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Advanced Filter Synthesis

Complex coefficient reference networks with transmission zeros on imaginary axis
----------------------------------------------------------------------------IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS—I: REGULAR PAPERS, VOL. 55, NO. 7, AUGUST 2008 1897 Synthesis of a Passive Complex Filter Using Transformers Kazuhiro Shouno, Member, IEEE, and Yukio Ishibashi Abstract—In this paper, the synthesis of a passive complex filter has been described. First, a normalized real coefficient filter is transformed into a complex coefficient filter, which includes imaginary-valued resistors by using a proposed frequency transformation. Second, a complex filter using passive elements is presented. The proposed circuit consists of terminating resistors, capacitors, and transformers with finite self-inductances and coupling coefficients equal to or less than unity. A third-order complex Chebyshev bandpass filter is designed using practical passive elements, and its frequency response is measured. It is shown that the experimental circuit exhibits bandpass characteristics (90–110 kHz) and an image rejection of 53 dB. Index Terms—Bandpass filter (BPF), complex, filter, passive, transformer. I. INTRODUCTION N ANALOG filter is one of the most important building blocks in communication systems. The most fundamental filter is an LC filter. Since it exhibits a low noise property and provides a desirable frequency response over a wide frequency range, it is widely used in the front-end circuits of radio systems. However, the inductor in an LC filter is unsuitable for integration. In particular, the element value of the inductor becomes high when the operation frequency of the LC filter is relatively low. To solve this problem, many RC-active filters have been proposed [1]–[3]. An RC-active filter has a cascade configuration of the second-order sections such as the Sallen– Key circuit [1], Biquad circuit [2], and so on. This structure is employed because the number of active elements in it is relatively small. The problem with this structure is that a high-order filter has high sensitivity. Another method is to simulate a doubly terminated LC filter by using an RC-active circuit; this type of filter can inherit the low-sensitivity property of the prototype LC filter [3]. The synthesizing theory of an LC filter has been accomplished; however, it remains a fundamental theory for modern active filter design. The above-mentioned filter is a real coefficient filter (real filter) whose frequency response is symmetrical with respect . Recently, many techniques with regard to to dc complex coefficient filters (complex filters) have been proposed in order to realize high-performance signal processing. This complex filter has two input terminals: real and imaginary input terminals. As a result, the complex filter has an unsymManuscript received October 12, 2006; revised April 13, 2007. First published February 7, 2008; last published August 13, 2008 (projected). This paper was recommended by Associate Editor A. Kummert. The authors are with the Graduate School of Systems and Information Engineering, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573, Japan (e-mail: shouno@cs. Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TCSI.2008.918005 A

the most important problem is to equivalently realize an imaginary resistor by using practical components. a real BPF is designed by using a low-pass filter (LPF)–BPF transformation. However. pure. Further. the resulting complex filter requires an ideal transformer—a transformer with infinite self-inductance. However. such as orthogonal modulation/demodulation. as a design example. [5] is suitable for integrated circuits since it has only capacitors and resistors. in other words. [8]–[13] simply shifts the frequency response of the prototype filter along the direction of the frequency axis. it is also difficult to realize this filter by using practical passive components. the investigation of passive complex filters is important from the viewpoint of their active realization in the same way as conventional real filters. and so on. An imaginary resistor can be equivalently realized by using a gyrator [12]. most of the conventional complex filters inevitably require active elements. Unfortunately. e. Therefore. In this paper. and imaginary value. Proposed Frequency Transformation Conventionally.g. and its frequency response is measured. These methods generate an imaginary valued resistor called an imaginary resistor. This property is important for applications in the field of communication systems. Extended frequency transformations [7] convert the frequency axis of the prototype filter to that of a complex filter by using a bilinear function.00 © 2008 IEEE . orthogonal communication systems. II. As a result. As a result. Therefore.metrical frequency response with respect to dc. the frequency response is symmetrical with respect to the shifting frequency [6]. the frequency-shifting method is used to design the prototype filter. Its resistance is a constant. Many methods have been proposed for designing complex filters [4]–[13]. However. the frequency axis of a normalized real LPF is converted to that of 1549-8328/$25. it is difficult to realize a gyrator using practical passive elements because of its reciprocity. A polyphase filter [4]. This paper proposes complex filters using practical passive components. In this technique. the resistors lead to power dissipation. The proposed frequency transformation method is suitable for passive realization. The resulting complex filter includes terminating resistors.. capacitors. and transformers with finite self-inductances. DESIGN METHODOLOGY A. regardless of the frequency. the RC polyphase network has a comparatively high transmission loss. An imaginary resistor can also be equivalently realized by using ideal transformers [13]. As described above. A frequency-shifting method [6]. image rejection filters. a third-order complex Chebyshev bandpass filter (BPF) is designed using practical passive elements. it is not a practical component.

