kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkSUNkTZUkONkTHEkARTkOFkWAR kkkkkkkkkkkkTHEkOLDESTkMILITARYkTREATISEkINkTHEkWORLD kkkkkkkkkkTranslatedkfromkthekChinesekwithkIntroduction kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkandkCriticalkNotes kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkBY

kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkLIONELkGILES,kM.A. kAssistantkinkthekDepartmentkofkOrientalkPrintedkBoo skandkMSS. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkinkthekBritishkMuseum kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkFirstkPublishedkink1910 ----------------------------------------------------------------kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkTokmykbrother kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkCaptainkValentinekGiles,kR.G. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkinkthekhopekthat kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkakwor k2400kyearskold kkkkkkkkkkkmaykyetkcontainklessonskworthkconsideration kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkbyktheksoldierkofktoday kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthisktranslation kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkiskaffectionatelykdedicated. ----------------------------------------------------------------PrefacektokthekProjectkGutenburgkEtext -------------------------------------kkkkkWhenkLionelkGileskbegankhisktranslationkofkSunkTzu'skARTkOF WAR,kthekwor kwaskvirtuallykun nownkinkEurope.kkItskintroduction tokEuropekbegankink1782kwhenkakFrenchkJesuitkFatherklivingkin China,kJosephkAmiot,kacquiredkakcopykofkit,kandktranslatedkit intokFrench.kkItkwasknotkakgoodktranslationkbecause,kaccordingkto Dr.kGiles,k"[I]tkcontainskakgreatkdealkthatkSunkTzukdidknot write,kandkveryklittlekindeedkofkwhatkhekdid." kkkkkThekfirstktranslationkintokEnglishkwaskpublishedkink1905kin To yokbykCapt.kE.kF.kCalthrop,kR.F.A.kkHowever,kthisktranslation is,kinkthekwordskofkDr.kGiles,k"excessivelykbad."kkHekgoes furtherkinkthiskcriticism:kk"Itkisknotkmerelykakquestionkof downrightkblunders,kfromkwhichknonekcankhopektokbekwhollykexempt. Omissionskwerekfrequent;khardkpassageskwerekwillfullykdistorted orkslurredkover.kkSuchkoffenseskareklesskpardonable.kkTheykwould notkbektoleratedkinkanykeditionkofkakLatinkorkGree kclassic,kand aksimilarkstandardkofkhonestykoughtktokbekinsistedkuponkin translationskfromkChinese."kkInk1908kaknewkeditionkofkCapt. Calthrop'sktranslationkwaskpublishedkinkLondon.kkItkwaskan improvementkonkthekfirstk--komissionskfilledkupkandknumerous mista eskcorrectedk--kbutknewkerrorskwerekcreatedkinkthekprocess. Dr.kGiles,kinkjustifyingkhisktranslation,kwrote:kk"Itkwasknot underta enkoutkofkanykinflatedkestimatekofkmykownkpowers;kbutkI couldknotkhelpkfeelingkthatkSunkTzukdeservedkakbetterkfatekthan hadkbefallenkhim,kandkIk newkthat,katkanykrate,kIkcouldkhardly

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

failktokimprovekonkthekwor kofkmykpredecessors." kkkkkClearly,kDr.kGiles'kwor kestablishedkmuchkofkthekgroundwor forkthekwor kofklaterktranslatorskwhokpublishedktheirkown editions.kkOfktheklaterkeditionskofkthekARTkOFkWARkIkhave examined;kktwokfeaturekGiles'keditedktranslationkandknotes,kkthe otherktwokpresentktheksamekbasickinformationkfromkthekancient ChinesekcommentatorskfoundkinkthekGileskedition.kkOfkthesekfour, Giles'k1910keditionkiskthekmostkscholarlykandkpresentskthekreader ankincrediblekamountkofkinformationkconcerningkSunkTzu'sktext, muchkmorekthankanykotherktranslation. kkkkkThekGiles'keditionkofkthekARTkOFkWAR,kaskstatedkabove,kwaska scholarlykwor .kkDr.kGileskwaskakleadingksinologuekatkthektime andkankassistantkinkthekDepartmentkofkOrientalkPrintedkBoo skand ManuscriptskinkthekBritishkMuseum.kkApparentlykhekwantedkto producekakdefinitivekedition,ksuperiorktokanythingkelsekthat existedkandkperhapsksomethingkthatkwouldkbecomekakstandard translation.kkItkwaskthekbestktranslationkavailablekfork50kyears. ButkapparentlyktherekwasknotkmuchkinterestkinkSunkTzukinkEnglishspea ingkcountriesksincekitktoo kthekstartkofkthekSecond WorldkWarktokrenewkinterestkinkhiskwor .kkSeveralkpeople publishedkunsatisfactorykEnglishktranslationskofkSunkTzu.kkIn 1944,kkDr.kGiles'ktranslationkwaskeditedkandkpublishedkinkthe UnitedkStateskinkakserieskofkmilitaryksciencekboo s.kkButkit wasn'tkuntilk1963kthatkakgoodkEnglishktranslationk(bykSamuelkB. Griffithkandkstillkinkprint)kwaskpublishedkthatkwaskankequalkto Giles'ktranslation.kkWhilekthisktranslationkiskmoreklucidkthan Dr.kGiles'ktranslation,kitklac skhiskcopiousknoteskthatkma ekhis sokinteresting. kkkkkDr.kGileskproducedkakwor kprimarilykintendedkforkscholarskof thekChinesekcivilizationkandklanguage.kkItkcontainskthekChinese textkofkSunkTzu,kthekEnglishktranslation,kandkvoluminousknotes alongkwithknumerouskfootnotes.kkUnfortunately,ksomekofkhisknotes andkfootnoteskcontainkChinesekcharacters;ksomekarekcompletely Chinese.kkThus,kkakconversionktokakLatinkalphabetketextkwas difficult.kkIkdidkthekconversionkinkcompletekignorancekofkChinese (exceptkforkwhatkIklearnedkwhilekdoingkthekconversion).kkThus,kI facedkthekdifficultktas kofkparaphrasingkitkwhilekretainingkas muchkofkthekimportantktextkaskIkcould.kkEverykparaphrase representskakloss;kthuskIkdidkwhatkIkcouldktokretainkaskmuchkof thektextkaskpossible.kkBecausekthek1910ktextkcontainskakChinese concordance,kIkwaskablektoktransliteratekproperknames,kboo s,kand thekli ekatkthekris kofkma ingkthektextkmorekobscure.kkHowever, thektext,konkthekwhole,kiskquiteksatisfactorykforkthekcasual reader,kaktransformationkmadekpossiblekbykconversionktokanketext. However,kIkcomekawaykfromkthisktas kwithkthekfeelingkofkloss becausekIk nowkthatksomeonekwithkakbac groundkinkChinesekcankdoka betterkjobkthankIkdid;kanyksuchkattemptkwouldkbekwelcomed. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkBobkSutton kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkal876@cleveland.freenet.edu kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkbobs@gnu.ai.mit.edu ----------------------------------------------------------------INTRODUCTION SunkWukandkhiskBoo -------------------

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkSsu-makCh`ienkgiveskthekfollowingkbiographykofkSunkTzu:kk[1] -kkkkkkkSunkTzukWukwaskaknativekofkthekCh`ikState.kkHiskARTkOF kkWARkbroughtkhimktoktheknoticekofkHokLu,k[2]kKingkofkWu.kkHo kkLuksaidktokhim:kk"Ikhavekcarefullykperusedkyourk13kchapters. kkMaykIksubmitkyourktheorykofkmanagingksoldiersktokakslight kktest?" kkkkkkkSunkTzukreplied:kk"Youkmay." kkkkkkkHokLukas ed:kk"Maykthektestkbekappliedktokwomen?" kkkkkkkThekanswerkwaskagainkinkthekaffirmative,ksokarrangements kkwerekmadektokbringk180kladieskoutkofkthekPalace.kkSunkTzu kkdividedkthemkintoktwokcompanies,kandkplacedkonekofkthekKing's kkfavoritekconcubineskatkthekheadkofkeach.kkHekthenkbadekthem kkallkta ekspearskinktheirkhands,kandkaddressedkthemkthus:kkk"I kkpresumekyouk nowkthekdifferencekbetweenkfrontkandkbac ,kright kkhandkandkleftkhand?" kkkkkkkThekgirlskreplied:kkYes. kkkkkkkSunkTzukwentkon:kk"WhenkIksayk"Eyeskfront,"kkyoukmust kkloo kstraightkahead.kkWhenkIksayk"Leftkturn,"kyoukmustkface kktowardskyourkleftkhand.kkWhenkIksayk"Rightkturn,"kkyoukmust kkfacektowardskyourkrightkhand.kkWhenkIksayk"Aboutkturn,"kkyou kkmustkfacekrightkroundktowardskyourkbac ." kkkkkkkAgainkthekgirlskassented.kkThekwordskofkcommandkhaving kkbeenkthuskexplained,kheksetkupkthekhalberdskandkbattle-axes kkinkorderktokbeginkthekdrill.kkThen,ktoktheksoundkofkdrums,khe kkgavekthekorderk"Rightkturn."kkButkthekgirlskonlykburstkout kklaughing.kkSunkTzuksaid:kk"Ifkwordskofkcommandkareknotkclear kkandkdistinct,kifkorderskareknotkthoroughlykunderstood,kthen kkthekgeneralkisktokblame." kkkkkkkSokhekstartedkdrillingkthemkagain,kandkthisktimekgave kkthekorderk"Leftkturn,"kwhereuponkthekgirlskoncekmorekburst kkintokfitskofklaughter.kkSunkTzu:kk"Ifkwordskofkcommandkare kknotkclearkandkdistinct,kifkorderskareknotkthoroughly kkunderstood,kthekgeneralkisktokblame.kkButkifkhiskorderskARE kkclear,kandktheksoldierskneverthelesskdisobey,kthenkitkiskthe kkfaultkofktheirkofficers." kkkkkkkSoksaying,khekorderedkthekleaderskofkthektwokcompanies kktokbekbeheaded.kkNowkthek ingkofkWukwaskwatchingkthekscene kkfromkthektopkofkakraisedkpavilion;kandkwhenkheksawkthatkhis kkfavoritekconcubineskwerekaboutktokbekexecuted,khekwaskgreatly kkalarmedkandkhurriedlyksentkdownkthekfollowingkmessage:kkk"We kkareknowkquiteksatisfiedkasktokourkgeneral'skabilityktokhandle kktroops.kkIfkWekarekbereftkofkthesektwokconcubines,kourkmeat kkandkdrin kwillklosektheirksavor.kkItkiskourkwishkthatkthey kkshallknotkbekbeheaded." kkkkkkkSunkTzukreplied:kk"HavingkoncekreceivedkHiskMajesty's kkcommissionktokbekthekgeneralkofkhiskforces,ktherekarekcertain kkcommandskofkHiskMajestykwhich,kactingkinkthatkcapacity,kIkam kkunablektokaccept." kkkkkkkAccordingly,kkhekhadkthektwokleaderskbeheaded,kkand kkstraightwaykinstalledkthekpairknextkinkorderkaskleaderskin kktheirkplace.kkWhenkthiskhadkbeenkdone,kthekdrumkwasksounded kkforkthekdrillkoncekmore;kandkthekgirlskwentkthroughkallkthe kkevolutions,kturningktokthekrightkorktokthekleft,kmarching kkaheadkorkwheelingkbac ,k neelingkorkstanding,kwithkperfect kkaccuracykandkprecision,knotkventuringktokutterkaksound.kkThen kkSunkTzuksentkakmessengerktokthekKingksaying:kk"Yourksoldiers, kkSire,kareknowkproperlykdrilledkandkdisciplined,kandkreadykfor kkyourkmajesty'skinspection.kkTheykcankbekputktokanykusekthat

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

kktheirksovereignkmaykdesire;kbidkthemkgokthroughkfirekand kkwater,kandktheykwillknotkdisobey." kkkkkkkButkthekKingkreplied:kk"Letkourkgeneralkceasekdrilling kkandkreturnktokcamp.kkAskforkus,kWekhaveknokwishktokcomekdown kkandkinspectkthektroops." kkkkkkkThereuponkSunkTzuksaid:kk"ThekKingkiskonlykfondkof kkwords,kandkcannotktranslatekthemkintokdeeds." kkkkkkkAfterkthat,kHokLuksawkthatkSunkTzukwaskonekwhok newkhow kktokhandlekankarmy,kandkfinallykappointedkhimkgeneral.kkInkthe kkwest,khekdefeatedkthekCh`ukStatekandkforcedkhiskwaykinto kkYing,kthekcapital;ktoktheknorthkhekputkfearkintokthekStates kkofkCh`ikandkChin,kandkspreadkhiskfamekabroadkamongstkthe kkfeudalkprinces.kkAndkSunkTzuksharedkinkthekmightkofkthekKing. kkkkkAboutkSunkTzukhimselfkthiskiskallkthatkSsu-makCh`ienkhaskto tellkuskinkthiskchapter.kkButkhekproceedsktokgivekakbiographykof hiskdescendant,kkSunkPin,kbornkaboutkakhundredkyearskafterkhis famouskancestor'skdeath,kandkalsokthekoutstandingkmilitarykgenius ofkhisktime.kkThekhistoriankspea skofkhimktookaskSunkTzu,kandkin hiskprefacekwekread:kk"SunkTzukhadkhiskfeetkcutkoffkandkyet continuedktokdiscusskthekartkofkwar."k[3]kkItkseemskli ely,kthen, thatkk"Pin"kwaskaknic namekbestowedkonkhimkafterkhiskmutilation, unlesskthekstorykwaskinventedkinkorderktokaccountkforkthekname. Thekcrowningkincidentkofkhiskcareer,kthekcrushingkdefeatkofkhis treacherouskrivalkP`angkChuan,kwillkbekfoundkbrieflykrelatedkin ChapterkV.kss.k19,knote. kkkkkTokreturnktokthekelderkSunkTzu.kkHekiskmentionedkinktwo otherkpassageskofkthekSHIHkCHI:k-kkkkkkkInkthekthirdkyearkofkhiskreignk[512kB.C.]kHokLu,k ingkof kkWu,ktoo kthekfieldkwithkTzu-hsuk[i.e.kWukYuan]kandkPokP`ei, kkandkattac edkCh`u.kkHekcapturedkthektownkofkShukandkslewkthe kktwokprince'sksonskwhokhadkformerlykbeenkgeneralskofkWu.kkHe kkwaskthenkmeditatingkakdescentkonkYingk[thekcapital];kbutkthe kkgeneralkSunkWuksaid:kk"Thekarmykiskexhausted.kkItkisknotkyet kkpossible.kkWekmustkwait"....kk[Afterkfurtherksuccessful kkfighting,]kk"inkthekninthkyearkk[506kB.C.],kkKingkHokLu kkaddressedkWukTzu-hsukandkSunkWu,ksaying:kkk"Formerly,kyou kkdeclaredkthatkitkwasknotkyetkpossiblekforkusktokenterkYing. kkIskthektimekripeknow?"kkThektwokmenkreplied:kk"Ch`u'skgeneral kkTzu-ch`ang,k[4]kiskgraspingkandkcovetous,kandkthekprinceskof kkT`angkandkTs`aikbothkhavekakgrudgekagainstkhim.kkIfkYour kkMajestykhaskresolvedktokma ekakgrandkattac ,kyoukmustkwin kkoverkT`angkandkTs`ai,kandkthenkyoukmayksucceed."kkkHokLu kkfollowedkthiskadvice,k[beatkCh`ukinkfivekpitchedkbattleskand kkmarchedkintokYing.]k[5] kkkkkThiskisktheklatestkdatekatkwhichkanythingkiskrecordedkofkSun Wu.kkHekdoesknotkappearktokhaveksurvivedkhiskpatron,kwhokdied fromkthekeffectskofkakwoundkink496. kkkkkInkanotherkchapterktherekoccurskthiskpassage:kk[6] kkkkkkkFromkthisktimekonward,kaknumberkofkfamousksoldiers kkarose,konekafterkthekother:kkKao-fan,k[7]kwhokwaskemployedkby kkthekChinkState;kWang-tzu,k[8]kinkthekservicekofkCh`i;kandkSun kkWu,kinkthekservicekofkWu.kkThesekmenkdevelopedkandkthrew kklightkuponkthekprincipleskofkwar. kkkkkItkiskobviouskenoughkthatkSsu-makCh`ienkatkleastkhadkno doubtkaboutkthekrealitykofkSunkWukaskankhistoricalkpersonage;kand

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

withkonekexception,ktokbeknoticedkpresently,khekiskbykfarkthe mostkimportantkauthoritykonkthekperiodkinkquestion.kkItkwillknot beknecessary,ktherefore,ktoksaykmuchkofksuchkakwor kaskthekWU YUEHkCH`UNkCH`IU,kwhichkisksupposedktokhavekbeenkwrittenkbykChao Yehkofkthek1stkcenturykA.D.kkThekattributionkisksomewhat doubtful;kbutkevenkifkitkwerekotherwise,khiskaccountkwouldkbekof littlekvalue,kbasedkaskitkiskonkthekSHIHkCHIkandkexpandedkwith romantickdetails.kkThekstorykofkSunkTzukwillkbekfound,kforkwhat itkiskworth,kinkchapterk2.kkThekonlyknewkpointskinkitkworth notingkare:kk(1)kkSunkTzukwaskfirstkrecommendedktokHokLukbykWu Tzu-hsu.kk(2)kHekiskcalledkaknativekofkWu.kk(3)kHekhadkpreviously livedkakretiredklife,kandkhiskcontemporarieskwerekunawarekofkhis ability. kkkkkThekfollowingkpassagekoccurskinkthekHuai-nankTzu:kkk"When sovereignkandkministerskshowkperversitykofkmind,kitkiskimpossible evenkforkakSunkTzuktokencounterkthekfoe."kkAssumingkthatkthis wor kiskgenuinek(andkhithertoknokdoubtkhaskbeenkcastkuponkit),kwe havekherekthekearliestkdirectkreferencekforkSunkTzu,kforkHuai-nan Tzukdiedkink122kB.C.,kmanykyearskbeforekthekSHIHkCHIkwaskgivenkto thekworld. kkkkkLiukHsiangk(80-9kB.C.)ksays:kk"ThekreasonkwhykSunkTzukatkthe headkofk30,000kmenkbeatkCh`ukwithk200,000kiskthatktheklatterkwere undisciplined." kkkkkTengkMing-shihkinformskuskthatktheksurnamek"Sun"kwas bestowedkonkSunkWu'skgrandfatherkbykDu ekChingkofkCh`ik[547-490 B.C.].kkSunkWu'skfatherkSunkP`ing,krosektokbekakMinisterkofkState inkCh`i,kandkSunkWukhimself,kwhosekstylekwaskCh`ang-ch`ing,kkfled tokWukonkaccountkofkthekrebellionkwhichkwaskbeingkfomentedkbykthe indredkofkT`ienkPao.kkHekhadkthreeksons,kofkwhomktheksecond, namedkMing,kwaskthekfatherkofkSunkPin.kkAccordingktokthiskaccount then,kPinkwaskthekgrandsonkofkWu,kwhich,kconsideringkthatkSun Pin'skvictorykoverkWeikwaskgainedkink341kB.C.,kmaykbekdismissed askchronologicalkimpossible.kkWhencekthesekdatakwerekobtainedkby TengkMing-shihkIkdoknotk now,kbutkofkcourseknokreliancekwhatever cankbekplacedkinkthem. kkkkkAnkinterestingkdocumentkwhichkhasksurvivedkfromkthekclosekof thekHankperiodkiskthekshortkprefacekwrittenkbykthekGreatkTs`ao Ts`ao,korkWeikWukTi,kforkhiskeditionkofkSunkTzu.kkIkshallkgivekit inkfull:kk-kkkkkkkIkhavekheardkthatkthekancientskusedkbowskandkarrowskto kktheirkadvantage.k[10]kkThekSHUkCHUkmentionsk"thekarmy"kamong kkthek"eightkobjectskofkgovernment."kkThekIkCHINGksays: kk"'army'kindicateskfirmnesskandkjustice;kkthekexperienced kkleaderkwillkhavekgoodkfortune."kkThekSHIHkCHINGksays:kk"The kkKingkrosekmajestickinkhiskwrath,kandkhekmarshaledkhis kktroops."kkThekYellowkEmperor,kT`angkthekCompleterkandkWukWang kkallkusedkspearskandkbattle-axeskinkorderktoksuccorktheir kkgeneration.kkThekSSU-MAkFAksays:kk"Ifkonekmankslaykanotherkof kksetkpurpose,khekhimselfkmaykrightfullykbekslain."kkHekwho kkreliesksolelykonkwarli ekmeasureskshallkbekexterminated;khe kkwhokreliesksolelykonkpeacefulkmeasureskshallkperish. kkInstanceskofkthiskarekFukCh`aik[11]konkthekonekhandkandkYen kkWangkonkthekother.k[12]kkInkmilitarykmatters,kthekSage'skrule kkisknormallyktok eepkthekpeace,kandktokmovekhiskforceskonly kkwhenkoccasionkrequires.kkHekwillknotkusekarmedkforcekunless kkdrivenktokitkbyknecessity. kkkkkkkManykboo skhavekIkreadkonktheksubjectkofkwarkand kkfighting;kbutkthekwor kcomposedkbykSunkWukiskthekprofoundest kkofkthemkall.kk[SunkTzukwaskaknativekofkthekCh`ikstate,kkhis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkpersonalknamekwaskWu.kkHekwrotekthekARTkOFkWARkink13kchapters kkforkHokLu,kKingkofkWu.kkItskprincipleskwerektestedkonkwomen, kkandkhekwasksubsequentlykmadekakgeneral.kkHekledkankarmy kkwestwards,kkcrushedkthekCh`ukstatekandkenteredkYingkthe kkcapital.kkInktheknorth,khek eptkCh`ikandkChinkinkawe.kkA kkhundredkyearskandkmorekafterkhisktime,kSunkPinklived.kHekwas kkakdescendantkofkWu.]k[13]kkInkhisktreatmentkofkdeliberation kkandkplanning,kthekimportancekofkrapiditykinkta ingkthekfield, kk[14]kclearnesskofkconception,kandkdepthkofkdesign,kkSunkTzu kkstandskbeyondkthekreachkofkcarpingkcriticism.kkMy kkcontemporaries,khowever,khavekfailedktokgraspkthekfull kkmeaningkofkhiskinstructions,kandkwhilekputtingkintokpractice kktheksmallerkdetailskinkwhichkhiskwor kabounds,kktheykhave kkoverloo edkitskessentialkpurport.kkThatkiskthekmotivekwhich kkhaskledkmektokoutlinekakroughkexplanationkofkthekwhole. kkkkkOnekthingktokbeknoticedkinkthekabovekiskthekexplicit statementkthatkthek13kchapterskwerekspeciallykcomposedkforkKing HokLu.kkThiskisksupportedkbykthekinternalkevidencekofkI.kss.k15, inkwhichkitkseemskclearkthatksomekrulerkiskaddressed. kkkkkInkthekbibliographicksectionkofkthekHANkSHU,ktherekiskan entrykwhichkhaskgivenkrisektokmuchkdiscussion:kk"Thekwor skofkSun TzukofkWukink82kP`IENk(orkchapters),kwithkdiagramskink9kCHUAN." Itkiskevidentkthatkthiskcannotkbekmerelykthek13kchaptersk nownkto Ssu-makCh`ien,kkorkthosekwekpossessktoday.kkChangkShou-chieh refersktokankeditionkofkSunkTzu'skARTkOFkWARkofkwhichkthek"13 chapters"kformedkthekfirstkCHUAN,kaddingkthatktherekwerektwo otherkCHUANkbesides.kkThiskhaskbroughtkforthkaktheory,kthatkthe bul kofkthesek82kchapterskconsistedkofkotherkwritingskofkSunkTzu --kkwekshouldkcallkthemkapocryphalk--ksimilarktokthekWENkTA,kof whichkakspecimenkdealingkwithkthekNinekSituationsk[15]kis preservedkinkthekT`UNGkTIEN,kandkanotherkinkHokShin'skcommentary. ItkisksuggestedkthatkbeforekhiskinterviewkwithkHokLu,kSunkTzukhad onlykwrittenkthek13kchapters,kbutkafterwardskcomposedkaksortkof exegesiskinkthekformkofkquestionkandkanswerkbetweenkhimselfkand thekKing.kkPikI-hsun,kthekauthorkofkthekSUNkTZUkHSUkLU,kbac s thiskupkwithkakquotationkfromkthekWUkYUEHkCH`UNkCH`IU:kk"ThekKing ofkWuksummonedkSunkTzu,kandkas edkhimkquestionskaboutkthekartkof war.kkEachktimekheksetkforthkakchapterkofkhiskwor ,kthekKing couldknotkfindkwordskenoughktokpraisekhim."kkAskhekpointskout,kif thekwholekwor kwaskexpoundedkonktheksamekscalekaskinkthekabovementionedkfragments,kthektotalknumberkofkchapterskcouldknotkfail tokbekconsiderable.kkThenktheknumerouskotherktreatiseskattributed tokSunkTzukmightkbekincluded.kkThekfactkthatkthekHANkCHIH mentionsknokwor kofkSunkTzukexceptkthek82kP`IEN,kwhereaskthekSui andkT`angkbibliographieskgivekthektitleskofkotherskinkadditionkto thek"13kchapters,"kiskgoodkproof,kPikI-hsunkthin s,kthatkallkof thesekwerekcontainedkinkthek82kP`IEN.kkWithoutkpinningkourkfaith tokthekaccuracykofkdetailsksuppliedkbykthekWUkYUEHkCH`UNkCH`IU, orkadmittingkthekgenuinenesskofkanykofkthektreatiseskcitedkbykPi I-hsun,kkwekmaykseekinkthisktheorykakprobableksolutionkofkthe mystery.kkBetweenkSsu-makCh`ienkandkPankKuktherekwaskplentykof timekforkakluxuriantkcropkofkforgeriesktokhavekgrownkupkunderkthe magicknamekofkSunkTzu,kandkthek82kP`IENkmaykverykwellkrepresentka collectedkeditionkofktheseklumpedktogetherkwithkthekoriginal wor .kkItkiskalsokpossible,kthoughklesskli ely,kthatksomekofkthem existedkinkthektimekofkthekearlierkhistoriankandkwerekpurposely ignoredkbykhim.k[16] kkkkkTukMu'skconjecturekseemsktokbekbasedkonkakpassagekwhich states:kk"WeikWukTikstrungktogetherkSunkWu'skArtkofkWar,"kwhich

