal signals - ACTC The interface of operator specify alarms (site inputs and site outputs) is allocated to the Base rack. For this purpose, an ACT master module (ACTM) is installed into the Base rack. The ACTM module consists of an ACTP board and an ACTA board. The tasks of the ACTP are : – Interface to CAN BUS – Collection of alarms for units having no access to O&M bus or to the Core Controller; – Collection of so-called cabinet specific alarms (Door open, FAN0 to FANx, Smoke.. – Temperature supervision via an external temperature sensor . – Rack address adjustment. The special tasks of the ACTA are : – Collection of so-called operator available alarms (24 site inputs and 8 site outputs). – Indoor lightning protection ACTC is installed once in each cabinet to collect all internal alarms. It has inputs for the following alarm lines: rack door alarm, fan alarms, temperature alarms and internal cabinet alarms, which can be defined by the operator. In the Base rack, the ACTC is directly connected to the COBA. For input of rack alarms, a 24-Pin WAGO terminal clamp is used on the ACTC-3. The ACTC-3 board provides 4-pin connectors for DC output (-48 V) / alarm interface and 2-pin connectors for alarm interface only. – Fan units – Smoke sensor – Location Measurement Unit (LMU) – Rack Door Open sensor – Temperature sensor – Lightning Protection Alarm (LPA, also called Over Voltage Protection - OVP) Types of Alarm Collection Terminal Modules: – ACTMV2 Alarm Collection Terminal (ACT) Master – M:ACTPV3 ACT Processor Module – M:ACTC-3Vx ACT Collector Version Different ACT, are available depending on the applications in the Base Rack/Shelter (ACTM) or in the Service and Extension Rack/Shelter (ACTP) as shown in Fig. 3.12.

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7 Alarms

Temp.Sens

1 Door

6 Fan

7 Alarms

7 Alarms

1 Door CAN-Bus Node Controller + Interface 6 Fan

7 Alarms

1 Door CAN-Bus Node Controller + Interface 6 Fan

1 Door CAN-Bus Node Controller + Interface 6 Fan

Temp.Sens

CAN-Bus Node Master Controller + Interface

CAN-Bus Node Controller + Interface

Temp.Sens

Temp.Sens

ACOM

CORE

Alarms

ACOM

PID

PID DCDC

ACOM

PID

PID

ACTP

ACTM CAN-BUS

ACTP

ACTP

ACDC

ACDC Controller Battery

Rack1 (Extension)
Fig. 3.12

Rack 0 (Base)

Rack 2 (Extension)

Rack3 (Service1)

Alarm collection terminal (ACTM and ACTP)

3.12

AC/DC converter (ACDC)
Up to 6 AC/DC converters (only one Frame) can be equipped in the service1 rack which provide N+1 redundancy. AC/DC converters work in load sharing, but n AC/DC are able to supply the whole BS-240/241 II . Each AC/DC rectifier has an integrated fan to force airflow through the module for cooling purposes. A local AC/DC supervision and management system has been implemented which is accessible via RS232 interface and external PC. The AC/DC system alarms are collected at the ACTC and through-wired to the ACTP where they are processed for the CAN bus. The AC/DC tasks are: – output supplying all -48V consumers within the BS-240/241 II; input supplying of 230V AC 1 phase system for the world market and 208V AC 2 phase system (208V phase to phase) for the US market. – supplying external equipment with -48V – charging and supervising of different battery backup types with different capacities and up to two battery backup systems per Service Rack/Shelter – supervising rectifiers, batteries and alarm messaging – switching off DC outputs (rectifiers as well as battery) in case of under and over temperature – hot plug in/out – operation of two sub-racks in parallel The AC/DC and the backup batteries work as an Uninterruptable Power Supply System (UPS).

ACDC Controller

DCDC

DCDC

DCDC

Battery

ACDC

Temp. Superv.

24 Site Inputs 8 Site Outputs

Temp. Superv.

Temp. Superv.

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The nominal DC output power of one AC/DC converter module is: 1560 W for +50˚C ambient temperature environment (+122˚F). Two AC/DC converter modules shall be installed into the AC/DC sub-rack of the BS-240/241-II Service1 Rack at least (Minimum configuration). Up to six AC/DC Converters may be installed into the AC/DC sub-rack depending on the effective DC power consumption required by the BTSplus subsystem.

3.12.1

DC and Battery Controller (DCBCTRL)
The DC and Battery Controller is the supervision unit for the AC/DC Converters installed in the sub-rack AC/DC and for the Batteries charging of this set of AC/DCs. A serial data link (RS-232) is provided for downloading the DCBCTRL set-up data (like temperature thresholds for cold-start and the nominal battery capacity of the connected battery systems

3.13

Overvoltage Protection and Tracer (OVPT)
The OVPT is responsible for coarse protection of the PCM24/PCM30 ports of the Abis interface and the external synchronization clock input of the BS-240/241 II against over voltage. Additionally, the OVPT provides interfaces to connect PCM tracers without interruption for monitoring the Abis lines. The OVPT is located outside the EMI shield in order to terminate possible overvoltages before it enters the EMI protected area inside the rack. The board performs the following tasks: – lightning protection of PCM lines – lightning protection of the external synchronization clock – provision to connect external monitoring equipment without interruption. The lines are de-coupled by resistors in order to prevent distortions. – supporting 75 Ω coax and 100 Ω/120 Ω symmetrical lines – for 75 Ω coax only a second version of the OVPT is available – provides grounding facility for the external cable shielding – provides stress relief for the external cables

i 3.14

In the BS-240 II, indoor system, the Over-Voltage Protection of the Abis Interface as an optional feature.

Abis Link Equipment (LE)
The link equipment acts as front end to provide the Abis interface. Different equipment can be used for wire or radio transmission depending on customer requirements. If a link equipment is available at the telecommunications site, possibly no link equipment is necessary. If the BS-240/241 II is installed away from a telecommunications site, the link equipment must be installed inside the Service Rack/Shelter. If radio transmission is required, microwave equipment must be used. Direct connections of the PCM24/30 links are also possible. The number of Link Equipment, which can be installed, depends on the height of the Link Equipment.