In this figure. the following simultaneous equations can be obtained: (3) filter becomes . NO. this element is not a practical element. 2. Fig. AUGUST 2008 Fig. and are the values obtained from the components included in the resulting complex filter. The proposed complex filter is also designed by using a frequency transformation. VOL. and . (a) Normalized real LPF. From Fig. In particular. 7. it is found that the resulting complex filter includes the element or . we have (4) where . The imaginary resistor has a purely imaginary resistance.9.94. For . The transfer function . From Table I. 2(a) shows the normalized real of the resulting complex LPF. is an imaginary unit. may be greater than 0. Therefore. 2(a) is transformed to the complex filter shown in Fig. 1. and is the coupling coeffiwhere cient of the transformer. 55. Equation (2) is introduced to simplify the synthesis of the complex filter. 2(b) through the proposed frequency transformation. Therefore. 1. the value of for the transformer used in the experiment described in Section III is approximately 0. Because the proposed filter is obtained only by frequency of the proposed filter is transformation. Fig. 1 shows the proposed frequency transformation. For the practical transformer. It is referred to as an with an impedance of either imaginary resistor. the frequency axis of the real filter is converted to that of the complex filter. the passband ripple the same as that of the normalized real LPF. TABLE I ELEMENT TRANSFORMATION a real BPF. The function is defined as (1) (2) is a real constant. regardless of the frequency . The inductor in the normalized real LPF gets transformed to included (5) The admittance of the capacitor becomes (6) In these equations. Proposed transformation. Table I summarizes the element transformations given by (5) and (6). (b) Complex filter. Fig. The prototype filter shown in Fig.1898 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS—I: REGULAR PAPERS.

