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Golam Mustafa

University of South Dakota
Status of experimental searches for
Neutrinoless double beta decay
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References
 B. Schwingenheuer, Annalen Phys. 525 (2013)
 A. Giuliani and A. Poves, Advances in High Energy Physics, Article ID 857016 (2012).
 O. Cremonesi, Experimental searches of neutrinoless double beta decay, arXiv:1212.4885
 Several more....
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Outlook of this talk
 Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay
 Requirements for a competitive experiment
 Present situation of 0v||
 Future experiments
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Beta Decays
 Transitions in nucleus
 proton neutrons
 neutron proton
) (
) (
) (
, 1 ,
, 1 ,
, 1 ,
v v
v v
v v
n ep M M e
pe n e M M
ne p e M M
e A Z A Z
e A Z A Z
e A Z A Z
÷ + ÷ +
÷ + + ÷
÷ + + ÷
÷
÷
÷
+
+
÷
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Beta Decay -Quark level Feynman Diagrams
 The proton is made of 3 quarks – uud (up, up, down)
 The neutron is made also of 3 quarks - udd
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 The neutrino is needed to conserve angular momentum
 (Z,A) (Z+1,A)
for A=even have either
Z,N even-even odd-odd or
Z,N odd-oddeven-even
 p, n both spin 1/2 and so for even-even or odd-odd
nuclei I=0,1,2,3…….
 But electron has spin 1/2
I(integer) I(integer) + 1/2(electron) doesn’t
conserve J
 need spin 1/2 neutrino
Beta Decay –why neutrino?
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 Also observed that electron spectrum is continuous indicative of
>2 body decay
Beta Decay –why neutrino?
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8
1/t
1/2
= G(Q
5
,Z) |M
nucl
|
2
<m
ee
>
2
0νββ decay-
rate
Phase space-
factor
Matrix
element
Effective Majorana
Neutrino mass
Neutrinoless mode of double beta decay only possible if:
Neutrino has mass and is a Majorana particle
0νββ decay:
n
n
p
p
W
-
e
-
e
-
W
-
n
n
p
p
W
-
e
-
e
-
W
-
ν
e
ν
e
ν
e
= ν
e
ν
l
= ν
r
Effective Majorana neutrino mass contributes to 0νββ decay rate:
2νββ decay:
Double beta decay
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9
Signature: Sharp peak at Q-value of the decay
2 neutrinos
escape the
detector
undetected:
continuous
spectrum
Total energy of
decay is
deposited
within
detector:
sharp peak
Effective Majorana neutrino mass:
<m
ee
> = |Σ|U
ei
|
2
e
iβi
m
i
|
Neutrinoless double beta decay
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Probe of neutrino nature.
Neutrinos are Majorana fermions (particle ÷
antiparticle) if 0v|| takes place ¬
Leptogenesis, Baryon asymmetry, CP
violation
Neutrino mass hierarchy.
0v|| measurements might help to
establish the right one.
Absolute mass scale.
||0v experiments are among the most
sensitive ones.
Spreads are
due to
variations of
unknown
CP phases
0νββ and neutrino fundamental properties
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How experimental parameters are connected to the Majorana mass
sensitivity of experiment?
sensitivity F: lifetime corresponding to the minimum detectable number
of events over background at a given confidence level
background level
F · (MT / bAE)
1/2
energy resolution
live time
source mass
F · MT
importance of the nuclide choice
sensitivity to (m) · (F/Q |M
nucl
|
2
)
1/2
·
1 bAE
MT Q
1/2
1/4
|M
nucl
|
b = 0 b = 0
b: specific background coefficient
[counts/(keV kg y)]
Experimental parameters
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 Natural radioactivity of materials
(source itself, surrounding structures)
 Neutrons
 Cosmogenic induced activity (long living)
 2 v Double Beta Decay
Background Sources
Levels of < 1 µBq / kg are required for some materials at the ton scale
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13
e
-
e
-
Source ÷ Detector
Easy to approach the ton scale
e
-
e
-
source
detector
detector
Source = Detector
Easy to get tracking capability
High energy resolution (<2%)
No tracking capability
Easy to reject 2v DBD background
Low energy resolution (>2%)
Tracking / topology capability
Easy to approach zero backround
(with the exception of
2v DBD component)
Experimental techniques
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Experiments
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Source = Detector
Well known Ge diodes technology
 5 Ge diodes with a total statistic of 10.9 kg - ( 86%)
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Ge
 The diodes mounted in copper cryostats
with copper, lead, and polyethylene shielding
 The total exposure 71.7 kgyr
 The energy resolution about 3.5 keV at Q
ββ
(best value of all 0νββ experiments)
 location: Underground Gran Sasso Laboratory (Italy)
Heidelberg Moscow Experiment
Operated between 1990 and 2003
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m
ee
= 0.1 - 0.9 eV (0.44 eV)
t
1/2
0v
(y) = (0.69 – 4.81) × 10
25
y (1.19 × 10
25
y)
(99,9973 % c.l. ¬4.2 σ)
H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus et al. NIM. A 522(2004)371
Evidence for a peak events at Q
ββ
with 28.7 events
Skepticism of scientific community
Klapdor-Kleingrothaus HV hep-ph/0205228
H.L. Harney, hep-ph/0205293
Independent answers of authors
Klapdor-Kleingrothaus HV et al., NIM A510(2003)281
Klapdor-Kleingrothaus et al., NIM A 522(2004)371
Other articles
Aalseth CE et al. , Mod. Phys. Lett. A 17 (2002) 1475
Feruglio F et al. , Nucl. Phys. B 637 (2002) 345
Zdezenko Yu G et al., Phys. Lett. B546(2002)206
Comments and analysis HD-M data
Heidelberg Moscow Exp and the 0νββ claim
Not totally accepted result • unrecognized peaks
• dimension of analyzed energy
window
December 2001, 4 authors (KDHK) of HM collaboration claim the 0νββ of
76
Ge
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Reduction of Bkg with Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA) (factor 5)
Multi-site events identification
(gamma bkg)
Heidelberg Moscow Exp and the 0νββ claim
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NEMO 3 (Neutrino Ettore Majorana Experiment)
Other sources