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3.15

Cover parts
All unequipped slots in the sub-racks of a Rack/Shelter must be equipped with Cover Parts, to reach a balanced airflow. If all slots of a sub-rack are not equipped with modules it is not necessary to cover all the empty slots.

3.16

Backup Battery (BATTERY)
Up to four battery systems can be equipped in the Service Racks/Shelters. One frame AC/DC can be connected to two battery systems with two independent connecting leads. One battery system can consist of up to three battery groups (one group can consist of up to four batteries) which are always in the same rack/shelter due to temperature control issues.
Battery System 0
Battery 0 Battery 1 Battery 2

Base Frame for AC/DC Converter

D C B C T R L

AC AC AC AC AC AC - - - - - DC DC DC DC DC DC
M o d u l e M o d u l e M o d u l e M o d u l e M o d u l e M o d u l e

ne ( DC li

max.

50 A

)

Battery System 1

DC li

ne (m

Battery 0

Battery 1

Battery 2

ax. 5

0 A)

Fig. 3.13

Example of battery backup systems connected to the AC/DC The maximum DC-Output-Power of one Frame AC/DC is limited to 7800W. The maximum current out of one battery system is limited to 50A (respectively 2400W at 48V). All battery systems connected to frame AC/DC should have the same battery capacity. See section Power supply and battery backup for more details.

3.17

FAN
The Fan Unit is is responsible for creating a sufficient airflow in order to cool the inner electronics using all the effects of forced convection cooling. The fans used are able to overcome the pressure drop caused by the system resistance taking into account additional losses caused by adequate filters or Heat Exchangers used to establish an airflow that limits the ∆T (Temperature difference between critical hotspots inside the rack and the ambient temperature) caused by the specific power dissipation of that hotspot. In order to keep both the acoustic noise and the power consumption of all fans at the lowest level possible, the fan speeds are (independently of each other) temperature controlled via integrated sensors (NTC) that monitor the critical hotspots to keep them in an acceptable range.

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Furthermore, each fan delivers a fan good/fan bad signal that is processed by the COBA board (routed via ACTC board in case of a Base Rack/Shelter or the ACTC board and CAN Bus in case of an Extension-/Service Rack/Shelter). Mandatory fan units: Six fan units shall be installed into - BS-240-II Base Rack, - BS-240-II Extension Rack, - BS-241-II Base Shelter - BS-241-II Extension Shelter. Two fan units shall be installed into -- BS-240-II Service 1A Rack, - BS-241-II Service 1A Shelter. - BS-241-II Service 2 Shelter. Optional fan units: Two additional fan units shall be installed into - BS-240-II Service 1A Rack if more than 6 HU for LE (> 600 W) are provided there. Two fan units shall be installed into - BS-240-II Service 2 Rack if any HU for LE is provided there. Four fan units shall be installed into - BS-240-II Service 2 Rack if more than 12 HU for LE (> 1 kW) is provided there.

3.18

Heater Unit
The operating range of the BS-241 II is from –33˚C to +50˚C ambient temperature. The task of the heater is to warm up the BTSEplus, if the temperature inside the shelter is below the specified operating temperature range of the integrated modules. The heater is an optional unit that is installed on customer’s request only. The utilisation of heater unit depends on the climatic conditions at the BTSE site if low temperature operation is expected. For ambient temperatures below –5˚C, each Rack needs one heater unit. If the heater is faulty, the BTSEplus will operate as long as the temperature inside the shelter stays within defined operating range. If the temperature falls below the lower threshold of the defined range, all AC/DC converters will be switched off and the BTSEplus goes down. If the internal temperature rises into the defined operating range again, the BTSEplus starts automatically with operation.

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4 Antenna combiners and receiving paths
4.1 Methods of combining
In order to serve cells with different carrier numbers, certain combinations of combining modules are required. These configurations provide the necessary performance in a cost effective way. For the UL (Up Link) path, antenna diversity is alwaysconsidered. The required splitting factor only depends on the maximum carrier number per cell without yielding a reason-able technical penalty. With respect to the DL (Down Link), a trade off between the number of antennas and the insertion loss for a given carrier number exists. Increasing the antenna number decreases the DL insertion loss introduced by hybrid combining of carriers to one antenna port. For high carrier numbers per cell (≥5) filter combining becomes advantageous with respect to insertion loss but suffering from higher cost and incompatibility to synthesizer frequency hopping. Nevertheless, for urban sites where the cell sites are usually small a configuration with a DUAMCO 8:2 supports synthesizer frequency hopping and there is no need for additional antennas. Fig. 4.1 the different combining options are shown. The relationship between labels and components is shown in Fig. 2.2.

Duplex Combining

Tower Mounted Amplifier
8:2 8x TMA

2:2 2x

4:2 4x

Filter Combining

High Power Duplexer and BIAS-T
DUBIAS

2:1

2:1 8x TX

2x8 HPDU 8x RX

Fig. 4.1

Overview of combining options

DUAMCO (Duplexer Amplifier Multi Coupler) The DUAMCO x:y modules contain duplex filters in order to combine the transmit and receive path to one antenna connector. The receive and transmit part of the duplex filter, respectively, provide the substantial part of the receive and transmit band filtering required by GSM 05.05, 11.21 and JTC J-STD-007.