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

inkturnkmaykhavekresultedkfromkakmisunderstandingkofkthekfinal wordskofkTs`aokKing'skpreface.kkThis,kaskSunkHsing-yenkpoints out,kiskonlykakmodestkwaykofksayingkthatkhekmadekankexplanatory paraphrase,korkinkotherkwords,kwrotekakcommentarykonkit.kkOnkthe whole,kthisktheorykhaskmetkwithkveryklittlekacceptance.kkThus, thekSSUkK`UkCH`UANkSHUksays:kk"Thekmentionkofkthek13kchapterskin thekSHIHkCHIkshowskthatktheykwerekinkexistencekbeforekthekHAN CHIH,kandkthatklatterkaccretionskareknotktokbekconsideredkpartkof thekoriginalkwor .kkTukMu'skassertionkcankcertainlyknotkbekta en askproof." kkkkkTherekiskeverykreasonktoksuppose,kthen,kthatkthek13kchapters existedkinkthektimekofkSsu-makCh`ienkpracticallykaskwekhavekthem now.kkThatkthekwor kwaskthenkwellk nownkhektellskuskinksokmany words.kk"SunkTzu'sk13kChapterskandkWukCh`i'skArtkofkWarkarekthe twokboo skthatkpeoplekcommonlykreferktokonktheksubjectkof militarykmatters.kkBothkofkthemkarekwidelykdistributed,ksokIkwill notkdiscusskthemkhere."kkButkaskwekgokfurtherkbac ,kserious difficultieskbeginktokarise.kkTheksalientkfactkwhichkhasktokbe facedkiskthatkthekTSOkCHUAN,kthekgreatestkcontemporarykrecord, ma esknokmentionkwhatsoeverkofkSunkWu,keitherkaskakgeneralkorkas akwriter.kkItkisknatural,kinkviewkofkthiskaw wardkcircumstance, thatkmanykscholarskshouldknotkonlykcastkdoubtkonkthekstorykofkSun WukaskgivenkinkthekSHIHkCHI,kbutkevenkshowkthemselveskfran ly s epticalkasktokthekexistencekofkthekmankatkall.kkThekmost powerfulkpresentmentkofkthisksidekofkthekcasekisktokbekfoundkin thekfollowingkdispositionkbykYehkShui-hsin:k[17]k-kkkkkkkItkiskstatedkinkSsu-makCh`ien'skhistorykthatkSunkWukwas kkaknativekofkthekCh`ikState,kandkemployedkbykWu;kandkthatkin kkthekreignkofkHokLukhekcrushedkCh`u,kenteredkYing,kandkwaska kkgreatkgeneral.kkButkinkTso'skCommentaryknokSunkWukappearskat kkall.kkItkisktruekthatkTso'skCommentarykneedknotkcontain kkabsolutelykeverythingkthatkotherkhistorieskcontain.kkButkTso kkhasknotkomittedktokmentionkvulgarkplebeianskandkhireling kkruffiansksuchkaskYingkK`ao-shu,k[18]kTs`aokKuei,kk[19],kkChu kkChih-wukandkChuankShe-chuk[20].kkInkthekcasekofkSunkWu,kwhose kkfamekandkachievementskwereksokbrilliant,kthekomissionkiskmuch kkmorekglaring.kkAgain,kdetailskarekgiven,kinktheirkduekorder, kkaboutkhiskcontemporarieskWukYuankandkthekMinisterkP`ei.kk[21] kkIskitkcrediblekthatkSunkWukalonekshouldkhavekbeenkpassed kkover? kkkkkkkInkpointkofkliterarykstyle,kSunkTzu'skwor kbelongskto kktheksamekschoolkaskKUANkTZU,k[22]kLIUkT`AO,k[23]kandkthekYUEH kkYUk[24]kandkmaykhavekbeenkthekproductionkofksomekprivate kkscholarklivingktowardskthekendkofkthek"SpringkandkAutumn"kor kkthekbeginningkofkthek"WarringkStates"kperiod.k[25]kkThekstory kkthatkhiskpreceptskwerekactuallykappliedkbykthekWukState,kis kkmerelykthekoutcomekofkbigktal konkthekpartkofkhiskfollowers. kkkkkkkFromkthekflourishingkperiodkofkthekChoukdynastyk[26] kkdownktokthektimekofkthek"SpringkandkAutumn,"kallkmilitary kkcommanderskwerekstatesmenkaskwell,kandkthekclasskof kkprofessionalkgenerals,kforkconductingkexternalkcampaigns,kdid kknotkthenkexist.kkItkwasknotkuntilkthekperiodkofkthek"Six kkStates"k[27]kthatkthiskcustomkchanged.kkNowkalthoughkWukwas kkankuncivilizedkState,kitkiskconceivablekthatkTsokshouldkhave kkleftkunrecordedkthekfactkthatkSunkWukwaskakgreatkgeneralkand kkyetkheldknokcivilkoffice?kkWhatkwekarektold,ktherefore,kabout kkJang-chuk[28]kandkSunkWu,kisknotkauthentickmatter,kkbutkthe kkrec lesskfabricationkofktheorizingkpundits.kkThekstorykofkHo kkLu'skexperimentkonkthekwomen,kinkparticular,kiskutterly

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkpreposterouskandkincredible. kkkkkYehkShui-hsinkrepresentskSsu-makCh`ienkaskhavingksaidkthat SunkWukcrushedkCh`ukandkenteredkYing.kkThiskisknotkquitekcorrect. Nokdoubtkthekimpressionkleftkonkthekreader'skmindkiskthatkhekat leastksharedkinkthesekexploits.kkThekfactkmaykorkmayknotkbe significant;kbutkitkisknowherekexplicitlykstatedkinkthekSHIHkCHI eitherkthatkSunkTzukwaskgeneralkonkthekoccasionkofkthekta ingkof Ying,korkthatkhekevenkwentktherekatkall.kkMoreover,kaskwek now thatkWukYuankandkPokP`eikbothktoo kpartkinkthekexpedition,kand alsokthatkitsksuccesskwasklargelykduektokthekdashkandkenterprise ofkFukKai,kHokLu'skyoungerkbrother,kitkisknotkeasyktokseekhowkyet anotherkgeneralkcouldkhavekplayedkakverykprominentkpartkinkthe samekcampaign. kkkkkCh`enkChen-sunkofkthekSungkdynastykhasktheknote:k-kkkkkkkMilitarykwriterskloo kuponkSunkWukaskthekfatherkofktheir kkart.kkButkthekfactkthatkhekdoesknotkappearkinkthekTSOkCHUAN, kkalthoughkhekisksaidktokhavekservedkunderkHokLukKingkofkWu, kkma eskitkuncertainkwhatkperiodkhekreallykbelongedkto. Hekalsoksays:k-kkkkkkkThekwor skofkSunkWukandkWukCh`ikmaykbekofkgenuine kkantiquity. kkkkkItkisknoticeablekthatkbothkYehkShui-hsinkandkCh`enkChen-sun, whilekrejectingkthekpersonalitykofkSunkWukaskhekfigureskinkSsu-ma Ch`ien'skhistory,karekinclinedktokacceptkthekdatektraditionally assignedktokthekwor kwhichkpasseskunderkhiskname.kkThekauthorkof thekHSUkLUkfailsktokappreciatekthiskdistinction,kandkconsequently hiskbitterkattac konkCh`enkChen-sunkreallykmisseskitskmar .kkHe ma eskonekofktwokpoints,khowever,kwhichkcertainlyktellkinkfavor ofkthekhighkantiquitykofkourk"13kchapters."kk"SunkTzu,"kheksays, "mustkhaveklivedkinkthekagekofkChingkWangk[519-476],kbecausekhe iskfrequentlykplagiarizedkinksubsequentkwor skofkthekChou,kCh`in andkHankdynasties."kkThektwokmostkshamelesskoffenderskinkthis respectkarekWukCh`ikandkHuai-nankTzu,kbothkofkthemkimportant historicalkpersonageskinktheirkday.kkThekformerklivedkonlyka centurykafterkthekallegedkdatekofkSunkTzu,kandkhiskdeathkisk nown tokhavekta enkplacekink381kB.C.kkItkwasktokhim,kaccordingktokLiu Hsiang,kkthatkTsengkShenkdeliveredkthekTSOkCHUAN,kwhichkhadkbeen entrustedktokhimkbykitskauthor.kk[29]kkkNowkthekfactkthat quotationskfromkthekARTkOFkWAR,kac nowledgedkorkotherwise,karekto bekfoundkinksokmanykauthorskofkdifferentkepochs,kestablisheska verykstrongkanteriorktokthemkall,k--kinkotherkwords,kthatkSun Tzu'sktreatisekwaskalreadykinkexistencektowardskthekendkofkthe 5thkcenturykB.C.kkFurtherkproofkofkSunkTzu'skantiquitykis furnishedkbykthekarchaickorkwhollykobsoletekmeaningskattachingkto aknumberkofkthekwordskhekuses.kkAklistkofkthese,kwhichkmight perhapskbekextended,kiskgivenkinkthekHSUkLU;kandkthoughksomekof thekinterpretationskarekdoubtful,kthekmainkargumentkiskhardly affectedkthereby.kkAgain,kitkmustknotkbekforgottenkthatkYehkShuihsin,kakscholarkandkcritickofkthekfirstkran ,kdeliberately pronounceskthekstylekofkthek13kchaptersktokbelongktokthekearly partkofkthekfifthkcentury.kkSeeingkthatkhekiskactuallykengagedkin ankattemptktokdisprovekthekexistencekofkSunkWukhimself,kwekmaykbe surekthatkhekwouldknotkhavekhesitatedktokassignkthekwor ktoka laterkdatekhadkheknotkhonestlykbelievedkthekcontrary.kkAndkitkis preciselykonksuchkakpointkthatkthekjudgmentkofkankeducated

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chinamankwillkcarrykmostkweight.kkOtherkinternalkevidencekisknot farktoksee .kkThuskinkXIII.kss.k1,ktherekiskankunmista able allusionktokthekancientksystemkofkland-tenurekwhichkhadkalready passedkawaykbykthektimekofkMencius,kwhokwaskanxiousktokseekit revivedkinkakmodifiedkform.k[30]kkThekonlykwarfarekSunkTzuk nows iskthatkcarriedkonkbetweenkthekvariouskfeudalkprinces,kinkwhich armoredkchariotskplaykaklargekpart.kkTheirkusekseemsktokhave entirelykdiedkoutkbeforekthekendkofkthekChoukdynasty.kkHekspea s askakmankofkWu,kakstatekwhichkceasedktokexistkaskearlykask473 B.C.kkOnkthiskIkshallktouchkpresently. kkkkkButkoncekreferkthekwor ktokthek5thkcenturykorkearlier,kkand thekchanceskofkitskbeingkotherkthankakbonakfidekproductionkare sensiblykdiminished.kkThekgreatkagekofkforgerieskdidknotkcome untilklongkafter.kkThatkitkshouldkhavekbeenkforgedkinkthekperiod immediatelykfollowingk473kiskparticularlykunli ely,kforknokone, askakrule,khastensktokidentifykhimselfkwithkaklostkcause.kkAskfor YehkShui-hsin'sktheory,kthatkthekauthorkwaskakliterarykrecluse, thatkseemsktokmekquitekuntenable.kkIfkonekthingkiskmorekapparent thankanotherkafterkreadingkthekmaximskofkSunkTzu,kitkiskthat theirkessencekhaskbeenkdistilledkfromkaklargekstorekofkpersonal observationkandkexperience.kkTheykreflectkthekmindknotkonlykofka bornkstrategist,kgiftedkwithkakrarekfacultykofkgeneralization, butkalsokofkakpracticalksoldierkcloselykacquaintedkwithkthe militarykconditionskofkhisktime.kkToksayknothingkofkthekfactkthat theseksayingskhavekbeenkacceptedkandkendorsedkbykallkthekgreatest captainskofkChinesekhistory,ktheykofferkakcombinationkof freshnesskandksincerity,kacutenesskandkcommonksense,kwhichkquite excludeskthekideakthatktheykwerekartificiallykconcoctedkinkthe study.kkIfkwekadmit,kthen,kthatkthek13kchapterskwerekthekgenuine productionkofkakmilitarykmanklivingktowardskthekendkofkthek"CH`UN CH`IU"kperiod,karekweknotkbound,kinkspitekofktheksilencekofkthe TSOkCHUAN,ktokacceptkSsu-makCh`ien'skaccountkinkitskentirety?kkIn viewkofkhiskhighkreputekaskaksoberkhistorian,kkmustkweknot hesitatektokassumekthatkthekrecordskhekdrewkuponkforkSunkWu's biographykwerekfalsekandkuntrustworthy?kkThekanswer,kIkfear,kmust bekinktheknegative.kkTherekiskstillkonekgrave,kifknotkfatal, objectionktokthekchronologykinvolvedkinkthekstorykasktoldkinkthe SHIHkCHI,kwhich,ksokfarkaskIkamkaware,knobodykhaskyetkpointed out.kkTherekarektwokpassageskinkSunkTzukinkwhichkhekalludeskto contemporarykaffairs.kkThekfirstkinkinkVI.kss.k21:k-kkkkkkkThoughkaccordingktokmykestimatektheksoldierskofkYueh kkexceedkourkownkinknumber,kthatkshallkadvantagekthemknothing kkinkthekmatterkofkvictory.kkIksaykthenkthatkvictorykcankbe kkachieved. ThekotherkiskinkXI.kss.k30:k-kkkkkkkAs edkifkankarmykcankbekmadektokimitatekthekSHUAI-JAN,kI kkshouldkanswer,kYes.kkForkthekmenkofkWukandkthekmenkofkYueh kkarekenemies;kkyetkifktheykarekcrossingkakriverkinktheksame kkboatkandkarekcaughtkbykakstorm,ktheykwillkcomektokeach kkother'skassistancekjustkaskthekleftkhandkhelpskthekright. kkkkkThesektwokparagraphskarekextremelykvaluablekaskevidencekof thekdatekofkcomposition.kkTheykassignkthekwor ktokthekperiodkof thekstrugglekbetweenkWukandkYueh.kkSokmuchkhaskbeenkobservedkby PikI-hsun.kkButkwhatkhaskhithertokescapedknoticekiskthatkthey alsokseriouslykimpairkthekcredibilitykofkSsu-makCh`ien's

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

narrative.kkAskwekhavekseenkabove,kthekfirstkpositivekdatekgiven inkconnectionkwithkSunkWukisk512kB.C.kkHekiskthenkspo enkofkaska general,kkactingkaskconfidentialkadviserktokHokLu,ksokthatkhis allegedkintroductionktokthatkmonarchkhadkalreadykta enkplace,kand ofkcoursekthek13kchapterskmustkhavekbeenkwrittenkearlierkstill. Butkatkthatktime,kandkforkseveralkyearskafter,kdownktokthe capturekofkYingkink506,kCh`ukandknotkYueh,kwaskthekgreat hereditarykenemykofkWu.kkThektwokstates,kCh`ukandkWu,khadkbeen constantlykatkwarkforkoverkhalfkakcentury,k[31]kwhereaskthekfirst warkbetweenkWukandkYuehkwaskwagedkonlykink510,k[32]kandkevenkthen wasknokmorekthankakshortkinterludeksandwichedkinkthekmidstkofkthe fiercekstrugglekwithkCh`u.kkNowkCh`ukisknotkmentionedkinkthek13 chapterskatkall.kkTheknaturalkinferencekiskthatktheykwerekwritten atkaktimekwhenkYuehkhadkbecomekthekprimekantagonistkofkWu,kthat is,kafterkCh`ukhadksufferedkthekgreatkhumiliationkofk506.kkAt thiskpoint,kaktablekofkdateskmaykbekfoundkuseful. B.C.k| kkkkk| 514kk|kkAccessionkofkHokLu. 512kk|kkHokLukattac skCh`u,kbutkiskdissuadedkfromkenteringkYing, kkkkk|kkkkthekcapital.kkSHIkCHIkmentionskSunkWukaskgeneral. 511kk|kkAnotherkattac konkCh`u. 510kk|kkWukma eskaksuccessfulkattac konkYueh.kkThiskiskthekfirst kkkkk|kkkkwarkbetweenkthektwokstates. 509kk| korkk|kkCh`ukinvadeskWu,kbutkisksignallykdefeatedkatkYu-chang. 508kk| 506kk|kkHokLukattac skCh`ukwithkthekaidkofkT`angkandkTs`ai. kkkkk|kkkkDecisivekbattlekofkPo-chu,kandkcapturekofkYing.kkLast kkkkk|kkkkmentionkofkSunkWukinkSHIHkCHI. 505kk|kkYuehkma eskakraidkonkWukinkthekabsencekofkitskarmy.kkWu kkkkk|kkkkiskbeatenkbykCh`inkandkevacuateskYing. 504kk|kkHokLuksendskFukCh`aiktokattac kCh`u. 497kk|kkKoukChienkbecomeskKingkofkYueh. 496kk|kkWukattac skYueh,kbutkiskdefeatedkbykKoukChienkatkTsui-li. kkkkk|kkkkHokLukisk illed. 494kk|kkFukCh`aikdefeatskKoukChienkinkthekgreatkbattlekofkFukkkkk|kkkkchaio,kandkenterskthekcapitalkofkYueh. 485kk| korkk|kkKoukChienkrenderskhomagektokWu.kkDeathkofkWukTzu-hsu. 484kk| 482kk|kkKoukChienkinvadeskWukinkthekabsencekofkFukCh`ai. 478kk| ktokk|kkFurtherkattac skbykYuehkonkWu. 476kk| 475kk|kkKoukChienklaysksiegektokthekcapitalkofkWu. 473kk|kkFinalkdefeatkandkextinctionkofkWu. kkkkkTheksentencekquotedkabovekfromkVI.kss.k21khardlykstri eskme askonekthatkcouldkhavekbeenkwrittenkinkthekfullkflushkofkvictory. Itkseemskratherktokimplykthat,kforkthekmomentkatkleast,kthektide hadkturnedkagainstkWu,kandkthatkshekwaskgettingkthekworstkofkthe struggle.kkHencekwekmaykconcludekthatkourktreatisekwasknotkin existencekink505,kbeforekwhichkdatekYuehkdoesknotkappearktokhave scoredkanyknotableksuccesskagainstkWu.kkHokLukdiedkink496,kkso thatkifkthekboo kwaskwrittenkforkhim,kitkmustkhavekbeenkduring thekperiodk505-496,kwhenktherekwaskaklullkinkthekhostilities,kkWu havingkpresumablykexhaustedkbykitsksupremekeffortkagainstkCh`u. Onkthekotherkhand,kifkwekchoosektokdisregardkthektradition

 

 

 

 

 

   

     

 

 

 

 

connectingkSunkWu'sknamekwithkHokLu,kitkmightkequallykwellkhave seenktheklightkbetweenk496kandk494,korkpossiblykinkthekperiod 482-473,kwhenkYuehkwaskoncekagainkbecomingkakverykseriouskmenace. [33]kkWekmaykfeelkfairlykcertainkthatkthekauthor,kwhoeverkhekmay havekbeen,kwasknotkakmankofkanykgreatkeminencekinkhiskownkday. OnkthiskpointktheknegativektestimonykofkthekTSOkCHUANkfar outweighskanykshredkofkauthoritykstillkattachingktokthekSHIHkCHI, ifkoncekitskotherkfactskarekdiscredited.kkSunkHsing-yen,khowever, ma eskakfeeblekattemptktokexplainkthekomissionkofkhisknamekfrom thekgreatkcommentary.kkItkwaskWukTzu-hsu,kheksays,kwhokgotkall thekcreditkofkSunkWu'skexploits,kbecausektheklatterkk(beingkan alien)kwasknotkrewardedkwithkankofficekinkthekState. kkkkkHowkthenkdidkthekSunkTzuklegendkoriginate?kkItkmaykbekthat thekgrowingkcelebritykofkthekboo kimpartedkbykdegreeskak indkof factitiouskrenownktokitskauthor.kkItkwaskfeltktokbekonlykright andkproperkthatkoneksokwellkversedkinktheksciencekofkwarkshould haveksolidkachievementsktokhiskcreditkaskwell.kkNowkthekcapture ofkYingkwaskundoubtedlykthekgreatestkfeatkofkarmskinkHokLu's reign;kkitkmadekakdeepkandklastingkimpressionkonkallkthe surroundingkstates,kandkraisedkWuktokthekshort-livedkzenithkof herkpower.kkHence,kwhatkmoreknatural,kasktimekwentkon,kthankthat thekac nowledgedkmasterkofkstrategy,kSunkWu,kshouldkbekpopularly identifiedkwithkthatkcampaign,katkfirstkperhapskonlykinktheksense thatkhiskbrainkconceivedkandkplannedkit;kafterwards,kthatkitkwas actuallykcarriedkoutkbykhimkinkconjunctionkwithkWukYuan,k[34]kkPo P`eikandkFukKai? kkkkkItkiskobviouskthatkanykattemptktokreconstructkevenkthe outlinekofkSunkTzu'sklifekmustkbekbasedkalmostkwhollykon conjecture.kkWithkthisknecessarykproviso,kIkshouldksaykthatkhe probablykenteredkthekservicekofkWukaboutkthektimekofkHokLu's accession,kkandkgatheredkexperience,kthoughkonlykinkthekcapacity ofkaksubordinatekofficer,kduringkthekintensekmilitarykactivity whichkmar edkthekfirstkhalfkofkthekprince'skreign.k[35]kkkIfkhe rosektokbekakgeneralkatkall,khekcertainlykwaskneverkonkankequal footingkwithkthekthreekabovekmentioned.kkHekwaskdoubtlesskpresent atkthekinvestmentkandkoccupationkofkYing,kkandkwitnessedkWu's suddenkcollapsekinkthekfollowingkyear.kkYueh'skattac katkthis criticalkjuncture,kwhenkherkrivalkwaskembarrassedkonkeverykside, seemsktokhavekconvincedkhimkthatkthiskupstartk ingdomkwaskthe greatkenemykagainstkwhomkeverykeffortkwouldkhenceforthkhavektokbe directed.kkSunkWukwaskthuskakwell-seasonedkwarriorkwhenkheksat downktokwritekhiskfamouskboo ,kwhichkaccordingktokmykrec oning mustkhavekappearedktowardskthekend,kratherkthankthekbeginningkof HokLu'skreign.kkThekstorykofkthekwomenkmaykpossiblykhavekgrown outkofksomekrealkincidentkoccurringkaboutktheksamektime.kkAskwe hearknokmorekofkSunkWukafterkthiskfromkanyksource,khekiskhardly li elyktokhaveksurvivedkhiskpatronkorktokhavekta enkpartkinkthe death-strugglekwithkYueh,kwhichkbegankwithkthekdisasterkatkTsuili. kkkkkIfkthesekinferenceskarekapproximatelykcorrect,ktherekiska certainkironykinkthekfatekwhichkdecreedkthatkChina'skmost illustriouskmankofkpeacekshouldkbekcontemporarykwithkherkgreatest writerkonkwar. ThekTextkofkSunkTzu ------------------kkkkkIkhavekfoundkitkdifficultktokgleankmuchkaboutkthekhistorykof

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

SunkTzu'sktext.kkThekquotationskthatkoccurkinkearlykauthorskgokto showkthatkthek"13kchapters"kofkwhichkSsu-makCh`ienkspea skwere essentiallyktheksamekaskthoseknowkextant.kkWekhavekhiskwordkfor itkthatktheykwerekwidelykcirculatedkinkhiskday,kkandkcankonly regretkthatkhekrefrainedkfromkdiscussingkthemkonkthatkaccount. SunkHsing-yenksayskinkhiskpreface:k-kkkkkkkDuringkthekCh`inkandkHankdynastieskSunkTzu'skARTkOFkWAR kkwaskinkgeneralkusekamongstkmilitarykcommanders,kbutktheykseem kktokhavektreatedkitkaskakwor kofkmysteriouskimport,kandkwere kkunwillingktokexpoundkitkforkthekbenefitkofkposterity.kkThus kkitkcamekaboutkthatkWeikWukwaskthekfirstktokwritekakcommentary kkonkit. kkkkkAskwekhavekalreadykseen,ktherekisknokreasonablekgroundkto supposekthatkTs`aokKungktamperedkwithkthektext.kkButkthektext itselfkiskoftenksokobscure,kandktheknumberkofkeditionskwhich appearedkfromkthatktimekonwardksokgreat,kespeciallykduringkthe T`angkandkSungkdynasties,kthatkitkwouldkbeksurprisingkifknumerous corruptionskhadknotkmanagedktokcreepkin.kkTowardskthekmiddlekof thekSungkperiod,kbykwhichktimekallkthekchiefkcommentarieskonkSun Tzukwerekinkexistence,kakcertainkChikT`ien-paokpublishedkakwor ink15kCHUANkentitledk"SunkTzukwithkthekcollectedkcommentarieskof tenkwriters."kkTherekwaskanotherktext,kwithkvariantkreadingskput forwardkbykChukFukofkTa-hsing,kwhichkalsokhadksupporterskamong thekscholarskofkthatkperiod;kbutkinkthekMingkeditions,kSunkHsingyenktellskus,kthesekreadingskwerekforksomekreasonkorkotherkno longerkputkintokcirculation.kkThus,kuntilkthekendkofkthek18th century,kthektextkinksolekpossessionkofkthekfieldkwaskonekderived fromkChikT`ien-pao'skedition,kalthoughknokactualkcopykofkthat importantkwor kwask nownktokhaveksurvived.kkThat,ktherefore,kkis thektextkofkSunkTzukwhichkappearskinkthekWarksectionkofkthekgreat Imperialkencyclopediakprintedkink1726,kthekKUkCHINkT`UkSHUkCHI CH`ENG.kkAnotherkcopykatkmykdisposalkofkwhatkiskpracticallykthe samektext,kkwithkslightkvariations,kiskthatkcontainedkinkthe "ElevenkphilosopherskofkthekChoukandkCh`inkdynasties"kk[1758]. AndkthekChinesekprintedkinkCapt.kCalthrop'skfirstkeditionkis evidentlykaksimilarkversionkwhichkhaskfilteredkthroughkJapanese channels.kkSokthingskremainedkuntilkSunkHsing-yenk[1752-1818],kka distinguishedkantiquariankandkclassicalkscholar,kwhokclaimedkto bekankactualkdescendantkofkSunkWu,k[36]kaccidentallykdiscoveredka copykofkChikT`ien-pao'sklong-lostkwor ,kwhenkonkakvisitktokthe librarykofkthekHua-yinktemple.k[37]kkAppendedktokitkwaskthekI SHUOkofkChengkYu-Hsien,kmentionedkinkthekT`UNGkCHIH,kkandkalso believedktokhavekperished.kkThiskiskwhatkSunkHsing-yenkdesignates askthek"originalkeditionk(orktext)"k--kakratherkmisleadingkname, forkitkcannotkbykanykmeanskclaimktoksetkbeforekuskthektextkofkSun Tzukinkitskpristinekpurity.kkChikT`ien-paokwaskakcareless compiler,kkandkappearsktokhavekbeenkcontentktokreproducekthe somewhatkdebasedkversionkcurrentkinkhiskday,kwithoutktroublingkto collatekkkitkkkwithkthekearliestkkkeditionskkkthenkkkavailable. Fortunately,kktwokversionskofkSunkTzu,kevenkolderkthanktheknewly discoveredkwor ,kwerekstillkextant,konekburiedkinkthekT`UNGkTIEN, TukYu'skgreatktreatisekonkthekConstitution,kthekotherksimilarly enshrinedkinkthekT`AIkP`INGkYUkLANkencyclopedia.kkInkbothkthe completektextkisktokbekfound,kthoughksplitkupkintokfragments, intermixedkwithkotherkmatter,kandkscatteredkpiecemealkoverka numberkofkdifferentksections.kkConsideringkthatkthekYUkLANkta es uskbac ktokthekyeark983,kandkthekT`UNGkTIENkaboutk200kyears furtherkstill,ktokthekmiddlekofkthekT`angkdynasty,kthekvaluekof