For cuit is the same as of the imaginary circuit. Step 1) Place nodes 1–6 inside each loop and node 7 outside the real circuit. In this figure. 5. (b) Imaginary resistor realized by using an ideal transformer. its configuration reveals that the imaginary resistor can be equivalently realized by using a gyrator with a gyration resistance of [12].SHOUNO AND ISHIBASHI: SYNTHESIS OF A PASSIVE COMPLEX FILTER USING TRANSFORMERS 1899 Fig. . Substituting (8) into (7) yields (9) When this equation is regarded as a -matrix. 6(a) shows the ideal transformer with the surrounding elements used in the complex filter shown in Fig. The impedances and and the transfer gain can be represented as (13) . Step 1) Assume that the current flows in the clockwise direction around node 2. Fig. the imaginary circuit must represent a dual of the real circuit. as listed in Table II. When the relationship between two elements is given by .1 We place a node on the side of the coil from which current flows inward. A combination of the cirformers cuit shown in Fig. 5. respectively. Step 3) Assign the elements traversed by the dotted lines to their dual elements. 4(a). the amplitude of . Now. 4(b) shows the resulting dual circuit. as listed in Table II. Rewriting it in an trix form yields -maIt should be noted that the sign of is inverted since the current direction of the -matrix is opposite to that of the -matrix. Step 2) Draw dotted lines connecting two nodes through the elements in the original circuit. The dual circuit [14] shown in Fig. they act as dual elements. 3(a) has the following form: shown in (7) The voltage and current can be decomposed into their real and imaginary components (8) The subscripts and denote the real and imaginary signal paths. Substituting (10) into (9) yields (11) This equation is in the matrix form. The above procedure can be applied to the other ideal transand for nodes 4 and 5. Step 2) The polarity of the secondary winding is assumed such that current flows into node 2 of the dual circuit. the input resistances of the real cirsimplicity.2 Under this is the same as that of condition. 4(b) can be obtained as and follows. 3. we introduce and defined as follows: (10) is a positive constant. 3(b) [13]. The polarities can be determined through the following proof transformer cedure. Loosely Coupled Transformer Fig. Therefore. which indicates the relationship between the ports and . Therefore. the imaginary resistor shown Fig. Equation (12) represents an ideal transformer embedded between the real and imaginary circuits. 4(a) with that shown in 4(b) yields the comis set to unity for plex filter shown in Fig. The dual of the original circuit shown in Fig. 4(a) can be obtained using the following procedure. 3(a) can be equivalently realized by as using the ideal transformer whose turn ratio is shown in Fig. This means that the complex filter has real and imaginary circuits. This means that we place a node on the side of the coil from which the current flows outward. Imaginary Resistor The circuit equation of the imaginary resistor Fig. C. as shown in Fig. (a) Imaginary resistor. B. The ideal transformers couple the real and imaginary circuits. It should be noted that (10) where implies that the current and voltage are interchanged in the imaginary circuit.

the terminating resistor R of the normalized filter is unity. figure. (12) . the resulting polarity remains unchanged. From this transformer. 2Usually. 6(b) shows the equivalent circuit of the loosely coupled represents the mutual inductance.Fig. we have 1When we select node 3 instead of node 2.

(b) Dual circuit. (a) Original circuit. the proposed complex filter can be realized by using the loosely coupled transformer. 7. 55. it is found that the circuit shown in Fig. AUGUST 2008 Fig. as shown in Fig. Proposed circuit (n = 3). When a high-order filter is designed. 6(c). 7. A third-order complex Passband ripple Passband edges Coupling coefficient BPF dB rad/s and rad/s When . Therefore. 6. (c) Loosely coupled transformer. a complex filter can be realized by cascading the building blocks surrounded by the broken lines in Fig. a complex filter that satisfies the following specifications is designed. Equation set (15) implies that all of the transformers included in the proposed circuit have the identical mutual inductance . (14) III. VOL. TABLE II DUAL ELEMENTS Fig. and are satisfied. 6(a) is equivalent to the circuit shown in Fig. we have (15) . (b) Equivalent circuit of loose coupling transformer. 7. Fig. they become equivalent to each other. NO. 5. Complex filter using ideal transformers. 4. DESIGN EXAMPLE First. On the basis of the above assumptions. Fig.1900 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS—I: REGULAR PAPERS. Therefore. (a) Ideal transformer and its surrounding elements. 7.

The experimental results show that the proposed filter exhibits a complex bandpass response and an image rejection of 53 dB. The measured value of is approximately 0. 2(a). Substituting rad/s and yields rad/s in (4) yields (16) The element values shown in Figs. 10 shows the frequency characteristics for . the complex filter that includes a loosely coupled transformer with satisfying .5%. 2(b). Experimental results. and 7 become Fig. Transformer constructed for experiment. 110 kHz. Fig. [17]. Fig. This figure shows that the value of influences the frequency characteristics. and . and the impedance level become 90 kHz. the bobbin is equipped with a separator.94. As shown in this figure. the parasitic elements include the dissipation and coupling capacitances of the transformers. Fig. (b) Enlargement near passband. In this figure. the transformer is realized by using a ferrite pot core. the coupling capacitance is reduced. 8. 8 shows the transformer constructed for experimental purposes. The element values are scaled such that . It is found that the deviation between the measured and ideal frequency responses is caused due to the parasitic elements. As a result. In this figure. Substituting into (2) . The deviations between the desired and measured element values are within 0. . 5. and [15]. By using the proposed method. 9 shows the experimental results obtained by the measurement technique described in [16]. The bobbin is a Delrin rod shaped using a turning lathe. respectively. In order to reduce the coupling capacitance between the primary and secondary windings. 9. except for the value of . (17) Second. The specifications are the same as those given above. Fig. the element values of the experimental circuit are listed in Table III. (a) Overall.SHOUNO AND ISHIBASHI: SYNTHESIS OF A PASSIVE COMPLEX FILTER USING TRANSFORMERS 1901 TABLE III ELEMENT VALUES The circuit configuration of the normalized LPF is the same as that in Fig. and 200 .

