Nanotechnology in Europe

GNN Development Workshop 2005
Raymond Monk Ph.D. Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies Unit Research DG European Commission

Disclaimer: Note that these slides are not legally binding and do not represent any commitment on behalf of the European Commission

An Enlarging Europe
• Now 25 countries • •
with population of 460 million Enlargement to 27 due in 2007 (Bulgaria and Romania) EU reseach includes Israel, Turkey and Switzerland among others...

Problem Solving Potential

Development of new and useful products across a wide range of sectors – address needs of citizens
Information Technology Energy Production / Storage Materials Science Food, Water and the Environment Instruments

Medicine and Health

Drug delivery

GMR Hard Disk

Hydrogen Fuel Cells

Lightweight and strong

Remediation methods

Tunneling microscopy

Economic Potential

Markets for products with nanotechnology could rise to hundreds of billion by 2010 and one trillion thereafter Wide range of estimates reflect enabling nature of nanotechnology and uncertain impact upon wide range of sectors? „Lisbon“ agenda.....

Where are we now?
Chemicals Industry • 90% reduction in product innovations since 1960

Rate of new product introductions

Industry Evolution Curve

Biotechnology • Protein replacement therapies for humans

Large pharmaceuticals • R&D productivity decreased by 25% since 1990

Nanotechnology • Nano-materials • Nano-electronics • Nano-health, etc.
Source: McKinsey


Making the Transition
Private Public Knowledge Funding -20 Yrs
Top Down


+20 Yrs?
Bottom Up

Using knowledge to add value – a key approach

Public Nanotechnology R&D

Public funding for nanotechnology R&D is growing rapidly to over 5 billion €/$ in 2004.
Public expenditure ( 1M€ = 1M$ )


USA Japan Others






0 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

Source: European Commission (2005)

European Activities in Nanotechnology R&D
• • • • • •
Several countries started national nanotechnology between the mid-1980’s and mid-1990’s Overall investment of around 200 million € in 1997 has risen to around 1300 million € in 2004 Levels of public investment vary considerably between 0.3 and 8.5 € per citizen in 2004 Transnational projects in the EU’s 4th (~30M€/year) and 5th (~45M€/year) Framework Programmes Nanotechnology identified as a main priority area in the 6th Framework Programme (~250M€/year) Proposed for Seventh Framework Programme...

Public expenditure ( M € )
100,00 200,00 300,00 400,00 0,00 373 293 224

Source: European Commission (2005)
124 100 67
EC G er m an y Fr an N ce et he U rla ni nd te d s K A in ss gd oc om ia te d St at es B el gi um


Ita ly

60 33 15 15

Ire la nd Sw ed en Fi nl an d A us tr ia Sp D ai n en m ar G k

13 13 9

re ec e

EU Public Funding in 2004


Overall Funding in 2004


North America

Europe 27%

Others 28%


USA 27%

Japan 18%

Private (Corp. + VC) Total = $4 billion
Source: Lux Research (2004)

Public (National, regional, state) Total = $5.5 billion
Source: European Commission (2005)

Worldwide Investment in 2004

3,000 Private 1300 2,000 Private 1400 Member States + Associated 1339 States 400

Expenditure ( M$ )

Private 1700


EC 477 0 Europe

Federal 991

Public 900

Public 480 Others



Source: European Commission (2005) : Private figures based upon Lux Research

R&D Areas of Funding
• • •
Broad range of R&D supported both by Member States and EC Apparent lack of nano R&D related to energy and environment No one EU country covers all aspects – need for cooperation!

Source: June 2004 International Dialogue on Responsible Research and Development of Nanotechnology

Overall Nano Publications
EU-25 ~ 40%

Analysis of 115 nano-relevent journals reported in „The Emergence of China as a Leading Nation in Science“ Ping Zhoua & Loet Leydesdorff (2005)

Specific Nano Publications

Analysis of three core nano journals reveals a different story with lower share Is this indicative of a lower impact of EU-25 publications or other aspects?

EU-25 ~ 30%

Source: Analysis of Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Nanotechnology and Nano Letters reported in „The Emergence of China as a Leading Nation in Science“ Ping Zhoua & Loet Leydesdorff (2005)

Impact of Publications

Trend reflected by analysis of „nano“ publications in other leading journals
6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0

% "nano*" articles

Rest of World United States














Source: J. Murday, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory * Search of Science, Nature, and Phys Rev Ltr using “nano*”


Worldwide Patents in Nanotechnology

Source: European Patent Office, M. Scheu (2004)

European Patents in Nanotechnology

Source: European Patent Office, M. Scheu (2004)

Summary of Patents in Nanotechnology

Source: European Patent Office, M. Scheu (2004)

Start-up Companies in Nanotechnology (1997-2002)
Asia 4% rest of w orld 11% France 4% UK 6% Europe 29% others 5% Germany 11%

Sw itzerland 4%

US 55%

Source: CEA, Bureau d’Etude Marketing

The European Landscape
• • • • • •
Enjoys strong public R&D investment in nano mostly at national/regional level but.... While there is much knowledge generated in terms of publications the impact is less clear EU countries have very disparate ranges of R&D intensity and specalisations Overall lower level of private R&D investment and less intensive commercial activities (start-ups) Evidence that Europe is proportionately weaker in protecting knowledge via patents How can we help to maximise the impact and efficiency of European research?