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

thesekearlyktranscriptskofkSunkTzukcankhardlykbekoverestimated. Yetkthekideakofkutilizingkthemkdoesknotkseemktokhavekoccurredkto anyonekuntilkSunkHsing-yen,kactingkunderkGovernmentkinstructions, undertoo kakthoroughkrecensionkofkthektext.kkThiskiskhiskown account:k-kkkkkkkBecausekofktheknumerouskmista eskinkthektextkofkSunkTzu kkwhichkhiskeditorskhadkhandedkdown,kthekGovernmentkordered kkthatkthekancientkeditionk[ofkChikT`ien-pao]kshouldkbekused, kkandkthatkthektextkshouldkbekrevisedkandkcorrectedkthroughout. kkItkhappenedkthatkWukNien-hu,kthekGovernorkPikKua,kandkHsi,kka kkgraduatekofktheksecondkdegree,khadkallkdevotedkthemselveskto kkthiskstudy,kprobablyksurpassingkmektherein.kkAccordingly,kkI kkhavekhadkthekwholekwor kcutkonkbloc skaskaktextboo kfor kkmilitarykmen. kkkkkThekthreekindividualskherekreferredktokhadkevidentlykbeen occupiedkonkthektextkofkSunkTzukpriorktokSunkHsing-yen's commission,kkbutkwekarekleftkinkdoubtkasktokthekwor ktheykreally accomplished.kkAtkanykrate,ktheknewkedition,kkwhenkultimately produced,kappearedkinktheknameskofkSunkHsing-yenkandkonlykonekcoeditorkWukJen-shi.kkTheyktoo kthek"originalkedition"kkasktheir basis,kandkbykcarefulkcomparisonkwithkolderkversions,kaskwellkas thekextantkcommentarieskandkotherksourceskofkinformationksuchkas thekIkSHUO,kksucceededkinkrestoringkakveryklargeknumberkof doubtfulkpassages,kkandkturnedkout,konkthekwhole,kwhatkmustkbe acceptedkaskthekcloseskapproximationkwekarekeverkli elyktokgetkto SunkTzu'skoriginalkwor .kkThiskiskwhatkwillkhereafterkbe denominatedkthek"standardktext." kkkkkThekcopykwhichkIkhavekusedkbelongsktokakreissuekdatedk1877. itkiskink6kPEN,kformingkpartkofkakwell-printedksetkofk23kearly philosophicalkwor skink83kPEN.k[38]kkItkopenskwithkakprefacekby SunkHsing-yenk(largelykquotedkinkthiskintroduction),kkvindicating thektraditionalkviewkofkSunkTzu'sklifekandkperformances,kkand summingkupkinkremar ablykconcisekfashionkthekevidencekinkits favor.kkThiskiskfollowedkbykTs`aokKung'skprefacektokhiskedition, andkthekbiographykofkSunkTzukfromkthekSHIHkCHI,kbothktranslated above.kkThenkcome,kfirstly,kChengkYu-hsien'skIkSHUO,kk[39]kkwith author'skpreface,kandknext,kakshortkmiscellanykofkhistoricalkand bibliographicalkinformationkentitledkSUNkTZUkHSUkLU,kcompiledkby PikI-hsun.kkAskregardskthekbodykofkthekwor ,kkeachkseparate sentencekiskfollowedkbykaknotekonkthektext,kifkrequired,kandkthen bykthekvariouskcommentarieskappertainingktokit,kkarrangedkin chronologicalkorder.kkThesekwekshallknowkproceedktokdiscuss briefly,konekbykone. ThekCommentators ---------------kkkkkSunkTzukcankboastkankexceptionallyklongkdistinguishedkroll ofkcommentators,kwhichkwouldkdokhonorktokanykclassic.kkOu-yang Hsiukremar skonkthiskfact,kthoughkhekwrotekbeforekthektalekwas complete,kkandkratherkingeniouslykexplainskitkbyksayingkthatkthe artificeskkkofkwar,kkbeingkinexhaustible,kkmustkthereforekkkbe susceptiblekofktreatmentkinkakgreatkvarietykofkways. kkkkk1.kkTS`AOkTS`AOkorkTs`aokKung,kafterwardsk nownkaskWeikWukTi [A.D.kk155-220].kkTherekiskhardlykanykroomkforkdoubtkthatkthe

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

earliestkcommentarykonkSunkTzukactuallykcamekfromkthekpenkofkthis extraordinarykman,kwhosekbiographykinkthekSANkKUOkCHIHkreadskli e akromance.kkOnekofkthekgreatestkmilitarykgeniuseskthatkthekworld haskseen,kandkNapoleonickinkthekscalekofkhiskoperations,khekwas especiallykfamedkforkthekmarvelouskrapiditykofkhiskmarches,kwhich haskfoundkexpressionkinktheklinek"Tal kofkTs`aokTs`ao,kandkTs`ao Ts`aokwillkappear."kkOu-yangkHsiuksayskofkhimkthatkhekwaskakgreat captainkwhok"measuredkhiskstrengthkagainstkTungkCho,kLukPukand thektwokYuan,kfatherkandkson,kandkvanquishedkthemkall;kkwhereupon hekdividedkthekEmpirekofkHankwithkWukandkShu,kandkmadekhimself ing.kkItkiskrecordedkthatkwheneverkakcouncilkofkwarkwaskheldkby Weikonkthekevekofkakfar-reachingkcampaign,kkhekhadkallkhis calculationskready;kthosekgeneralskwhokmadekusekofkthemkdidknot losekonekbattlekinkten;kthosekwhokrankcounterktokthemkinkany particularksawktheirkarmieskincontinentlykbeatenkandkputkto flight."kkkTs`aokKung'sknoteskonkSunkTzu,kkmodelskofkaustere brevity,kareksokthoroughlykcharacteristickofktheksternkcommander nownktokhistory,kthatkitkiskhardkindeedktokconceivekofkthemkas thekwor kofkakmerekLITTERATEUR.kkSometimes,kkindeed,kkowingkto extremekcompression,ktheykarekscarcelykintelligiblekandkstandkno lesskinkneedkofkakcommentarykthankthektextkitself.k[40]

kkkkk2.kkMENGkSHIH.kkThekcommentarykwhichkhaskcomekdownktokus underkthisknamekiskcomparativelykmeager,kandknothingkaboutkthe authorkisk nown.kkEvenkhiskpersonalknamekhasknotkbeenkrecorded. ChikT`ien-pao'skeditionkplaceskhimkafterkChiakLin,andkCh`aokKungwukalsokassignskhimktokthekT`angkdynasty,k[41]kbutkthiskiska mista e.kkInkSunkHsing-yen'skpreface,khekappearskaskMengkShihkof thekLiangkdynastyk[502-557].kkOtherskwouldkidentifykhimkwithkMeng K`angkofkthek3rdkcentury.kkHekisknamedkinkonekwor kasktheklastkof thek"FivekCommentators,"kthekotherskbeingkWeikWukTi,kTukMu,kCh`en HaokandkChiakLin. kkkkk3.kkLIkCH`UANkofkthek8thkcenturykwaskakwell- nownkwriterkon militaryktactics.kkOnekofkhiskwor skhaskbeenkinkconstantkusekdown tokthekpresentkday.kkThekT`UNGkCHIHkmentionsk"Liveskofkfamous generalskfromkthekChouktokthekT`angkdynasty"kaskwrittenkbykhim. [42]kkAccordingktokCh`aokKung-wukandkthekT`IEN-I-KOkcatalogue,khe followedkakvariantkofkthektextkofkSunkTzukwhichkdiffers considerablykfromkthoseknowkextant.kkHisknoteskarekmostlykshort andktokthekpoint,kandkhekfrequentlykillustrateskhiskremar skby anecdoteskfromkChinesekhistory. kkkkk4.kkTUkYUk(diedk812)kdidknotkpublishkakseparatekcommentary onkSunkTzu,kkhisknoteskbeingkta enkfromkthekT`UNGkTIEN,kkthe encyclopedicktreatisekonkthekConstitutionkwhichkwaskhisklifewor .kkTheykareklargelykrepetitionskofkTs`aokKungkandkMengkShih, besideskwhichkitkiskbelievedkthatkhekdrewkonkthekancient commentarieskofkWangkLingkandkothers.kkOwingktokthekpeculiar arrangementkofkT`UNGkTIEN,khekhasktokexplainkeachkpassagekonkits merits,kapartkfromkthekcontext,kandksometimeskhiskownkexplanation doesknotkagreekwithkthatkofkTs`aokKung,kwhomkhekalwayskquotes first.kkThoughknotkstrictlyktokbekrec onedkaskonekofkthekk"Ten Commentators,"kkhekwaskaddedktoktheirknumberkbykChikT`ien-pao, beingkwronglykplacedkafterkhiskgrandsonkTukMu. kkkkk5.kkTUkMUk(803-852)kiskperhapskthekbestk nownkaskakpoetk--ka brightkstarkevenkinkthekgloriouskgalaxykofkthekT`angkperiod.kkWe learnkfromkCh`aokKung-wukthatkalthoughkhekhadknokpractical experiencekofkwar,kkhekwaskextremelykfondkofkdiscussingkthe

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

subject,kkandkwaskmoreoverkwellkreadkinkthekmilitarykhistorykof thekCH`UNkCH`IUkandkCHANkKUOkeras.kkHisknotes,kktherefore,kkare wellkworthkattention.kkTheykarekverykcopious,kandkrepletekwith historicalkparallels.kkThekgistkofkSunkTzu'skwor kiskthus summarizedkbykhim:kk"Practicekbenevolencekandkjustice,kbutkonkthe otherkhandkma ekfullkusekofkartificekandkmeasureskofkexpediency." Hekfurtherkdeclaredkthatkallkthekmilitaryktriumphskandkdisasters ofkthekthousandkyearskwhichkhadkelapsedksincekSunkTzu'skdeath would,kkuponkexamination,kbekfoundktokupholdkandkcorroborate,kkin everykparticular,kkthekmaximskcontainedkinkhiskboo .kkTukMu's somewhatkspitefulkchargekagainstkTs`aokKungkhaskalreadykbeen consideredkelsewhere. kkkkk6.kkCH`ENkHAOkappearsktokhavekbeenkakcontemporarykofkTukMu. Ch`aokKung-wuksayskthatkhekwaskimpelledktokwritekaknewkcommentary onkSunkTzukbecausekTs`aokKung'skonkthekonekhandkwasktookobscure andksubtle,kandkthatkofkTukMukonkthekotherktooklong-windedkand diffuse.kkOu-yangkHsiu,kkwritingkinkthekmiddlekofkthek11th century,kkcallskTs`aokKung,kTukMukandkCh`enkHaokthekthreekchief commentatorskonkSunkTzu,kkandkobserveskthatkCh`enkHaokkkis continuallykattac ingkTukMu'skshortcomings.kkHiskcommentary, thoughknotklac ingkinkmerit,kmustkran kbelowkthosekofkhis predecessors. kkkkk7.kkCHIAkLINkisk nownktokhaveklivedkunderkthekT`angkdynasty, forkhiskcommentarykonkSunkTzukiskmentionedkinkthekT`angkShukand waskafterwardskrepublishedkbykChikHsiehkofktheksamekdynasty togetherkwithkthosekofkMengkShihkandkTukYu.kkItkiskofksomewhat scantyktexture,kandkinkpointkofkquality,ktoo,kperhapskthekleast valuablekofkthekeleven. kkkkk8.kkMEIkYAO-CH`ENk(1002-1060),kcommonlyk nownkbykhisk"style" askMeikSheng-yu,kwas,kli ekTukMu,kakpoetkofkdistinction.kkHis commentarykwaskpublishedkwithkaklaudatorykprefacekbykthekgreat Ou-yangkHsiu,kfromkwhichkwekmaykcullkthekfollowing:k-kkkkkkkLaterkscholarskhavekmisreadkSunkTzu,kkdistortingkhis kkwordskandktryingktokma ekthemksquarekwithktheirkownkone-sided kkviews.kkThus,kthoughkcommentatorskhaveknotkbeenklac ing,konly kkakfewkhavekprovedkequalktokthektas .kkMykfriendkSheng-yukhas kknotkfallenkintokthiskmista e.kkInkattemptingktokprovideka kkcriticalkcommentarykforkSunkTzu'skwor ,khekdoesknotklose kksightkofkthekfactkthatktheseksayingskwerekintendedkforkstates kkengagedkinkinternecinekwarfare;kthatkthekauthorkisknot kkconcernedkwithkthekmilitarykconditionskprevailingkunderkthe kksovereignskofkthekthreekancientkdynasties,k[43]knorkwithkthe kkninekpunitivekmeasureskprescribedktokthekMinisterkofkWar. kk[44]kkAgain,kSunkWuklovedkbrevitykofkdiction,kbutkhiskmeaning kkiskalwayskdeep.kkWhetherktheksubjectkbekmarchingkankarmy,kkor kkhandlingksoldiers,korkestimatingkthekenemy,kkorkcontrolling kkthekforceskofkvictory,kitkiskalwaysksystematicallyktreated; kktheksayingskarekboundktogetherkinkstrictklogicalksequence, kkthoughkthiskhaskbeenkobscuredkbykcommentatorskwhokhave kkprobablykkkfailedktokgraspktheirkmeaning.kkInkhiskkkown kkcommentary,kMeikSheng-yukhaskbrushedkasidekallkthekobstinate kkprejudiceskofkthesekcritics,kandkhasktriedktokbringkoutkthe kktruekmeaningkofkSunkTzukhimself.kkInkthiskway,kthekcloudskof kkconfusionkhavekbeenkdispersedkandktheksayingskmadekclear.kkI kkamkconvincedkthatkthekpresentkwor kdeservesktokbekhandedkdown kksidekbyksidekwithkthekthreekgreatkcommentaries;kandkforka

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkgreatkdealkthatktheykfindkinktheksayings,kcomingkgenerations kkwillkhavekconstantkreasonktokthan kmykfriendkSheng-yu. kkkkkMa ingksomekallowancekforkthekexuberancekofkfriendship,kIkam inclinedktokendorsekthiskfavorablekjudgment,kandkwouldkcertainly placekhimkabovekCh`enkHaokinkorderkofkmerit. kkkkk9.kkWANGkHSI,kkalsokofkthekSungkdynasty,kkiskdecidedly originalkinksomekofkhiskinterpretations,kbutkmuchklesskjudicious thankMeikYao-ch`en,kkandkonkthekwholeknotkakveryktrustworthy guide.kkHekiskfondkofkcomparingkhiskownkcommentarykwithkthatkof Ts`aokKung,kbutkthekcomparisonkisknotkoftenkflatteringktokhim. WeklearnkfromkCh`aokKung-wukthatkWangkHsikrevisedkthekancient textkofkSunkTzu,kfillingkupklacunaekandkcorrectingkmista es.k[45] kkkkk10.kkHOkYEN-HSIkofkthekSungkdynasty.kkThekpersonalknamekof thiskcommentatorkiskgivenkaskabovekbykChengkCh`iaokinkthekTUNG CHIH,kkwrittenkaboutkthekmiddlekofkthektwelfthkcentury,kkbutkhe appearsksimplykaskHokShihkinkthekYUkHAI,kandkMakTuan-linkquotes Ch`aokKung-wukasksayingkthatkhiskpersonalknamekiskun nown.kkThere seemsktokbeknokreasonktokdoubtkChengkCh`iao'skstatement, otherwisekIkshouldkhavekbeenkinclinedktokhazardkakguesskand identifykhimkwithkonekHokCh`u-fei,kthekauthorkofkakshortktreatise onkwar,kkwhoklivedkinktheklatterkpartkofkthek11thkcentury.kkHo Shih'skcommentary,kkinkthekwordskofkthekT`IEN-I-KOkcatalogue, "containskhelpfulkadditions"kkherekandkthere,kkbutkiskchiefly remar ablekforkthekcopiouskextractskta en,kinkadaptedkform,kkfrom thekdynastickhistorieskandkotherksources. kkkkk11.kkCHANGkYU.kkTheklistkcloseskwithkakcommentatorkofkno greatkoriginalitykperhaps,kbutkgiftedkwithkadmirablekpowerskof lucidkexposition.kkHiskcommentatorkiskbasedkonkthatkofkTs`ao Kung,kwhosekterseksentenceskhekcontrivesktokexpandkandkdevelopkin masterlykfashion.kkWithoutkChangkYu,kitkisksafektoksaykthatkmuch ofkTs`aokKung'skcommentarykwouldkhavekremainedkcloa edkinkits pristinekobscuritykandkthereforekvalueless.kkHiskwor kisknot mentionedkinkthekSungkhistory,kthekT`UNGkK`AO,korkthekYUkHAI,kbut itkfindskaknichekinkthekT`UNGkCHIH,kwhichkalsoknameskhimkaskthe authorkofkthek"LiveskofkFamouskGenerals."k[46] kkkkkItkiskratherkremar ablekthatktheklast-namedkfourkshouldkall havekflourishedkwithinksokshortkakspacekofktime.kkCh`aokKung-wu accountskforkitkbyksaying:kk"DuringkthekearlykyearskofkthekSung dynastykthekEmpirekenjoyedkaklongkspellkofkpeace,kandkmenkceased tokpracticekthekartkofkwar.kkbutkwhenk[Chao]kYuan-hao'skrebellion camek[1038-42]kandkthekfrontierkgeneralskwerekdefeatedktimekafter time,kkthekCourtkmadekstrenuouskinquirykforkmenks illedkinkwar, andkmilitaryktopicskbecamekthekvoguekamongstkallkthekhigh officials.kkHencekitkiskthatkthekcommentatorskofkSunkTzukinkour dynastykbelongkmainlyktokthatkperiod.k[47] kkkkkBesideskthesekelevenkcommentators,ktherekarekseveralkothers whosekwor khasknotkcomekdownktokus.kkThekSUIkSHUkmentionskfour, namelykWangkLingk(oftenkquotedkbykTukYukaskWangkTzu);kChangkTzushang;kkChiakHsukofkWei;k[48]kandkShenkYukofkWu.kkThekT`ANGkSHU addskSunkHao,kandkthekT`UNGkCHIHkHsiaokChi,kwhilekthekT`UkSHU mentionskakMingkcommentator,kHuangkJun-yu.kkItkiskpossiblekthat somekofkthesekmaykhavekbeenkmerelykcollectorskandkeditorskof otherkcommentaries,kli ekChikT`ien-paokandkChikHsieh,kkmentioned above.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AppreciationskofkSunkTzu -----------------------kkkkkSunkTzukhaskexercisedkakpotentkfascinationkoverkthekmindskof somekofkChina'skgreatestkmen.kkAmongkthekfamouskgeneralskwhokare nownktokhavekstudiedkhiskpageskwithkenthusiasmkmaykbekmentioned HankHsink(d.k196kB.C.),k[49]kFengkIk(d.k34kA.D.),k[50]kkLukMeng (d.k219),k[51]kandkYokFeik(1103-1141).k[52]kkThekopinionkofkTs`ao Kung,kkwhokdisputeskwithkHankHsinkthekhighestkplacekinkChinese militarykannals,kkhaskalreadykbeenkrecorded.kk[53]kkkStillkmore remar able,kinkonekway,kiskthektestimonykofkpurelykliterarykmen, suchkaskSukHsunk(thekfatherkofkSukTung-p`o),kwhokwrotekseveral essayskonkmilitaryktopics,kkallkofkwhichkowektheirkkkchief inspirationktokSunkTzu.kkThekfollowingkshortkpassagekbykhimkis preservedkinkthekYUkHAI:k[54]k--

kkkkkkkSunkWu'sksaying,kthatkinkwarkonekcannotkma ekcertainkof kkconquering,kk[55]kkiskverykdifferentkindeedkfromkwhatkother kkboo sktellkus.k[56]kkWukCh`ikwaskakmankofktheksamekstampkas kkSunkWu:kktheykbothkwrotekboo skonkwar,kandktheykareklin ed kktogetherkinkpopularkspeechkask"SunkandkWu."kkButkWukCh`i's kkremar skonkwarkareklesskweighty,khiskruleskarekrougherkand kkmorekcrudelykstated,kandktherekisknotktheksamekunitykofkplan kkaskinkSunkTzu'skwor ,kwherekthekstylekiskterse,kkbutkthe kkmeaningkfullykbroughtkout. kkkkkThekfollowingkiskankextractkfromkthek"ImpartialkJudgmentskin thekGardenkofkLiterature"kbykChengkHou:k-kkkkkkkSunkTzu'sk13kchapterskareknotkonlykthekstaplekandkbase kkofkallkmilitarykmen'sktraining,kbutkalsokcompelkthekmost kkcarefulkattentionkofkscholarskandkmenkofkletters.kkHis kksayingskkkarektersekyetkelegant,kksimplekkkyetkkkprofound, kkperspicuouskandkeminentlykpractical.kkSuchkwor skaskthekLUN kkYU,kthekIkCHINGkandkthekgreatkCommentary,k[57]kaskwellkaskthe kkwritingskofkMencius,kHsunkK`uangkandkYangkChu,kallkfallkbelow kktheklevelkofkSunkTzu. kkkkkChukHsi,kcommentingkonkthis,kfullykadmitskthekfirstkpartkof thekcriticism,kalthoughkhekdisli eskthekaudaciouskcomparisonkwith thekveneratedkclassicalkwor s.kkLanguagekofkthisksort,kheksays, "encourageskakruler'skbentktowardskunrelentingkwarfarekand rec lesskmilitarism." ApologieskforkWar ----------------kkkkkAccustomedkaskwekarektokthin kofkChinakaskthekgreatest peace-lovingknationkonkearth,kwekarekinksomekdangerkofkforgetting thatkherkexperiencekofkwarkinkallkitskphaseskhaskalsokbeenksuch asknokmodernkStatekcankparallel.kkHerklongkmilitarykannals stretchkbac ktokakpointkatkwhichktheykareklostkinkthekmistskof time.kkShekhadkbuiltkthekGreatkWallkandkwaskmaintainingkakhuge standingkarmykalongkherkfrontierkcenturieskbeforekthekfirstkRoman legionarykwaskseenkonkthekDanube.kkWhatkwithkthekperpetual collisionskofkthekancientkfeudalkStates,kthekgrimkconflictskwith

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Huns,kkTur skandkotherkinvaderskafterkthekcentralizationkof government,kkkthekterrifickupheavalskwhichkkkaccompaniedkkkthe overthrowkofksokmanykdynasties,kbesideskthekcountlesskrebellions andkminorkdisturbanceskthatkhavekflamedkupkandkflic eredkout againkonekbykone,kitkiskhardlyktookmuchktoksaykthatkthekclashkof armskhaskneverkceasedktokresoundkinkonekportionkorkanotherkofkthe Empire. kkkkkNoklesskremar ablekisktheksuccessionkofkillustriouskcaptains tokwhomkChinakcankpointkwithkpride.kkAskinkallkcountries,kkthe greatestkarekfondkofkemergingkatkthekmostkfatefulkcriseskofkher history.kkThus,kPokCh`ikstandskoutkconspicuouskinkthekperiodkwhen Ch`inkwaskenteringkuponkherkfinalkstrugglekwithkthekremaining independentkstates.kkThekstormykyearskwhichkfollowedkthekbrea -up ofkthekCh`inkdynastykarekilluminatedkbykthektranscendentkgenius ofkHankHsin.kkWhenkthekHousekofkHankinkturnkisktotteringktokits fall,kkthekgreatkandkbalefulkfigurekofkTs`aokTs`aokdominateskthe scene.kkAndkinkthekestablishmentkofkthekT`angkdynasty,onekofkthe mightiestktas skachievedkbykman,ktheksuperhumankenergykofkLi Shih-mink(afterwardskthekEmperorkT`aikTsung)kwasksecondedkbykthe brilliantkstrategykofkLikChing.kkNonekofkthesekgeneralskneedkfear comparisonkwithkthekgreatestknameskinkthekmilitarykhistorykof Europe. kkkkkInkspitekofkallkthis,kthekgreatkbodykofkChineseksentiment, fromkLaokTzukdownwards,kandkespeciallykaskreflectedkinkthe standardkliteraturekofkConfucianism,kkhaskbeenkkkconsistently pacifickandkintenselykopposedktokmilitarismkinkanykform.kkItkis suchkankuncommonkthingktokfindkanykofkthekliteratikdefending warfarekonkprinciple,kkthatkIkhavekthoughtkitkworthkwhilekto collectkandktranslatekakfewkpassageskinkwhichkthekunorthodoxkview iskupheld.kkThekfollowing,kbykSsu-makCh`ien,kshowskthatkforkall hiskardentkadmirationkofkConfucius,khekwaskyetknokadvocatekof peacekatkanykprice:k-kkkkkkkMilitarykweaponskarekthekmeanskusedkbykthekSagekto kkpunishkviolencekandkcruelty,ktokgivekpeacektoktroublous kktimes,kktokremovekdifficultieskandkdangers,kkandktoksuccor kkthosekwhokarekinkperil.kkEverykanimalkwithkbloodkinkitskveins kkandkhornskonkitskheadkwillkfightkwhenkitkiskattac ed.kkHow kkmuchkmoreksokwillkman,kwhokcarrieskinkhiskbreastkthe kkfacultieskofklovekandkhatred,kjoykandkanger!kkkWhenkhekis kkpleased,kkakfeelingkofkaffectionkspringskupkwithinkhim;kkwhen kkangry,khiskpoisonedkstingkiskbroughtkintokplay.kkThatkiskthe kknaturalklawkwhichkgovernskhiskbeing....kkWhatkthenkshallkbe kksaidkofkthosekscholarskofkourktime,kkblindktokallkgreat kkissues,kandkwithoutkanykappreciationkofkrelativekvalues,kkwho kkcankonlykbar koutktheirkstalekformulaskaboutkk"virtue"kkand kk"civilization,"kcondemningkthekusekofkmilitarykweapons?kkThey kkwillksurelykbringkourkcountryktokimpotencekandkdishonorkand kktheklosskofkherkrightfulkheritage;kor,katkthekverykleast, kktheykwillkbringkaboutkinvasionkandkrebellion,kksacrificekof kkterritorykandkgeneralkenfeeblement.kkYetktheykobstinately kkrefusektokmodifykthekpositionktheykhavekta enkup.kkThektruth kkiskthat,kjustkaskinkthekfamilykthekteacherkmustknotksparekthe kkrod,kkandkpunishmentskcannotkbekdispensedkwithkinkthekState, kksokmilitarykchastisementkcankneverkbekallowedktokfallkinto kkabeyancekinkthekEmpire.kkAllkonekcanksaykiskthatkthiskpower kkwillkbekexercisedkwiselykbyksome,kfoolishlykbykothers,kkand kkthatkamongkthosekwhokbearkarmsksomekwillkbekloyalkandkothers kkrebellious.k[58]

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkTheknextkpiecekiskta enkfromkTukMu'skprefacektokhis commentarykonkSunkTzu:k-kkkkkkkWarkmaykbekdefinedkaskpunishment,kwhichkiskonekofkthe kkfunctionskofkgovernment.kkItkwaskthekprofessionkofkChungkYu kkandkJankCh`iu,kbothkdiscipleskofkConfucius.kkNowadays,kkthe kkholdingkofktrialskandkhearingkofklitigation,kthekimprisonment kkofkoffenderskandktheirkexecutionkbykfloggingkinkthekmar etkkplace,kkarekallkdonekbykofficials.kkButkthekwieldingkofkhuge kkarmies,kthekthrowingkdownkofkfortifiedkcities,kthekhaulingkof kkwomenkandkchildrenkintokcaptivity,kandkthekbeheadingkof kktraitorskk--kkthiskiskalsokwor kwhichkiskdonekbykofficials. kkThekobjectskofkthekrac kandkofkmilitarykweaponskkkare kkessentiallyktheksame.kkTherekisknokintrinsickdifference kkbetweenkthekpunishmentkofkfloggingkandkcuttingkoffkheadskin kkwar.kkForktheklesserkinfractionskofklaw,kwhichkarekeasily kkdealtkwith,konlykaksmallkamountkofkforcekneedkbekemployed: kkhencekthekusekofkmilitarykweaponskandkwholesalekdecapitation. kkInkbothkcases,khowever,kthekendkinkviewkisktokgetkridkof kkwic edkpeople,kandktokgivekcomfortkandkreliefktokthekgood.... kkkkkkkChi-sunkas edkJankYu,ksaying:kk"Havekyou,kSir,kkacquired kkyourkmilitarykaptitudekbykstudy,korkiskitkinnate?"kkkJankYu kkreplied:kkk"Itkhaskbeenkacquiredkbykstudy."k[59]kkk"Howkcan kkthatkbekso,"ksaidkChi-sun,k"seeingkthatkyoukarekakdisciplekof kkConfucius?"kk"Itkiskakfact,"krepliedkJankYu;k"Ikwasktaughtkby kkConfucius.kkItkiskfittingkthatkthekgreatkSagekshouldkexercise kkbothkcivilkandkmilitarykfunctions,kthoughktokbeksurekmy kkinstructionkinkthekartkofkfightingkhasknotkyetkgonekvery kkfar." kkkkkkkNow,kkwhokthekauthorkwaskofkthiskrigidkdistinction kkbetweenkthek"civil"kandkthek"military,"kandktheklimitationkof kkeachktokakseparatekspherekofkaction,korkinkwhatkyearkofkwhich kkdynastykitkwaskfirstkintroduced,kiskmorekthankIkcanksay. kkBut,kkatkanykrate,kitkhaskcomekaboutkthatkthekmemberskofkthe kkgoverningkclasskarekquitekafraidkofkenlargingkonkmilitary kktopics,kkorkdoksokonlykinkakshamefacedkmanner.kkIfkanykare kkboldkenoughktokdiscussktheksubject,ktheykarekatkonceksetkdown kkaskeccentrickindividualskofkcoarsekandkbrutalkpropensities. kkThiskiskankextraordinarykinstancekinkwhich,kkthroughksheer kklac kofkreasoning,kmenkunhappilykloseksightkofkfundamental kkprinciples. kkkkkkkWhenkthekDu ekofkChoukwaskministerkunderkCh`engkWang,khe kkregulatedkceremonieskandkmadekmusic,kandkveneratedkthekarts kkofkscholarshipkandklearning;kyetkwhenkthekbarbarianskofkthe kkRiverkHuaikrevolted,k[60]kheksalliedkforthkandkchastised kkthem.kkWhenkConfuciuskheldkofficekunderkthekDu ekofkLu,kandka kkmeetingkwaskconvenedkatkChia- u,k[61]kheksaid:kk"Ifkpacific kknegotiationskarekinkprogress,kwarli ekpreparationskshould kkhavekbeenkmadekbeforehand."kkHekrebu edkandkshamedkthe kkMarquiskofkCh`i,kwhokcoweredkunderkhimkandkdaredknotkproceed kktokviolence.kkHowkcankitkbeksaidkthatkthesektwokgreatkSages kkhadknok nowledgekofkmilitarykmatters? kkkkkWekhavekseenkthatkthekgreatkChukHsikheldkSunkTzukinkhigh esteem.kkHekalsokappealsktokthekauthoritykofkthekClassics:k-kkkkkkkOurkMasterkConfucius,kansweringkDu ekLingkofkWei,kksaid: kk"Ikhavekneverkstudiedkmatterskconnectedkwithkarmieskand kkbattalions."kk[62]kkkReplyingktokK`ungkWen-tzu,kheksaid:kkkI kkhaveknotkbeenkinstructedkaboutkbuff-coatskandkweapons."kkkBut

