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EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,


Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
1
Overview of Fault
Fault means current flowing through a path it is
not intended to flow through.
Temporary faults are caused by lighting, birds,
animals.
Permanent faults are caused by insulation
failure, birds, animals.
If a temporary fault occurs, the goal of the
protection scheme is to restore the service after
the fault clears by itself.
If a permanent fault occurs, the goal of the
protection scheme is to isolate the fault from
the system and keep the outage area to a
minimum.
Sustained fault can result in equipment damage
and instability.
EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
2
Overview of Fault
Open Circuit Faults:
Broken conductor
Short Circuit Faults:
Balanced faults:
Three-phase fault (5%, least frequent)
Unbalanced faults:
Single line to ground faults (SLG-
70~80%- most frequent)
Line to line faults (LL)
Double line to ground faults (LLG)
We shall study short circuit faults in
this course
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EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
3
Overview of Fault
Depending on the fault location in
the system, either a three-phase
fault or a single phase fault can
be the most severe.
There-phase fault is the easiest
type of fault to be analyzed,
because it is a balanced fault.
To analyze unbalanced faults, we
need to use symmetrical
components
EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
4
Transients in R-L Circuit
The first part of the solution is a sinusoid, the second part is
an exponentially decaying DC component.
The amount of DC component depends on the switching
instant, and the rate of decay depends the ratio R/L.
Next three slides show the solution plotted for V
RMS
= 230 kV,
X
L
=160 (L = 0.4244 H), R = 32 .
For this data, |V
max
|/|Z| = 2.
) sin(
max
o e + t V
~
R
L
i
dt
di
L Ri t V + = + ) sin(
max
o e
) 1 ( )] sin( ) [sin(
| |
max
+ =

u o u o e
T
t
e t
Z
V
i
and L R Z
2 2
) ( | | e + = sec ), / ( tan
1
R
L
T R L = =

e u
Solution
Equation
Where,
3
EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
5
Transients in R-L Circuit
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04 0.045 0.05
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
Time (sec)
c
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
k
A
)
Current profile for switching RL circuit at different instants
alpha=theta
alpha=theta+pi/4
alpha=theta+pi/2
Observe:
When =,
dc offset is
zero (No
asymmetry)
When
-=/2,
asymmetry
is maximum.
EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
6
Amount of dc Offset
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04 0.045 0.05
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
Time (sec)
c
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
k
A
)
Current break-up for switching RL circuit at alpha=theta+pi/2
DC Part
Resultant
AC Part
Observe:
When -=/2, at t=0, the
magnitude of dc offset equals
the peak of symmetrical ac
current, making the total
instantaneous current equal to
zero - This is dictated by the
physics of the circuit.
However, the current rises fast
and the peak goes to more
than 150% of the peak of
symmetrical current in the
case shown here.
This peak will depend on the rate of decay of dc current. Slower decay
means the peak would be higher and vice versa (see next slide).
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EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
7
Transients in R-L Circuit
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04 0.045 0.05
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
Time (sec)
c
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
k
A
)
Effect of R on the decay of DC component
AC Component
R=52 Ohm
R=42 Ohm
R=32 Ohm
EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
8
Math shows what figure shows
Recall:
If -=/2, then
] ) 2 / [sin(
| |
max L
Rt
e t
Z
V
i

+ = t e
At t=0,
Observe: the dc offset is worst - it equals the peak of the
symmetrical current. But the total current at t=0 is zero.
0
| | | |
max max
= =
Z
V
Z
V
i
If -=0, then
There is no dc offset.
Calculate the current (dc, ac, and total) when -=/2, at
t=8 ms.
)] [sin(
| |
max
t
Z
V
i e =
) 1 ( )] sin( ) [sin(
| |
max
+ =

