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S N Kansagra School Commercial Application

You have learnt that business transactions are recorded in various subsidiary books and in journal. The accounting process does not stop here. The transactions are recorded in number of books in chronological order. Such recording of business transactions serves little purpose of accounting. Items of same title in different books of accounts need to be brought at one place under one head called an account. There are numerous account titles of items/persons or accounts. All the accounts, if brought in one account book, will be more informative and useful. The account book so maintained is called Ledger.

Accounting records: Ledger


All the accounts identified on the basis of transactions recorded in different journals/books such as Cash Book, Purchase Book, Sales Book etc. will be opened and maintained in a separate book called Ledger. So a ledger is a book of account; in which all types of accounts relating to assets, liabilities, capital, expenses and revenues are maintained. It is a complete set of accounts of a business enterprise.

S N Kansagra School Commercial Application


Ledger is bound book with pages consecutively numbered. It may also be a bundle of sheets. Thus, from the various journals/Books of a business enterprise, all transactions recorded throughout the accounting year are placed in relevant accounts in the ledger through the process of posting of transactions in the ledger. Posting is the process of transfer of entries from Journal/ Subsidiary Books. A ledger may be in the form of bound register, or cards, or separate sheets may be maintained in a loose leaf binder. In the ledger, each account is opened preferably on separate page or card.

Utility A ledger is very useful and is of utmost importance in the organisation. The net result of all transactions in respect of a particular account on a given date can be ascertained only from the ledger. For example, the management on a particular date wants to know the amount due from a certain customer or the amount the firm has to pay to a particular supplier, such information can be found only in the ledger. Such information is very difficult to ascertain from the journal because the transactions are recorded in the chronological order and defies classification.

S N Kansagra School Commercial Application


Features of ledger 1. Ledger is an account book that contains various accounts to which various business transactions of a business enterprise are posted. 2. It is a book of final entry because the transactions that are first entered in the journal or Subsidiary Books are finally posted in the ledger. It is also called the Principal Book of Accounts. 3. In the ledger all types of accounts relating to assets, liabilities, capital, revenue and expenses are maintained. 4. It is a permanent record of business transactions classified into relevant accounts. 5. It is the reference book of accounting system and is used to classify and summarise transactions to facilitate the preparation of financial statements.

Format of a ledger sheet Title of an Account: Salary Account Dr Date Particulars JF Amount Date Particulars

JF

Cr Amount

A Full sheet page may be allotted to one account or two or more accounts may be opened on one sheet. It depends upon the number of items related to that account to be posted. According to this format the columns will contain the information as given below: An account is debited or credited according to the rules of debit and credit already explained in respect of each category of account.

S N Kansagra School Commercial Application


Title of the account: The Name of the item is written at the top of the format as the title of the account. The title of the account ends with suffix Account. Dr./Cr. : Dr. means Debit side of the account that is left side and Cr. Means Credit side of the account, i.e. right side. Date: Year, Month and Date of transactions are posted in chronological order in this column. Particulars: Name of the item with reference to the original book of entry is written on debit/credit side of the account. Journal Folio: It records the page number of the original book of entry on which relevant transaction is recorded. This column is filled up at the time of posting. Amount: This column records the amount in numerical figure, corresponding to what has been entered in the amount column of the original book of entry. Distinction between Journal and Ledger: The Journal and the Ledger are the most important books of the double entry mechanism of accounting and are indispensable for an accounting system. Following points of comparison are worth noting: 1. The Journal is the book of first entry (original entry); the ledger is the book of second entry. 2. The Journal is the book for chronological record; the ledger is the book for analytical record. 3. The Journal, as a book of source entry, gets greater importance as legal evidence than the ledger. 4. Transaction is the basis of classification of data within the Journal; Account is the basis of classification of data within the ledger. 5. Process of recording in the Journal is called Journalising; the process of recording in the ledger is known as Posting.

S N Kansagra School Commercial Application


Importance of Ledger Ledger is an important book of Account. It contains all the accounts in which all the business transactions of a business enterprise are classified. At the end of the accounting period, each account will contain the entire information of all the transactions relating to it. Following are the advantages of ledger.
1.

Knowledge of Business results

Ledger provides detailed information about revenues and expenses at one place. While finding out business results the revenue and expenses are matched with each other.
2.

Knowledge of book value of assets

Ledger records every asset separately. Hence, you can get the information about the Book value of any asset whenever you need.
3.

Useful for management

The information given in different ledger accounts will help the management in preparing budgets. It also helps the management in keeping the check on the performance of business it is managing.
4.