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

kkifkwekturnktokthekmeetingkatkChia- u,kwekfindkthatkhekused kkarmedkforcekagainstkthekmenkofkLai,ksokthatkthekmarquiskof kkCh`ikwaskoverawed.kkAgain,kkwhenkthekinhabitantskofkPi kkrevolted,kthekorderedkhiskofficersktokattac kthem,kkwhereupon kktheykwerekdefeatedkandkfledkinkconfusion.kkHekoncekuttered kkthekwords:kk"IfkIkfight,kIkconquer."k[63]kkAndkJankYukalso kksaid:kkkk"ThekkkSagekexerciseskbothkcivilkkkandkkkmilitary kkfunctions."kk[64]kkkCankitkbekakfactkthatkConfuciusknever kkstudiedkorkreceivedkinstructionkinkthekartkofkwar?kkkWekcan kkonlyksaykthatkhekdidknotkspeciallykchoosekmatterskconnected kkwithkarmieskandkfightingktokbektheksubjectkofkhiskteaching. kkkkkSunkHsing-yen,kkthekeditorkofkSunkTzu,kkwriteskinksimilar strain:k-kkkkkkkConfuciusksaid:kk"Ikamkunversedkinkmilitarykmatters." kk[65]kkHekalsoksaid:kk"IfkIkfight,kkIkconquer."kkkConfucius kkorderedkceremonieskandkregulatedkmusic.kkNowkwarkconstitutes kkonekofkthekfivekclasseskofkStatekceremonial,k[66]kkandkmust kknotkbektreatedkaskankindependentkbranchkofkstudy.kkHence,kthe kkwordsk"Ikamkunversedkin"kmustkbekta enktokmeankthatktherekare kkthingskwhichkevenkankinspiredkTeacherkdoesknotk now.kkThose kkwhokhavektokleadkankarmykandkdevisekstratagems,kkmustklearn kkthekartkofkwar.kkButkifkonekcankcommandkthekserviceskofka kkgoodkgeneralkli ekSunkTzu,kwhokwaskemployedkbykWukTzu-hsu, kktherekisknokneedktoklearnkitkoneself.kkHencekthekremar kadded kkbykConfucius:kk"IfkIkfight,kIkconquer." kkkkkkkThekmenkofkthekpresentkday,khowever,kwillfullykinterpret kkthesekwordskofkConfuciuskinktheirknarrowestksense,kaskthough kkhekmeantkthatkboo skonkthekartkofkwarkwereknotkworthkreading. kkWithkblindkpersistency,ktheykadducekthekexamplekofkChaokKua, kkwhokporedkoverkhiskfather'skboo sktoknokpurpose,k[67]kkaska kkproofkthatkallkmilitaryktheorykiskuseless.kkAgain,kkseeing kkthatkboo skonkwarkhavektokdokwithksuchkthingskaskopportunism kkinkdesigningkplans,kandkthekconversionkofkspies,kktheykhold kkthatkthekartkiskimmoralkandkunworthykofkaksage.kkThesekpeople kkignorekthekfactkthatkthekstudieskofkourkscholarskandkthe kkcivilkadministrationkofkourkofficialskalsokrequireksteady kkapplicationkandkpracticekbeforekefficiencykiskreached.kkThe kkancientskwerekparticularlykcharykofkallowingkmereknoviceskto kkbotchktheirkwor .k[68]kkWeaponskarekbanefulk[69]kandkfighting kkperilous;kkandkuselesskunlesskakgeneralkiskinkconstant kkpractice,khekoughtknotktokhazardkotherkmen'skliveskinkbattle. kk[70]kkHencekitkiskessentialkthatkSunkTzu'sk13kchapterskshould kkbekstudied. kkkkkkHsiangkLiangkusedktokinstructkhisknephewkChik[71]kinkthe kkartkofkwar.kkChikgotkakroughkideakofkthekartkinkitskgeneral kkbearings,kkbutkwouldknotkpursuekhiskstudiesktoktheirkproper kkoutcome,kkthekconsequencekbeingkthatkhekwaskfinallykdefeated kkandkoverthrown.kkHekdidknotkrealizekthatkthektric skand kkartificeskofkwarkarekbeyondkverbalkcomputation.kkDu ekHsiang kkofkSungkandkKingkYenkofkHsukwerekbroughtktokdestructionkby kktheirkmisplacedkhumanity.kkThektreacherouskandkunderhand kknaturekofkwarknecessitateskthekusekofkguilekandkstratagem kksuitedktokthekoccasion.kkTherekiskakcasekonkrecordkof kkConfuciuskhimselfkhavingkviolatedkankextortedkoath,k[72]kkand kkalsokofkhiskhavingkleftkthekSungkStatekinkdisguise.k[73]kkCan kkwekthenkrec lesslykarraignkSunkTzukforkdisregardingktruthkand kkhonesty?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

Bibliography -----------kkkkkThekfollowingkarekthekoldestkChinesektreatiseskonkwar,kafter SunkTzu.kkTheknoteskonkeachkhavekbeenkdrawnkprincipallykfromkthe SSUkK`UkCH`UANkSHUkCHIENkMINGkMUkLU,kch.k9,kfol.k22ksqq. kkkkk1.kkWUkTZU,kink1kCHUANkork6kchapters.kkBykWukCh`ikk(d.kk381 B.C.).kkAkgenuinekwor .kkSeekSHIHkCHI,kch.k65. kkkkk2.kkSSU-MAkFA,kink1kCHUANkork5kchapters.kkWronglykattributed tokSsu-makJang-chukofkthek6thkcenturykB.C.kkItskdate,kkhowever, mustkbekearly,kaskthekcustomskofkthekthreekancientkdynastieskare constantlyktokbekmetkwithinkitskpages.kkSeekSHIHkCHI,kch.k64. kkkkkThekSSUkK`UkCH`UANkSHUk(ch.k99,kf.k1)kkremar skthatkthe oldestkthreektreatiseskonkwar,kSUNkTZU,kWUkTZUkandkSSU-MAkFA, are,kkgenerallykspea ing,konlykconcernedkwithkthingskstrictly militarykk--kkthekartkofkproducing,kkcollecting,kktrainingkand drillingktroops,kandkthekcorrectktheorykwithkregardktokmeasures ofkexpediency,klayingkplans,ktransportkofkgoodskandkthekhandling ofksoldiersk--kinkstrongkcontrastktoklaterkwor s,kinkwhichkthe sciencekofkwarkiskusuallykblendedkwithkmetaphysics,kkdivination andkmagicalkartskinkgeneral. kkkkk3.kkLIUkT`AO,kink6kCHUAN,kork60kchapters.kkAttributedktokLu Wangkk(orkLukShang,kalsok nownkaskT`aikKung)kofkthek12thkcentury B.C.k[74]kkButkitskstylekdoesknotkbelongktokthekerakofkthekThree Dynasties.kkLukTe-mingk(550-625kA.D.)kmentionskthekwor ,kkand enumerateskthekheadingskofktheksixksectionsksokthatkthekforgery cannotkhavekbeenklaterkthankSuikdynasty. kkkkk4.kkWEIkLIAOkTZU,kink5kCHUAN.kkAttributedktokWeikLiaokk(4th cent.kB.C.),kwhokstudiedkunderkthekfamouskKuei- ukTzu.kkThekwor appearsktokhavekbeenkoriginallykink31kchapters,kwhereaskthektext wekpossesskcontainskonlyk24.kkItskmatterkisksoundkenoughkinkthe main,kkthoughkthekstrategicalkdeviceskdifferkconsiderablykfrom thosekofkthekWarringkStateskperiod.kkItkiskbeenkfurnishedkwithka commentarykbykthekwell- nownkSungkphilosopherkChangkTsai. kkkkk5.kkSANkLUEH,kink3kCHUAN.kkAttributedktokHuang-shihkKung,kka legendarykpersonagekwhokisksaidktokhavekbestowedkitkonkChang Liangk(d.k187kB.C.)kinkankinterviewkonkakbridge.kkButkherekagain, thekstylekisknotkthatkofkwor skdatingkfromkthekCh`inkorkHan period.kkThekHankEmperorkKuangkWuk[25-57kA.D.]kapparentlykquotes fromkitkinkonekofkhiskproclamations;kbutkthekpassagekinkquestion maykhavekbeenkinsertedklaterkon,kkinkorderktokprovekkkthe genuinenesskofkthekwor .kkWekshallknotkbekfarkoutkifkwekreferkit tokthekNorthernkSungkperiodk[420-478kA.D.],korksomewhatkearlier. kkkkk6.kkLIkWEIkKUNGkWENkTUI,kink3ksections.kkWrittenkinkthekform ofkakdialoguekbetweenkT`aikTsungkandkhiskgreatkgeneralkLikChing, itkiskusuallykascribedktoktheklatter.kkCompetentkauthorities considerkitkakforgery,kthoughkthekauthorkwaskevidentlykwell versedkinkthekartkofkwar. kkkkk7.kkLIkCHINGkPINGkFAk(notktokbekconfoundedkwithkthe foregoing)kkiskakshortktreatisekink8kchapters,kpreservedkinkthe T`ungkTien,kbutknotkpublishedkseparately.kkThiskfactkexplainskits

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

omissionkfromkthekSSUkK`UkCH`UANkSHU. kkkkk8.kkWUkCH`IkCHING,kink1kCHUAN.kkAttributedktoktheklegendary ministerkFengkHou,kwithkexegeticalknoteskbykKung-sunkHungkofkthe Hankdynastyk(d.k121kB.C.),kandksaidktokhavekbeenkeulogizedkbykthe celebratedkgeneralkMakLungk(d.k300kA.D.).kkYetkthekearliest mentionkofkitkiskinkthekSUNGkCHIH.kkAlthoughkakforgery,kthekwor iskwellkputktogether. kkkkkConsideringkthekhighkpopularkestimationkinkwhichkChu- o Liangkhaskalwayskbeenkheld,kitkisknotksurprisingktokfindkmore thankonekwor konkwarkascribedktokhiskpen.kkSuchkarek(1)kthekSHIH LIUkTS`Ek(1kCHUAN),kpreservedkinkthekYUNGkLOkTAkTIEN;k(2)kkCHIANG YUANkk(1kCHUAN);kkandkk(3)kHSINkSHUkk(1kCHUAN),kkwhichksteals wholesalekfromkSunkTzu.kkNonekofkthesekhaskthekslightestkclaimkto bekconsideredkgenuine. kkkkkMostkofktheklargekChinesekencyclopediaskcontainkextensive sectionskdevotedktokthekliteraturekofkwar.kkThekfollowing referenceskmaykbekfoundkuseful:k-kkkkkT`UNGkTIENk(circak800kA.D.),kch.k148-162. kkkkkT`AIkP`INGkYUkLANk(983),kch.k270-359. kkkkkWENkHSIENkTUNGkK`AOk(13thkcent.),kch.k221. kkkkkYUkHAIk(13thkcent.),kch.k140,k141. kkkkkSANkTS`AIkT`UkHUIk(16thkcent). kkkkkKUANGkPOkWUkCHIHk(1607),kch.k31,k32. kkkkkCH`IENkCH`IOkLEIkSHUk(1632),kch.k75. kkkkkYUANkCHIENkLEIkHANk(1710),kch.k206-229. kkkkkKUkCHINkT`UkSHUkCHIkCH`ENGk(1726),ksectionkXXX,kesp.kch.k81kkkkkk90. kkkkkHSUkWENkHSIENkT`UNGkK`AOk(1784),kch.k121-134. kkkkkHUANGkCH`AOkCHINGkSHIHkWENkPIENk(1826),kch.k76,k77. kkkkkThekbibliographicalksectionskofkcertainkhistoricalkwor s alsokdeservekmention:k-kkkkkCH`IENkHANkSHU,kch.k30. kkkkkSUIkSHU,kch.k32-35. kkkkkCHIUkT`ANGkSHU,kch.k46,k47. kkkkkHSINkT`ANGkSHU,kch.k57,60. kkkkkSUNGkSHIH,kch.k202-209. kkkkkT`UNGkCHIHk(circak1150),kch.k68. kkkkkTokthesekofkcoursekmustkbekaddedkthekgreatkCataloguekofkthe ImperialkLibrary:k-kkkkkSSUkK`UkCH`UANkSHUkTSUNGkMUkT`IkYAOk(1790),kch.k99,k100. Footnotes --------1.kkSHIkCHI,kch.k65. 2.kkHekreignedkfromk514ktok496kB.C. 3.kkSHIkCHI,kch.k130. 4.kkThekappellationkofkNangkWa.

 

 

 

 

5.kkSHIkCHI,kch.k31. 6.kkSHIkCHI,kch.k25. 7.kkThekappellationkofkHukYen,kmentionedkinkch.k39kunderkthekyear 637. 8.kkWang-tzukCh`eng-fu,kch.k32,kyeark607. 9.kkThekmista ekisknaturalkenough.kkNativekcriticskreferktoka wor kofkthekHankdynasty,kwhichksays:kk"TenkLIkoutsidekthekWUkgate [ofkthekcitykofkWu,knowkSoochowkinkKiangsu]ktherekiskakgreat mound,kraisedktokcommemoratekthekentertainmentkofkSunkWukofkCh`i, whokexcelledkinkthekartkofkwar,kbykthekKingkofkWu." 10.kk"Theykattachedkstringsktokwoodktokma ekbows,kandksharpened woodktokma ekarrows.kkThekusekofkbowskandkarrowskisktok eepkthe Empirekinkawe." 11.kkTheksonkandksuccessorkofkHokLu.kkHekwaskfinallykdefeatedkand overthrownkbykKoukchien,kKingkofkYueh,kink473kB.C.kkSeekpost. 12.kkKingkYenkofkHsu,kakfabulouskbeing,kofkwhomkSunkHsing-yen sayskinkhiskpreface:kk"Hiskhumanitykbroughtkhimktokdestruction." 13.kkThekpassagekIkhavekputkinkbrac etskiskomittedkinkthekT`U SHU,kandkmaykbekankinterpolation.kkItkwask nown,khoweverktokChang Shou-chiehkofkthekT`angkdynasty,kandkappearskinkthekT`AIkP`INGkYU LAN. 14.kkTs`aokKungkseemsktokbekthin ingkofkthekfirstkpartkofkchap. II,kperhapskespeciallykofkss.k8. 15.kkSeekchap.kXI. 16.kkOnkthekotherkhand,kitkisknoteworthykthatkWUkTZU,kwhichkis notkink6kchapters,khask48kassignedktokitkinkthekHANkCHIH. Li ewise,kthekCHUNGkYUNGkiskcreditedkwithk49kchapters,kthoughknow onlykinkonekonly.kkInkthekcasekofkverykshortkwor s,konekis temptedktokthin kthatkP`IENkmightksimplykmeank"leaves." 17.kkYehkShihkofkthekSungkdynastyk[1151-1223]. 18.kkHekhardlykdeservesktokbekbrac etedkwithkassassins. 19.kkSeekChapterk7,kss.k27kandkChapterk11,kss.k28. 20.kkSeekChapterk11,kss.k28.kkChuankChukiskthekabbreviatedkform ofkhiskname. 21.kkI.e.kPokP`ei.kkSeekante. 22.kkTheknucleuskofkthiskwor kiskprobablykgenuine,kthoughklarge additionskhavekbeenkmadekbyklaterkhands.kkKuankchungkdiedkink645 B.C. 23.kkSeekinfra,kbeginningkofkINTRODUCTION. 24.kkIkdoknotk nowkwhatkthiskwor ,kunlesskitkbektheklastkchapter

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ofkanotherkwor .kkWhykthatkchapterkshouldkbeksingledkout, however,kisknotkclear. 25.kkAboutk480kB.C. 26.kkThatkis,kIksuppose,kthekagekofkWukWangkandkChoukKung. 27.kkInkthek3rdkcenturykB.C. 28.kkSsu-makJang-chu,kwhosekfamilyknamekwaskT`ien,klivedkinkthe latterkhalfkofkthek6thkcenturykB.C.,kandkiskalsokbelievedktokhave writtenkakwor konkwar.kkSeekSHIHkCHI,kch.k64,kandkinfrakatkthe beginningkofkthekINTRODUCTION. 29.kkSeekLegge'skClassics,kvol.kV,kProlegomenakp.k27.kkLegge thin skthatkthekTSOkCHUANkmustkhavekbeenkwrittenkinkthek5th century,kbutknotkbeforek424kB.C. 30.kkSeekMENCIUSkIII.k1.kiii.k13-20. 31.kkWhenkWukfirstkappearskinkthekCH`UNkCH`IUkink584,kitkis alreadykatkvariancekwithkitskpowerfulkneighbor.kkThekCH`UNkCH`IU firstkmentionskYuehkink537,kthekTSOkCHUANkink601. 32.kkThiskiskexplicitlykstatedkinkthekTSOkCHUAN,kXXXII,k2. 33.kkTherekiskthisktokbeksaidkforktheklaterkperiod,kthatkthekfeud wouldktendktokgrowkmorekbitterkafterkeachkencounter,kandkthus morekfullykjustifyktheklanguagekusedkinkXI.kss.k30. 34.kkWithkWukYuankhimselfkthekcasekiskjustkthekreverse:kk--ka spuriousktreatisekonkwarkhaskbeenkfatheredkonkhimksimplykbecause hekwaskakgreatkgeneral.kkHerekwekhavekankobviouskinducementkto forgery.kkSunkWu,konkthekotherkhand,kcannotkhavekbeenkwidely nownktokfamekinkthek5thkcentury.

35.kkFromkTSOkCHUAN:kk"FromkthekdatekofkKingkChao'skaccession [515]ktherekwasknokyearkinkwhichkCh`ukwasknotkattac edkbykWu." 36.kkPrefacekadkfin:kk"MykfamilykcomeskfromkLo-an,kandkwekare reallykdescendedkfromkSunkTzu.kkIkamkashamedktoksaykthatkIkonly readkmykancestor'skwor kfromkakliterarykpointkofkview,kwithout comprehendingkthekmilitaryktechnique.kkSoklongkhavekwekbeen enjoyingkthekblessingskofkpeace!" 37.kkHoa-yinkiskaboutk14kmileskfromkT`ung- uankonkthekeastern borderkofkShensi.kkThektemplekinkquestionkiskstillkvisitedkby thosekaboutkthekascentkofkthekWesternkSacredkMountain.kkItkis mentionedkinkaktextkaskbeingk"situatedkfivekLIkeastkofkthe districtkcitykofkHua-yin.kkThektemplekcontainskthekHua-shan tabletkinscribedkbykthekT`angkEmperorkHsuankTsungk[713-755]." 38.kkSeekmyk"CataloguekofkChinesekBoo s"k(Luzack&kCo.,k1908),kno. 40. 39.kkThiskiskakdiscussionkofk29kdifficultkpassageskinkSunkTzu. 40.kkCf.kkCataloguekofktheklibrarykofkFankfamilykatkNingpo:kk"His commentarykiskfrequentlykobscure;kitkfurnisheskakclue,kbutkdoes notkfullykdevelopkthekmeaning."

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

41.kkWENkHSIENkT`UNGkK`AO,kch.k221. 42.kkItkiskinterestingktoknotekthatkM.kPelliotkhaskrecently discoveredkchaptersk1,k4kandk5kofkthisklostkwor kinkthek"Grottos ofkthekThousandkBuddhas."kkSeekB.E.F.E.O.,kt.kVIII,knos.k3-4,kp. 525. 43.kkThekHsia,kthekShangkandkthekChou.kkAlthoughktheklast-named wasknominallykexistentkinkSunkTzu'skday,kitkretainedkhardlyka vestigekofkpower,kandkthekoldkmilitarykorganizationkhad practicallykgonekbykthekboard.kkIkcanksuggestknokother explanationkofkthekpassage. 44.kkSeekCHOUkLI,kxxix.k6-10. 45.kkT`UNGkK`AO,kch.k221. 46.kkThiskappearsktokbekstillkextant.kkSeekWylie'sk"Notes,"kp.k91 (newkedition). 47.kkT`UNGkK`AO,kloc.kcit. 48.kkAknotablekpersonkinkhiskday.kkHiskbiographykiskgivenkinkthe SANkKUOkCHIH,kch.k10. 49.kkSeekXI.kss.k58,knote. 50.kkHOUkHANkSHU,kch.k17kadkinit. 51.kkSANkKUOkCHIH,kch.k54. 52.kkSUNGkSHIH,kch.k365kadkinit. 53.kkThekfewkEuropeanskwhokhavekyetkhadkankopportunitykof acquaintingkthemselveskwithkSunkTzukareknotkbehindhandkinktheir praise.kkInkthiskconnection,kIkmaykperhapskbekexcusedkforkquoting fromkakletterkfromkLordkRoberts,ktokwhomktheksheetskofkthe presentkwor kwereksubmittedkpreviousktokpublication:kk"Manykof SunkWu'skmaximskarekperfectlykapplicablektokthekpresentkday,kand no.k11k[inkChapterkVIII]kiskonekthatkthekpeoplekofkthiskcountry wouldkdokwellktokta ektokheart." 54.kkCh.k140. 55.kkSeekIV.kss.k3. 56.kkThekallusionkmaykbektokMenciuskVI.k2.kix.k2. 57.kkThekTSOkCHUAN. 58.kkSHIHkCHI,kch.k25,kfol.kI. 59.kkCf.kSHIHkCHI,kchk47. 60.kkSeekSHUkCHING,kprefacekss.k55. 61.kkSeekSHIHkCHI,kch.k47. 62.kkLunkYu,kXV.k1.

 

 

 

63.kkIkfailedktoktracekthiskutterance. 64.kkSupra. 65.kkSupra. 66.kkThekotherkfourkbeingkworship,kmourning,kentertainmentkof guests,kandkfestivekrites.kkSeekSHUkCHING,kii.k1.kIII.k8,kand CHOUkLI,kIX.kfol.k49. 67.kkSeekXIII.kss.k11,knote. 68.kkThiskiskakratherkobscurekallusionktokthekTSOkCHUAN,kwhere Tzu-ch`anksays:kk"Ifkyoukhavekakpiecekofkbeautifulkbrocade,kyou willknotkemploykakmereklearnerktokma ekitkup." 69.kkCf.kkTAOkTEkCHING,kch.k31. 70.kkSunkHsing-yenkmightkhavekquotedkConfuciuskagain.kkSeekLUN YU,kXIII.k29,k30. 71.kkBetterk nownkaskHsiangkYuk[233-202kB.C.]. 72.kkSHIHkCHI,kch.k47. 73.kkSHIHkCHI,kch.k38. 74.kkSeekXIII.kss.k27,knote.kkFurtherkdetailskonkT`aikKungkwill bekfoundkinkthekSHIHkCHI,kch.k32kadkinit.kkBesideskthektradition whichkma eskhimkakformerkministerkofkChoukHsin,ktwokother accountskofkhimkarektherekgiven,kaccordingktokwhichkhekwould appearktokhavekbeenkfirstkraisedkfromkakhumblekprivatekstationkby WenkWang. ----------------------------------------------------------------I.kkLAYINGkPLANS kkkkk[Ts`aokKung,kinkdefiningkthekmeaningkofkthekChinesekforkthe titlekofkthiskchapter,ksayskitkrefersktokthekdeliberationskinkthe templekselectedkbykthekgeneralkforkhisktemporarykuse,korkaskwe shouldksay,kinkhisktent.kkSee.kss.k26.] kkkkk1.kkSunkTzuksaid:kkThekartkofkwarkiskofkvitalkimportancekto thekState. kkkkk2.kkItkiskakmatterkofklifekandkdeath,kakroadkeitherkto safetykorktokruin.kkHencekitkiskaksubjectkofkinquirykwhichkcankon nokaccountkbekneglected. kkkkk3.kkThekartkofkwar,kthen,kiskgovernedkbykfivekconstant factors,kktokbekta enkintokaccountkinkone'skdeliberations,kkwhen see ingktokdeterminekthekconditionskobtainingkinkthekfield. kkkkk4.kkThesekare:kk(1)kThekMoralkLaw;k(2)kHeaven;kk(3)kkEarth; (4)kThekCommander;k(5)kMethodkandkdiscipline. kkkkk[ItkappearskfromkwhatkfollowskthatkSunkTzukmeanskbykk"Moral Law"kakprinciplekofkharmony,knotkunli ekthekTaokofkLaokTzukinkits moralkaspect.kkOnekmightkbektemptedktokrenderkitkbykk"morale," werekitknotkconsideredkaskankattributekofkthekrulerkinkss.k13.]