Analog Filter Design. Van Valkenburg. 1993. IEEE Int. Gingell. 1992. P. As an example. and terminating resistors. [8] C. Shouno and Y. a thirdorder complex filter has been designed. pp. [6] A. E. pp. [14] M. Part 1—Some practical design considerations. pp. vol. 949–955. [5] J. SolidState Circuits.‖ in Integrated Continuous-Time Filters—Principles. ―A leapfrog synthesis of complex analog filters. 12. of London. J. E83-A. May 1971. pp. E83-A. ―A single-chip 900 MHz CMOS receiver front-end with a high performance low-IF topology. The proposed method has been validated through experiments. 1966. J. ―Complex analog bandpass filters desgined by linearly shifting real lowpass prototypes. U. Design. The experimental results are in good agreement with the simulated frequency characteristics. Solid-State Circuits. vol. O. Guthrie. The resulting complex filter includes passive components. 1985. pp. [3] H. ―A practical method of designing RC active filters. 309–315. transformers..‖ Electron. Feb. CT-2.‖ IEEE Trans. ―Continuous-time analog integrated filters.. S. Ishibashi. Muto. Tsivids and J. [7] C. ―An integrable image rejection system using a complex analog filter with variable bandwidth and center frequency characteristics. Hughes. 7. Symp.‖ IEICE Trans. Further investigation is required to eliminate the transformers from the passive complex filter. 1223–1226. 2002. Fundamentals. Allen. vol. vol. and A. Mar. NJ: Prentice-Hall.‖ in Proc. 9. 1483–1492. Snelgrove. 1872–1879. [13] K. Fundamentals. it is desirable that we use a transformer with the highest possible value of from the viewpoint of its manufacturing cost. 6. New York: Oxford Univ. dissertation. 10. ―Synthesis of a complex coefficient filter by a passive elements including ideal transformers and its simulation using operational amplifiers. 6. 0:5 and 0:5 (n = 5).D. Circuit Theory. 0:7.‖ IEICE Trans. Roovers. Jun. vol.. 55. Fundamentals. P.‖ IEEE J. ―Inductorless filters. 210–215. London. vol. Englewood Cliffs. Faculty of Engineering. Crols and M. and R. ―A CMOS gyrator low-IF filter for a dual-mode Bluetooth/ZigBee transceiver. Sedra. Ishibashi. 2. pp.‖ IEICE Trans. Spencer. Univ. Jun. and Applications.1902 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS—I: REGULAR PAPERS. CT-18. J. 2000. no. New York: IEEE. ―The biquad.‖ IEEE J. VOL. 75–85. NO. Aug. p. 934–940. Voorman. 350–357. 1975. AUGUST 2008 Fig. pp. M. Jun. 1993. ―A note on . C. The transformer included in the experimental circuit is realized using a ferrite pot core. Eds. 6. [10] C. 224–225.‖ IEEE J. Sep. Kambayashi. Circuits Syst. vol. no. pp. E. 1194–1197. 15–46. Since the value of influences the image rejection. 2. Steyart and R. Muto and H. Sayers. [4] M. Shouno and Y. Circuit Theory. Feb. ―A 1-GHz single-Chip quadrature modulator. namely. Solid-State Circuits. no. 1964.‖ IEICE Trans. vol. pp. 1955. no. Orchard. L. 1982. The proposed frequency transformation is suitable for passive realization. the combination of this transformer and the surrounding capacitors can be used to realize the proposed complex filter. Hoshikawa. no. 27.‖ Ph. 40. W. Press. 414. [16] K. no. ―A new extended frequency transformation for complex analog filter design. [15] M. Fundamentals. T. ―The synthesis and application of polyphase filters with sequence asymmetric properties. E76-A. 2000. [12] J. Simulated frequency response for k = 0:9. [11] B. 2. Van Valkenburg. pp. Muto and H. 8.‖ IRE Trans. vol. E85-A.K. pp. no. pp. 77–80. pp. Network Analysis. Voorman. [9] M. REFERENCES [1] R. 30. 1995. 2005. The transformer functions as an imaginary resistor including the surrounding inductors. Thomas. [2] L. O. Y. capacitors. Key. Steyaert. Lett. no. Dec. Sallen and E. vol. method.