Knowledge of Financial Position

Ledger provides information about assets and liabilities of the business. From this we can judge the financial position and health of the business.
5.

Instant Information

Business always needs to know what it owes to others and what the others owe to it. The ledger accounts provide this information at a glance through the account receivables and payables.

S N Kansagra School Commercial Application


Types of Ledger 1. Assets Ledger: It contains accounts relating to assets only e.g. Machinery account, Building account, Furniture account, etc. 2. Liabilities Ledger: It contains the accounts of various liabilities e.g. Capital (Owner or partner), Loan account, Bank overdraft, etc. 3. Revenue Ledger: It contains the revenue accounts e.g.. Sales account, Commission earned account, Rent received account, interest received account, etc. 4. Expenses Ledger: It contains the various accounts of expenses incurred, e.g. Wages account, Rent paid account, Electricity charges account, etc. 5. Debtors Ledger: It contains the accounts of the individual trade debtors of the business. Individuals, firms and institutions to whom goods and services are sold on credit by business become the trade debtors of the business. 6. Creditors Ledger: It contains the accounts of the individual trade Creditors of the business. Individuals, firms and institutions from whom a business purchases goods and services on credit are called trade creditors of the business. 7. General Ledger: It contains all those accounts which are not covered under any of the above types of ledger.

S N Kansagra School Commercial Application

POSTING OF JOURNAL INTO LEDGER Posting is the process of transferring the entries from the books of original entry (journal) to the ledger. In other words, posting mean grouping of all the transactions in respect to a particular account at one place for meaningful conclusion and to further the accounting process. Posting from the journal is done periodically, may be, weekly or fortnightly or monthly as per the requirements and convenience of the business. The complete process of posting from journal to ledger has been discussed below: Step 1: Locate in the ledger, the account to be debited as entered in the journal. Step 2: Enter the date of transaction in the date column on the debit side. Step 3: In the Particulars column write the name of the account through which it has been debited in the journal. For example, furniture sold for cash Rs. 34,000. Now, in cash account on the debit side in the particulars column Furniture will be entered signifying that cash is received from the sale of furniture. In Furniture account, in the ledger on the credit side is the particulars column, the word, cash will be recorded. The same procedure is followed in respect of all the entries recorded in the journal. Step 4: Enter the page number of the journal in the folio column and in the journal write the page number of the ledger on which a particular account appears. Step 5: Enter the relevant amount in the amount column on the debit side. It may be noted that the same procedure is followed for making the entry on the credit side of that account to be credited. An account is opened only once in the ledger and all entries relating to a particular account is posted on the debit or credit side, as the case may be.

S N Kansagra School Commercial Application

BALANCING OF AN ACCOUNT Balancing of an account is the difference between the total of debits and total of credits of an account. If debit side total is more than the credit side, the account shows a debit balance. Similarly, the balance will be credit if the credit side total of an account is more than the debit side total. This process of ascertaining and writing the balance of each account in the ledger is called balancing of an account. An account has two sides: debit and credit. Items by which this account is debited are entered on its debit side with their amounts and items by which this account is credited are entered on its credit side with their amounts so all items related to an account are shown at one place in the ledger. But then you would like to know the net effect of this account i.e. the balance between its debit amount and credit amount. The following steps are to be followed in Balancing the Ledger Account: 1. Total up the two sides of an Account on a rough sheet. 2. Determine the difference between the two sides. If the credit side is more than the debit side, the balance calculated is a credit balance. 3. Put the difference on the Shorter side of the account such that the totals of the two sides of the account are equal. 4. If the difference amount is written on debit side (i.e., if credit. side is bigger) then write as Balance c/d (c/d stands for carried down). If difference is written on the credit side (i.e., if debit side is bigger) then write it as Balance c/d. 5. Finally at the end of the year all the ledger accounts are closed by taking out the balance of each account. 6. The balance then should be brought down or carried forward to the next period. If the difference was put on credit side as Balance c/d it should now be written on the debit side of the account as Balance b/d.

S N Kansagra School Commercial Application


Questions: 1. What is a ledger? (02) 2. Explain the feature Classifying in the context of Ledger. (02) 3. Name the types of ledger. (02) 4. What is source document? (02) 5. Name any 4 source documents. (02) 6. Explain the features of ledger. (05) 7. Write a note on balancing a ledger account. (05) 8. Write steps of posting? (05) 9. Differentiate Journal and Ledger. (05) 10. Ledger is known as the book of Final Entry Comment. (02) 11. Why ledger is used in accounting? (02)