Nanotechnology R&D in the EU Sixth Framework
Marie Curie 14% NEST 1%
SMEs 3% Marie Curie 9% Infrastructure 2% Infrastructure 2%

IST 27%

NMP 58%

IST 27%

NMP 57%



EU Integrated Project
“Cell Programming by Nanoscaled Devices” Specific challenges:
- to turn “macro” medical devices into nano-tools - to take individual care of every single cell injected into the system Total costs: 26.05 m Euro EU funding: 17.6 m Euro Duration: Start date: Partners: 48 months 1st March 2004 36

- to develop an automated device for the imprinting of cells via nanoscaled macromolecular landscapes, the NanoScapes - to non-invasively produce well-defined populations of individually programmed cells


EU Network of Excellence
“Nanoscale Quantum Simulations for Nanostructures and Advanced Materials” Expected Impact:
- to accelerate European expertise in the field of electronic excitation (DFT) -knowledge generated can lead to invention of new functionalities for nanoscale systems EU funding: 5 million Euro Duration: Start date: End date: 48 months 1st July 2004 31st June 2008


- major developments in nano-systems computer simulations by developing new fundamental theories and algorithms - to integrate research activities of different research groups by setting up a European facility


Linking National Programmes
• MNT ERA-NET started as a core group in January
2004, joining 8 support programmes with microand nanotechnology foci from all over Europe. • In January 2005, the MNT ERA-NET extended to 21 participating programmes in 17 European countries • Nanoscience ERA-NET also starting this year...

Infrastructure: Capacities
• •
Launched by the CEA and brings together 3,500 people on a integrated campus: R&D, innovation, education... Nanoforum survey of EU infrastructure and networks is almost finished (

Europe’s integrated and responsible approach

Communication Towards a European Strategy for Nanotechnology adopted 12 May 2004
Societal Issues Infrastructure International Cooperation Industrial Innovation Research and Development Human Resources Health, safety, environmental and consumer protection

Good Response to the Proposed Strategy
• • • •
Discussed in the European Council and conclusions adopted on 24 September Open consultation with 750 responses from a wide range of stakeholders Opinion by Economic and Social Committee on 15 November 2004 Action Plan is now being finalised and is about to be published....

Health and Environment
• •
Up to now, six dedicated R&D projects have been launched at European level Total of Euro 10 million € (8 million € in 2005 alone) and with calls for proposals currently open

Communicating nano
The Commission funds projects for communicating ethical, legal and social aspects (ELSA) of research in nanotechnology to the public.

E.g. one project is based on brochures, workshops and website tools, another one on visualisation of nanotechnology in science museums and exhibitions.

Communicating Nano
Brochure: “Nanotechnology: Innovation for tomorrow’s world” soon in 23 languages Film (for younger people): “Nanotechnology” in 20 languages Film: “Nano: The next dimension”
All can be seen or obtained via

Education and Training
• •
Nanoforum catalogue with 91 degrees / courses in 21 European countries (of which 28 degrees) Recent workshop on research training (see Popovic)

Final NMP Calls of FP6
Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies Deadline 15 September 2005 Budget of 120M€
1.1 Interdisciplinary research into understanding phenomena, mastering processes and developing research tools
– Towards converging technologies (STREP) – Standardisation for nanotechnologies (SSA)

1.2 Nano-biotechnologies
– Using nature as a model for new nanotechnology-based processes (STREP)

1.3 Nano-metre-scale engineering techniques to create materials
– 3D nano-structures based on elements other than carbon (STREP)

1.5 Applications in areas such as health and medical systems, chemistry, food and the environment
– Nanotechnology-based targeted drug delivery (IP) – Interaction of engineered nanoparticles with the environment and the living world (STREP)

The Seventh Framework
• • • • • •
Proposals made for the 7th Framework Programme (2007-2013) to be adopted by Council, EP in 2006 Designed to respond to the need to invest in the creation, the diffusion and the use of knowledge Four programmes: cooperation, ideas, people and capacities with simplification of procedures Boosting the R&D budget for nanotechnologies and materials to ~$1 billion / year (EC only) Strong industrial input from the research agendas of the European Technology Platforms Together with Competitiveness and Innovation Programme...

Basic Structure of FP7
Cooperation – Collaborative research Cooperation – Collaborative research Ideas – Frontier Research Ideas – Frontier Research People – Human Potential People – Human Potential Capacities – Research Capacity Capacities – Research Capacity

JRC (non-nuclear, nuclear) and Euratom JRC (non-nuclear, nuclear) and Euratom

FP7 budget (EUR billion, 2004 constant prices)
Euratom 4,193 JRC 1,617 Capacities 6,594

Cooperation 39,134

People 6,279 Ideas 10,447

Cooperation – 9 Themes
1. 2. 3. 4. Health Food, agriculture and biotechnology Information and communication technologies Nanosciences, nanotechnologies, materials and new production technologies (€4.2 billion) Energy Environment (including climate change) Transport (including aeronautics) Socio-economic sciences and the humanities Security and space

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

International Cooperation
• • • •
Building upon the experience in FP6, aim to boost cooperation between the EU and advanced Third Countries (e.g. USA, Japan) in basic research Pool knowledge on issues of global interest such as education, health, environment, metrology, norms – also ensuring a level playing field Define an international “code of good conduct” for the responsible development of nanotechnology – key point for consumer and investor confidence Provide access to knowledge to economically less developed countries to contribute towards the prevention of any “knowledge apartheid”

Thank you for your attention!
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