100
Mo
Q
||
= 3034 keV
Detector: tracking detector with 7 different sources
Energy resolution: 8% @Qvalue
Location: Modane Underground Laboratory (France)
Bckg
|| sources (thickness ~ 60 mg/cm
2
)
82
Se (0,93 kg)
||(2v)
Multi-source detector
The background is about 1.2x10
-3
cnts/(keVkgyr)at 3 MeV
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NEMO 3 (Neutrino Ettore Majorana Experiment)
1 Source plane
2 Tracking volume (3-D readout wire drift
chamber with 6180 cells)
3 Calorimeter volume (1940 plastic
scintillator block with PMT)
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NEMO 3 (Neutrino Ettore Majorana Experiment)
t
1/2
0v
(y) > 1.0×10
24
y (90% CL) for
100
Mo
t
1/2
0v
(y) > 3.2×10
24
y (90% CL) for
82
Se
Set for 0νββ
2v
spectrum
Vertex
|| event
E
1
+E
2
= 2088 keV
At= 0.22 ns
(Avertex)
±
= 2.1 mm
E
1
E
2
e
-
e
-
For all isotopes 2νββ half lives are reported
Not sensitive enough to confirm or reject the HM claim.
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Cuoricino Experiment
Heat bath
Thermal coupling
Thermometer
incident
particle
Crystal absorber

130
Te
Q
||
= 2530 keV
Detector: array of 62 5x5x5 cm
3
TeO
2
bolometers @~ 10 mKelvin
Energy resolution: 0.28%@Qvalue
Location: LNGS (Italy)
~ 34% natural abundance
The total
130
Te exposure 19.75 kgyr
Cuoricino Experiment
t
1/2
0v
(y) > 2.8×10
24
y (90% CL) for
130
Te
Set lower limit for 0νββ
No signal was found
This limit is not sensitive enough to scrutinize the HM result
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Running and Future
experiments
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130
Te
Q
||
= 2530 keV
~ 34% natural abundance
CUORE (Cryogenic Underground Observatory
for Rare Event)
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0
c
m
Expansion of Cuoricino
19 towers Cuoricino-like
Detector: array of 988 5x5x5 cm
3
TeO
2
bolometers @ ~ 10 mKelvin (total
mass = 741 kg)
Energy resolution: 0.28%@Qvalue
Location: Hall Aat LNGS (Italy)
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CUORE (Cryogenic Underground Observatory
for Rare Event)
F
0v
= 9.2 × 10
25
× ( T [ y ] )
1/2
F
0v
= 2.9 × 10
26
× ( T [ y ] )
1/2
5 y sensitivity (1 o) with conservative
Assumption: b = 0.01 counts/(keV kg y)
5 y sensitivity (1 o) with aggressive
assumption: b = 0.001 counts/(keV kg y)
(M) < 20 – 100 meV
(M) < 11 – 60 meV
Montecarlo simulations of the background show that
b = 0.001 counts / (keV kg y)
is possible with the present bulk contamination of detector materials
The problem is the surface background (alpha, beta energy-degraded)
it must be reduced by a factor 10 – 100 with respect to Cuoricino
work in progress! (only a factor 2 from the conservative assumption)
(M) < 7 – 38 meV
enriched CUORE
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The GERDA Experiment