u o u o e
T
t
e t
Z
V
i
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EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
9
Analyzing Asymmetrical Waveform
At any given moment,
Where I
ac
is the RMS value of the symmetrical part of the current.
We saw that in the worst case scenario, maximum value of I
dc
occurs at t=0, and it equals the peak of the symmetrical part of ac
current, i.e., 2I
ac
.
Also, I
dc
decays according to a time constant T = L/R (see equation-
1, slide#4), or T = X/2fR
Therefore, for the worst case scenario, i
dc
(t)= 2I
ac
e
-t/T
. This
means:
( ) ( )
current assymetric the of value RMS the is ) ( where
) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
2 2
t I
t i I t I
OR
t i t i t i
RMS
dc ac RMS
dc ac
+ =
+ =
( )
cycles in time f t where e I t I
e I e I I t I
R X
ac RMS
T
t
ac
T
t
ac ac RMS
= = + =
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =


t
tt
, 2 1 ) (
2 1 2 ) (
) / (
4
2
2
2
EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
10
Analyzing Asymmetrical Waveform
ac
R X
ac RMS
I K e I t I ) ( 2 1 ) (
) / (
4
t
tt
= + =

From the previous page,
K() is called the asymmetry factor.
The maximum value of K() is at t=0, when the value is 3
Look at Ex# 7.1, page# 360-361 (4
th
ed.),
page#324,325 (3
rd
ed.)
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EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
11
Symmetrical (three-phase) Fault
All three phases are short circuited.
Since the circuit is still balanced, we
can use single phase diagram to
analyze this fault.
The waveforms would look similar to
the ones shown in the previous slides.
Since the DC component decays
quickly, we shall neglect it, i.e., we will
only use the AC component to calculate
RMS value.
We will see how to modify this to
determine the ratings of fault current
interrupting devices.
EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
12
Effect of Armature Reaction in Synchronous Generator
c
b
a
Time
i(t)
O
We neglect the
dc component
here.
Physically, after a short circuit at generator terminals, the generator
emf decreases from its no-load value due to the armature reaction
caused by the fault currents. However, this reduction in flux takes a
few cycles. Due to this, the short circuit current looks as shown above.
However, while modeling this phenomena, we assume the emf constant
(called the voltage behind the reactance, E
i
) and consider the reactance
to gradually increase. X
d
, X
d
, X
d
are called direct axis subtransient,
transient and synchronous reactances, respectively.
'
'
| |
2
| |
d
i
X
E b o
I =

=
d
i
X
E a o
I
| |
2
| | =

=
' '
' '
| |
2
| |
d
i
X
E c o
I =

=
X
d
>X
d

>X
d

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EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
13
Modeling Armature Reaction in Synchronous Generator
|
.
|

\
|
+
(
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

2
sin
1 1 1 1 1
) (
' ' '
' ' ' ' max
t
o et
X
e
X X
e
X X
E t i
d
T
t
d d
T
t
d d
ac
d d
The phenomena is mathematically modeled by the following
equation:
Where T
d
< T
d
< T
d
. Let us see how this equation models the
phenomena.
At the time of the short circuit, t=0, hence
' ' ' '
max
" ) 0 ( , ,
2
sin ) 0 (
d
RMS
RMS
d
ac
X
E
I I or t
X
E
i = = |
.
|

\
|
+ =
t
o e
After a certain time t, when t>>T
d
, but t<<T
d
,
' '
max
' ) ' ( , ,
2
sin ) ' (
d
RMS
RMS
d
ac
X
E
I t I or t
X
E
t i = = |
.
|

\
|
+ =
t
o e
After more time, at t (steady state), when t>>T
d
,
d
RMS
RMS
d
ac
X
E
I t I or t
X
E
t i = = |
.
|

\
|
+ = ) ( , ,
2
sin ) (
max
t
o e
EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
14
Modeling Armature Reaction in Synchronous Generator
How does the dc offset decay?
The maximum dc offset = 2I (See slide#9)
The dc offset decays with a time constant T
A
Total asymmetrical current is,
A
T
t
dc
e I t I