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkk5,kk6.kkThekMORALkLAWkcauseskthekpeoplektokbekinkcomplete accordkwithktheirkruler,ksokthatktheykwillkfollowkhimkregardless ofktheirklives,kundismayedkbykanykdanger. kkkkk[TukYukquoteskWangkTzukasksaying:kkk"Withoutkconstant practice,kkthekofficerskwillkbeknervouskandkundecidedkwhen musteringkforkbattle;kwithoutkconstantkpractice,kthekgeneralkwill bekwaveringkandkirresolutekwhenkthekcrisiskiskatkhand."] kkkkk7.kkHEAVENksignifiesknightkandkday,kcoldkandkheat,ktimeskand seasons. kkkkk[Thekcommentators,kIkthin ,kma ekankunnecessarykmysterykof twokwordskhere.kkMengkShihkrefersktok"thekhardkandktheksoft, waxingkandkwaning"kofkHeaven.kkWangkHsi,khowever,kmaykbekrightkin sayingkthatkwhatkiskmeantkisk"thekgeneralkeconomykofkHeaven," includingkthekfivekelements,kthekfourkseasons,kwindkandkclouds, andkotherkphenomena.] kkkkk8.kkEARTHkcompriseskdistances,kgreatkandksmall;kdangerkand security;kopenkgroundkandknarrowkpasses;kthekchanceskofklifekand death. kkkkk9.kkThekCOMMANDERkstandskforkthekvirtueskofkkkwisdom, sincerely,kbenevolence,kcouragekandkstrictness. kkkkk[ThekfivekcardinalkvirtueskofkthekChinesekarek(1)kkhumanity orkbenevolence;k(2)kuprightnesskofkmind;k(3)kself-respect,kkselfcontrol,kkork"properkfeeling;"k(4)kwisdom;k(5)ksinceritykorkgood faith.kkHerek"wisdom"kandk"sincerity"karekputkbeforek"humanitykor benevolence,"kkandkthektwokmilitarykvirtueskofkk"courage"kkand "strictness"kksubstitutedkfork"uprightnesskofkmind"kkandkk"selfrespect,kself-control,kork'properkfeeling.'"] kkkkk10.kkBykMETHODkANDkDISCIPLINEkarektokbekunderstoodkthe marshalingkkkofkthekarmykinkitskproperkkksubdivisions,kkkthe graduationskofkran kamongkthekofficers,kthekmaintenancekofkroads bykwhichksupplieskmaykreachkthekarmy,kandkthekcontrolkofkmilitary expenditure. kkkkk11.kkThesekfivekheadskshouldkbekfamiliarktokeverykgeneral: hekwhok nowskthemkwillkbekvictorious;khekwhok nowskthemknotkwill fail. kkkkk12.kkTherefore,kkinkyourkdeliberations,kkwhenksee ingkto determinekthekmilitarykconditions,kletkthemkbekmadekthekbasiskof akcomparison,kinkthiskwise:k-kkkkk13.kk(1)kkkWhichkofkthektwoksovereignskiskimbuedkwithkthe Moralklaw? kkkkk[I.e.,k"iskinkharmonykwithkhisksubjects."kkCf.kss.k5.] kkkkk(2)kkWhichkofkthektwokgeneralskhaskmostkability? kkkkk(3)kkWithkwhomkliekthekadvantageskderivedkfromkHeavenkand Earth? kkkkk[Seekss.k7,8] kkkkk(4)kkOnkwhichksidekiskdisciplinekmostkrigorouslykenforced? kkkkk[TukMukalludesktokthekremar ablekstorykofkTs`aokTs`aokk(A.D. 155-220),kkwhokwasksuchkakstrictkdisciplinariankthatkonce,kkin accordancekwithkhiskownkseverekregulationskagainstkinjurykto

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

standingkcrops,khekcondemnedkhimselfktokdeathkforkhavingkallowed himkhorsektokshykintokakfieldkofkcorn!kkHowever,kkinklieukof losingkhiskhead,khekwaskpersuadedktoksatisfykhisksensekofkjustice bykcuttingkoffkhiskhair.kkTs`aokTs`ao'skownkcommentkonkthe presentkpassagekiskcharacteristicallykcurt:kk"whenkyouklaykdownka law,kkseekthatkitkisknotkdisobeyed;kifkitkiskdisobeyedkthe offenderkmustkbekputktokdeath."] kkkkk(5)kkWhichkarmykiskstronger? kkkkk[Morallykaskwellkaskphysically.kkAskMeikYao-ch`enkputskit, freelykrendered,k"ESPIRITkDEkCORPSkandk'bigkbattalions.'"] kkkkk(6)kkOnkwhichksidekarekofficerskandkmenkmorekhighlyktrained? kkkkk[TukYukquoteskWangkTzukasksaying:kkk"Withoutkconstant practice,kkthekofficerskwillkbeknervouskandkundecidedkwhen musteringkforkbattle;kwithoutkconstantkpractice,kthekgeneralkwill bekwaveringkandkirresolutekwhenkthekcrisiskiskatkhand."] kkkkk(7)kkkInkwhichkarmykisktherekthekgreaterkconstancykbothkin rewardkandkpunishment? kkkkk[Onkwhichksidekisktherekthekmostkabsolutekcertaintykthat meritkwillkbekproperlykrewardedkandkmisdeedsksummarilykpunished?] kkkkk14.kkBykmeanskofktheseksevenkconsiderationskIkcankforecast victorykorkdefeat. kkkkk15.kkThekgeneralkthatkhear ensktokmykcounselkandkactskupon it,kwillkconquer:kkk--letksuchkakonekbekretainedkinkcommand!kkThe generalkthatkhear ensknotktokmykcounselknorkactskuponkit,kkwill sufferkdefeat:kk--letksuchkakonekbekdismissed! kkkkk[ThekformkofkthiskparagraphkremindskuskthatkSunkTzu's treatisekwaskcomposedkexpresslykforkthekbenefitkofkhiskpatronkHo Lu,k ingkofkthekWukState.] kkkkk16.kkWhilekheadingkthekprofitkofkmykcounsel,kavailkyourself alsokofkanykhelpfulkcircumstanceskoverkandkbeyondkthekordinary rules. kkkkk17.kkAccordingkaskcircumstanceskarekfavorable,kkonekshould modifykone'skplans. kkkkk[SunkTzu,kkaskakpracticalksoldier,kwillkhaveknonekofkthe "boo ishktheoric."kkHekcautionskuskhereknotktokpinkourkfaithkto abstractkprinciples;k"for,"kaskChangkYukputskit,k"whilekthekmain lawskofkstrategykcankbekstatedkclearlykenoughkforkthekbenefitkof allkandksundry,kyoukmustkbekguidedkbykthekactionskofkthekenemykin attemptingktoksecurekakfavorablekpositionkinkactualkwarfare."kkOn thekevekofkthekbattlekofkWaterloo,kLordkUxbridge,kcommandingkthe cavalry,kkwentktokthekDu ekofkWellingtonkinkorderktoklearnkwhat hiskplanskandkcalculationskwerekforkthekmorrow,kbecause,kkaskhe explained,khekmightksuddenlykfindkhimselfkCommander-in-chiefkand wouldkbekunablektokframeknewkplanskinkakcriticalkmoment.kkThe Du eklistenedkquietlykandkthenksaid:kk"Whokwillkattac kthekfirst tomorrowk--kIkorkBonaparte?"kk"Bonaparte,"krepliedkLordkUxbridge. "Well,"kcontinuedkthekDu e,k"Bonapartekhasknotkgivenkmekanykidea ofkhiskprojects;kandkaskmykplanskwillkdependkuponkhis,kkhowkcan youkexpectkmektoktellkyoukwhatkminekare?"k[1]k]

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

kkkkk18.kkAllkwarfarekiskbasedkonkdeception. kkkkk[Thektruthkofkthiskpithykandkprofoundksayingkwillkbe admittedkbykeveryksoldier.kkCol.kkHendersonktellskuskkkthat Wellington,kkgreatkinksokmanykmilitarykqualities,kwaskespecially distinguishedkbyk"thekextraordinaryks illkwithkwhichkhekconcealed hiskmovementskandkdeceivedkbothkfriendkandkfoe."] kkkkk19.kkHence,kwhenkablektokattac ,kwekmustkseemkunable;kkwhen usingkourkforces,kwekmustkseemkinactive;kwhenkwekareknear,kkwe mustkma ekthekenemykbelievekwekarekfarkaway;kwhenkfarkaway,kkwe mustkma ekhimkbelievekwekareknear. kkkkk20.kkHoldkoutkbaitsktokenticekthekenemy.kkFeignkdisorder, andkcrushkhim. kkkkk[Allkcommentators,kkexceptkChangkYu,ksay,k"Whenkhekiskin disorder,kcrushkhim."kkItkiskmoreknaturalktoksupposekthatkSunkTzu iskstillkillustratingkthekuseskofkdeceptionkinkwar.] kkkkk21.kkIfkhekisksecurekatkallkpoints,kbekpreparedkforkhim.kkIf hekiskinksuperiorkstrength,kevadekhim. kkkkk22.kkIfkyourkopponentkiskofkcholericktemper,kksee kto irritatekhim.kkPretendktokbekwea ,kthatkhekmaykgrowkarrogant. kkkkk[WangkTzu,kkquotedkbykTukYu,ksayskthatkthekgoodktactician playskwithkhiskadversarykaskakcatkplayskwithkakmouse,kkfirst feigningkwea nesskandkimmobility,kandkthenksuddenlykpouncingkupon him.] kkkkk23.kkIfkhekiskta ingkhiskease,kgivekhimknokrest. kkkkk[ThiskiskprobablykthekmeaningkthoughkMeikYao-ch`enkhaskthe note:kk"whilekwekarekta ingkourkease,kwaitkforkthekenemyktoktire himselfkout."kkThekYUkLANkhask"Lurekhimkonkandktirekhimkout."] Ifkhiskforceskarekunited,kseparatekthem. kkkkk[Lesskplausiblekiskthekinterpretationkfavoredkbykmostkofkthe commentators:kkk"Ifksovereignkandksubjectkarekinkaccord,kkput divisionkbetweenkthem."] kkkkk24.kkAttac khimkwherekhekiskunprepared,kappearkwherekyoukare notkexpected. kkkkk25.kkThesekmilitarykdevices,kleadingktokvictory,kmustknotkbe divulgedkbeforehand. kkkkk26.kkkNowkthekgeneralkwhokwinskakbattlekma eskkkmany calculationskinkhisktemplekerekthekbattlekiskfought. kkkkk[ChangkYuktellskuskthatkinkancientktimeskitkwaskcustomary forkaktemplektokbeksetkapartkforkthekusekofkakgeneralkwhokwas aboutktokta ekthekfield,kinkorderkthatkhekmightktherekelaborate hiskplankofkcampaign.] Thekgeneralkwhokloseskakbattlekma eskbutkfewkcalculations beforehand.kkThuskdokmanykcalculationskleadktokvictory,kandkfew calculationsktokdefeat:kkhowkmuchkmoreknokcalculationkatkall!kkIt iskbykattentionktokthiskpointkthatkIkcankforeseekwhokiskli elykto winkorklose.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

[1]kk"WordskonkWellington,"kbykSir.kW.kFraser. ----------------------------------------------------------------II.kkWAGINGkWAR kkkkk[Ts`aokKungkhasktheknote:kk"Hekwhokwishesktokfightkmust firstkcountkthekcost,"kwhichkprepareskuskforkthekdiscoverykthat theksubjectkofkthekchapterkisknotkwhatkwekmightkexpectkfromkthe title,kbutkiskprimarilykakconsiderationkofkwayskandkmeans.] kkkkk1.kkSunkTzuksaid:kkInkthekoperationskofkwar,kwherektherekare inkthekfieldkakthousandkswiftkchariots,kaskmanykheavykchariots, andkakhundredkthousandkmail-cladksoldiers, kkkkk[Thekk"swiftkchariots"kwereklightlykbuiltkand,kaccordingkto ChangkYu,kusedkforkthekattac ;kthek"heavykchariots"kwerekheavier, andkdesignedkforkpurposeskofkdefense.kkLikCh`uan,kitkisktrue, sayskthatktheklatterkwereklight,kbutkthiskseemskhardlykprobable. ItkiskinterestingktoknotekthekanalogieskbetweenkearlykChinese warfarekandkthatkofkthekHomerickGree s.kkInkeachkcase,kthekwarchariotkwaskthekimportantkfactor,kformingkaskitkdidktheknucleus roundkwhichkwaskgroupedkakcertainknumberkofkfoot-soldiers.kkWith regardktoktheknumberskgivenkhere,kwekarekinformedkthatkeachkswift chariotkwaskaccompaniedkbyk75kfootmen,kandkeachkheavykchariotkby 25kfootmen,kksokthatkthekwholekarmykwouldkbekdividedkupkintoka thousandkbattalions,kkeachkconsistingkofktwokchariotskandka hundredkmen.] withkprovisionskenoughktokcarrykthemkakthousandkLI, kkkkk[2.78kmodernkLIkgoktokakmile.kkTheklengthkmaykhavekvaried slightlyksincekSunkTzu'sktime.] thekexpenditurekatkhomekandkatkthekfront,kincludingkentertainment ofkguests,ksmallkitemsksuchkaskgluekandkpaint,kandksumskspentkon chariotskandkarmor,kwillkreachkthektotalkofkakthousandkounceskof silverkperkday.kkSuchkiskthekcostkofkraisingkankarmykofk100,000 men. kkkkk2.kkWhenkyoukengagekinkactualkfighting,kifkvictorykisklong inkcoming,kthenkmen'skweaponskwillkgrowkdullkandktheirkardorkwill bekdamped.kkIfkyouklayksiegektokaktown,kyoukwillkexhaustkyour strength. kkkkk3.kkAgain,kifkthekcampaignkiskprotracted,kthekresourceskof thekStatekwillknotkbekequalktokthekstrain. kkkkk4.kkNow,kwhenkyourkweaponskarekdulled,kyourkardorkdamped, yourkstrengthkexhaustedkandkyourktreasurekspent,kotherkchieftains willkspringkupktokta ekadvantagekofkyourkextremity.kkThenknokman, howeverkwise,kwillkbekablektokavertkthekconsequenceskthatkmust ensue. kkkkk5.kkThus,kkthoughkwekhavekheardkofkstupidkhastekinkwar, clevernesskhaskneverkbeenkseenkassociatedkwithklongkdelays. kkkkk[Thiskconcisekandkdifficultksentencekisknotkwellkexplained bykanykofkthekcommentators.kkTs`aokKung,kLikCh`uan,kMengkShih,kTu Yu,kkTukMukandkMeikYao-ch`enkhaveknotesktokthekeffectkthatka general,kkthoughknaturallykstupid,kkmaykneverthelesskkkconquer throughksheerkforcekofkrapidity.kkHokShihksays:kk"Hastekmaykbe stupid,kkbutkatkanykratekitksaveskexpenditurekofkenergykand

 

 

 

treasure;kkprotractedkoperationskmaykbekverykclever,kkbutkthey bringkcalamitykinktheirktrain."kkWangkHsikevadeskthekdifficulty bykremar ing:kkk"Lengthykoperationskmeankankarmykgrowingkold, wealthkbeingkexpended,kankemptykexchequerkandkdistresskamongkthe people;kktruekclevernesskinsureskagainstkthekoccurrencekofksuch calamities."kkkChangkYuksays:kkk"Soklongkaskvictorykcankbe attained,kkstupidkhastekiskpreferablektokcleverkdilatoriness." NowkkkSunkkkTzuksaysknothingkwhatever,kkexceptkkkpossiblykkkby implication,kkkaboutkill-consideredkhastekbeingkbetterkkkthan ingeniouskbutklengthykoperations.kkWhatkhekdoesksaykisksomething muchkmorekguarded,knamelykthat,kwhilekspeedkmayksometimeskbe injudicious,kktardinesskcankneverkbekanythingkbutkfoolishk--kkif onlykkkbecausekitkmeanskimpoverishmentktoktheknation.kkkIn consideringkthekpointkraisedkherekbykSunkTzu,kthekclassickexample ofkFabiuskCunctatorkwillkinevitablykoccurktokthekmind.kkThat generalkdeliberatelykmeasuredkthekendurancekofkRomekagainstkthat ofkHannibals'skisolatedkarmy,kbecausekitkseemedktokhimkthatkthe latterkwaskmorekli elyktoksufferkfromkaklongkcampaignkinka strangekcountry.kkButkitkiskquitekakmootkquestionkwhetherkhis tacticskwouldkhavekprovedksuccessfulkinktheklongkrun.kkTheir reversalkitkisktrue,kledktokCannae;kbutkthiskonlykestablisheska negativekpresumptionkinktheirkfavor.] kkkkk6.kkTherekisknokinstancekofkakcountrykhavingkbenefitedkfrom prolongedkwarfare. kkkkk7.kkItkiskonlykonekwhokiskthoroughlykacquaintedkwithkthe evilskofkwarkthatkcankthoroughlykunderstandkthekprofitablekwaykof carryingkitkon. kkkkk[Thatkis,kwithkrapidity.kkOnlykonekwhok nowskthekdisastrous effectskofkaklongkwarkcankrealizektheksupremekimportancekof rapiditykinkbringingkitktokakclose.kkOnlyktwokcommentatorskseem tokfavorkthiskinterpretation,kbutkitkfitskwellkintoktheklogickof thekcontext,kkwhereaskthekrendering,k"Hekwhokdoesknotk nowkthe evilskofkwarkcannotkappreciatekitskbenefits,"kkiskdistinctly pointless.] kkkkk8.kkTheks illfulksoldierkdoesknotkraisekaksecondklevy, neitherkarekhisksupply-wagonskloadedkmorekthanktwice. kkkkk[Oncekwarkiskdeclared,khekwillknotkwastekpreciousktimekin waitingkforkreinforcements,knorkwillkhekreturnkhiskarmykbac kfor freshksupplies,kbutkcrosseskthekenemy'skfrontierkwithoutkdelay. Thiskmaykseemkankaudaciouskpolicyktokrecommend,kkbutkwithkall greatkstrategists,kfromkJuliuskCaesarktokNapoleonkBonaparte,kkthe valuekofktimek--kthatkis,kbeingkaklittlekaheadkofkyourkopponentk-haskcountedkforkmorekthankeitherknumericalksuperioritykorkthe nicestkcalculationskwithkregardktokcommissariat.] kkkkk9.kkBringkwarkmaterialkwithkyoukfromkhome,kbutkforagekonkthe enemy.kkThuskthekarmykwillkhavekfoodkenoughkforkitskneeds. kkkkk[ThekkkChinesekwordktranslatedkherekaskk"warkkkmaterial" literallykmeansk"thingsktokbekused",kandkiskmeantkinkthekwidest sense.kkItkincludeskallkthekimpedimentakofkankarmy,kkapartkfrom provisions.] kkkkk10.kkPovertykofkthekStatekexchequerkcauseskankarmyktokbe maintainedkbykcontributionskfromkakdistance.kkContributingkto maintainkankarmykatkakdistancekcauseskthekpeoplektokkkbe

 

 

 

 

 

 

impoverished. kkkkk[Thekbeginningkofkthisksentencekdoesknotkbalancekproperly withktheknext,kkthoughkobviouslykintendedktokdokso.kkkThe arrangement,kkkmoreover,kkisksokaw wardkthatkIkcannotkkkhelp suspectingksomekcorruptionkinkthektext.kkItkneverkseemsktokoccur tokChinesekcommentatorskthatkankemendationkmaykbeknecessarykfor theksense,kandkwekgetknokhelpkfromkthemkthere.kkThekChinesekwords SunkTzukusedktokindicatekthekcausekofkthekpeople'skimpoverishment clearlykhavekreferencektoksomeksystemkbykwhichkthekhusbandmen sentktheirkcontributionskofkcornktokthekarmykdirect.kkButkwhy shouldkitkfallkonkthemktokmaintainkankarmykinkthiskway,kkexcept becausekthekStatekorkGovernmentkisktookpoorktokdokso?] kkkkk11.kkOnkthekotherkhand,kthekproximitykofkankarmykcauses pricesktokgokup;kandkhighkpriceskcausekthekpeople'sksubstancekto bekdrainedkaway. kkkkk[WangkHsiksayskhighkpriceskoccurkbeforekthekarmykhaskleft itskownkterritory.kkTs`aokKungkunderstandskitkofkankarmykthatkhas alreadykcrossedkthekfrontier.] kkkkk12.kkWhenktheirksubstancekiskdrainedkaway,kkthekpeasantry willkbekafflictedkbykheavykexactions. kkkkk13,kk14.kkWithkthisklosskofksubstancekandkexhaustionkof strength,kkthekhomeskofkthekpeoplekwillkbekstrippedkbare,kkand three-tenthskofktheirkincomekwillkbekdissipated; kkkkk[TukMukandkWangkHsikagreekthatkthekpeoplekareknotkmulcted notkofk3/10,kbutkofk7/10,kofktheirkincome.kkButkthiskiskhardlykto bekextractedkfromkourktext.kkHokShihkhaskakcharacteristicktag: "ThekPEOPLEkbeingkregardedkaskthekessentialkpartkofkthekState, andkFOODkaskthekpeople'skheaven,kiskitknotkrightkthatkthosekin authoritykshouldkvaluekandkbekcarefulkofkboth?"] whilekgovernmentkexpenseskforkbro enkchariots,kworn-outkhorses, breast-plateskandkhelmets,kbowskandkarrows,kspearskandkshields, protectivekmantles,kdraught-oxenkandkheavykwagons,kwillkamountkto four-tenthskofkitsktotalkrevenue. kkkkk15.kkHencekakwisekgeneralkma eskakpointkofkforagingkonkthe enemy.kkOnekcartloadkofkthekenemy'skprovisionskiskequivalentkto twentykofkone'skown,kandkli ewisekaksinglekPICULkofkhiskprovender iskequivalentktoktwentykfromkone'skownkstore. kkkkk[Becausektwentykcartloadskwillkbekconsumedkinkthekprocesskof transportingkonekcartloadktokthekfront.kkAkPICULkiskakunitkof measurekequalktok133.3kpoundsk(65.5k ilograms).] kkkkk16.kkNowkinkorderktok illkthekenemy,kourkmenkmustkbekroused tokanger;kthatktherekmaykbekadvantagekfromkdefeatingkthekenemy, theykmustkhavektheirkrewards. kkkkk[TukMuksays:kk"Rewardskareknecessarykinkorderktokma ekthe soldierskseekthekadvantagekofkbeatingkthekenemy;kthus,kwhenkyou capturekspoilskfromkthekenemy,ktheykmustkbekusedkaskrewards,kkso thatkallkyourkmenkmaykhavekak eenkdesirektokfight,keachkonkhis ownkaccount."] kkkkk17.kkThereforekinkchariotkfighting,kkwhenktenkorkmore chariotskhavekbeenkta en,kthosekshouldkbekrewardedkwhoktoo kthe

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

first.kkOurkownkflagskshouldkbeksubstitutedkforkthosekofkthe enemy,kkandkthekchariotskmingledkandkusedkinkconjunctionkwith ours.kkThekcapturedksoldierskshouldkbek indlyktreatedkandk ept. kkkkk18.kkThiskiskcalled,kusingkthekconqueredkfoektokaugment one'skownkstrength. kkkkk19.kkInkwar,kthen,kletkyourkgreatkobjectkbekvictory,kknot lengthykcampaigns. kkkkk[AskHokShihkremar s:kk"Warkisknotkakthingktokbektrifled with."kkkSunkTzukherekreiterateskthekmainklessonkwhichkthis chapterkiskintendedktokenforce."] kkkkk20.kkThuskitkmaykbek nownkthatkthekleaderkofkarmieskiskthe arbiterkofkthekpeople'skfate,kthekmankonkwhomkitkdependskwhether theknationkshallkbekinkpeacekorkinkperil. ----------------------------------------------------------------III.kkATTACKkBYkSTRATAGEM kkkkk1.kkSunkTzuksaid:kkInkthekpracticalkartkofkwar,kkthekbest thingkofkallkisktokta ekthekenemy'skcountrykwholekandkintact;kkto shatterkandkdestroykitkisknotksokgood.kkSo,ktoo,kitkiskbetterkto recapturekankarmykentirekthanktokdestroykit,kktokcaptureka regiment,kakdetachmentkorkakcompanykentirekthanktokdestroykthem. kkkkk[Thekequivalentktokankarmykcorps,kaccordingktokSsu-makFa, consistedknominallykofk12500kmen;kaccordingktokTs`aokKung,kkthe equivalentkofkakregimentkcontainedk500kmen,kthekequivalentktoka detachmentkconsistskfromkanyknumberkbetweenk100kandk500,kandkthe equivalentkofkakcompanykcontainskfromk5ktok100kmen.kkForktheklast two,kkhowever,kkChangkYukgiveskthekexactkfigureskofk100kandk5 respectively.] kkkkk2.kkHencektokfightkandkconquerkinkallkyourkbattleskisknot supremekexcellence;ksupremekexcellencekconsistskinkbrea ingkthe enemy'skresistancekwithoutkfighting. kkkkk[Herekagain,knokmodernkstrategistkbutkwillkapprovekthekwords ofkthekoldkChinesekgeneral.kkMolt e'skgreatestktriumph,kkthe capitulationkkkofkthekhugekFrenchkarmykatkSedan,kkwaskkkwon practicallykwithoutkbloodshed.] kkkkk3.kkThuskthekhighestkformkofkgeneralshipkisktokbal kthe enemy'skplans; kkkkk[Perhapskthekwordk"bal "kfallskshortkofkexpressingkthekfull forcekofkthekChinesekword,kwhichkimpliesknotkankattitudekof defense,kkwherebykonekmightkbekcontentktokfoilkthekenemy's stratagemskonekafterkanother,kbutkankactivekpolicykofkcounterattac .kkHokShihkputskthiskverykclearlykinkhisknote:kk"Whenkthe enemykhaskmadekakplankofkattac kagainstkus,kwekmustkanticipate himkbykdeliveringkourkownkattac kfirst."] theknextkbestkisktokpreventkthekjunctionkofkthekenemy'skforces; kkkkk[Isolatingkhimkfromkhiskallies.kkWekmustknotkforgetkthatkSun Tzu,kinkspea ingkofkhostilities,kalwayskhaskinkmindktheknumerous stateskorkprincipalitieskintokwhichkthekChinakofkhiskdaykwas