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The receive path consists of a LNA (Low Noise Amplifier) and a power splitter. The LNA takes care of a low system noise figure and consists of two branches. In case of malfunction of one amplifier, the RX gain of the DUAMCO decreases by about 6 dB. The power splitter distributes the received band to the CUs (Carrier Units). A splitting factor of 4 (or 8 in case of DUAMCO 8:2) is implemented in order to feed 4 (8) CUs. The DUAMCO amplifier has two different operation modes which can be selected by e.g. DIP switches. In the following, Mode 1 is called AMCO mode and the second mode is called MUCO mode. In the AMCO mode where no TMA (Tower mounted Amplifier) is used, the DUAMCO gain is around 19 dB. In case a TMA is used, the DUAMCO is configured in the MUCO mode. In the MUCO mode, the gain is reduced to about 0 dB. The exact gain of the DUAMCO to compensate the cable losses can be adjusted for this mode with a e.g., DIP switch. This adjustment is only done once during the installation of the BTSE by the service personal. The selected mode can be read by O&M SW via CAN bus interface. The transmit path consists of isolators, a hybrid coupler with load (for some modules) and an ASU (Antenna Supervision Unit). The isolators have to protect the PAs (Power Amplifiers) inside the CUs from each other in order to assure the required intermodulation suppression. Two different hybrid couplers (2:1, 4:1) combine up to 4 carriers to one antenna. The corresponding not transmitted power is terminated in a load including cooler. The ASU is responsible for detecting certain reflection factors at the antenna connector and is connected to the O&M interface. The O&M interface of the DUAMCO transmits error messages to the BTS core via a slow O&M bus (CAN bus). The DUAMCOs x:y are named depending on the number x of transmit connectors fed by the CUs and the number y of antenna connectors. The following figures show the different DUAMCOs implemented by a set of equal sub-modules. The DUAMCOs are implemented for six different frequency bands: GSM 850 (DUAMCO 2:2 and DUAMCO 4:2), P-GSM 900, GSM-RE 900 (RE: Railway Extension ; DUAMCO 2:2 and DUAMCO 4:2), GSM-PS 900 (DUAMCO 4:2 for P-GSM shifted to E-GSM), DCS 1800 and PCS 1900 (DUAMCO 2:2 and DUAMCO 4:2). The division of the GSM 900 band (39 MHz) in two interleaved sub-bands (25 MHz each, P-GSM and GSM-RE) results from the required filter volume for the whole band.

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Antenna 0

Antenna 1

Bias TEE Rx Tx

Module 0 Module 1
ASU Rx

Bias TEE Tx

ASU

MUCO

LNA

TMA Signall. TMA DC/DC Control

MUCO

LNA

AMCO

AMCO

LNA

LNA

CAN bus DC interf. RXCA Fig. 4.2 to Rx from Tx RXCA to Rx from Tx

DUAMCO 2:2

Antenna 0

Antenna 1

BIAS TEE Rx
MUCO

Module 0
ASU Tx

Module 1

BIAS TEE ASU Rx Tx

LNA TMA Signall. Coupler LNA TMA DC/DC Control

MUCO

LNA

AMCO

AMCO

Coupler LNA

CAN bus DC interf. RXCA to Rx Fig. 4.3 DUAMCO 4:2 from Tx RXCA to/from core to Rx from Tx

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Technical Description (TED:BSS) BS-240/241 II

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Antenna 0

Antenna 1

BIAS TEE Rx
MUCO

Module 0
ASU Tx

Module 1

BIAS TEE Rx Tx

ASU

LNA TMA Signall. Coupler LNA TMA DC/DC Control

MUCO

LNA

AMCO

AMCO

Coupler

LNA

CAN bus DC interf. RXCA to Rx Fig. 4.4 DUAMCO 8:2 FICOM (Filter Combiner) With the FICOM, it is possible to combine up to 8 frequencies in downlink direction (TX) in one rack. For the uplink direction (Rx), the DIAMCO has to be used to filter and distribute the received signals to the Carrier Units. The FICOM consists of remote tunable narrowband filters (TNF). The advantage of this filter combining technique is the very low insertion loss, if e.g., 8 transmitters are combined to one antenna. In principle, the FICOM offers the following functions: • RF Functions: – RF Power Combining – Transmitter Spurious Signal Suppression – Isolation between inputs – Isolation output to input • Control / Monitoring Functions: – Antenna VSWR alarm thresholds setting and status reporting – Minimum RF output power – Internal Performance Monitoring – Interfacing with BTSE • LED Display: – Antenna VSWR alarms – Tuning alarms – Presence of DC • Lightning Protection at the RF output connector (7/16) from Tx RXCA to/from core to Rx from Tx

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RF Power Combining / Tuning Modes The low loss power addition is carried out by combining the outputs of TNFs inside the FICOM. These TNFs are remotely tuned to the channel frequency of the corresponding carrier. The minimum number of inputs to be combined is 2. It is possible to combine a maximum number of 8 inputs by adding 'expansion modules' to the 'base module'. A TNF is first coarse tuned to the desired channel. If RF power is supplied to the TNF it automatically performs a fine tuning to ensure the best RF behavior. With this automatic tuning process, the drift of the passband filter center frequency is compensated. Therefore, the filter combiner can only be used with baseband frequency hopping, as retuning of the TNF frequency requires up to 5 seconds. But for a large number of carriers (6 or 8), baseband frequency hopping has only a negligible disadvantage compared to synthesizer frequency hopping. FICOM Modularity The FICOM functions are carried out by two different types of modules. These are: – Base module 2:1 – Expansion module 2:1 Each type of module is able to combine 2 carriers. But only the base module has an output for the completely combined signal (antenna output with 7/16 connector). Additional there is a test output at every base module. Also, the reporting of the antenna VSWR status is only done by a base module. The different modules are connected together by a special RF connection cable. Therefore, the number of base modules is equal to the number of cells the FICOM has to support. The number of expansion modules per cell depends on the total number of carriers per cell (2,4,6 or 8). A FICOM Expansion module 1:1 doesn't exist any more. In case an odd number of carriers is recommended in one cell, only one half of the expansion module 2:1 is used. For this application, one TX port remains open. The FICOMs are implemented for two different frequency bands: GSM-R 900 and DCS 1800.

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Antenna

VS WR supervision

TNF

TNF ESN Control CAN bus DC interf.

TNF

TNF ESN Control CAN bus DC interf.

TNF

TNF ESN Control CAN bus DC interf.