= " 2 ) (
( ) ( )
2 2
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
t i t I t I
OR
t i t I t i
dc ac RMS
dc ac
+ =
+ =
In any synchronous machine, all time constants are specified. Just
like direct axis reactances, there are quadrature axis reactances
also, but if armature resistance is small, these are negligible.
Look at Ex# 7.2, page# 363-364 (4
th
ed), page#327, 328, 3
rd
ed)
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EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
15
Modeling a Fault
This circuit models the pre-fault and fault conditions by
two sources of value V
PF
, the pre-fault voltage at P.
When the switch is open, the circuit models pre-fault or
load condition, and when close, it models the fault
condition.
X
dG
G
TL
M
X
dM
X
TL
I
L
P
Suppose a 3-ph fault occurs at P in
this system.
+
-
+
-
P
Neutral
jX
dG
jX
dM
jX
TL
E
G
E
M
V
PF
V
PF
+
-
-
+
I
F
I
L
I
L
EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
16
Modeling a Fault
fault
+
-
-
+
P
Neutral
jX
dG
jX
dM
jX
TL
E
G
E
M
I
M
I
G
I
F
+
-
+
-
P
Neutral
jX
dG
jX
dM
jX
TL
E
G
E
M
V
PF
V
PF
+
-
-
+
I
F
Pre-
fault
Switch
open
Switch
close
Thus, fault is
simulated by the
summation of these
two circuits.
For small systems,
the pre-fault circuit
can be solved with
circuit analysis
techniques, but for
large power systems,
it is solved using
load-flow.
Fault circuit can be
solved using
Thevenins theorem
for small systems and
using Z
BUS
for large
systems.
+
-
+
-
+
-
P
Neutral
V
PF
jX
dG
jX
dM
E
M
I
L
I
L
jX
TL
E
G
I
FG
=I
G
+ I
L
I
FM
=I
M
- I
L
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EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
17
PF TH
dm dg TL
TH
V E
jX jX jX
Z =
(
(

+
+
=

,
1 1
1
(

+ +
=
dM dG TL
dM
F G
jX jX jX
jX
I I
) (
Analyzing the fault conditions
+
-
-
+
P
Neutral
jX
dG
jX
dM
jX
TL
E
G
E
M
I
M
I
G
I
F
P
+
-
E
TH
=V
PF
Z
TH
jX
TL
+ jX
dG
jX
dM
I
F
I
G I
M
F TH
PF
F
TH
PF
F
Z Z
V
I
Z
V
I
+
=
=
then , Z is impedance fault the If
F
(

+ +
+
=
dM dG TL
dG TL
F M
jX jX jX
jX jX
I I
) (
EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
18
(

+ +
=
dM dG TL
dM
F G
jX jX jX
jX
I I
) (
The actual fault currents coming
from generator and motor are the
sum of currents before fault and due
to fault.
Finding the Total Fault Current
+
-
-
+
P
Neutral
jX
dG
jX
dM
jX
TL
E
G
E
M
I
M
I
G
I
F
F TH
PF
F
Z Z
V
I
+
=
(

+ +
+
=
dM dG TL
dG TL
F M
jX jX jX
jX jX
I I
) (
L
dM dG TL
dM
F L G FG
I
jX jX jX
jX
I I I I +
(