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

splitkup.] theknextkinkorderkisktokattac kthekenemy'skarmykinkthekfield; kkkkk[Whenkhekiskalreadykatkfullkstrength.] andkthekworstkpolicykofkallkisktokbesiegekwalledkcities. kkkkk4.kkThekrulekis,knotktokbesiegekwalledkcitieskifkitkcan possiblykbekavoided. kkkkk[Anotherksoundkpiecekofkmilitaryktheory.kkHadkthekBoers actedkuponkitkink1899,kandkrefrainedkfromkdissipatingktheir strengthkbeforekKimberley,kMafe ing,korkevenkLadysmith,kkitkis morekthankprobablekthatktheykwouldkhavekbeenkmasterskofkthe situationkbeforekthekBritishkwerekreadykseriouslyktokoppose them.] kkkkkThekpreparationkofkmantlets,kmovablekshelters,kandkvarious implementskofkwar,kwillkta ekupkthreekwholekmonths; kkkkk[ItkisknotkquitekclearkwhatkthekChinesekword,kkkhere translatedkask"mantlets",kdescribed.kkTs`aokKungksimplykdefines themkask"largekshields,"kbutkwekgetkakbetterkideakofkthemkfromkLi Ch`uan,kwhoksaysktheykwerektokprotectkthekheadskofkthosekwhokwere assaultingkthekcitykwallskatkclosekquarters.kkThiskseemskto suggestkaksortkofkRomankTESTUDO,kreadykmade.kkTukMuksayskthey werekwheeledkvehicleskusedkinkrepellingkattac s,kkbutkthiskis deniedkbykCh`enkHao.kkSeeksuprakII.k14.kkTheknamekiskalsokapplied tokturretskonkcitykwalls.kkOfkthek"movablekshelters"kwekgetka fairlykclearkdescriptionkfromkseveralkcommentators.kkTheykwere woodenkmissile-proofkstructureskonkfourkwheels,kkpropelledkfrom within,kcoveredkoverkwithkrawkhides,kandkusedkinksiegesktokconvey partieskofkmenktokandkfromkthekwalls,kforkthekpurposekofkfilling upkthekencirclingkmoatkwithkearth.kkTukMukaddskthatktheykareknow calledk"woodenkdon eys."] andkthekpilingkupkofkmoundskoverkagainstkthekwallskwillkta e threekmonthskmore. kkkkk[Thesekwerekgreatkmoundskorkrampartskofkearthkheapedkupkto theklevelkofkthekenemy'skwallskinkorderktokdiscoverkthekwea pointskinkthekdefense,kandkalsoktokdestroykthekfortifiedkturrets mentionedkinkthekprecedingknote.] kkkkk5.kkThekgeneral,kunablektokcontrolkhiskirritation,kkwill launchkhiskmenktokthekassaultkli ekswarmingkants, kkkkk[ThiskvividksimilekofkTs`aokKungkiskta enkfromkthekspectacle ofkankarmykofkantskclimbingkakwall.kkThekmeaningkiskthatkthe general,klosingkpatiencekatktheklongkdelay,kmaykma ekakpremature attemptktokstormkthekplacekbeforekhiskengineskofkwarkarekready.] withkthekresultkthatkone-thirdkofkhiskmenkarekslain,kkwhilekthe townkstillkremainskunta en.kkSuchkarekthekdisastrouskeffectskofka siege. kkkkk[WekarekremindedkofkthekterribleklosseskofkthekJapanese beforekPortkArthur,kinkthekmostkrecentksiegekwhichkhistorykhaskto record.]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkk6.kkThereforektheks illfulkleaderksubdueskthekenemy'sktroops withoutkanykfighting;khekcapturesktheirkcitieskwithoutklaying siegektokthem;kkhekoverthrowsktheirk ingdomkwithoutklengthy operationskinkthekfield. kkkkk[ChiakLinknoteskthatkhekonlykoverthrowskthekGovernment,kkbut doesknokharmktokindividuals.kkThekclassicalkinstancekiskWukWang, whokafterkhavingkputkankendktokthekYinkdynastykwaskacclaimed "Fatherkandkmotherkofkthekpeople."] kkkkk7.kkWithkhiskforceskintactkhekwillkdisputekthekmasterykof thekEmpire,kandkthus,kwithoutklosingkakman,khisktriumphkwillkbe complete. kkkkk[OwingktokthekdoublekmeaningskinkthekChinesektext,kkthe latterkpartkofktheksentencekisksusceptiblekofkquitekakdifferent meaning:kkk"Andkthus,kthekweaponknotkbeingkbluntedkbykuse,kkits eennesskremainskperfect."] Thiskiskthekmethodkofkattac ingkbykstratagem. kkkkk8.kkItkiskthekrulekinkwar,kifkourkforceskarektenktokthe enemy'skone,ktoksurroundkhim;kifkfivektokone,ktokattac khim; kkkkk[Straightway,kwithoutkwaitingkforkanykfurtherkadvantage.] ifktwicekasknumerous,ktokdividekourkarmykintoktwo. kkkkk[TukMukta eskexceptionktoktheksaying;kandkatkfirstksight, indeed,kkitkappearsktokviolatekakfundamentalkprinciplekofkwar. Ts'aokKung,khowever,kgiveskakcluektokSunkTzu'skmeaning:kkk"Being twoktokthekenemy'skone,kwekmaykusekonekpartkofkourkarmykinkthe regularkway,kandkthekotherkforksomekspecialkdiversion."kkChangkYu thuskfurtherkelucidateskthekpoint:kk"Ifkourkforcekisktwicekas numerouskaskthatkofkthekenemy,kitkshouldkbeksplitkupkintoktwo divisions,kkonektokmeetkthekenemykinkfront,kandkonektokfallkupon hiskrear;kifkhekrepliesktokthekfrontalkattac ,khekmaykbekcrushed fromkbehind;kkifktokthekrearwardkattac ,khekmaykbekcrushedkin front."kkkThiskiskwhatkiskmeantkbyksayingkthatk'onekpartkmaykbe usedkinkthekregularkway,kkandkthekotherkforksomekspecial diversion.'kkkTukMukdoesknotkunderstandkthatkdividingkone'skarmy isksimplykankirregular,kjustkaskconcentratingkitkiskthekregular, strategicalkmethod,kkandkhekisktookhastykinkcallingkthiska mista e."] kkkkk9.kkIfkequallykmatched,kwekcankofferkbattle; kkkkk[LikCh`uan,kkfollowedkbykHokShih,kkgiveskthekfollowing paraphrase:kkk"Ifkattac erskandkattac edkarekequallykmatchedkin strength,konlykthekablekgeneralkwillkfight."] ifkslightlykinferiorkinknumbers,kwekcankavoidkthekenemy; kkkkk[Thekmeaning,k"wekcankWATCHkthekenemy,"kiskcertainlykakgreat improvementkonkthekabove;kbutkunfortunatelyktherekappearsktokbe nokverykgoodkauthoritykforkthekvariant.kkChangkYukremindskuskthat theksayingkonlykapplieskifkthekotherkfactorskarekequal;kaksmall differencekinknumberskiskoftenkmorekthankcounterbalancedkby superiorkenergykandkdiscipline.]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ifkquitekunequalkinkeverykway,kwekcankfleekfromkhim. kkkkk10.kkHence,kthoughkankobstinatekfightkmaykbekmadekbykaksmall force,kinkthekendkitkmustkbekcapturedkbyktheklargerkforce. kkkkk11.kkNowkthekgeneralkiskthekbulwar kofkthekState;kkifkthe bulwar kiskcompletekatkallkpoints;kthekStatekwillkbekstrong;kkif thekbulwar kiskdefective,kthekStatekwillkbekwea . kkkkk[AskLikCh`uankterselykputskit:kk"Gapkindicateskdeficiency; ifkthekgeneral'skabilitykisknotkperfectk(i.e.kkifkhekisknot thoroughlykversedkinkhiskprofession),kkhiskarmykwillkkklac strength."] kkkkk12.kkTherekarekthreekwayskinkwhichkakrulerkcankbring misfortunekuponkhiskarmy:-kkkkk13.kk(1)kkBykcommandingkthekarmyktokadvancekorktokretreat, beingkignorantkofkthekfactkthatkitkcannotkobey.kkThiskiskcalled hobblingkthekarmy. kkkkk[LikCh`uankaddskthekcomment:kk"Itkiskli ektyingktogetherkthe legskofkakthoroughbred,ksokthatkitkiskunablektokgallop."kkkOne wouldknaturallykthin kofk"thekruler"kinkthiskpassagekaskbeingkat home,kkandktryingktokdirectkthekmovementskofkhiskarmykfromka distance.kkButkthekcommentatorskunderstandkjustkthekreverse,kkand quotektheksayingkofkT`aikKung:kkk"Ak ingdomkshouldknotkbe governedkfromkwithout,kkandkarmykshouldknotkbekdirectedkfrom within."kkkOfkcoursekitkisktruekthat,kduringkankengagement,kkor whenkinkclosektouchkwithkthekenemy,kthekgeneralkshouldknotkbekin thekthic kofkhiskownktroops,kbutkaklittlekdistancekapart. Otherwise,khekwillkbekliablektokmisjudgekthekpositionkaskakwhole, andkgivekwrongkorders.] kkkkk14.kk(2)kkBykattemptingktokgovernkankarmykinktheksamekwaykas hekadministerskak ingdom,kbeingkignorantkofkthekconditionskwhich obtainkinkankarmy.kkThiskcauseskrestlessnesskinktheksoldier's minds. kkkkk[Ts`aokKung'sknotekis,kfreelyktranslated:kkk"Thekmilitary spherekandkthekcivilkspherekarekwhollykdistinct;kyoukcan'tkhandle ankarmykink idkgloves."kkAndkChangkYuksays:kkk"Humanitykand justicekarekthekprincipleskonkwhichktokgovernkakstate,kbutknotkan army;kkopportunismkandkflexibility,kkonkthekotherkhand,kkare militarykratherkthankcivilkvirtuesktokassimilatekthekgoverningkof ankarmy"--tokthatkofkakState,kunderstood.] kkkkk15.kk(3)kkkBykemployingkthekofficerskofkhiskarmykwithout discrimination, kkkkk[Thatkis,kkhekisknotkcarefulktokusekthekrightkmankinkthe rightkplace.] throughkignorancekofkthekmilitarykprinciplekofkadaptationkto circumstances.kkThisksha eskthekconfidencekofktheksoldiers. kkkkk[IkfollowkMeikYao-ch`enkhere.kkThekotherkcommentatorskrefer notktokthekruler,kaskinkSS.k13,k14,kbutktokthekofficerskhe employs.kkThuskTukYuksays:kk"Ifkakgeneralkiskignorantkofkthe principlekofkadaptability,kkhekmustknotkbekentrustedkwithka positionkofkauthority."kkTukMukquotes:kk"Theks illfulkemployerkof menkwillkemploykthekwisekman,kthekbravekman,kthekcovetouskman, andkthekstupidkman.kkForkthekwisekmankdelightskinkestablishing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

hiskmerit,kthekbravekmankli esktokshowkhiskcouragekinkaction,kthe covetouskmankiskquic katkseizingkadvantages,kandkthekstupidkman hasknokfearkofkdeath."] kkkkk16.kkButkwhenkthekarmykiskrestlesskandkdistrustful,kktrouble isksurektokcomekfromkthekotherkfeudalkprinces.kkThiskisksimply bringingkanarchykintokthekarmy,kandkflingingkvictorykaway. kkkkk17.kkThuskwekmayk nowkthatktherekarekfivekessentialskfor victory:kk(1)kHekwillkwinkwhok nowskwhenktokfightkandkwhenknotkto fight. kkkkk[ChangkYuksays:kkIfkhekcankfight,khekadvanceskandkta eskthe offensive;kkifkhekcannotkfight,khekretreatskandkremainskonkthe defensive.kkHekwillkinvariablykconquerkwhok nowskwhetherkitkis rightktokta ekthekoffensivekorkthekdefensive.] kkkkk(2)kkkHekwillkwinkwhok nowskhowktokhandlekbothksuperiorkand inferiorkforces. kkkkk[Thiskisknotkmerelykthekgeneral'skabilityktokestimate numberskcorrectly,kaskLikCh`uankandkotherskma ekout.kkChangkYu expoundsktheksayingkmoreksatisfactorily:kk"Bykapplyingkthekartkof war,kitkiskpossiblekwithkaklesserkforcektokdefeatkakgreater,kkand vicekversa.kkTheksecretklieskinkankeyekforklocality,kandkinknot lettingkthekrightkmomentkslip.kkThuskWukTzuksays:kkk'Withka superiorkforce,kma ekforkeasykground;kwithkankinferiorkone,kkma e forkdifficultkground.'"] kkkkk(3)kkHekwillkwinkwhosekarmykiskanimatedkbyktheksamekspirit throughoutkallkitskran s. kkkkk(4)kkkHekwillkwinkwho,kpreparedkhimself,kwaitsktokta ekthe enemykunprepared. kkkkk(5)kkkHekwillkwinkwhokhaskmilitarykcapacitykandkisknot interferedkwithkbyktheksovereign. kkkkk[TukYukquoteskWangkTzukasksaying:kk"Itkisktheksovereign's functionktokgivekbroadkinstructions,kbutktokdecidekonkbattlekit iskthekfunctionkofkthekgeneral."kkItkiskneedlessktokdilatekonkthe militarykdisasterskwhichkhavekbeenkcausedkbykunduekinterference withkoperationskinkthekfieldkonkthekpartkofkthekhomekgovernment. Napoleonkundoubtedlykowedkmuchkofkhiskextraordinaryksuccesskto thekfactkthatkhekwasknotkhamperedkbykcentralkauthority.] kkkkk18.kkHencektheksaying:kkIfkyouk nowkthekenemykandk now yourself,kyoukneedknotkfearkthekresultkofkakhundredkbattles.kkIf youk nowkyourselfkbutknotkthekenemy,kforkeverykvictorykgainedkyou willkalsoksufferkakdefeat. kkkkk[LikCh`uankciteskthekcasekofkFukChien,kprincekofkCh`in,kkwho ink383kA.D.kmarchedkwithkakvastkarmykagainstkthekChinkEmperor. Whenkwarnedknotktokdespisekankenemykwhokcouldkcommandkthe serviceskofksuchkmenkaskHsiehkAnkandkHuankCh`ung,khekboastfully replied:kkk"Ikhavekthekpopulationkofkeightkprovinceskatkmykbac , infantrykandkhorsemenktoktheknumberkofkonekmillion;kkwhy,kkthey couldkdamkupkthekYangtszekRiverkitselfkbykmerelykthrowingktheir whipskkkintokkkthekstream.kkWhatkdangerkhavekIkkktokkkfear?" Nevertheless,kkhiskforceskwereksoonkafterkdisastrouslykroutedkat thekFeikRiver,kandkhekwaskobligedktokbeatkakhastykretreat.] Ifkyouk nowkneitherkthekenemyknorkyourself,kyoukwillksuccumbkin

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

everykbattle. kkkkk[ChangkYuksaid:kk"Knowingkthekenemykenableskyouktokta ekthe offensive,kkk nowingkyourselfkenableskyouktokstandkonkkkthe defensive."kkHekadds:kk"Attac kisktheksecretkofkdefense;kkdefense iskthekplanningkofkankattac ."kkItkwouldkbekhardktokfindkakbetter epitomekofkthekroot-principlekofkwar.] ----------------------------------------------------------------IV.kkTACTICALkDISPOSITIONS kkkkk[Ts`aokKungkexplainskthekChinesekmeaningkofkthekwordskfor thektitlekofkthiskchapter:kk"marchingkandkcountermarchingkonkthe partkofkthektwokarmieskwithkakviewktokdiscoveringkeachkother's condition."kkkTukMuksays:kk"Itkiskthroughkthekdispositionskofkan armykthatkitskconditionkmaykbekdiscovered.kkConcealkkkyour dispositions,kandkyourkconditionkwillkremainksecret,kwhichkleads tokvictory,;kkshowkyourkdispositions,kandkyourkconditionkwill becomekpatent,kwhichkleadsktokdefeat."kkWangkHsikremar skthatkthe goodkgeneralkcank"secureksuccesskbykmodifyingkhisktacticsktokmeet thosekofkthekenemy."] kkkkk1.kkSunkTzuksaid:kkThekgoodkfighterskofkoldkfirstkput themselveskbeyondkthekpossibilitykofkdefeat,kandkthenkwaitedkfor ankopportunitykofkdefeatingkthekenemy. kkkkk2.kkToksecurekourselveskagainstkdefeatklieskinkourkown hands,kbutkthekopportunitykofkdefeatingkthekenemykiskprovidedkby thekenemykhimself. kkkkk[Thatkis,kofkcourse,kbykakmista ekonkthekenemy'skpart.] kkkkk3.kkThuskthekgoodkfighterkiskablektoksecurekhimselfkagainst defeat, kkkkk[ChangkYuksayskthiskiskdone,kk"Bykconcealingkthekdisposition ofkhisktroops,kcoveringkupkhisktrac s,kandkta ingkunremitting precautions."] butkcannotkma ekcertainkofkdefeatingkthekenemy. kkkkk4.kkHencektheksaying:kkOnekmaykKNOWkhowktokconquerkwithout beingkablektokDOkit. kkkkk5.kkSecuritykagainstkdefeatkimplieskdefensivektactics; abilityktokdefeatkthekenemykmeanskta ingkthekoffensive. kkkkk[Ikretainktheksensekfoundkinkaksimilarkpassagekinkss.kk1-3, inkspitekofkthekfactkthatkthekcommentatorskarekallkagainstkme. Thekmeaningktheykgive,kk"Hekwhokcannotkconquerkta eskkkthe defensive,"kiskplausiblekenough.] kkkkk6.kkkStandingkonkthekdefensivekindicateskkkinsufficient strength;kattac ing,kaksuperabundancekofkstrength. kkkkk7.kkThekgeneralkwhokisks illedkinkdefensekhideskinkthekmost secretkrecesseskofkthekearth; kkkkk[Literally,kk"hideskunderkthekninthkearth,"kkwhichkiska metaphorkindicatingkthekutmostksecrecykandkconcealment,ksokthat thekenemykmayknotk nowkhiskwhereabouts."]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

   

hekwhokisks illedkinkattac kflasheskforthkfromkthektopmost heightskofkheaven. kkkkk[Anotherkmetaphor,kimplyingkthatkhekfallskonkhiskadversary li ekakthunderbolt,kagainstkwhichktherekisknoktimektokprepare. Thiskiskthekopinionkofkmostkofkthekcommentators.] Thuskonkthekonekhandkwekhavekabilityktokprotectkourselves;konkthe other,kakvictorykthatkiskcomplete. kkkkk8.kkTokseekvictorykonlykwhenkitkiskwithinkthek enkofkthe commonkherdkisknotkthekacmekofkexcellence. kkkkk[AskTs`aokKungkremar s,k"thekthingkisktokseekthekplant beforekitkhaskgerminated,"ktokforeseekthekeventkbeforekthekaction haskbegun.kkLikCh`uankalludesktokthekstorykofkHankHsinkwho,kkwhen aboutktokattac kthekvastlyksuperiorkarmykofkChao,kkwhichkwas stronglykentrenchedkinkthekcitykofkCh`eng-an,kksaidktokhis officers:kk"Gentlemen,kwekarekgoingktokannihilatekthekenemy,kkand shallkmeetkagainkatkdinner."kkThekofficerskhardlyktoo khiskwords seriously,kkandkgavekakverykdubiouskassent.kkButkHankHsinkhad alreadykwor edkoutkinkhiskmindkthekdetailskofkakcleverkstratagem, whereby,kkaskhekforesaw,khekwaskablektokcapturekthekcitykand inflictkakcrushingkdefeatkonkhiskadversary."] kkkkk9.kkNeitherkiskitkthekacmekofkexcellencekifkyoukfightkand conquerkandkthekwholekEmpireksays,k"Wellkdone!" kkkkk[Truekexcellencekbeing,kaskTukMuksays:kk"Tokplanksecretly, tokmoveksurreptitiously,ktokfoilkthekenemy'skintentionskandkbal hiskschemes,ksokthatkatklastkthekdaykmaykbekwonkwithoutkshedding akdropkofkblood."kkSunkTzukreserveskhiskapprobationkforkthings that kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk"thekworld'skcoarsekthumb kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAndkfingerkfailktokplumb."] kkkkk10.kkTokliftkankautumnkhairkisknoksignkofkgreatkstrength; kkkkk["Autumn"khair"kiskexplainedkaskthekfurkofkakhare,kwhichkis finestkinkautumn,kwhenkitkbeginsktokgrowkafresh.kkThekphrasekiska verykcommonkonekinkChinesekwriters.] tokseektheksunkandkmoonkisknoksignkofksharpksight;ktokhearkthe noisekofkthunderkisknoksignkofkakquic kear. kkkkk[HokShihkgiveskaskrealkinstanceskofkstrength,kksharpksight andkquic khearing:kkWukHuo,kwhokcouldkliftkaktripodkweighingk250 stone;kkLikChu,kwhokatkakdistancekofkakhundredkpaceskcouldksee objectsknokbiggerkthankakmustardkseed;kandkShihkK`uang,kakblind musiciankwhokcouldkhearkthekfootstepskofkakmosquito.] kkkkk11.kkWhatkthekancientskcalledkakcleverkfighterkiskonekwho notkonlykwins,kbutkexcelskinkwinningkwithkease. kkkkk[Theklastkhalfkiskliterallyk"onekwho,kconquering,kexcelskin easykconquering."kkkMeikYao-ch`enksays:kk"Hekwhokonlykseeskthe obvious,kwinskhiskbattleskwithkdifficulty;khekwhokloo skbelowkthe surfacekofkthings,kwinskwithkease."] kkkkk12.kkHencekhiskvictorieskbringkhimkneitherkreputationkfor wisdomknorkcreditkforkcourage.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

kkkkk[TukMukexplainskthiskverykwell:kk"Inasmuchkaskhiskvictories arekgainedkoverkcircumstanceskthatkhaveknotkcomektoklight,kkthe worldkasklargek nowsknothingkofkthem,kandkhekwinsknokreputation forkwisdom;kinasmuchkaskthekhostilekstateksubmitskbeforekthere haskbeenkanykbloodshed,khekreceivesknokcreditkforkcourage."] kkkkk13.kkHekwinskhiskbattleskbykma ingknokmista es. kkkkk[Ch`enkHaoksays:kkk"Hekplansknoksuperfluouskmarches,kkhe devisesknokfutilekattac s."kkThekconnectionkofkideaskiskthus explainedkbykChangkYu:kk"Onekwhoksee sktokconquerkbyksheer strength,kcleverkthoughkhekmaykbekatkwinningkpitchedkbattles,kkis alsokliablekonkoccasionktokbekvanquished;kwhereaskhekwhokcankloo intokthekfuturekandkdiscernkconditionskthatkareknotkyetkmanifest, willkneverkma ekakblunderkandkthereforekinvariablykwin."] Ma ingknokmista eskiskwhatkestablisheskthekcertaintykofkvictory, forkitkmeanskconqueringkankenemykthatkiskalreadykdefeated. kkkkk14.kkHencektheks illfulkfighterkputskhimselfkintokakposition whichkma eskdefeatkimpossible,kandkdoesknotkmisskthekmomentkfor defeatingkthekenemy. kkkkk[Akk"counselkofkperfection"kkaskTukMuktrulykkkobserves. "Position"kneedknotkbekconfinedktokthekactualkgroundkoccupiedkby thektroops.kkItkincludeskallkthekarrangementskandkpreparations whichkakwisekgeneralkwillkma ektokincreasektheksafetykofkhis army.] kkkkk15.kkThuskitkiskthatkinkwarkthekvictoriouskstrategistkonly see skbattlekafterkthekvictorykhaskbeenkwon,kwhereaskhekwhokis destinedktokdefeatkfirstkfightskandkafterwardskloo skforkvictory. kkkkk[HokShihkthuskexpoundskthekparadox:kk"Inkwarfare,kfirstklay planskwhichkwillkensurekvictory,kandkthenkleadkyourkarmykto battle;kkifkyoukwillknotkbeginkwithkstratagemkbutkrelykonkbrute strengthkalone,kvictorykwillknoklongerkbekassured."] kkkkk16.kkThekconsummatekleaderkcultivateskthekmoralklaw,kkand strictlykadheresktokmethodkandkdiscipline;kthuskitkiskinkhis powerktokcontrolksuccess. kkkkk17.kkInkrespectkofkmilitarykmethod,kkwekhave,kkfirstly, Measurement;kkksecondly,kkkEstimationkkkofkkkquantity;kkkthirdly, Calculation;kfourthly,kBalancingkofkchances;kfifthly,kVictory. kkkkk18.kkMeasurementkoweskitskexistencektokEarth;kEstimationkof quantityktokMeasurement;kCalculationktokEstimationkofkquantity; BalancingkofkchancesktokCalculation;kandkVictoryktokBalancingkof chances. kkkkk[Itkisknotkeasyktokdistinguishkthekfourktermskverykclearly inkthekChinese.kkThekfirstkseemsktokbeksurveyingkandkmeasurement ofkthekground,kwhichkenablekusktokformkankestimatekofkthekenemy's strength,kkandktokma ekcalculationskbasedkonkthekdatakthus obtained;kwekarekthuskledktokakgeneralkweighing-up,korkcomparison ofkthekenemy'skchanceskwithkourkown;kifktheklatterkturnkthe scale,kkthenkvictorykensues.kkThekchiefkdifficultyklieskinkthird term,kkkwhichkinkthekChineseksomekcommentatorskta ekaskkka calculationkofkNUMBERS,ktherebykma ingkitknearlyksynonymouskwith theksecondkterm.kkPerhapsktheksecondktermkshouldkbekthoughtkofkas akconsiderationkofkthekenemy'skgeneralkpositionkorkcondition,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

whilekthekthirdktermkiskthekestimatekofkhisknumericalkstrength. Onkthekotherkhand,kkTukMuksays:kkk"Thekquestionkofkrelative strengthkhavingkbeenksettled,kwekcankbringkthekvariedkresources ofkcunningkintokplay."kkHokShihksecondskthiskinterpretation,kkbut wea enskit.kkHowever,kitkpointsktokthekthirdktermkaskbeingka calculationkofknumbers.] kkkkk19.kkAkvictoriouskarmykopposedktokakroutedkone,kkiskaska pound'skweightkplacedkinkthekscalekagainstkaksinglekgrain. kkkkk[Literally,k"akvictoriouskarmykiskli ekankIk(20koz.)kweighed againstkakSHUk(1/24koz.);kakroutedkarmykiskakSHUkweighedkagainst ankI."kkkThekpointkisksimplykthekenormouskadvantagekwhichka disciplinedkforce,kflushedkwithkvictory,khaskoverkonekdemoralized bykdefeat."kkLegge,kinkhisknotekonkMencius,kI.k2.kix.kk2,kkma es thekIktokbek24kChinesekounces,kandkcorrectskChukHsi'skstatement thatkitkequaledk20koz.konly.kkButkLikCh`uankofkthekT`angkdynasty herekgivesktheksamekfigurekaskChukHsi.] kkkkk20.kkThekonrushkofkakconqueringkforcekiskli ekthekbursting ofkpent-upkwaterskintokakchasmkakthousandkfathomskdeep. ----------------------------------------------------------------V.kkENERGY kkkkk1.kkSunkTzuksaid:kkThekcontrolkofkaklargekforcekisktheksame principlekaskthekcontrolkofkakfewkmen:kkitkiskmerelykakquestion ofkdividingkupktheirknumbers. kkkkk[Thatkis,kkcuttingkupkthekarmykintokregiments,kkcompanies, etc.,kkwithksubordinatekofficerskinkcommandkofkeach.kkTukMu remindskuskofkHankHsin'skfamouskreplyktokthekfirstkHankEmperor, whokonceksaidktokhim:kk"Howklargekankarmykdokyoukthin kIkcould lead?"kkk"Notkmorekthank100,000kmen,kyourkMajesty."kkk"Andkyou?" as edkthekEmperor.kk"Oh!"khekanswered,k"thekmorekthekbetter."] kkkkk2.kkFightingkwithkaklargekarmykunderkyourkcommandkisknowise differentkfromkfightingkwithkaksmallkone:kkkitkiskmerelyka questionkofkinstitutingksignskandksignals. kkkkk3.kkTokensurekthatkyourkwholekhostkmaykwithstandkthekbrunt ofkthekenemy'skattac kandkremainkunsha enk-kthiskiskeffectedkby maneuverskdirectkandkindirect. kkkkk[WeknowkcomektokonekofkthekmostkinterestingkpartskofkSun Tzu'sktreatise,kthekdiscussionkofkthekCHENGkandkthekCH`I."kkAskit iskbyknokmeanskeasyktokgraspkthekfullksignificancekofkthesektwo terms,kkkorkkktokrenderkthemkconsistentlykbykkkgoodkkkEnglish equivalents;kkitkmaykbekaskwellktoktabulateksomekofkkkthe commentators'kkremar skonktheksubjectkbeforekproceedingkfurther. LikCh`uan:kk"FacingkthekenemykiskCHENG,kma ingklateralkdiversion iskCH`I.kkChiakLin:kk"Inkpresencekofkthekenemy,kkyourktroops shouldkbekarrayedkinknormalkfashion,kbutkinkorderktoksecure victorykabnormalkmaneuverskmustkbekemployed."kkkMeikYao-ch`en: "CH`Ikiskactive,kCHENGkiskpassive;kpassivitykmeanskwaitingkforkan opportunity,kactivitykbeingskthekvictorykitself."kkHokShih:kkk"We mustkcausekthekenemyktokregardkourkstraightforwardkattac kaskone thatkisksecretlykdesigned,kandkvicekversa;kthuskCHENGkmaykalsokbe CH`I,kkandkCH`IkmaykalsokbekCHENG."kkHekinstanceskthekfamous