85. It should be noted that the conventional circuit cannot be realized by using only the practical passive components because ideal transformers are required. J81-A. Sensitivity. New York: Wiley.‖ IEICE Trans. Fundamentals. Dec. from the viewpoint of application purposes. Shouno and Y. for the negative kHz. they possess very high sensitivity. ―A note on the measurement method of the frequency response of a complex coefficient filter. CONCLUSION In this paper. (English version of [16]). Fig. can be designed. 3. pt. Ishibashi. it is found that both the circuits have similar sensitivity characteristics. the smaller the image rejection. no. it is desirable to use a transformer with the highest possible value of . 1486–1494. IV.the measurement method of the frequency response of a complex coefficient filter. vol.‖ in Electronics and Communications in Japan. In particular. 6. The proposed circuit is obtained by using a frequency transformation technique different from the conventional frequency-shifting . From Fig. then a higher order normalized real low-pass prototype filter can be used. 11. Generally. 11 shows the calculated results of the worst case sensitivities of the gain to the variation of the elements included in the proposed and the conventional circuits [13]. If it is difficult to use such a transformer. pp. Fig. 2002. vol. Fig. frequencies near This implies that the proposed method also requires very small element tolerances and the absence of noticeable parasitic elements when high image rejection is required. Therefore. it is desirable that the image rejection be as large as possible. 10 shows that the lower the value of . a passive complex filter has been proposed. [17] K. 2000. 32–41. 12. 11. Feb. pp.

where he is an Assistant Professor. Japan. Japan.SHOUNO AND ISHIBASHI: SYNTHESIS OF A PASSIVE COMPLEX FILTER USING TRANSFORMERS 1903 Kazuhiro Shouno (M’04) was born in Tokushima.. He received the B.E.E.E. Tokyo. He was a Research Assistant with the Tokyo Institute of Technology from 1973 to 1980. he was with Matsushita Electric Industrial Company.. Shouno is a member of the Institute of Electronics. he was a Research Assistant with Bio-System Engineering. From 1996 to 1998. in 1971. His research interests include passive/active network theory and analog integrated circuits. Since 1993. Information and Communication Engineers (IEICE) of Japan and the Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEE) of Japan. Japan. From 1998 to 2001. M. in 1994. . Dr. He received the B. he has been with the Institute of the Information Sciences and Electronics. M. respectively. degrees in engineering from the University of Tsukuba.E. University of Tsukuba. where he is a Professor. 1970. University of Tsukuba. and 1973. From 1980 to 1993. Yukio Ishibashi was born in Tokyo. Faculty of Engineering. 1996.. and D. Japan. Yamagata University. degrees in electrical engineering from the Tokyo Institute of Technology. respectively. in 1945..E. Ibaraki. he was an Associate Professor with the Institute of Applied Physics. University of Tsukuba. and 2001. he was engaged in doctoral research. Since 2003. Ltd. From 2001 to 2003.E. His research interests are in the field of active network theory. and Dr. he has been with the Institute of Information Sciences and Electronics. in 1968.