+ +
= + =
) (
L
dM dG TL
dG TL
F L M FM
I
jX jX jX
jX jX
I I I I
(

+ +
+
= =
) (
fault
Pre-
fault
+
+
-
+
-
+
-
P
Neutral
V
PF
jX
dG
jX
dM
E
M
I
L
I
L
jX
TL
E
G
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EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
19
Example
X
dG
=j0.2
G
TL
M
X
dM
=j0.2
X=j0.1
I
L
P
Assume E
G
=1.02/_4
0
PU, E
M
=1/_0
0
PU.
3-ph fault occurs at P. Find the total
fault current, fault contribution from
generator and motor, and post-fault
voltage at the generator bus.
+
-
+
-
+
-
P
Neutral
V
PF
J0.2 J0.2
1/_0
0
I
L
I
L
J0.1
1.02/_4
0
Solve the pre-fault Circuit
PU
j
I
L
0
0 0
13.83 0.1466
5 . 0
0 1 4 02 . 1
Z =
Z Z
=
PU
j V
PF
0
0 0
1.62 1.0074
) 2 . 0 ( ) 13.83 0.1466 ( 0 1
Z =
Z + Z =
V
GPF
PU
j V
GPF
0
0 0
2.42 1.0114
) 2 . 0 ( ) 13.83 0.1466 ( 4 02 . 1
Z =
Z + Z =
EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
20
Example continued
+
-
-
+
P
Neutral
J0.2 J0.2
J0.1
E
G
E
M
I
M
I
G
I
F
P
+
-
E
TH
=1.0074/_1.62
0
Z
TH j0.3
J0.2
I
F
I
G I
M
PU V E
PU j
j j
Z
PF TH
TH
0
1
62 . 1 0074 . 1
12 . 0
2 . 0
1
3 . 0
1
Z = =
=
(

+ =

PU
Z
V
I
TH
PF
F
0
38 . 88 3951 . 8 Z = =
PU
j
j
I I
PU
j
j
I I
F M
F G
0
0
38 . 88 5.037
5 . 0
3 . 0
38 . 88 3.358
5 . 0
2 . 0
Z =
(

=
Z =
(

= F FM FG
L M FM
L G FG
I I I CHECK
PU j I I I
PU I I I
= +
= =
Z = + =
:
5 0
86 4 . 3
0
Solve the fault Circuit
Add currents from both circuits
algebraically
Observe: There is very little difference
between I
FG
&I
G
and I
FM
&I
M
. Therefore,
pre-fault currents are often neglected.
11
EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
21
Example continued
Solve the fault Circuit with Actual currents to get post-
fault voltage at the generator bus
+
-
-
+
P
Neutral
J0.2 J0.2
J0.1
E
G
E
M
I
FM
I
FG
I
F
V
FG
PU
PU
V V V
PU j j I V
FG GPF G
FG FG
0
0 0
0 0
1.62 0.6716
4 34 . 0 42 . 2 1.0114
4 34 . 0 ) 1 . 0 ( 86 4 . 3 0 ) 1 . 0 ( 0
Z =
Z Z =
= A
Z = Z + = + =
EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
22
Some Observations
As seen in previous slides, load current is negligible
compared to fault current in most cases. Therefore,
the pre-fault voltage V
PF
(=E
TH
) is taken as 1/_0
0
PU
and I
L
is neglected. Thus, load flow results are not
used in fault calculations.
Sometimes, fault path has arc-resistance. In that
case, it is included in the Thevenin model.
It is difficult to find Thevenin equivalent impedance of
a large power system in conventional way. As we shall
see, at bus i, the element Z
BUS
(i,i,) is equal to the
Thevenin equivalent impedance. Since Z
BUS
of any
system is known, it is quite simple to form the
Thevenin equivalent circuit.
We solved the example using steady state reactances
(X
d
) for machines. We can find subtransient or
transient currents in the same way, using the
corresponding machine reactances (X
d
or X
d
) .
12
EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
23
Using Z
BUS
for Fault Analysis
As mentioned before, the fault is simulated by two sources of Values
V
PF
and V
PF
in series. The figure above also shows fault impedance
Z
F
.
The fault can be seen as a superposition of the pre-fault and fault
conditions. Pre-fault condition has three sources acting
simultaneously: E
G
, E
M
and V
PF
. V
PF
is short-circuited.
-V
PF
is the only source working during fault condition, and E
G
, E
M
and
V
PF
are short-circuited.
We find bus-voltages in both cases and add the results algebraically to
get the final solution. Use these voltages to find line currents.
This is shown on the next slide.
+
-
+
-
jX
dG
jX
dM
jX
12
E
G
E
M
V
PF
V
PF
+
-
-
+
I
F
I
L
I
L
1
2
3
G
Z
F
jX
23
EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
24
Viewing Fault as Superposition of Sources
Circuit with Fault
Fault
+
Pre-fault voltages are V
1
, V
2
, V
3
.
Due to V
PF
acting alone, the
voltage changes are V
1
, V
2
, V
3
.
Final bus-voltages will be V
1
+ V
1
, V
2
+ V
2
and V
3
+ V
3
.
jX
12
I
L
+
-
+
-
jX
dG
jX
dM
jX
12
E
G
E
M
V
PF
+
-
I
L
I
L
1
2
3
G
V
1
V
2
V
3
Pre-fault
Z
F
jX
23
jX
23
G
jX
dG
jX
dM
V
PF
+
-
-I
F
1
2
3
1
2
3
V
1
V
2
V
3
jX
12
I
F1-2 I
F3-2
Z
F
jX
23
+
-
+
-
jX
dG
jX
dM
E
G
E
M
V
PF
V
PF
+
-
-
+
I
F
I
L
1
2
3
G
Z
F
13
EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
25
Analyzing the Fault Circuit
In this circuit, the only current injection into
a bus is -I
F
at bus-2.
Writing a loop equation at bus-2,
(
(
(