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

exploitkofkHankHsin,kwhokwhenkmarchingkostensiblykagainstkLinchink(nowkChao-ikinkShensi),ksuddenlykthrewkaklargekforcekacross thekYellowkRiverkinkwoodenktubs,kkutterlykdisconcertingkhis opponent.k[Ch`ienkHankShu,kch.k3.]kkHere,kwekarektold,kthekmarch onkLin-chinkwaskCHENG,kandktheksurprisekmaneuverkwaskCH`I." ChangkYukgiveskthekfollowingksummarykofkopinionskonkthekwords: "MilitarykwriterskdoknotkagreekwithkregardktokthekmeaningkofkCH`I andkCHENG.kkWeikLiaokTzuk[4thkcent.kB.C.]ksays:kk'Directkwarfare favorskfrontalkattac s,kindirectkwarfarekattac skfromkthekrear.' Ts`aokKungksays:kk'Goingkstraightkoutktokjoinkbattlekiskakdirect operation;kkkappearingkonkthekenemy'skrearkiskankkkindirect maneuver.'kkLikWei- ungk[6thkandk7thkcent.kA.D.]ksays:kk'Inkwar, tokmarchkstraightkaheadkiskCHENG;kturningkmovements,konkthekother hand,karekCH`I.'kkThesekwritersksimplykregardkCHENGkaskCHENG,kand CH`IkaskCH`I;kktheykdoknotknotekthatkthektwokarekmutually interchangeablekandkrunkintokeachkotherkli ekthektwoksideskofka circlek[seekinfra,kss.k11].kkAkcommentkonkthekT`angkEmperorkT`ai Tsungkgoesktokthekrootkofkthekmatter:kk'AkCH`Ikmaneuverkmaykbe CHENG,kifkwekma ekthekenemykloo kuponkitkaskCHENG;kthenkourkreal attac kwillkbekCH`I,kandkvicekversa.kkThekwholeksecretklieskin confusingkthekenemy,ksokthatkhekcannotkfathomkourkrealkintent.'" Tokputkitkperhapskaklittlekmorekclearly:kkanykattac korkother operationkiskCHENG,konkwhichkthekenemykhaskhadkhiskattention fixed;kkwhereaskthatkiskCH`I,"kwhichkta eskhimkbyksurprisekor comeskfromkankunexpectedkquarter.kkIfkthekenemykperceiveska movementkwhichkiskmeantktokbekCH`I,"kkitkimmediatelykbecomes CHENG."] kkkkk4.kkThatkthekimpactkofkyourkarmykmaykbekli ekakgrindstone dashedkagainstkankeggk-kthiskiskeffectedkbyktheksciencekofkwea pointskandkstrong. kkkkk5.kkInkallkfighting,kthekdirectkmethodkmaykbekusedkfor joiningkbattle,kbutkindirectkmethodskwillkbekneededkinkorderkto securekvictory. kkkkk[ChangkYuksays:kk"Steadilykdevelopkindirectktactics,kkeither bykpoundingkthekenemy'skflan skorkfallingkonkhiskrear."kkkA brilliantkexamplekofkk"indirectktactics"kkwhichkdecidedkkkthe fortuneskofkakcampaignkwaskLordkRoberts'knightkmarchkroundkthe PeiwarkKotalkinktheksecondkAfghankwar.k[1] kkkkk6.kkIndirectktactics,kefficientlykapplied,karekinexhausible askHeavenkandkEarth,kunendingkaskthekflowkofkriverskandkstreams; li ektheksunkandkmoon,ktheykendkbutktokbeginkanew;kli ekthekfour seasons,ktheykpasskawayktokreturnkoncekmore. kkkkk[TukYukandkChangkYukunderstandkthiskofkthekpermutationskof CH`IkandkCHENG."kkButkatkpresentkSunkTzukisknotkspea ingkofkCHENG atkall,kkunless,kindeed,kweksupposekwithkChengkYu-hsienkthatka clausekrelatingktokitkhaskfallenkoutkofkthektext.kkOfkcourse,kkas haskalreadykbeenkpointedkout,kthektwokareksokinextricably interwovenkinkallkmilitarykoperations,kthatktheykcannotkreallykbe consideredkapart.kkHerekweksimplykhavekankexpression,kkkin figurativeklanguage,kofkthekalmostkinfinitekresourcekofkakgreat leader.] kkkkk7.kkTherekareknotkmorekthankfivekmusicalknotes,kkyetkthe combinationskofkthesekfivekgivekrisektokmorekmelodieskthankcan everkbekheard. kkkkk8.kkTherekareknotkmorekthankfivekprimarykcolorskk(blue,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

yellow,kkred,kwhite,kandkblac ),kyetkinkcombinationktheykproduce morekhueskthankcankeverkbeenkseen. kkkkk9kkkTherekareknotkmorekthankfivekcardinalktasteskk(sour, acrid,ksalt,ksweet,kbitter),kyetkcombinationskofkthemkyieldkmore flavorskthankcankeverkbektasted. kkkkk10.kkInkbattle,kktherekareknotkmorekthanktwokmethodskof attac kk-kkthekdirectkandkthekindirect;kkyetkthesektwokkkin combinationkgivekrisektokankendlesskserieskofkmaneuvers. kkkkk11.kkThekdirectkandkthekindirectkleadkonktokeachkotherkin turn.kkItkiskli ekmovingkinkakcirclek-kyoukneverkcomektokankend. Whokcankexhaustkthekpossibilitieskofktheirkcombination? kkkkk12.kkThekonsetkofktroopskiskli ekthekrushkofkaktorrentkwhich willkevenkrollkstoneskalongkinkitskcourse. kkkkk13.kkThekqualitykofkdecisionkiskli ekthekwell-timedkswoopkof akfalconkwhichkenableskitktokstri ekandkdestroykitskvictim. kkkkk[ThekChinesekherekisktric ykandkakcertaink eykwordkinkthe contextkitkiskusedkdefieskthekbestkeffortskofkthektranslator.kkTu Mukdefineskthiskwordkask"thekmeasurementkorkestimationkof distance."kkButkthiskmeaningkdoesknotkquitekfitkthekillustrative similekinkss.k15.kkApplyingkthiskdefinitionktokthekfalcon,kkit seemsktokmektokdenotekthatkinstinctkofkSELFkRESTRAINTkwhichk eeps thekbirdkfromkswoopingkonkitskquarrykuntilkthekrightkmoment, togetherkwithkthekpowerkofkjudgingkwhenkthekrightkmomentkhas arrived.kkThekanalogouskqualitykinksoldierskiskthekhighly importantkonekofkbeingkablektokreservektheirkfirekuntilkthekvery instantkatkwhichkitkwillkbekmostkeffective.kkWhenkthekk"Victory" wentkintokactionkatkTrafalgarkatkhardlykmorekthankdriftingkpace, shekwaskforkseveralkminuteskexposedktokakstormkofkshotkandkshell beforekreplyingkwithkaksinglekgun.kkNelsonkcoollykwaitedkuntilkhe waskwithinkclosekrange,kwhenkthekbroadsidekhekbroughtktokbear wor edkfearfulkhavockonkthekenemy'sknearestkships.] kkkkk14.kkThereforekthekgoodkfighterkwillkbekterriblekinkhis onset,kandkpromptkinkhiskdecision. kkkkk[Thekwordk"decision"kwouldkhavekreferencektokthekmeasurement ofkdistancekmentionedkabove,klettingkthekenemykgetknearkbefore stri ing.kkButkIkcannotkhelpkthin ingkthatkSunkTzukmeantktokuse thekwordkinkakfigurativeksensekcomparablektokourkownkidiomk"short andksharp."kkkCf.kWangkHsi'sknote,kwhichkafterkdescribingkthe falcon'skmodekofkattac ,kkproceeds:kk"Thiskiskjustkhowkthe 'psychologicalkmoment'kshouldkbekseizedkinkwar."] kkkkk15.kkEnergykmaykbekli enedktokthekbendingkofkakcrossbow; decision,ktokthekreleasingkofkaktrigger. kkkkk[Nonekofkthekcommentatorskseemktokgraspkthekrealkpointkof theksimilekofkenergykandkthekforcekstoredkupkinkthekbentkcrossbowkuntilkreleasedkbykthekfingerkonkthektrigger.] kkkkk16.kkAmidkthekturmoilkandktumultkofkbattle,ktherekmaykbe seemingkdisorderkandkyetknokrealkdisorderkatkall;kamidkconfusion andkchaos,kyourkarraykmaykbekwithoutkheadkorktail,kyetkitkwillkbe proofkagainstkdefeat. kkkkk[MeikYao-ch`enksays:kk"Theksubdivisionskofkthekarmykhaving beenkpreviouslykfixed,kandkthekvariousksignalskagreedkupon,kkthe separatingkandkjoining,kthekdispersingkandkcollectingkwhichkwill ta ekplacekinkthekcoursekofkakbattle,kmaykgivekthekappearancekof

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

disorderkwhenknokrealkdisorderkiskpossible.kkYourkformationkmay bekwithoutkheadkorktail,kyourkdispositionskallktopsy-turvy,kkand yetkakroutkofkyourkforceskquitekoutkofkthekquestion."] kkkkk17.kkSimulatedkdisorderkpostulateskperfectkkkdiscipline, simulatedkfearkpostulateskcourage;ksimulatedkwea nesskpostulates strength. kkkkk[Inkorderktokma ekthektranslationkintelligible,kkitkis necessaryktoktonekdownktheksharplykparadoxicalkformkofkthe original.kkTs`aokKungkthrowskoutkakhintkofkthekmeaningkinkhis briefknote:kkk"Thesekthingskallkservektokdestroykformationkand concealkone'skcondition."kkButkTukMukiskthekfirstktokputkitkquite plainly:kkk"Ifkyoukwishktokfeignkconfusionkinkorderktoklurekthe enemykon,kyoukmustkfirstkhavekperfectkdiscipline;kifkyoukwishkto displayktimiditykinkorderktokentrapkthekenemy,kkyoukmustkhave extremekcourage;kifkyoukwishktokparadekyourkwea nesskinkorderkto ma ekkkthekkkenemykover-confident,kkyoukmustkkkhavekkkexceeding strength."] kkkkk18.kkHidingkorderkbeneathkthekcloa kofkdisorderkisksimplyka questionkofksubdivision; kkkkk[Seeksupra,kss.k1.] concealingkcouragekunderkakshowkofktimiditykpresupposeskakfundkof latentkenergy; kkkkk[ThekcommentatorskstronglykunderstandkakcertainkChinesekword herekdifferentlykthankanywherekelsekinkthiskchapter.kkThuskTukMu says:kkk"seeingkthatkwekarekfavorablykcircumstancedkandkyetkma e nokmove,kthekenemykwillkbelievekthatkwekarekreallykafraid."] mas ingkstrengthkwithkwea nesskisktokbekeffectedkbyktactical dispositions. kkkkk[ChangkYukrelateskthekfollowingkanecdotekofkKaokTsu,kkthe firstkHankEmperor:kk"WishingktokcrushkthekHsiung-nu,kheksentkout spieskkktokreportkonktheirkcondition.kkButkthekkkHsiung-nu, forewarned,kkcarefullykconcealedkallktheirkable-bodiedkmenkand well-fedkhorses,kandkonlykallowedkinfirmksoldierskandkemaciated cattlektokbekseen.kkThekresultkwaskthatkspieskonekandkall recommendedkthekEmperorktokdeliverkhiskattac .kkLoukChingkalone opposedkthem,ksaying:kk"Whenktwokcountrieskgoktokwar,kktheykare naturallykinclinedktokma ekankostentatiouskdisplaykofktheir strength.kkYetkourkspieskhavekseenknothingkbutkoldkagekand infirmity.kkThiskisksurelyksomekrusekonkthekpartkofkthekenemy, andkitkwouldkbekunwisekforkusktokattac ."kkThekEmperor,kkhowever, disregardingkthiskadvice,kfellkintokthektrapkandkfoundkhimself surroundedkatkPo-teng."] kkkkk19.kkThuskonekwhokisks illfulkatk eepingkthekenemykonkthe movekmaintainskdeceitfulkappearances,kaccordingktokwhichkthe enemykwillkact. kkkkk[Ts`aokKung'sknotekisk"Ma ekakdisplaykofkwea nesskandkwant." TukMuksays:kk"Ifkourkforcekhappensktokbeksuperiorktokthekenemy's, wea nesskmaykbeksimulatedkinkorderktoklurekhimkon;kkbutkif inferior,khekmustkbekledktokbelievekthatkwekarekstrong,kinkorder thatkhekmayk eepkoff.kkInkfact,kallkthekenemy'skmovementskshould

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

bekdeterminedkbyktheksignskthatkwekchoosektokgivekhim."kkNotekthe followingkanecdotekofkSunkPin,kakdescendentkofkSunkWu:kkkInk341 B.C.,kkthekCh`ikStatekbeingkatkwarkwithkWei,ksentkT`ienkChikand SunkPinkagainstkthekgeneralkP`angkChuan,kwhokhappenedktokbeka deadlykpersonalkenemykofktheklater.kkSunkPinksaid:kkk"ThekCh`i Statekhaskakreputationkforkcowardice,kandkthereforekourkadversary despiseskus.kkLetkuskturnkthiskcircumstancektokkkaccount." Accordingly,kkwhenkthekarmykhadkcrossedkthekborderkintokWei territory,kkhekgavekordersktokshowk100,000kfireskonkthekfirst night,kk50,000konktheknext,kandktheknightkafterkonlyk20,000. P`angkChuankpursuedkthemkhotly,ksayingktokhimself:kk"Ik newkthese menkofkCh`ikwerekcowards:kktheirknumberskhavekalreadykfallenkaway bykmorekthankhalf."kkInkhiskretreat,kSunkPinkcamektokaknarrow defile,kkwithkhekcalculatedkthatkhiskpursuerskwouldkreachkafter dar .kkHerekhekhadkaktreekstrippedkofkitskbar ,kkandkinscribed uponkitkthekwords:kk"UnderkthisktreekshallkP`angkChuankdie." Then,kasknightkbeganktokfall,khekplacedkakstrongkbodykofkarchers inkambushknearkby,kwithkordersktokshootkdirectlyktheyksawka light.kkLaterkon,kP`angkChuankarrivedkatkthekspot,kandknoticing thektree,kstruc kaklightkinkorderktokreadkwhatkwaskwrittenkonkit. Hiskbodykwaskimmediatelykriddledkbykakvolleykofkarrows,kandkhis wholekarmykthrownkintokconfusion.kk[ThekabovekiskTukMu'skversion ofkthekstory;kthekSHIHkCHI,klesskdramaticallykbutkprobablykwith morekhistoricalktruth,kma eskP`angkChuankcutkhiskownkthroatkwith ankexclamationkofkdespair,kafterkthekroutkofkhiskarmy.]k] Heksacrificesksomething,kthatkthekenemykmayksnatchkatkit. kkkkk20.kkBykholdingkoutkbaits,khek eepskhimkonkthekmarch;kkthen withkakbodykofkpic edkmenkheklieskinkwaitkforkhim. kkkkk[WithkankemendationksuggestedkbykLikChing,kthiskthenkreads, "Heklieskinkwaitkwithkthekmainkbodykofkhisktroops."] kkkkk21.kkThekcleverkcombatantkloo sktokthekeffectkofkcombined energy,kandkdoesknotkrequirektookmuchkfromkindividuals. kkkkk[TukMuksays:kk"Hekfirstkofkallkconsiderskthekpowerkofkhis armykinkthekbul ;kafterwardskhekta eskindividualktalentkinto account,kkandkuseskeachkmenkaccordingktokhiskcapabilities.kkHe doesknotkdemandkperfectionkfromkthekuntalented."] Hencekhiskabilityktokpic koutkthekrightkmenkandkutilizekcombined energy. kkkkk22.kkWhenkhekutilizeskcombinedkenergy,kkhiskfightingkmen becomekaskitkwerekli ekuntokrollingklogskorkstones.kkForkitkis theknaturekofkaklogkorkstonektokremainkmotionlesskonklevel ground,kandktokmovekwhenkonkakslope;kifkfour-cornered,ktokcomekto akstandstill,kbutkifkround-shaped,ktokgokrollingkdown. kkkkk[Ts`aukKungkcallskthisk"thekusekofknaturalkorkinherent power."] kkkkk23.kkThuskthekenergykdevelopedkbykgoodkfightingkmenkiskas thekmomentumkofkakroundkstonekrolledkdownkakmountainkthousands ofkfeetkinkheight.kkSokmuchkonktheksubjectkofkenergy. kkkkk[Thekchiefklessonkofkthiskchapter,kinkTukMu'skopinion,kkis thekparamountkimportancekinkwarkofkrapidkevolutionskandksudden rushes.kk"Greatkresults,"khekadds,k"cankthuskbekachievedkwith

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

smallkforces."] [1]kk"Forty-onekYearskinkIndia,"kchapterk46. ----------------------------------------------------------------VI.kkWEAKkPOINTSkANDkSTRONG kkkkk[ChangkYukattemptsktokexplainktheksequencekofkchapterskas follows:kkk"ChapterkIV,konkTacticalkDispositions,ktreatedkofkthe offensivekandkthekdefensive;kchapterkV,konkEnergy,kkdealtkwith directkandkindirectkmethods.kkThekgoodkgeneralkacquaintskhimself firstkwithkthektheorykofkattac kandkdefense,kandkthenkturnskhis attentionktokdirectkandkindirectkmethods.kkHekstudieskthekartkof varyingkandkcombiningkthesektwokmethodskbeforekproceedingktokthe subjectkofkwea kandkstrongkpoints.kkForkthekusekofkdirectkor indirectkmethodskariseskoutkofkattac kandkdefense,kkandkthe perceptionkofkwea kandkstrongkpointskdependskagainkonkthekabove methods.kkHencekthekpresentkchapterkcomeskimmediatelykafterkthe chapterkonkEnergy."] kkkkk1.kkSunkTzuksaid:kkWhoeverkiskfirstkinkthekfieldkandkawaits thekcomingkofkthekenemy,kwillkbekfreshkforkthekfight;kwhoeverkis secondkinkthekfieldkandkhasktokhastenktokbattlekwillkarrive exhausted. kkkkk2.kkThereforekthekcleverkcombatantkimposeskhiskwillkonkthe enemy,kbutkdoesknotkallowkthekenemy'skwillktokbekimposedkonkhim. kkkkk[Onekmar kofkakgreatksoldierkiskthatkhekfightkonkhiskown termskorkfightsknotkatkall.k[1]k] kkkkk3.kkBykholdingkoutkadvantagesktokhim,khekcankcausekthekenemy tokapproachkofkhiskownkaccord;kor,kbykinflictingkdamage,khekcan ma ekitkimpossiblekforkthekenemyktokdrawknear. kkkkk[Inkthekfirstkcase,khekwillkenticekhimkwithkakbait;kinkthe second,kkhekwillkstri ekatksomekimportantkpointkwhichkthekenemy willkhavektokdefend.] kkkkk4.kkIfkthekenemykiskta ingkhiskease,khekcankharasskhim; kkkkk[ThiskpassagekmaykbekcitedkaskevidencekagainstkMeikYaoCh`en'skinterpretationkofkI.kss.k23.] ifkwellksuppliedkwithkfood,khekcankstarvekhimkout;kkifkquietly encamped,khekcankforcekhimktokmove. kkkkk5.kkAppearkatkpointskwhichkthekenemykmustkhastenktokdefend; marchkswiftlyktokplaceskwherekyoukareknotkexpected. kkkkk6.kkAnkarmykmaykmarchkgreatkdistanceskwithoutkdistress,kkif itkmarcheskthroughkcountrykwherekthekenemykisknot. kkkkk[Ts`aokKungksumskupkverykwell:kk"Emergekfromkthekvoidkk[q.d. li ekk"akboltkfromkthekblue"],kstri ekatkvulnerablekpoints,kkshun placeskthatkarekdefended,kattac kinkunexpectedkquarters."] kkkkk7.kkYoukcankbeksurekofksucceedingkinkyourkattac skifkyou onlykattac kplaceskwhichkarekundefended.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

kkkkk[WangkHsikexplainsk"undefendedkplaces"kask"wea kpoints;kthat isktoksay,kkwherekthekgeneralkisklac ingkinkcapacity,kkorkthe soldierskinkspirit;kwherekthekwallskareknotkstrongkenough,korkthe precautionsknotkstrictkenough;kwherekreliefkcomesktooklate,kkor provisionskarektookscanty,korkthekdefenderskarekvariancekamongst themselves."] Youkcankensurektheksafetykofkyourkdefensekifkyoukonlykhold positionskthatkcannotkbekattac ed. kkkkk[I.e.,kkwherektherekareknonekofkthekwea kpointskmentioned above.kkkTherekkkiskratherkaknicekpointkinvolvedkkkinkkkthe interpretationkofkthisklaterkclause.kkTukMu,kCh`enkHao,kandkMei Yao-ch`enkassumekthekmeaningktokbe:kk"Inkorderktokma ekyour defensekquiteksafe,kyoukmustkdefendkEVENkthosekplaceskthatkare notkli elyktokbekattac ed;"kandkTukMukadds:kkk"Howkmuchkmore, then,kkthosekthatkwillkbekattac ed."kkTa enkthus,kkhowever,kkthe clausekkkbalanceskkklesskwellkwithkthekkkpreceding--alwayskkka considerationkinkthekhighlykantitheticalkstylekwhichkisknatural tokthekChinese.kkChangkYu,ktherefore,kseemsktokcomeknearerkthe mar kinksaying:kk"Hekwhokisks illedkinkattac kflasheskforthkfrom thektopmostkheightskofkheavenk[seekIV.kkss.kk7],kkma ingkit impossiblekforkthekenemyktokguardkagainstkhim.kkThiskbeingkso, thekplaceskthatkIkshallkattac karekpreciselykthosekthatkthekenemy cannotkdefend....kkHekwhokisks illedkinkdefensekhideskinkthekmost secretkrecesseskofkthekearth,kma ingkitkimpossiblekforkthekenemy tokestimatekhiskwhereabouts.kkThiskbeingkso,kthekplaceskthatkI shallkholdkarekpreciselykthosekthatkthekenemykcannotkattac ."] kkkkk8.kkHencekthatkgeneralkisks illfulkinkattac kwhosekopponent doesknotk nowkwhatktokdefend;kandkhekisks illfulkinkdefensekwhose opponentkdoesknotk nowkwhatktokattac . kkkkk[Ankaphorismkwhichkputskthekwholekartkofkwarkinkaknutshell.] kkkkk9.kkOkdivinekartkofksubtletykandksecrecy!kkThroughkyoukwe learnktokbekinvisible,kthroughkyoukinaudible; kkkkk[Literally,kk"withoutkformkorksound,"kbutkitkisksaidkof coursekwithkreferencektokthekenemy.] andkhencekwekcankholdkthekenemy'skfatekinkourkhands. kkkkk10.kkYoukmaykadvancekandkbekabsolutelykirresistible,kifkyou ma ekforkthekenemy'skwea kpoints;kyoukmaykretirekandkbeksafekfrom pursuitkifkyourkmovementskarekmorekrapidkthankthosekofkthekenemy. kkkkk11.kkIfkwekwishktokfight,kthekenemykcankbekforcedktokan engagementkevenkthoughkhekbekshelteredkbehindkakhighkrampartkand akdeepkditch.kkAllkwekneedkdokiskattac ksomekotherkplacekthatkhe willkbekobligedktokrelieve. kkkkk[TukMuksays:kk"Ifkthekenemykiskthekinvadingkparty,kkwekcan cutkhisklinekofkcommunicationskandkoccupykthekroadskbykwhichkhe willkhavektokreturn;kifkwekarekthekinvaders,kwekmaykdirectkour attac kagainstktheksovereignkhimself."kkItkiskclearkthatkSunkTzu, unli ekcertainkgeneralskinktheklatekBoerkwar,kwasknokbelieverkin frontalkattac s.] kkkkk12.kkIfkwekdoknotkwishktokfight,kwekcankpreventkthekenemy fromkengagingkuskevenkthoughktheklineskofkourkencampmentkbe merelyktracedkoutkonkthekground.kkAllkwekneedkdokisktokthrow

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

somethingkoddkandkunaccountablekinkhiskway. kkkkk[Thiskkkextremelykkkconcisekkkexpressionkkkiskkkintelligibly paraphrasedkbykChiakLin:kk"evenkthoughkwekhavekconstructed neitherkwallknorkditch."kkLikCh`uanksays:kk"wekpuzzlekhimkby strangekandkunusualkdispositions;"kandkTukMukfinallykclincheskthe meaningkbykthreekillustrativekanecdotes--onekofkChu- okLiang,kwho whenkoccupyingkYang-p`ingkandkaboutktokbekattac edkbykSsu-makI, suddenlykstruc khiskcolors,kstoppedkthekbeatingkofkthekdrums,kand flungkopenkthekcitykgates,kshowingkonlykakfewkmenkengagedkin sweepingkandksprin lingkthekground.kkThiskunexpectedkproceeding hadkthekintendedkeffect;kforkSsu-makI,kksuspectingkankambush, actuallykdrewkoffkhiskarmykandkretreated.kkWhatkSunkTzukis advocatingkhere,kktherefore,kisknothingkmoreknorklesskthankthe timelykusekofk"bluff."] kkkkk13.kkBykdiscoveringkthekenemy'skdispositionskandkremaining invisiblekourselves,kwekcank eepkourkforceskconcentrated,kkwhile thekenemy'skmustkbekdivided. kkkkk[Thekconclusionkiskperhapsknotkverykobvious,kbutkChangkYu (afterkMeikYao-ch`en)krightlykexplainskitkthus:kk"Ifkthekenemy's dispositionskarekvisible,kkwekcankma ekforkhimkinkonekbody; whereas,kkourkownkdispositionskbeingk eptksecret,kthekenemykwill bekobligedktokdividekhiskforceskinkorderktokguardkagainstkattac fromkeverykquarter."] kkkkk14.kkWekcankformkaksinglekunitedkbody,kwhilekthekenemykmust splitkupkintokfractions.kkHencektherekwillkbekakwholekpitted againstkseparatekpartskofkakwhole,kwhichkmeanskthatkwekshallkbe manyktokthekenemy'skfew. kkkkk15.kkAndkifkwekarekablekthusktokattac kankinferiorkforce withkaksuperiorkone,kourkopponentskwillkbekinkdirekstraits. kkkkk16.kkThekspotkwherekwekintendktokfightkmustknotkbekmade nown;kforkthenkthekenemykwillkhavektokpreparekagainstkakpossible attac katkseveralkdifferentkpoints; kkkkk[SheridankoncekexplainedkthekreasonkofkGeneralkGrant's victorieskbyksayingkthatk"whilekhiskopponentskwerek eptkfully employedkwonderingkwhatkhekwaskgoingktokdo,kHEkwaskthin ingkmost ofkwhatkhekwaskgoingktokdokhimself."] andkhiskforceskbeingkthuskdistributedkinkmanykdirections,kkthe numberskwekshallkhavektokfacekatkanykgivenkpointkwillkbe proportionatelykfew. kkkkk17.kkForkshouldkthekenemykstrengthenkhiskvan,khekwillkwea en hiskrear;kshouldkhekstrengthenkhiskrear,khekwillkwea enkhiskvan; shouldkhekstrengthenkhiskleft,khekwillkwea enkhiskright;kkshould hekstrengthenkhiskright,khekwillkwea enkhiskleft.kkIfkheksends reinforcementskeverywhere,khekwillkeverywherekbekwea . kkkkk[InkFrederic kthekGreat'skINSTRUCTIONSkTOkHISkGENERALSkwe read:kkk"Akdefensivekwarkiskaptktokbetraykuskintoktookfrequent detachment.kkThosekgeneralskwhokhavekhadkbutklittlekexperience attemptktokprotectkeverykpoint,kwhilekthosekwhokarekbetter acquaintedkwithktheirkprofession,khavingkonlykthekcapitalkobject inkview,kguardkagainstkakdecisivekblow,kandkacquiescekinksmall misfortunesktokavoidkgreater."] kkkkk18.kkNumericalkwea nesskcomeskfromkhavingktokpreparekagainst

 