TNF

TNF ESN Control CAN bus DC interf.

from Tx

from Tx

from Tx Exp 2:1

from Tx

from Tx Exp 2:1

from Tx

from Tx Exp 2:1

from Tx

Base 2:1 Fig. 4.5 FICOM 8:1

DIAMCO (DI(=2) Amplifier Multi Coupler) The DIAMCO contains two sub-modules with receive filters, low noise amplifiers and power splitters. For the uplink direction, the DIAMCO has to be used to filter and distribute the received signals to the Carrier Units. With the FICOM, it is possible to combine 8 frequencies in downlink direction (TX) in one rack.The receive filters provide the substantial part of the receive band filtering required by GSM 05.05, 11.21 and JTC J-STD-007. The LNA takes care of a low system noise figure and consists of two branches. In case of malfunction of one amplifier the RX gain of the DIAMCO decreases by about 6 dB. The power splitter distributes the received band to the CUs (Carrier Units). A splitting factor of 8 is implemented in order to feed 8 CUs. Additionally, the DIAMCO has a cascade output which is used for rack extension. In addition, the functionality of a PDU (Power Distribution Unit) for two TMAs is integrated in the DIAMCO. This is the DC power supply and the alarm supervision of the TMAs. Alarm monitoring is done with a signalling interface between DIAMCO and TMA, modulated onto a IF carrier at 7.86 MHz: This interface is identical to the interface between DUAMCO and TMA. The DIAMCO RX amplifier has two different operation modes, depending on the existence of TMAs. The first mode is called AMCO mode, the second one is called MUCO mode. In the AMCO mode where no TMA is used, the DIAMCO gain is around 19 dB. In case a TMA is used, the DIAMCO is configured in the MUCO mode. In the MUCO mode, the gain is reduced to about 0 dB. The exact gain of the DIAMCO to compensate the cable losses can be adjusted for the MUCO mode with a DIP switch. This adjustment

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is only done once during the installation of the BTSE by the service personnel. The selected mode can be read by O&M SW via CAN bus interface. Due to the fact that TMA status information is available for the DIAMCO processor, the DIAMCO itself has to switch the RX mode according to the TMA status. Each TMA can be switched on or off by a separate switch. This cannot be configured via O&M SW! For rack extension the first DIAMCO works in the AMCO mode and the following DIAMCO sub-modules in the MUCO mode. The O&M interface of the DIAMCO transmits error messages to the BTS core only via the CAN bus. The DIAMCOs are implemented for three different frequency bands: E-GSM 900 and DCS 1800. Antenna 0 Antenna 1

BIAS TEE Rx

Module 0 Module 1

BIAS TEE Rx

MUCO

LNA TMA Signall. TMA DC/DC LNA Control CAN bus DC interf.

MUCO

LNA

AMCO

AMCO

LNA

RXCA to Rx to/from core Fig. 4.6 DIAMCO

RXCA to Rx

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High Power Duplexer (HPDU2) The High Power Duplexer has the task of combining the TX and the RX paths into one antenna, in order to minimize the number of antennas when FICOM is used. The HPDU contains a duplex filter for the transmit frequency band and for the receive frequency band, but no Low Noise Amplifier in the RX path. If the TMA is used together with a HPDU, the BIAS-T (DUBIAS) for powering and signalling of the TMA is required. Up to two HPDU can be integrated on top of the rack below the cover and also up to two HPDU can be fit in the gap between the inner side wall and the sub-rack in the shelter. For the main RX path, one HPDU per cell is installed. For diversity operation, a second receive path has to be installed. In one Base or Extension rack/shelter, one or two HPDUs can be installed and a maximum of 8 carriers can be connected to one HPDU. Fig. 4.7 shows the standard configuration for one cell using HPDU, FICOM and DIAMCO for up to 8 carriers in one rack. The HPDUs are implemented for three different frequency bands: P-GSM 900, DCS 1800 and GSM-PS 900 (P-GSM shifted to E-GSM).

TX-Filter HPDU TX-Filter FICOM

RX-Filter

RX-Filter

RX-Filter

DIAMCO

0 1 2 TX Fig. 4.7 HPDU

7

012 RX

7

0 12 RX

7

BIAS-T (DUBIAS) If the TMA is to be used together with a HPDU, a BIAS-T (DUBIAS) for powering and signalling of the TMA is required. The DUBIASs are implemented for two different frequency bands: R-GSM 900 and DCS 1800 .

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TX/RX Antenna TMA

RX Antenna TMA

DUBIAS

HPDU

FICOM

DIAMCO

CU0 CU1 Fig. 4.8 Diplexer

CU7

RX0 RX1

RX7

Configuration with HPDU, DUBIAS and TMA

The Diplexer gives the possibility to use one Antenna Feeder Cable for both GSM850/GSM900 and DCS1800/PCS1900 frequencies. One Diplexer is needed to combine the 2 different frequencies at the BTSs side and the other one to separate the frequencies near the antennas. The diplexer offers the possibility to reduce the number of Antenna Feeder Cables in all cases where GSM900 and DCS1800/PCS1900 or GSM850 and PCS1900 Feeder Cables have to be installed in parallel. This is e.g., the case where an existing GSM900 network will be extended by a DCS1800 or PCS1900 network to implement a Dual Band Network.

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4.1.1

Typical combiner losses (Tx path) and output power level
Type FICOM 2:1 FICOM 4:1 FICOM 6:1 FICOM 8:1 DUAMCO 2:2 DUAMCO 4:2 DUAMCO 8:2 HPDU TMA * 2.7 3.2 3.7 4.2 2.5 5.7 8.9 0.6 0.4 GSM (dB) 3.7 4.2 4.6 5.8 2.5 5.7 8.9 0.75 0.6 DCS/PCS (dB)

* RX Amplification of TMA is 25.5 dB (25.0 dB for DCS) Tab. 4.1 Insertion loss of DUAMCOs, FICOMs, HPDU and TMA

i i

DUAMCOs operating with the minimum guaranteed input power from CU: GSM: n x 50 W, DCS/PCS: n x 35 W The typical value for the insertion loss of FICOMs is better than 3 dB with an uncritical carrier configuration (carrier spacing > 1 MHz).

