TRISTAN GARCIA'S TYPOLOGY OF ONTOLOGIES

This is Garcia's diagram of a substantialist ontology. There is a split between primary and secondary qualities, predicates, and entities. The thing-in-itself is hermetically sealed off, whereas the secondary qualities, predicates, and entities refer their being to the in-itself substance: "In this type of substantial model of the distribution of being, the being of certain secondary entities flows towards the being of primary entities, which itself flows in a closed circuit". !orme et "b#et, $%, my translation&. This is the substantialist- or substance-model of ontology. 'acem classes (arman's """ as a substance-ontology in this sense. It also corresponds to what !eyerabend calls a )armenidean ontology, with simple and unchanging substances underlying the comple*ity of appearances.

The +ectorial model of ontology is quite different in that it gi+es primacy to e+ent o+er substance. The thing chose& is constructed a posteriori, and the +ector of being is primary. ,ectorial ontologies for Garcia include -iet.sche and /ergson: "0 second model consists in distributing being no longer substantially but +ectorially. In this case we concei+e tra#ectories of being, identified with e+ents, facts, powers, intensities, or intentionality: these +ectors of being are primary" $1&. This is the typology that 'acem refers to when he declares that ultimately Garcia, despite wishing to mo+e beyond this opposition, has more in common with the substantial ontologies, and that he could ha+e called his boo2 "/eing without 3+ent". 0s for 'acem (arman is entirely within the substantial model, this diagnosis applies with e+en more force to (arman's """.

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