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By Thanatkrit Kaewtem

Inequalities

Theorem 1. (The Abel Summation Formula) Let a1 , a2 , ..., an and b1 , b2 , ..., bn be two nite sequences of numbers. Then

n

ai bi = (a1 a2 )b1 + (a2 a3 )(b1 + b2 ) + ... + (an1 an )(b1 + ... + bn1 ) + an (b1 + ... + bn ).

i=1

Example 1. The numbers a1 a2 ... an > 0 and b1 b2 ... bn > 0 satisfy a1 + a2 + ... + ak b1 + b2 + ... + bk for all 1 k n. Prove that for every positive integer k ,

k k k k k ak 1 + a2 + ... + an b1 + b2 + ... + bn .

Example 2. [Romania 1977] 1. Let a1 , a2 , ..., an be positive numbers, 0 b1 b2 ... bn and a1 + a2 + ... + ak b1 + b2 + ... + bk for all 1 k n . Prove that a1 + a2 + ... + an b1 + b2 + ... + bn .

2. Let a, b, c, d be nonnegative such that a 1, a + b 5, a + b + c 14, a + b + c + d 30. numbers Prove that a + b + c + d 10.

Example 3. Let x1 , x2 , ..., xn and y1 y2 ... yn be two sequences of positive numbers such that x1 y1 , x1 x2 y1 y2 , ..., x1 x2 xn y1 y2 yn . Prove that x1 + x2 + ... + xn y1 + y2 + ... + yn .

Inequalities

Problems

1. Prove that 1 + 2. Prove that 1 1 1 1 + + + ... + 2 < 2 for any n N. 4 9 25 n

3. Find all real numbers p, q satisfying p8 + q 8 = 8pq 6. 4. Let P (x) be a polynomial with positive coecients. Prove that if P then it holds for all x > 0. 5. [IMO SL 1971] Prove the inequality a1 + a3 a2 + a4 a3 + a1 a4 + a2 + + + 4, a1 + a2 a2 + a3 a3 + a4 a4 + a1 where ai > 0, i = 1, 2, 3, 4. 6. [IMO SL 1993] Prove that b c d 2 a + + + b + 2c + 3 d c + 2 d + 3 a d + 2 a + 3 b a + 2 b + 3 c 3 for all positive real numbers a, b, c, d. 7. Let a, b, c be positive real numbers. Prove that a b c + + 3. b+ c a c+ a b a+ b c 8. [BMO 2001] Let a, b, c be nonnegative real numbers and a + b + c abc. Prove that a2 + b2 + c2 3abc. 1 9. [Bulgaria 1980] Let p be a real number and x1 , x2 the roots of the equation x2 + px 2 . Prove 2p 4 2. that x4 1 + x2 2 + 10. Let p, q, r, s be any real numbers. Suppose the equation x4 + px3 + qx2 + rx + s = 0 has four positive roots. Prove that pr 16s and q 2 36s are nonnegative. 11. [Belarus 2000] Let a, b, c, x, y, z be positive real numbers. Show that a3 b3 c3 (a + b + c)3 + + . x y z 3(x + y + z ) 12. [Czech and Slovak Republics 2000] Let a, b be positive real numbers. Show that

3

1 x

a + b

b a

2(a + b)

1 1 + . a b

13. [INMO 1993] Let x, y, z be the side lengths of a triangle and x + y + z = 2. Show that x2 + y 2 + z 2 + 2xyz < 2.

Inequalities

14. Let a, b, c be the side lengths of a triangle ABC . If r is the inradius of ABC , show that r< a2 + b2 + c2 . 3(a + b + c)

15. [INMO 1983] Let a, b, c be the side lengths of a triangle. Prove that a2 b(a b) + b2 c(b c) + c2 a(c a) 0. 16. Let p, q, r, s be the sides lengths of a quadrilateral. Show that 1 p2 + q 2 + r 2 > . 2 s 3

17. [AMTI 2000] Let P be a point inside a triangle ABC . Let r1 , r2 , r3 denote the distance from P to the sides BC, CA, AB , respectively. If R is the circumradius of ABC , show that r1 + r2 +