Number of combined Carriers/Freq. offset (kHz) 2/600 4/600 6/600 8/600 Tab. 4.2 1.6:1 1.8:1 2.0:1 2.2:1

GSM S22

DCS/PCS S22

1.6:1 2.0:1 2.5:1 3.5:1

S22 of the GSM and DCS/PCS FICOMs

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4.1.2

Parameters of Tower Mounted Amplifier (TMA)
900 MHz Tower Mounted Amplifier

Electrical Uplink

System RF-band Return Loss (ANT / BTS port) Return Loss by- pass mode Nominal gain

Specified 890- 915 MHz > 14 dB > 7,7 dB 25.5 +2/- 2.5 dB at 25˚C (77˚F) 25.5 +3/- 3.5 dB -33˚C to +65˚C (-27˚F to +149˚F) < +/- 0.5 dB at 25˚C (77˚F) < +/- 0.8 dB -33˚C to +65˚C (-27˚F to +149˚F)

Typical

> 15 dB > 10dB 25.5 +/- 1 dB at 25˚C (77˚F)

Gain ripple

Passband ripple, max Insertion loss bypass mode, max. Noise figure, max. Max. input power CW 1 dB compression point (CP1) 3rd order Intercept Point (IP3) on input Current consumption < = 5 dB 3.6 dB 8 x 15 Watt input TMA > = 16.5 dBm (output) + 1 dBm < = 500 mA

< = 0.5 dB max. 3.4 dB 2.8 dB

>= 6 dBm < = 400 mA

Downlink

RF- band Insertion loss Downlink Return Loss (ANT / BTS port)

935 – 960 MHz < = 0.8 dB > = 18 dB < = 0.4 dB >= 18.5 dBm >= 18.5 dBm -120 dBm

Return Loss (ANT / BTS port) bypass mode > = 18 dB Passive Intermodulation products, max. @ ANT port Passive Intermodulation products, max. @ BTS port Tab. 4.3 IMD3 and higher < = -108 dBm

IMD3 and higher -100 dBm <= -108 dBm + Gain (Ant- BTS)

Parameters of 900 MHz Tower Mounted Amplifier

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1800 MHz Tower Mounted Amplifier Electrical Uplink System RF-band Return Loss (ANT / BTS port) Return Loss by- pass mode Nominal gain Specified 1710 - 1785 MHz > 14 dB > 7,7 dB > 16 dB > 10dB Typical

25.0 +2/- 2.5 dB at 25˚C (77˚F) 25.9 +/- 1 dB at 25 ˚C 25.0 +3/- 3 dB -33˚C to +65˚C (77˚F) (-27˚F to +149˚F) 25.9 +/- 2 dB -33˚C to +65˚C (-27˚F to +149˚F) < +/- 0.5 dB at 25˚C (77˚F) < +/- 0.8 dB -33˚C to +65˚C (-27˚F to +149˚F) < = 0.5 dB < = 5.2 dB 3.6 dB 8 x 15 Watt input TMA > = 16.5 dBm (output) + 1 dBm < = 500 mA >= 4 dBm < = 400 mA max. 3.8 dB 2.5 dB

Gain ripple

Passband ripple, max Insertion loss bypass mode, max. Noise figure, max. Max. input power CW 1 dB compression point (CP1) 3rd order Intercept Point (IP3) on input Current consumption

Downlink

RF- band Insertion loss Downlink Return Loss (ANT / BTS port) Return Loss (ANT / BTS port) bypass mode Passive Intermodulation products, max. @ ANT port Passive Intermodulation products, max. @ BTS port

1805 –1880 MHz < = 0.8 dB > = 18 dB > = 18 dB IMD3 and higher < = -109 dBm IMD3 and higher <= -109 dBm + Gain (AntBTS) < = 0.6 dB >= 18.5 dBm >= 18.5 dBm -116 dBm -90 dBm

Tab. 4.4

Parameters of 1800 MHz Tower Mounted Amplifier

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Mechanical

Size, W x H x D Weight Antenna connector BTS connector

172x280x191 mm (8"x11"x7.5") 4.25 kg (9 Lbs) 7/ 16 7/ 16 +12V +/- 8% alarming via sub-carrier to DUAMCO or DIAMCO

General

Supply Voltage Range Alarm functions

CIN is part of the combining units DUAMCO or DIAMCO and values are incorporated in the units specs. Tab. 4.5 Parameters of 900/1800 MHz Tower Mounted Amplifier The TMAs are implemented for four different frequency bands: P-GSM 900, GSM-RE 900 (RE: Railway Extension; DUAMCO 2:2 and DUAMCO 4:2), DCS 1800 and PCS 1900 (DUAMCO 2:2 and DUAMCO 4:2). The division of the GSM 900 band (39 MHz) in two interleaved sub-bands (25 MHz each, P-GSM and GSM-RE) results from the required filter volume for the whole band.

4.1.3

Examples of possible BTSE configurations
Most frequently used configurations: – 3/3/2 with duplex combining – 8/0/0 with filter and duplex combining – 2/2/2 with duplex combining – only duplex or only filter combining is exclusively used within a cell

CELL 0

CELL 1

CELL 2

DUAMCO 4:2 RX TX RX TX RX TX

DUAMCO 4:2 RX TX RX TX

DUAMCO 4:2 RX TX

CU0 CU1 CU2

CU3 CU4 CU5

CU6 CU7

Fig. 4.9

Multi-cell (3,3,2): with 3 DUAMCO 4:2

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CELL 0

CELL 1

CELL 2

DUAMCO 4:2 RX TX RX TX RX TX

DUAMCO 4:2 RX TX RX TX

DUAMCO 2:2 RX TX

CU0 CU1 CU2

CU3 CU4 CU5

CU6 CU7

Fig. 4.10

Multi-cell (3,3,2): with 2 DUAMCO 4:2 and 1 DUAMCO 2:2

FICOM Base Module TX

FICOM FICOM FICOM Expansion Expansion Expansion Module Module Module

DIAMCO RX

DIAMCO RX

CU0 CU1 CU2 CU3 CU4 CU5 CU6 CU7

Fig. 4.11

Single-cell (8,0,0): with FICOM and DIAMCO

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CELL 0

DUAMCO 4:2 RX TX RX TX RX TX

DUAMCO 4:2 RX TX

CU0 CU1

CU2 CU3

CU4 CU5

CU6 CU7

Fig. 4.12

Single-cell (8,0,0): with 2 DUAMCO 4:2

CELL 0

CELL 1

CELL 2

DUAMCO 2:2 RX TX RX TX RX TX

DUAMCO 2:2 RX TX RX TX

DUAMCO 2:2 RX TX

CU0 CU1

CU2 CU3

CU4 CU5

Fig. 4.13

Multi-cell (2,2,2): with 3 DUAMCO 2:2

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TX - Filter FICOM Base Module TX

