STRATIGRAPHY AND NOMENCLATURE OF YEOMAN FORMATION Yeoman formation belongs to the late Ordovician age with restricted distribution in South Easter part of Saskatchewan basin. For the 1st time a member equivalent to Red River formation was elevated as a unit by Porter and Fuller (1985) and given the rank of formation known as Yeoman Formation by Saskatchewan Geological Society. The formation belongs to the Big Horn group of late Ordovician age while its American equivalent it is known as “Burrowed C Unit”. (Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin 487).
WILLISTON BASIN TECTONIC SETTING AND SOURCE ROCKS DEPOSITION The formation lies in Williston basin which is an intra-cratonic basin with low subsidence rates (Fowler and Nisbet, 1985; Ahern and Mrkvicka, 1984, Sloss, 1984; Gerhard et al., 1982). The basin is located along the Interior Platform province. Some significant basement folds intercept the monoclines which include Nesson and Cedar Creek Anticlines (Clement, 1987). The tectonic features have an implication on thermal maturity and production of Hydrocarbons due to the heat anomalies which happen to be connected to North American Central Plains conductivity anomaly (Majorowicz et al., 1988; Jones and Savage 1986). The anomaly lies at a depth of 10-20 Km and the region has been subjected to a continuous phase of subduction during the entire Phanerozoic age observable in both sediments succession and lithostratigraphic patterns. (J.LeFeveret al., 1987, Gerhard et al., 1987, Ahern and Mrkvicka, 1984). The basin behaves as a preservational basin with sedimentary strata thickening at the center in Northern Dakota. (Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin 487). During Ordovician age four significant source rocks have been deposited in Williston basin with Type-I kukersites of Yeoman Formation during Late Ordovician, marine Type-II Kerogen of Winniopegosis during Middle Devonion, Bakken Devonion to Missipian and Lodgepole formation furing Missisipian age (Ricketts, 1989, Sloss, 1963). EFFECT OF BURROWS ON DIAGENISIS Reservoir quality is influenced by small scale heterogeneities of diagenetic changes and burrowing and boring activity of micro-organisms thus affecting both porosity and permeability
1988. The threshold of hydrocarbon generation for the Yeoman formation is considered as appropriate for the source rock.
. (Kendall 1975. 2003). Bulletin 487).Pemberton) The Carbonates of Yeoman formation have been proposed to contain burrowed-mottles named as Thalassenoids (Kendall 1976. (R. Thin beds almost 1m in length are responsible for producing hydrocarbons. 1999). Pak. (S. Big Horn and Winnipegosis are the only source rocks which are thermally mature within the domain of Williston basin from Ordovician age.also observed in Yeoman formation of Upper Ordovician age. 1977. Yeoman formation is a symbolic representation of diagenetic changes subjected to burrowing organisms spread over tens of kilometers and permeable paths tortuous but highly connected.G. Diagenesis has a variable effect on production with occlusion of porosity due to dolomitization and silicification in some areas while enhancing porosity in other regions due to the dolomitization of burrow holes and aureoles. George Pemberton and Murray K. Gingras)
SOURCE ROCK POTENTIAL OF YEOMAN FORMATION Kukersites of Yeoman formation are the organically rich thin carbonate platform source rocks with Type-I Kerogen of Late Ordovician age. 1977.
BIOGENICALLY ENHANCED PERMEABILITY Yeoman formation from Williston basin has been proposed to be within the domain of restricted offshore settings. Portion with burrow filled holes cans significantly vary the figures of production. The tectonic history and the crustal structure have controls with deposition of source rocks restricted to certain geographic locations and ultimately affecting the diagenesis and maturation which have a direct impact on hydrocarbon generation migration (Geological Survey of Canada.Wayman. Oil windows normally occur at the depths b/w 750 and 1650. Evaporitic dolomites lay the top of Yeoman formation and these evaporitic dolomites are further topped by evaporites. The main stages of initiation of hydrocarbon generation start around o. Some of the crustal structures such as Nesson Anticline and Northern Central Plains of America have heat anomalies associated with them which have a significant impact on thermal maturity of the hydrocarbons. Permeability of 200mD has been observed in zones of dolomitized matrix linked with the burrow fabrics. Reservoir heterogeneity becomes complex in such situations. L. S.Pak. Kissling.77 % Rᴼ (Vitrinite Reflectance). Canter.
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