(
(
(

=
(
(
(

A
A
A

(
(
(

(
(
(

=
(
(
(

A
A
A
0
0
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
3
2
1
3
2
1
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
3
2
1
F
I
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
V
V
V
I
I
I
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
V
V
V
) 2 ( , ,
32 3 22 2 12 1 F F F
I Z V I Z V I Z V = A = A = A
Now using the Z
BUS
model of the system,
G
jX
dG
jX
dM
V
PF
+
-
-I
F
1
2
3
1
2
3
V
1
V
2 V
3 jX
12
I
F1-2 I
F3-2
Z
F
jX
23
G
jX
dG
jX
dM
V
PF
+
-
-I
F
1
2
3
1
2
3
V
1
V
2 V
3 jX
12
I
F1-2 I
F3-2
Z
F
jX
23
) 1 ( 0 ) (
2
2
= A + +
=
+ A
V V Z I
I
Z
V V
PF F F
F
F
PF
EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
26
Analyzing the Fault Circuit (Cont.)
( )
) 3 (
0 ) (
22
22
F
PF
F
F PF F F
Z Z
V
I
I Z V Z I
+
=
= + +
Thus, to solve a three-phase fault, use (3) to find I
F
and use (2) to find
voltage changes at all buses.
In general, in a n-bus system, for a fault at bus k with fault impedance Z
F
,
. .... 1 , , n i I Z V and
Z Z
V
I
F ik i
F kk
PFk
F
= = A
+
=
G
jX
dG
jX
dM
V
PF
+
-
-I
F
1
2
3
1
2
3
V
1
V
2 V
3 jX
12
I
F1-2 I
F3-2
Z
F
jX
23
G
jX
dG
jX
dM
V
PF
+
-
-I
F
1
2
3
1
2
3
V
1
V
2 V
3 jX
12
I
F1-2 I
F3-2
Z
F
jX
23
Using equations (1) and (2) from the previous
slide:
F TH
PF
F
Z Z
V
I
+
=
Compare (3) with this equation we derived on slide#18:
We can see here that Thevenin impedance at a node is the same as
the diagonal element of Z
BUS
corresponding to that node.
14
EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
27
Finding the Final Parameters After Fault
To find the final bus-voltages, we must add the pre-fault and
fault voltages at all buses:
) 4 ( ..... 1 , , ,
......
......
........ ..........
........ ..........
......
......
2
1
2
1
2
1
n i V Z I V or
V
V
V
V
Z I
Z I
Z I
Z I
V
V
V
V
PFi ik F i
PFn
PFk
PF
PF
nk F
kk F
k F
k F
n
k
= + =
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

A
+
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

To find the currents between buses i and j after fault, we use:


) 5 (
ij
j i
j i
z
V V
I

=

Note that z
ij
is the actual impedance of line i-j and
NOT the Z
ij
element of Z
BUS
. V
i
and V
j
come from (3).
The currents given by (5) need NOT be modified by adding the pre-
fault currents, because we are using the exact post-fault voltages,
already modified through (4).
EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
28
Example Solved Using Z
BUS
X
dG
=j0.2
G
TL
M
X
dM
=j0.2
X=j0.1
I
L
P
Assume E
G
=1.02/_4
0
PU, E
M
=1/_0
0
PU.
3-ph fault occurs at P. Find the total
fault current, fault contribution from
generator and motor, and post-fault
voltage at the generator bus.
Solve the pre-fault Circuit
PU
j
I
L
0
0 0
13.83 0.1466
5 . 0
0 1 4 02 . 1
Z =
Z Z
=
PU
j V
PF
0
0 0
2
1.62 1.0074
) 2 . 0 ( ) 13.83 0.1466 ( 0 1
Z =
Z + Z =
PU
j V
PF
0
0 0
1
2.42 1.0114
) 2 . 0 ( ) 13.83 0.1466 ( 4 02 . 1
Z =
Z + Z =
+
-
+
-
+
-
V
PF2
J0.2 J0.2
1/_0
0
I
L
I
L
J0.1
1.02/_4
0
1
2
G
15
EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
29
Example Continued
Bus-2 has a 3-Ph fault. Fault impedance Z
F
=0 . This system
has a Z
BUS
of order-2. We will get Y
BUS
and invert it to get Z
BUS
.
PU j
j j
Y
BUS
0
0 9 5 1 15
1 . 0
1
2 . 0
1
) 1 , 1 ( Z = = + =
+
-
+
-
J0.2 J0.2
1/_0
0
J0.1
1.02/_4
0
1
2
G
+
-
+
-
J0.2 J0.2
1/_0
0
J0.1
1.02/_4
0
1
2
G
PU j
j j
Y
BUS
0
0 9 5 1 15
1 . 0
1
2 . 0
1
) 2 , 2 ( Z = = + =
PU j
j
Y Y
BUS BUS
0
0 9 0 1 10
1 . 0
1
) 1 , 2 ( ) 2 , 1 ( Z = = = =
PU j Y
BUS (

=
15 10
10 15
PU j Y Z
BUS BUS (

= =

12 . 0 08 . 0
08 . 0 12 . 0
1
PU
j Z Z
V
I
F
PF
F
0
0
22
2
2
38 . 88 395 . 8
0 12 . 0
62 . 1 0074 . 1
Z =
+
Z
=
+
=
(
(

Z
Z
=
(

Z
(

=
(

A
A
0
0
0
2
1
38 . 178 0074 . 1
38 . 178 6716 . 0
38 . 88 395 . 8
0
12 . 0 08 . 0
08 . 0 12 . 0
j
V
V
I
12
I
M
EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
30
Example Continued
Now add the pre-fault and fault voltages to get final bus voltages
using (3). Use (4) to calculate line currents.
PU
V
V
V
V
V
V
PF
PF
(
(

Z
Z
=
(
(

Z
Z
+
(
(

Z
Z
=
(

A
A
+
(

=
(

0
0
0
0
0
0
2
1
2
1
2
1
0 0
4 34 . 0
38 . 178 0074 . 1
38 . 178 6716 . 0
62 . 1 0074 . 1
42 . 2 0114 . 1
PU
j z
V V
I I
FG
0
0
12
2 1
2 1
86 4 . 3
1 . 0
0 4 34 . 0
Z =
Z
=