RX - Filter

FICOM FICOM FICOM Expansion Expansion Expansion Module Module Module

DIAMCO RX

DIAMCO RX

CU0 CU1 CU2 CU3 CU4 CU5 CU6 CU7

RACK 0

TX- Filter FICOM Base Module TX

RX - Filter

FICOM FICOM FICOM Expansion Expansion Expansion Module Module Module

DIAMCO RX

DIAMCO RX

CU8 CU9 CU10CU11 CU12 CU13CU14 CU15

RACK 1
Fig. 4.14 Single-cell (11...16,0,0): FICOMs, DIAMCOs and HPDUs in 2 racks

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4.2
4.2.1

Receiving paths
Antenna diversity techniques
Basically, there are two different diversity combining techniques: • Switched Combining • Maximum Ratio Combining Switched Combining Switched Combining simply selects one of the two receiver paths according to a given quality criterion, such as maximum receiver gain. Thus, in the case of correlated signals from receiver paths (and comparable gain), Switched Combining cannot improve receiver performance. A decision is usually made for one full Um burst. Maximum Ratio Combining Maximum Ratio Combining provides bitwise combining of all available information from both receiver paths.

4.2.1.1

Antenna System Modules
Different TX, RX and TX/RX antennas are provided which are connected to the combining modules in order to serve cells with different carrier numbers. These combining modules have to provide the necessary performance in a cost effective way by using the following methods: – Antenna Combining to feed several transmitter outputs to the TX antenna – Multicoupling for splitting the RX signal for several receiver inputs – Duplexing both Antenna Combining and Multicoupling methods are used in order to connect the TX- and the RX-path to one antenna The technology of the new BTSEs knows TX Combiner (FICOM), TX and RX Combiner (DUAMCO), High Power Duplexer (HPDU) and RX Multicoupler (DIAMCO). DUAMCO and DIAMCO use a Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) in the RX path, which can be set to different gain to establish the various configurations of the BS-240/241. Additionally, the DUAMCO and DIAMCO have power supply and supervision functionality for a Tower Mounted Amplifier. Antenna diversity is a second receive path to improve the receive quality and the grade of service. It is important that the diversity path is configured in the same way as the normal path, that means either, with or without TMA. Inside the rack, it's possible that one RX path is realized with a DUAMCO and the other with a DIAMCO or cascaded DIAMCOs. An economic solution of antenna combining and multicoupling is the configuration with two TX-/RX-antennas and two duplex combining modules. Both antennas belong to the same cell. One antenna is used for transmission and reception, the other for transmission and diversity reception. Therefore two transmit paths exist, one normal receive path and one diversity receive path. The combining of the two transmit paths happens 'on air'. Supervision of the two antennas will be done separately for each one.

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The principle of On Air Combining will also be used, if TX combining beyond the rack borders is required. For e.g. to combine 24 carriers, belonging to the same cell, 3 FICOMs will be used, each combines 8 carriers to one antenna. Combining of the signals from the 3 antennas takes place 'On Air'.

4.2.2

Receiver sensitivity
Obtaining sensitivity better than the GSM requirements at the rack entry is by using DUAMCOs or DIAMCOs, and obtaining sensitivity better than the GSM requirements at the antenna connector accomplished by using Tower Mounted Amplifiers (TMAs). The configuration with TMA is advantageous because of highest sensitivity of the RX path. One TMA is needed for every created RX path of DUAMCO and / or DIAMCO installed and not cascaded. Expansion of the RX path beyond the borders of the Rack or Shelter is possible by cascading of the multicoupling devices (DIAMCO or RX path of a DUAMCO). With increasing RF cable length, the noise figure rises and thus the RX sensitivity will be degraded. The degradation is a little bit less than the additional cable loss. In the configuration with antenna pre-amplifier, the true system RX sensitivity is guaranteed at the antenna connector, including the antenna feeder cable attenuation. In the configuration without antenna pre-amplifier, the sensitivity is guaranteed only at the rack entry. With system noise figure assumed: F = 4 dB for standard CUs the Rx sensitivity is better than -98 dBm for EDGE CUs the Rx sensitivity is better than -86 dBm

4.3
4.3.1

Transmit Diversity/Antenna Hopping
General
Transmit (TX) Diversity is a new functionality that allows to deal with both space and frequency-dependent fading effects of multi-path propagation in downlink direction. It is implemented into the Siemens base station system equipment in a plain way, i.e. merely by software download. In uplink direction reception diversity is already implemented, usually by means of two antennas. These antennas are located at different positions inside a cell, in order to provide several independent transmission paths between a mobile station and each antenna. TX Diversity (Antenna Hopping) consists in transmitting GSM bursts over alternating antennas within a cell. The shifting between antennas, in connection with the transmission of bursts via non-correlated paths, improves the quality of the downlink connection, without increasing the output power. All other methods to improve the link budget in downlink direction usually lead to higher transmission power. The performance improvement is estimated at a maximum of 3 dB (in special situations even 6 dB). Any gain that can be achieved in downlink direction is very important, as the system performance is limited mostly by the downlink. The improvement of transmission link performance provides a way of increasing the capacity of a network, allowing also tighter channel reuse.