1 1 r3 (a2 + b2 + c2 ) 2 . 2R

18. [Belarus 2000] Find the greatest real number k such that for any triple of positive real numbers a, b, c such that kabc > a3 + b3 + c3 , there exists a triangle with side lengths a, b, c. 19. [China 2004] Find all real numbers k such that the inequality a3 + b3 + c3 + d3 + 1 k (a + b + c + d) holds for any a, b, c, d [1, ). 20. [IMO SL 1990] Let a, b, c, d be nonnegative real numbers and ab + bc + cd + da = 1. Prove that a3 b3 c3 d3 1 + + + . b+c+d a+c+d a+b+d a+b+c 3 21. [IMO SL 2004] Let a, b, c be positive real numbers and ab + bc + ca = 1. Prove the inequality

3

1 + 6b + a

1 + 6c + b

1 1 + 6a . c abc

22. [IMO SL 1998] Let x, y, z be positive real numbers such that xyz = 1. Prove that x3 y3 z3 3 + + . (1 + y )(1 + z ) (1 + z )(1 + x) (1 + x)(1 + y ) 4 23. [IMO 1999] Let n 2 be a xed interger. Find the least constant C such that the inequality

2 4 xi xj (x2 i + xj ) C (x1 + x2 + ... + xn ) 1i<j n

holds for every x1 , x2 , ..., xn 0. For this constant C , characterize the instances of inequality.

Functional Equations

Problems

1. Determine f : N R such that for all k, m, n, f (km) + f (kn) f (k )f (mn) 1. 2. [Vietnam 1991] Determine all real function f satisfying the following inequality 2f (xy ) + 2f (xz ) 4f (x)f (yz ) + 1 for all real numbers x, y, z . 3. [Vietnam 2005] Find all function f : R R satisfying the condition f (f (x y )) = f (x)f (y ) f (x) + f (y ) xy for all real numbers x, y . 4. [Australia 1995] Determine all real-valued function f dened on the set of all positive reals such that (i) f (xy ) = f (x)f (ii) f (1) = 1 . 2 3 y + f (y )f 3 x for all positive reals x, y ;

5. [Australia 1993] For each function f which is dened for all real numbers and satises f (xy ) = xf (y ) + f (x)y and determine the value f ( 5753). f (x + y ) = f (x1993 ) + f (y 1993 ) (2) (1)

6. [Australia 1991] Prove that there is precisely one function f that is dened for all non-zero reals satisfy 1 for all non-zero reals x; x (ii) f (x) + f (y ) = 1 + f (x + y ) for each pair (x, y ) of non-zero real where x = y . (i) f (x) = xf 7. [Korea 2000] Find all function f : R R satisfying f (x2 y 2 ) = (x y )(f (x) + f (y )) for all x, y R. 8. [Canada 2002] Find all function f : N0 N0 such that for all m, n N, mf (n) + nf (m) = (m + n)f (m2 + n2 ). 9. [Greece 1997] Let f : (0, ) R be a function such that (i) f is strictly increasing; 1 1 (ii) f (x) > and f (x)f f (x) + x x Find f (1).

Functional Equations

10. [E otv os - K ursch ak Math Competition 1979] The function f is dened for all real numbers and satises f (x) x and f (x + y ) f (x) + f (y ) for all x, y R. Prove that f (x) = x for every x R. 11. [Poland 1992] Determine all function f : Q+ Q+ such that f (x + 1) = f (x) + 1 and f (x3 ) = (f (x))3 for every x Q+ . 12. Find all function f : R R such that for all real numbers x and y , f (xf (y ) + x) = xy + f (x). 13. [Belarus 1995] Find all function f : R R such that f (f (x + y )) = f (x + y ) + f (x)f (y ) xy for all x, y R.

Solutions

1. f (n) = 1 2. f (x) = 1 2

3. f (x) = x 4. f (x) = 5. 0 6. f (x) = 1 + x 7. f (x) = kx for some k R 8. f (x) = k for some k R 1 5 9. 2 10. 11. f (x) = x 12. f (x) = x and f (x) = x 13. f (x) = x 1 2

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