= =

PU
j z
V V
I
M
FM
0
0
12
2
90 5
2 . 0
0 0 1
Z =
Z
=

=
+
-
+
-
J0.2 J0.2
1/_0
0
J0.1
1.02/_4
0
1
2
G
+
-
+
-
J0.2 J0.2
1/_0
0
J0.1
1.02/_4
0
1
2
G
I
12
I
M
Compare these currents with answers on slide#21 and voltages with
answers on slide#22. They tally exactly. Observe that in this method,
we use the final voltages to find line currents. Therefore, we do not
need to add the pre-fault load currents separately.
16
EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
31
Short Circuit MVA
Base LBase Base
I V MVA 3 =
SC LBase SC
I V MVA 3 =
Base
Base
SC LBase SC
I
I
I V MVA 3 =
FPU Base SCPU Base LBase SC
I MVA I I V MVA = = 3
SC
Base
FPU
THPU
MVA
MVA
I
Z = =
1
Given the Thevenin impedance,
this is used to determine the
short circuit MVA at any given
point in the power system or
vice versa.
Short circuit MVA at a
substation should be known to
select circuit breakers to be
installed. The circuit breakers
must be able to handle the
short circuit MVA at the
substation at rated voltage.
By definition
EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
32
Circuit-Breaker Ratings
Modern circuit-breaker standards are based on symmetrical
interrupting current.
Design takes care of the asymmetry due to DC offset.
Recall that the worst asymmetrical current is:
At (tau) = 0, the asymmetry factor is 3 (1.73). For any other
value of , the asymmetry depends on the X/R ratio.
Power CBs with clearing time of 2 cycles are designed to withstand
asymmetrical currents up to 1.4 times the symmetrical current.
Slower breakers are designed for lower values of asymmetrical
current.
Simplified method:
If X/R ratio of Z
THPU
is less than 15, then the breaker symmetrical
MVA rating equal or greater than MVA
SC
(previous slide) is sufficient.
If not, MVA
SC
should not be greater than 80% of the rated CB MVA
value.
Look at table 7.10 and example 7.7 in book.
ac
R X
ac RMS
I K e I t I ) ( 2 1 ) (
) / (
4
t
tt
= + =

17
EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
33
Fuses
*
Zero Current Clearing Fuses
Extinguish the arc at current-zero. Following are the types:
Expulsion Fuses
A vented type of fuse unit
Arc gases escape fuse holder
Arc gas pressure assists in arc extinguishing
May be assisted by spring to stretch and cool the arc
Some are filled with oil, which breaks down with arcing
Filled Fuses
Filling material assists in arc extinguishing
Oil Filled
Solid Material Filled
Arc is drawn through filling material
Filler aids in arc extinction
Vacuum Fuses
No air to support arcing
Completely sealed unit, no expulsion action needed
Arc interruption is due to high dielectric buildup
*All the materials on
fuses is taken from
Power System
protection by P. M.
Anderson,
IEEE/McGraw Hill,
New York, 1999.
EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
34
Fuses (Continued)
Current-Limiting Fuses
Introduce a high resistance into the circuit and forces the current to zero
very quickly (less than half cycle), without waiting for current-zero.
18
EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
35
Fuses (Continued)
Special Types of Fuses
Fuses for capacitor banks with high frequency inrush current
Fuses with very high interruption ratings
Electronic fuses
Characteristics of Fuses
Minimum Melting Characteristics - An average melting time where arcing
does not occur (link melts). See next slide
Total Clearing Characteristics Time taken to clear the arc - Used in
coordinating against minimum melting characteristic of a larger fuse,
located toward the current source. See next slide
E-rated fuses are very commonly used in distribution systems.
Fuses are available with rated continuous current ratings of: 0.5, 1, 2, 3,
5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 65, 80, 100, 125, 150, 200, 300, and 400,
amperes
EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
36
Fuse Characteristics
For the denominator:
Use 300 seconds for links rated up
to 100 amperes
Use 600 seconds for links rated 140
and 200 amperes
K and T Types of Links:
Speed Ratio of K links are in the
range 6.0 to 8.1
Speed Ratio of T links are in the
range 10.0 to 13.0
In the given characteristics, the
speed ratio is around 210/31=6.8.
seconds 600 or 300 at Current Melting
seconds 0.1 at Current Melting
Ratio Speed =
19
EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
37
Different MM Characteristics
EE 493/543 -Power Systems III, Symmetrical Faults,
Dr. Sukumar Brahma, NMSU
38
Expulsion Power Fuse 7.5kV. to 69kV. 100 to
400 Amp