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4.3.2

Functionality
The speech or data frames are encoded and subsequently interleaved. This process results in discrete bursts of information, which are transmitted in downlink direction in designated timeslots. TX Diversity uses different antennas when transmitting the bursts, according to predefined patterns. Each burst is transmitted on one antenna only, but the transmission of consecutive bursts is spread over the different antennas. Thus the bursts of one speech or data channel can be transmitted via different antennas. If, for example, one burst is not correctly received because of individual fading effects of the applied antenna, the other bursts of that radio block, transmitted via the other antennas, may be correctly received by the respective mobile station, due to different propagation conditions of the other antennas. It is worth noting that always complete CUs, including all timeslots on them, perform Antenna Hopping. It is not foreseen to generate Antenna Hopping sequencies for each timeslot individually. The customer can choose between different hopping patterns, which are optimal for full rate, half rate or GPRS/EGPRS data channels. Siemens Antenna Hopping works with BTSs equipped with EDGE or GSM carrier units (E-CU, CU). Furthermore an arbitrary number of antennas is supported per BTS. A combination of synthesizer frequency hopping and Antenna Hopping is possible, whereas a combination with baseband frequency hopping is not allowed, because the TX Diversity feature itself is based on some baseband hopping mechanism: if the HOPMODE attribute in the BTS object is set to “baseband hopping” no Antenna Hopping can be activated. If the TX Diversity is activated by O&M the BTS shall perform hopping with all the installed CUs over the connected antennas (only BCCH-TRX and TRXs connected to FICOM are handled separately). The proposed strategy has to deal with various types of CUs and frequency bands. For this a CU-POOL concept has been developed, restricting the Antenna Hopping between CUs of the same POOL only and hence also between the antennas which the corresponding CUs of the POOLs are connected to. It is not possible to make Antenna Hopping between CUs of different types and frequency bands.

4.3.3

CU-Pools
For each POOL a hopping sequence has to be calculated. The POOL grouping and the calculation of POOL sequences are done in the BTS core (COBA) by a dedicated algorithm. The algorithm analyzes the CU types installed and the wiring data of the CUs with the combiners/TX antennas, as soon as TX Diversity is enabled by means of O&M. All types of BTS combiners are supported but FICOMs. FICOMs are tuned via motor to a specific TRX frequency so that only baseband frequency hopping is possible, which is forbidden parallel to Antenna Hopping. CUs connected to a FICOM are not assigned to any CU-POOL. For the BCCH-TRX there exists a separate parameter in O&M, which enables/disables Antenna Hopping for theBCCH-TRX. Antenna Hopping is enabled for either all CUs including the BCCH-TRX one or for all CUs with the exception of the BCCH-TRX one. If Antenna Hopping for BCCH-TRX is excluded, the corresponding CU is not assigned to any CU-POOL.

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The number of CU-POOLs is given by: Number of CU types in the BTS x number of frequency bands in the BTS. CU types are at the moment: o GSM-CU o EDGE-CU.

Frequency bands are at the moment: o GSM 850 o GSM 900 (RE band) o GSM 900 (P band) o DCS 1800 o PCS 1900 GSM-RE 900 and P-GSM 900 bands are overlapping, but have also frequency areas which cannot be covered by both bands. Therefore also the CUs connected to the relative combiners must be in different CU-POOLs. The maximum number of CUs in a CU-POOL is limited by the number of CUs installed at the BTS. There are no restrictions to the number of antennas that a CU can be connected to. Note that a CU is physically connected to one antenna only. The connections to the other antennas, for Antenna Hopping purpose, are only virtual: the GSM data is calculated and formatted, on frame basis, by the CU and than submitted to the BTS core, which distributes it to the appropriate transmitting CUs. The algorithm does not take care of the optimum CU-antenna assignment, but calculates the optimum hopping sequence for each given CU-POOL and distributes the hopping sequence list separately to each CU in the CU-POOL. The specification of optimal configurations must be specified in the configuration rules.

4.3.4

Algorithm for TX Diversity/Antenna Hopping
The algorithm in the BTS core calculates the Antenna Hopping sequence individually for each CU-POOL. As soon as all hopping sequences are calculated the sequence list is submitted, together with a starting time, to all affected CUs. The CUs which are grouped in a POOL get the sequence list of their POOL; CUs connected to a FICOM do not get any list, because Antenna Hopping is not allowed for them. The sequence list of each POOL contains the CU addresses/numbers of all CUs in the POOL in the form of an ordered list. The number of entries (length of the list) is equal to the number of CUs in the POOL. Each CU address is present only once in the ordered list. The operator, by means of the O&M parameter “Hopping Period”, can set the hopping period, i.e. can decide how many frames are transmitted over each antenna before the next one is used to send the frames. Antenna Hopping is performed every one, two or

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four frames. Additionally there is the mode 4-4-5, which means that each 3rd hopping step the period is extended from 4 to 5 frames (suitable for GPRS/EGPRS). The hopping period has to be set also with respect to the connection rate. In the case of 2 antennas with 2 connected CUs, for example, swapping TX antennas on a TDMA frame base would lead to hardly any diversity for half rate connections, since HR uses every 2nd burst only. In the following an algorithm shall be proposed for the calcualtion of the hopping sequence for each CU-POOL. First the algorithm counts the number of different TX antennas which the CUs belonging to the CU-POOL are connected to, by means of the wiring data. A data structure is built up and the CUs are grouped according to their TX antennas. The antenna-groups are numbered from 1 to n, where n is the number of antennas (in case of switched beam the five antennas of a full sector with specific polarisation direction shall be counted as one antenna only). The algorithm always selects a CU out of the antenna-groups and places it into the final hopping sequence list, until the antenna-groups are empty and all CUs are stored in the ordered sequence list. 2 counters and 1 flag are needed for each antenna-group in the data structure (see figure 2.27). The “bar-flag” indicates whether the algorithm has to select a CU from another antenna-group or not. It is used to avoid that CUs from the same antenna-group are selected directly one after the other. As soon as a CU is taken out of an antenna-group the relative “bar-flag” is set, and the “bar-flag” of the previously barred antenna-group is cleared. The “assigned-CU” counter takes note of the number of CUs taken from an antenna-group and put into the final hopping sequence list. The “num-CU” counter shows the initial number of CUs in the antenna-group. Hence the value “num-CU” – “assigned-CU” gives the current number of CUs in a particular antenna-group. The algorithm has to create hopping sequence lists for each CU-POOL. The selection of a CU out of an antenna-group depends on the following rules, which shall be applied in the selection process with decreasing level of priority. RULE 1: Select a CU from the unbarred antenna-group which has currently the most CUs inside, i.e. the group with max(“num-CU” – “assigned-CU”). If no CUs are available in unbarred antenna-groups, then a CU in the currently barred antenna-group shall be selected. In case several antenna-groups contain the same number of CUs, rule 2 shall be applied RULE 2: Select a CU from the antenna-group from which the most CUs have been selected so far, i.e. the group with max(“assigned-CU”). If there is a choice again, rule 3 shall be applied.