76
Ge
Q
||
= 2039 keV
Detector: Array of enriched (~86%) Ge
Good energy resolution: < 0.19%at Q
||
Location: Hall Aat LNGS (Italy), 3400 mwe
the mountain provides a passive cosmic ray reduction
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The GERDA Experiment: detector
The detectors, arranged in strings,
will be put in LAr in order to cool
down them and also shield them.
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The GERDA Experiment: setup
Ge Array
Germanium detectors
Water / Muon-Veto (Č)
Clean room / lock
Steel-tank +Cu lining
Liquid argon (nitrogen)
- neutron moderator
- Cerenkov medium for
4t muon veto
Additional water
shielding:
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GERDA goal and phases
Phase II: 2013
new segmented detectors
exposure: 100 kg· y
(it was 71 kg· y in HM)
bkg: 10
-3
count/(keV kg y)
Phase I: Started Commissioning in 2010
8 crystals from HM and IGEX (13 Kg)
exposure: 15 kg· y
bkg: 10
-2
cnt/(keV kg y)
Bkg Goal: 10
-3
count/(keV kg y)
improvement of a factor 100 with respect HM
Further Possible Phase
Collaboration with Majorana Experiment to construct a single larger experiment
A preliminary result for 2νββ of t
1/2
0v
= 1.88×10
21
y is reported
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SuperNEMO
Expansion of NEMO-3

82
Se
Q
||
= 2995 keV
Detector: tracking detector with
different sources

150
Nd
Q
||
= 3367 keV
Location: Modane (Fr) / Canfranc (SP)
5 m
1m
Top view
Tracking: drift chamber ~3000 cell (Gaiger mode)
Calorimeter: scintillators + PM ~ 1000 if sc. blocks
~ 100 scint. bars
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Improvement with respect to NEMO-3:
SuperNEMO
NEMO-3 SuperNEMO
100
Mo Choice of isotope
150
Nd or
82
Se
7 kg 100 -200 kg Isotope Mass
Efficiency 8% 30%
Internal contamination
208
Tl < 20 mBq/Kg
214
Bi < 300 mBq/Kg
208
Tl < 2 mBq/Kg
214
Bi < 10 mBq/Kg
Energy resolution 8% @ 3MeV 4% @ 3MeV
SENSITIVITY
t
1/2
0v
(y) ~ 2 × 10
24
y
<m> ~ 0.3 -1.3 eV
t
1/2
0v
(y) ~ 10
26
y
<m> ~ 50 meV
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EXO-200 (Enriched Xenon Observatory)

136
Xe
Q
||
= 2458 keV
200 kg of Xe enriched to 80%in 136
GOALS - search for 0νββ with competitive sensitivity
(and test the HMclaim)
- measure 2vββ half life
- Understand the operation of a large LXe detector
• Understand bkg / characterize detectors materials
• Learn about large scale Xe enrichment
• Understand Xe handling, purification
Detector: TPC of enriched liquid Xenon able to reconstruct the event position and topology.
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EXO-200 (Enriched Xenon Observatory)
Improve energy resolution via simultaneous collection of
ionized electrons and scintillation light
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EXO-200 – the LXe TPC
Teflon light reflector
APD plane
Central HV plane
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EXO-200 (Enriched Xenon Observatory)
t
1/2
0v
(y) > 1.6×10
25
y (90% CL) for
136
Xe
Limit for 0νββ
2νββ half life are reported 2.1×10
21
yr for
136
Xe
This result
can be used
to test the
claim of HM
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SNO+

150
Nd
Q
||
= 3368 keV
Nd enriched to 56%in 150
Detector: refill SNO detector with liquid
scintillator (linear alkylbenzene - LAB)
loaded at 0.1% with enriched Nd
(not enough light output in SNO+ if using 1% Nd loading)
560 kg of
150
Nd (compared to 37 g
in NEMO-III)
En resolution: 7% @ Qvalue
Location: Sudbury (Canada)
(Present
130
Te)
bkg: <10
-6
cnt/(keV kg y)
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Simulation:
<m
v
>=150 meV
1 year of data
a liquid scintillator detector has poor
energy resolution; but enormous
quantities of isotope (high statistics)
and low backgrounds help
compensate
SNO+
- Test on stability of Nd-LAB: no
change in optical properties after > 1
year
- Small Nd-LS detector with o, |, ¸,
source demonstrates it works as
scintillator
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The Majorana Demonstrator

76
Ge
Q
||
= 2039 keV
Detector: Array of enriched (~86%)
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Ge in vacuum in a compact cryostat
made out of electro-formed copper.
Location: Sanford lab in South Dakota
Background index is about 0.001 cnts/(keVkgyr).
Shielding: Commercial copper, lead, and polyethylene
2m
Pb/Cu Shield LN
Dewar Cu
Cryostat
Lif
t
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Future scenarios
The future scenarios can be divided in possible steps:
• I step [100-500 meV]:
to test of HM claim and to probe the QD region of neutrino mass
SuperNEMO, CUORE, GERDA, EXO-200, SNO++
if the neutrino mass is in this range different experiment could see it with different
isotopes. Precision measurement era for 0νββ
• II step [15-50 meV]:
to probe the IH region of neutrino mass. 1 ton scale and 10 y
SuperNEMO (especially with 150Nd),
CUORE (especially if enriched), GERDA-III, SNO++ (enriched)
discovery in 3-4 isotopes is necessary to confirm the observation
• III step [2-5 meV]:
For this big leap in sensitivity new approaches are required.
Next generation experiments are precious for the selection of the future approaches
100 tons of isotopes
Unpredictable time scale and large investment in enrichment