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RULE 3: Select a CU from the antenna-group with the lowest antenna-group number. The process continues until all CUs are stored in the hopping sequence list and all antenna-groups are empty. It does not matter which CU is selected out of an antenna-group, because they are all of the same type and are connected to the same TX antenna. As a convention it shall be stated that always the last CU of an antenna-group shall be placed into the hopping sequence list.

Fig. 4.15

Initial Data Structure Necessary For Proposed Algorithm

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5 Power supply and battery backup
The AC/DC is used in the Service Rack/Shelter. It contains one sub-rack with AC/DC rectifier modules, one controller board and two LVD relays. Up to 6 rectifier Modules can be inserted in one sub-rack; thus, the number of modules can be adapted to the actual need for specific loads. The AC/DC tasks are: • supplying all -48V consumers within the BTSE out of 230V AC 1 phase system for the world market and 208V AC 2 phase system (208V phase to phase) for the US market • supplying external equipment with -48V • charging and supervising of different battery types with different capacities of battery backup systems. • supervising rectifiers, batteries and alarm messaging • switching off DC outputs (rectifiers as well as battery) in case of under and over temperature • hot plug in/out The AC/DC and the backup batteries work as an Uninterruptable Power Supply System (UPS). The AC/DC system consists of: • sub-rack with AC distribution, DC Distribution, EMI-filter, signal distribution between rectifiers and controller board via backplane • controller board with battery supervision, rectifier supervision, alarm interface, EEPROM to store PID • up to 6 rectifier modules per sub-rack each 1560W -48VDC (N+1 redundancy to achieve 7800W+1560W). • two LVD-Relays per AC/DC sub-rack The Backup Battery guarantees continuous operation for a certain time in case of a power main breakdown or AC/DC failure. Three types of Backup Battery with nominal capacities of 80Ah, 85Ah and 100Ah are available. The capacity of the Backup Battery can be increased further by having additional batteries in separate Service Racks / Shelters. Note: The Battery Backup Time can also be extended using the feature emergency configuration.

5.1

Support of emergency operation for 3rd party BBU system
In the BS-240/241 II implementation the switch into emergency configuration (due to a battery discharge alarm) is triggered by an "ALARM STATUS" CAN bus message that has been received from the CAN node of the AC/DC controller. When a service environment (AC/DC + Battery Backup) is built on at BS-60/61 sites, after replacement of BS-60/61 with BS-240/241 II, the alarm line for the AC/DC converter and for the battery which do not have access to the CAN node must be connected to a site input which is used as a trigger for the emergency configuration. A special setting of the attribute "associatedString" in the command "CREATE ENVABTSE" for the corresponding site input allows the operator to indicate that the support of emergency configuration is required for the 3rd party battery backup unit system.

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The string indicates from which source, AC/DC CAN node or site input, the trigger for the emergency configuration is expected. In case the string pattern is set to "##ACDC_FAULT", the trigger is expected from the site input of the corresponding ENVABTSE object. In all other cases the normal behavior is maintained. For simplicity, there is no check if the string "##ACDC_FAULT" is used for more than one ENVABTSE object. If the operator has set the "associatedString" attribute of an ENVABTSE object to "##ACDC_FAULT" for the AC/DC alarm line, the emergency configuration is deactivated if all trigger sources have ceased their alarm.

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6
ACLK ACOM ACP ACTC ACTM ACTP AMCO AMR ASIC ASU BCC BTS BTSE CAN

Abbreviations
Advanced Clock Antenna Combiner AC Panel Alarm Collection Terminal Connection module Alarm Collection Terminal for Master Rack Alarm Collection Terminal for Slave Rack Amplifier Multi Coupler Adaptive Multi Rate Codec Application Specific Integrated Circuit Antenna Supervision Unit Base Core Controller Base Transceiver Station Base Transceiver Station Equipment Controller Area Network Core Carrier Unit Link Core Basis Core Satellite Carrier Unit DC and Battery Controller DC Panel Diversity Amplifier Multi Coupler Downlink Duplex Amplifier Multi Coupler Edge Carrier Unit Enhanced Full-Rate Filter Combiner Field-Programmable Gate Array Full-Rate General Packed Radio System Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying High Level Data Link Control High Power Duplexer Unit Half-Rate High Speed Circuit Switched Data Hardware Link Equipment Local Maintenance Terminal Low Noise Amplifier Loadable Timing Generation

CC-Link COBA COSA CU DCBCTRL DCP DIAMCO DL DUAMCO ECU EFR FICOM FPGA FR GPRS GSMK HDLC HPDU HR HSCSD HW LE LMT LNA LTG

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LTL LVD MODUP MUCO NTC O&M OCVCXO OMT OVPT PATRX PCM PDU PID PSU PWRDET PWRSTG RF RXA RXFED RXFEM RXLO SELIC SIPRO TMA TNF TOP TRAU TXA TXLO UL UPS VCXO VSWR

Local Test Loop Low Voltage Detect Modulator and Upconverter Multi Coupler Negative Thermal Coefficient Operation and Maintenance Oven Controlled VCXO Operation and Maintenance Terminal Overvoltage Protection and Tracer Power Amplifier and Transceiver Unit Pulse Code Modulation Power Distribution Unit Product Identification Data Power Supply Unit Power Detector Power Stage Radio Frequency Analogue receiver board Receiver Front End Diversity Receiver Front End Main Receiver Local Oscillator Serial Link Interface Controller (ASIC) Signal Processing Unit Tower Mounted Amplifier Tunable Narrowband Filter Tracking Oscillator Transcoding and Rate Adaption Unit Analogue transmitter board Transmitter Local Oscillator Uplink Uninterruptable Power Supply System Voltage Controlled Crystal Oscillator Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

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