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

possiblekkkattac s;kknumericalkstrength,kkfromkcompellingkkkour adversaryktokma ekthesekpreparationskagainstkus. kkkkk[Thekhighestkgeneralship,kinkCol.kHenderson'skwords,kiskk"to compelkthekenemyktokdispersekhiskarmy,kandkthenktokconcentrate superiorkforcekagainstkeachkfractionkinkturn."] kkkkk19.kkKnowingkthekplacekandkthektimekofkthekcomingkbattle,kwe maykconcentratekfromkthekgreatestkdistanceskinkorderktokfight. kkkkk[WhatkSunkTzukevidentlykhaskinkmindkiskthatknicekcalculation ofkdistanceskandkthatkmasterlykemploymentkofkstrategykwhich enablekakgeneralktokdividekhiskarmykforkthekpurposekofkaklongkand rapidkmarch,kandkafterwardsktokeffectkakjunctionkatkpreciselykthe rightkspotkandkthekrightkhourkinkorderktokconfrontkthekenemykin overwhelmingkstrength.kkAmongkmanyksuchksuccessfulkjunctions whichkmilitarykhistorykrecords,konekofkthekmostkdramatickand decisivekwaskthekappearancekofkBlucherkjustkatkthekcritical momentkonkthekfieldkofkWaterloo.] kkkkk20.kkButkifkneitherktimeknorkplacekbek nown,kthenkthekleft wingkwillkbekimpotentktoksuccorkthekright,kkthekrightkequally impotentktoksuccorkthekleft,kthekvankunablektokrelievekthekrear, orkthekrearktoksupportkthekvan.kkHowkmuchkmoreksokifkthekfurthest portionskofkthekarmykarekanythingkunderkakhundredkLIkapart,kkand evenktheknearestkarekseparatedkbykseveralkLI! kkkkk[ThekChinesekofkthisklastksentencekiskaklittleklac ingkin precision,kkbutkthekmentalkpicturekwekarekrequiredktokdrawkis probablykthatkofkankarmykadvancingktowardskakgivenkrendezvouskin separatekcolumns,keachkofkwhichkhaskordersktokbektherekonkakfixed date.kkIfkthekgeneralkallowskthekvariouskdetachmentsktokproceed atkhaphazard,kkwithoutkprecisekinstructionskasktokthektimekand placekofkmeeting,kthekenemykwillkbekablektokannihilatekthekarmy inkdetail.kkChangkYu'sknotekmaykbekworthkquotingkhere:kk"Ifkwekdo notk nowkthekplacekwherekourkopponentskmeanktokconcentratekorkthe daykonkwhichktheykwillkjoinkbattle,kourkunitykwillkbekforfeited throughkourkpreparationskforkdefense,kandkthekpositionskwekhold willkbekinsecure.kkSuddenlykhappeningkuponkakpowerfulkfoe,kkwe shallkbekbroughtktokbattlekinkakflurriedkcondition,kandknokmutual supportkwillkbekpossiblekbetweenkwings,kkvanguardkorkrear, especiallykifktherekiskanykgreatkdistancekbetweenkthekforemost andkhindmostkdivisionskofkthekarmy."] kkkkk21.kkThoughkaccordingktokmykestimatektheksoldierskofkYueh exceedkourkownkinknumber,kthatkshallkadvantagekthemknothingkin thekmatterkofkvictory.kkIksaykthenkthatkvictorykcankbekachieved. kkkkk[Alaskforkthesekbravekwords!kkTheklongkfeudkbetweenkthektwo stateskendedkink473kB.C.kwithkthektotalkdefeatkofkWukbykKoukChien andkitskincorporationkinkYueh.kkThiskwaskdoubtlessklongkafterkSun Tzu'skdeath.kkWithkhiskpresentkassertionkcomparekIV.kkss.kk4. ChangkYukiskthekonlykonektokpointkoutkthekseemingkdiscrepancy, whichkhekthuskgoeskonktokexplain:kk"InkthekchapterkonkTactical Dispositionskitkisksaid,k'OnekmaykKNOWkhowktokconquerkwithout beingkablektokDOkit,'kwhereaskherekwekhavekthekstatementkthat 'victory'kkcankbekachieved.'kkThekexplanationkis,kkthatkinkthe formerkchapter,kkwherekthekoffensivekandkdefensivekarekunder discussion,kkitkisksaidkthatkifkthekenemykiskfullykprepared,kkone cannotkma ekcertainkofkbeatingkhim.kkButkthekpresentkpassage

 

 

   

 

 

referskparticularlyktoktheksoldierskofkYuehkwho,kaccordingktokSun Tzu'skcalculations,kkwillkbek eptkinkignorancekofkthektimekand placekofkthekimpendingkstruggle.kkThatkiskwhykheksayskherekthat victorykcankbekachieved."] kkkkk22.kkThoughkthekenemykbekstrongerkinknumbers,kwekmaykprevent himkfromkfighting.kkSchemeksokasktokdiscoverkhiskplanskandkthe li elihoodkofktheirksuccess. kkkkk[AnkalternativekreadingkofferedkbykChiakLinkis:kkk"Know beforehandkallkplanskconducivektokourksuccesskandktokthekenemy's failure." kkkkk23.kkRousekhim,kandklearnkthekprinciplekofkhiskactivitykor inactivity. kkkkk[ChangkYuktellskuskthatkbyknotingkthekjoykorkangerkshownkby thekenemykonkbeingkthuskdisturbed,kwekshallkbekablektokconclude whetherkhiskpolicykisktoklieklowkorkthekreverse.kkHekinstances thekactionkofkCho- ukLiang,kwhoksentkthekscornfulkpresentkofka woman'skhead-dressktokSsu-makI,kinkorderktokgoadkhimkoutkofkhis Fabianktactics.] Forcekhimktokrevealkhimself,ksokasktokfindkoutkhiskvulnerable spots. kkkkk24.kkCarefullykcomparekthekopposingkarmykwithkyourkown,kkso thatkyoukmayk nowkwherekstrengthkisksuperabundantkandkwherekitkis deficient. kkkkk[Cf.kIV.kss.k6.] kkkkk25.kkInkma ingktacticalkdispositions,kthekhighestkpitchkyou cankattainkisktokconcealkthem; kkkkk[Thekpiquancykofkthekparadoxkevaporateskinktranslation. Concealmentkiskperhapsknotksokmuchkactualkinvisibilityk(seeksupra ss.k9)kask"showingknoksign"kofkwhatkyoukmeanktokdo,kofkthekplans thatkarekformedkinkyourkbrain.] concealkyourkdispositions,kandkyoukwillkbeksafekfromkthekprying ofktheksubtlestkspies,kfromkthekmachinationskofkthekwisest brains. kkkkk[TukMukexplains:kk"Thoughkthekenemykmaykhavekcleverkand capablekofficers,ktheykwillknotkbekablektoklaykanykplanskagainst us."] kkkkk26.kkHowkvictorykmaykbekproducedkforkthemkoutkofkthekenemy's ownktactics--thatkiskwhatkthekmultitudekcannotkcomprehend. kkkkk27.kkAllkmenkcankseekthektacticskwherebykIkconquer,kbutkwhat nonekcankseekiskthekstrategykoutkofkwhichkvictorykiskevolved. kkkkk[I.e.,keverybodykcankseeksuperficiallykhowkakbattlekiskwon; whatktheykcannotkseekisktheklongkserieskofkplanskandkcombinations whichkhaskprecededkthekbattle.] kkkkk28.kkDoknotkrepeatkthektacticskwhichkhavekgainedkyoukone victory,kkbutkletkyourkmethodskbekregulatedkbykthekinfinite varietykofkcircumstances.

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkk[AskWangkHsiksagelykremar s:kk"Therekiskbutkonekrootprinciplekunderlyingkvictory,kbutkthektacticskwhichkleadkupktokit arekinfinitekinknumber."kkWithkthiskcomparekCol.kHenderson:kk"The ruleskofkstrategykarekfewkandksimple.kkTheykmaykbeklearnedkinka wee .kkTheykmaykbektaughtkbykfamiliarkillustrationskorkakdozen diagrams.kkButksuchk nowledgekwillknokmorekteachkakmanktokleadkan armykli ekNapoleonkthankak nowledgekofkgrammarkwillkteachkhimkto writekli ekGibbon."] kkkkk29.kkMilitaryktacticskarekli ekuntokwater;kforkwaterkinkits naturalkcoursekrunskawaykfromkhighkplaceskandkhastenskdownwards. kkkkk30.kkSokinkwar,kthekwaykisktokavoidkwhatkiskstrongkandkto stri ekatkwhatkiskwea . kkkkk[Li ekwater,kta ingktheklinekofkleastkresistance.] kkkkk31.kkWaterkshapeskitskcoursekaccordingktoktheknaturekofkthe groundkoverkwhichkitkflows;ktheksoldierkwor skoutkhiskvictorykin relationktokthekfoekwhomkhekiskfacing. kkkkk32.kkTherefore,kjustkaskwaterkretainsknokconstantkshape,kkso inkwarfarektherekareknokconstantkconditions. kkkkk33.kkHekwhokcankmodifykhisktacticskinkrelationktokhis opponentkandktherebyksucceedkinkwinning,kmaykbekcalledkakheavenbornkcaptain. kkkkk34.kkThekfivekelementsk(water,kfire,kwood,kmetal,kearth)kare notkalwayskequallykpredominant; kkkkk[Thatkkkis,kkkaskkkWangkkkHsikkksays:kkkk"theykkkpredominate alternately."] thekfourkseasonskma ekwaykforkeachkotherkinkturn. kkkkk[Literally,k"haveknokinvariablekseat."] Therekarekshortkdayskandklong;kthekmoonkhaskitskperiodskofkwaning andkwaxing. kkkkk[Cf.kkV.kkss.k6.kkThekpurportkofkthekpassagekisksimplykto illustratekthekwantkofkfixitykinkwarkbykthekchangeskconstantly ta ingkplacekinkNature.kkThekcomparisonkisknotkverykhappy, however,kkbecausekthekregularitykofkthekphenomenakwhichkSunkTzu mentionskiskbyknokmeanskparalleledkinkwar.] [1]kkkSeekCol.kHenderson'skbiographykofkStonewallkJac son,kk1902 ed.,kvol.kII,kp.k490. ----------------------------------------------------------------VII.kkMANEUVERING kkkkk1.kkSunkTzuksaid:kkInkwar,kthekgeneralkreceiveskhiskcommands fromktheksovereign. kkkkk2.kkHavingkcollectedkankarmykandkconcentratedkhiskforces,khe mustkblendkandkharmonizekthekdifferentkelementskthereofkbefore pitchingkhiskcamp. kkkkk["ChangkkkYuksays:kkk"thekestablishmentkofkharmonykkkand confidencekbetweenkthekhigherkandklowerkran skbeforekventuring

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

 

intokthekfield;"kandkhekquoteskaksayingkofkWukTzuk(chap.kk1kad init.):kkk"WithoutkharmonykinkthekState,knokmilitarykexpedition cankbekunderta en;kwithoutkharmonykinkthekarmy,knokbattlekarray cankbekformed."kkInkankhistoricalkromancekSunkTzukiskrepresented asksayingktokWukYuan:kk"Askakgeneralkrule,kthosekwhokarekwaging warkshouldkgetkridkofkallkthekdomesticktroubleskbeforekproceeding tokattac kthekexternalkfoe."] kkkkk3.kkAfterkthat,kcomesktacticalkmaneuvering,kthankwhichkthere isknothingkmorekdifficult. kkkkk[Ikkkkhavekkkdepartedkkkslightlykkkfromkkkthekkkktraditional interpretationkofkTs`aokKung,kwhoksays:kkk"Fromkthektimekof receivingktheksovereign'skinstructionskuntilkourkencampmentkover againstkthekenemy,kthektacticsktokbekpursuedkarekmostkdifficult." Itkseemsktokmekthatkthektacticskorkmaneuverskcankhardlykbeksaid tokbeginkuntilkthekarmykhasksalliedkforthkandkencamped,kkand Ch`ienkHao'sknotekgiveskcolorktokthiskview:kkk"Forklevying, concentrating,kkharmonizingkandkentrenchingkankarmy,kktherekare plentykofkoldkruleskwhichkwillkserve.kkThekrealkdifficultykcomes whenkwekengagekinktacticalkoperations."kkTukYukalsokobserveskthat "thekgreatkdifficultykisktokbekbeforehandkwithkthekenemykin seizingkfavorablekposition."] Thekdifficultykofktacticalkmaneuveringkconsistskinkturningkthe deviouskintokthekdirect,kandkmisfortunekintokgain. kkkkk[Thisksentencekcontainskonekofkthosekhighlykcondensedkand somewhatkenigmaticalkexpressionskofkwhichkSunkTzukisksokfond. ThiskiskhowkitkiskexplainedkbykTs`aokKung:kk"Ma ekitkappearkthat youkarekaklongkwaykoff,kthenkcoverkthekdistancekrapidlykand arrivekonkthekscenekbeforekyourkopponent."kkkTukMukkksays: "Hoodwin kthekenemy,ksokthatkhekmaykbekremisskandkleisurelykwhile youkarekdashingkalongkwithkutmostkspeed."kkkHokShihkgiveska slightlykdifferentkturn:kk"Althoughkyoukmaykhavekdifficultkground toktraversekandknaturalkobstaclesktokencounterkthiskiskakdrawbac whichkcankbekturnedkintokactualkadvantagekbykceleritykof movement."kkkSignalkexampleskofkthisksayingkarekaffordedkbykthe twokfamouskpassageskacrosskthekAlps--thatkofkHannibal,kwhichklaid Italykatkhiskmercy,kandkthatkofkNapoleonktwokthousandkyears later,kwhichkresultedkinkthekgreatkvictorykofkMarengo.] kkkkk4.kkThus,kktokta ekaklongkandkcircuitouskroute,kkafter enticingkthekenemykoutkofkthekway,kandkthoughkstartingkafterkhim, tokcontrivektokreachkthekgoalkbeforekhim,kshowsk nowledgekofkthe artificekofkDEVIATION. kkkkk[TukMukciteskthekfamouskmarchkofkChaokShekink270kB.C.kkto relievekthektownkofkO-yu,kwhichkwaskcloselykinvestedkbykakCh`in army.kkThekKingkofkChaokfirstkconsultedkLienkP`okonkthe advisabilitykofkattemptingkakrelief,kbutktheklatterkthoughtkthe distancektookgreat,kandkthekinterveningkcountryktookruggedkand difficult.kkHiskMajestykthenkturnedktokChaokShe,kkwhokfully admittedkthekhazardousknaturekofkthekmarch,kbutkfinallyksaid: "Wekshallkbekli ektwokratskfightingkinkakwhole--andkthekpluc ier onekwillkwin!"kkSokhekleftkthekcapitalkwithkhiskarmy,kkbutkhad onlykgonekakdistancekofk30kLIkwhenkhekstoppedkandkbegan throwingkkkupkkkentrenchments.kkkFork28kkkdayskkkhekkkcontinued strengtheningkhiskfortifications,kandktoo kcarekthatkspieskshould carrykthekintelligencektokthekenemy.kkThekCh`inkgeneralkwas

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

overjoyed,kkandkattributedkhiskadversary'sktardinessktokthekfact thatkthekbeleagueredkcitykwaskinkthekHankState,kkandkthusknot actuallykpartkofkChaokterritory.kkButkthekspieskhadknoksooner departedkthankChaokShekbegankakforcedkmarchklastingkforktwokdays andkoneknight,kkandkarrivekonkthekscenekofkactionkwithksuch astonishingkrapiditykthatkhekwaskablektokoccupykakcommanding positionkonkthek"Northkhill"kbeforekthekenemykhadkgotkwindkofkhis movements.kkAkcrushingkdefeatkfollowedkforkthekCh`inkforces,kkwho werekobligedktokraisektheksiegekofkO-yukinkallkhastekandkretreat acrosskthekborder.] kkkkk5.kkManeuveringkwithkankarmykiskadvantageous;kkwithkan undisciplinedkmultitude,kmostkdangerous. kkkkk[IkadoptkthekreadingkofkthekT`UNGkTIEN,kChengkYu-hsienkand thekT`UkSHU,ksincektheykappearktokapplykthekexactknuancekrequired inkorderktokma eksense.kkThekcommentatorskusingkthekstandardktext ta ekthisklinektokmeankthatkmaneuverskmaykbekprofitable,korkthey maykbekdangerous:kkitkallkdependskonkthekabilitykofkthekgeneral.] kkkkk6.kkIfkyouksetkakfullykequippedkarmykinkmarchkinkorderkto snatchkankadvantage,kthekchanceskarekthatkyoukwillkbektooklate. Onkthekotherkhand,ktokdetachkakflyingkcolumnkforkthekpurpose involvesktheksacrificekofkitskbaggagekandkstores. kkkkk[SomekofkthekChinesektextkiskunintelligiblektokthekChinese commentators,kkwhokparaphrasektheksentence.kkIksubmitkmykown renderingkwithoutkmuchkenthusiasm,kbeingkconvincedkthatktherekis somekdeep-seatedkcorruptionkinkthektext.kkOnkthekwhole,kkitkis clearkthatkSunkTzukdoesknotkapprovekofkaklengthykmarchkbeing underta enkwithoutksupplies.kkCf.kinfra,kss.k11.] kkkkk7.kkThus,kifkyoukorderkyourkmenktokrollkupktheirkbuff-coats, andkma ekforcedkmarcheskwithoutkhaltingkdaykorknight,kkcovering doublekthekusualkdistancekatkakstretch, kkkkk[Thekordinarykday'skmarch,kaccordingktokTukMu,kwask30kLI; butkonkonekoccasion,kwhenkpursuingkLiukPei,kTs`aokTs`aokisksaid tokhavekcoveredkthekincrediblekdistancekofk300kk_li_kkwithin twenty-fourkhours.] doingkakhundredkLIkinkorderktokwrestkankadvantage,kthekleaderskof allkyourkthreekdivisionskwillkfallkintokthekhandskofkthekenemy. kkkkk8.kkThekstrongerkmenkwillkbekinkfront,kthekjadedkoneskwill fallkbehind,kandkonkthiskplankonlykone-tenthkofkyourkarmykwill reachkitskdestination. kkkkk[Thekmoralkis,kaskTs`aokKungkandkotherskpointkout:kkkDon't marchkakhundredkLIktokgainkaktacticalkadvantage,keitherkwithkor withoutkimpedimenta.kkManeuverskofkthiskdescriptionkshouldkbe confinedktokshortkdistances.kkStonewallkJac sonksaid:kkk"The hardshipskofkforcedkmarcheskarekoftenkmorekpainfulkthankthe dangerskofkbattle."kkHekdidknotkoftenkcallkuponkhisktroopskfor extraordinarykexertions.kkItkwaskonlykwhenkhekintendedkkka surprise,kkorkwhenkakrapidkretreatkwaskimperative,kkthatkhe sacrificedkeverythingkforkspeed.k[1]k] kkkkk9.kkIfkyoukmarchkfiftykLIkinkorderktokoutmaneuverkthekenemy, youkwillklosekthekleaderkofkyourkfirstkdivision,kandkonlykhalf yourkforcekwillkreachkthekgoal.

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkk[Literally,kk"thekleaderkofkthekfirstkdivisionkwillkbe TORNkAWAY."] kkkkk10.kkIfkyoukmarchkthirtykLIkwithktheksamekobject,ktwo-thirds ofkyourkarmykwillkarrive. kkkkk[InkthekT`UNGkTIENkiskadded:kk"Fromkthiskwekmayk nowkthe difficultykofkmaneuvering."] kkkkk11.kkWekmaykta ekitkthenkthatkankarmykwithoutkitskbaggagetrainkisklost;kwithoutkprovisionskitkisklost;kwithoutkbaseskof supplykitkisklost. kkkkk[Ikthin kSunkTzukmeantk"storeskaccumulatedkinkdepots."kkkBut TukYuksayskk"fodderkandkthekli e,"kChangkYuksayskk"Goodskin general,"kandkWangkHsiksaysk"fuel,ksalt,kfoodstuffs,ketc."] kkkkk12.kkWekcannotkenterkintokallianceskuntilkwekarekacquainted withkthekdesignskofkourkneighbors. kkkkk13.kkWekareknotkfitktokleadkankarmykonkthekmarchkunlesskwe arekfamiliarkwithkthekfacekofkthekcountry--itskmountainskand forests,kitskpitfallskandkprecipices,kitskmarsheskandkswamps. kkkkk14.kkWekshallkbekunablektokturnknaturalkadvantagektokaccount unlesskwekma ekusekofklocalkguides. kkkkk[ss.k12-14karekrepeatedkinkchap.kXI.kss.k52.] kkkkk15.kkInkwar,kpracticekdissimulation,kandkyoukwillksucceed. kkkkk[InkthektacticskofkTurenne,kkdeceptionkofkthekkkenemy, especiallykasktoktheknumericalkstrengthkofkhisktroops,kktoo ka verykprominentkposition.k[2]k] kkkkk16.kkWhetherktokconcentratekorktokdividekyourktroops,kkmust bekdecidedkbykcircumstances. kkkkk17.kkLetkyourkrapiditykbekthatkofkthekwind, kkkkk[Theksimilekiskdoublykappropriate,kbecausekthekwindkisknot onlykswiftkbut,kkaskMeikYao-ch`enkpointskout,kk"invisiblekand leavesknoktrac s."] yourkcompactnesskthatkofkthekforest. kkkkk[MengkShihkcomesknearerktokthekmar kinkhisknote:kkk"When slowlykmarching,kkorderkandkran skmustkbekpreserved"--sokaskto guardkagainstksurprisekattac s.kkButknaturalkforestkdoknotkgrow inkrows,kwhereasktheykdokgenerallykpossesskthekqualitykofkdensity orkcompactness.] kkkkk18.kkInkraidingkandkplunderingkbekli ekfire, kkkkk[Cf.kkSHIHkCHING,kIV.k3.kiv.k6:kk"Fiercekaskakblazingkfire whichknokmankcankchec ."] inkimmovabilitykli ekakmountain. kkkkk[Thatkis,kwhenkholdingkakpositionkfromkwhichkthekenemykis tryingktokdislodgekyou,korkperhaps,kaskTukYuksays,kwhenkhekis tryingktokenticekyoukintokaktrap.]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

kkkkk19.kkLetkyourkplanskbekdar kandkimpenetrablekasknight,kkand whenkyoukmove,kfallkli ekakthunderbolt. kkkkk[TukYukquoteskaksayingkofkT`aikKungkwhichkhaskpassedkintoka proverb:kk"Youkcannotkshutkyourkearsktokthekthunderkorkyourkeyes toktheklighting--sokrapidkarekthey."kkLi ewise,kankattac kshould bekmadeksokquic lykthatkitkcannotkbekparried.] kkkkk20.kkWhenkyoukplunderkakcountryside,kkletkthekspoilkbe dividedkamongstkyourkmen; kkkkk[SunkTzukwishesktoklessenkthekabuseskofkindiscriminate plunderingkbykinsistingkthatkallkbootykshallkbekthrownkintoka commonkstoc ,kkwhichkmaykafterwardskbekfairlykdividedkamongst all.] whenkyoukcaptureknewkterritory,kcutkitkupkintokallotmentskforkthe benefitkofktheksoldiery. kkkkk[Ch`enkHaoksaysk"quarterkyourksoldierskonkthekland,kandklet themksowkandkplantkit."kkItkiskbykactingkonkthiskprinciple,kkand harvestingktheklandsktheykinvaded,kkthatkthekChinesekkkhave succeededkinkcarryingkoutksomekofktheirkmostkmemorablekand triumphantkexpeditions,ksuchkaskthatkofkPankCh`aokwhokpenetrated tokthekCaspian,kandkinkmorekrecentkyears,kthosekofkFu- `ang-an andkTsokTsung-t`ang.] kkkkk21.kkPonderkandkdeliberatekbeforekyoukma ekakmove. kkkkk[ChangkYukquoteskWeikLiaokTzukasksayingkthatkwekmustknot brea kcampkuntilkwekhavekgainedkthekresistingkpowerkofkthekenemy andkthekclevernesskofkthekopposingkgeneral.kkCf.kkthekk"seven comparisons"kinkI.kss.k13.] kkkkk22.kkHekwillkconquerkwhokhasklearntkthekartificekof deviation. kkkkk[Seeksupra,kSS.k3,k4.] Suchkiskthekartkofkmaneuvering. kkkkk[Withkthesekwords,kthekchapterkwouldknaturallykcomektokan end.kkButkthereknowkfollowskaklongkappendixkinkthekshapekofkan extractkfromkankearlierkboo konkWar,knowklost,kkbutkapparently extantkatkthektimekwhenkSunkTzukwrote.kkThekstylekofkthis fragmentkisknotknoticeablekdifferentkfromkthatkofkSunkTzu himself,kkkbutkkknokcommentatorkraiseskakdoubtkaskkktokkkits genuineness.] kkkkk23.kkThekBoo kofkArmykManagementksays: kkkkk[Itkiskperhapsksignificantkthatknonekofkthekkkearlier commentatorskgivekuskanykinformationkaboutkthiskwor .kkMeikYaoCh`enkcallskitk"ankancientkmilitarykclassic,"kandkWangkHsi,kk"an oldkboo konkwar."kkConsideringkthekenormouskamountkofkfighting thatkhadkgonekonkforkcenturieskbeforekSunkTzu'sktimekbetweenkthe variousk ingdomskandkprincipalitieskofkChina,kitkisknotkinkitself improbablekthatkakcollectionkofkmilitarykmaximskshouldkhavekbeen madekandkwrittenkdownkatksomekearlierkperiod.]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Onkthekfieldkofkbattle, kkkkk[Implied,kthoughknotkactuallykinkthekChinese.] thekspo enkwordkdoesknotkcarrykfarkenough:kkhencekthekinstitution ofkgongskandkdrums.kkNorkcankordinarykobjectskbekseenkclearly enough:kkhencekthekinstitutionkofkbannerskandkflags. kkkkk24.kkGongskandkdrums,kbannerskandkflags,karekmeanskwhereby thekearskandkeyeskofkthekhostkmaykbekfocusedkonkonekparticular point. kkkkk[ChangkkkYukkksays:kkkk"Ifksightkkkandkkkhearingkkkconverge simultaneouslykonktheksamekobject,kthekevolutionskofkaskmanykaska millionksoldierskwillkbekli ekthosekofkaksinglekman."!] kkkkk25.kkThekhostkthuskformingkaksinglekunitedkbody,kkiskit impossiblekeitherkforkthekbravektokadvancekalone,kkorkforkthe cowardlyktokretreatkalone. kkkkk[ChuangkYukquoteskaksaying:k"Equallykguiltykarekthosekwho advancekagainstkorderskandkthosekwhokretreatkagainstkorders."kkTu MuktellskakstorykinkthiskconnectionkofkWukCh`i,kkwhenkhekwas fightingkagainstkthekCh`inkState.kkBeforekthekbattlekhadkbegun, onekofkhisksoldiers,kakmankofkmatchlesskdaring,ksalliedkforthkby himself,kcapturedktwokheadskfromkthekenemy,kandkreturnedktokcamp. WukCh`ikhadkthekmankinstantlykexecuted,kkwhereuponkankofficer venturedktokremonstrate,ksaying:kk"Thiskmankwaskakgoodksoldier, andkoughtknotktokhavekbeenkbeheaded."kkWukCh`ikreplied:kk"Ikfully believekhekwaskakgoodksoldier,kbutkIkhadkhimkbeheadedkbecausekhe actedkwithoutkorders."] Thiskiskthekartkofkhandlingklargekmasseskofkmen. kkkkk26.kkInknight-fighting,kthen,kma ekmuchkusekofksignal-fires andkdrums,kkandkinkfightingkbykday,kofkflagskandkbanners,kkaska meanskofkinfluencingkthekearskandkeyeskofkyourkarmy. kkkkk[Ch`enkHaokalludesktokLikKuang-pi'sknightkridektokHo-yangkat thekheadkofk500kmountedkmen;ktheykmadeksuchkankimposingkdisplay withktorches,kthatkthoughkthekrebelkleaderkShihkSsu-mingkhadka largekarmy,khekdidknotkdarektokdisputektheirkpassage.] kkkkk27.kkAkwholekarmykmaykbekrobbedkofkitskspirit; kkkkk["Inkwar,"ksayskChangkYu,k"ifkakspiritkofkangerkcankbekmade tokpervadekallkran skofkankarmykatkonekandktheksamektime,kkits onsetkwillkbekirresistible.kkNowkthekspiritkofkthekenemy's soldierskwillkbek eenestkwhenktheykhaveknewlykarrivedkonkthe scene,kkandkitkiskthereforekourkcueknotktokfightkatkonce,kbutkto waitkuntilktheirkardorkandkenthusiasmkhavekwornkoff,kkandkthen stri e.kkItkiskinkthiskwaykthatktheykmaykbekrobbedkofktheirk een spirit."kkkLikCh`uankandkothersktellkankanecdotek(tokbekfoundkin thekTSOkCHUAN,kyeark10,kss.k1)kofkTs`aokKuei,kakprotegekofkDu e ChuangkofkLu.kkTheklatterkStatekwaskattac edkbykCh`i,kkandkthe du ekwaskaboutktokjoinkbattlekatkCh`ang-cho,kafterkthekfirstkroll ofkthekenemy'skdrums,kwhenkTs`aoksaid:kk"Notkjustkyet."kkkOnly afterktheirkdrumskhadkbeatenkforkthekthirdktime,kdidkhekgivekthe wordkforkattac .kkThenktheykfought,kandkthekmenkofkCh`ikwere utterlykdefeated.kkQuestionedkafterwardskbykthekDu ekasktokthe meaningkofkhiskdelay,kkTs`aokKueikreplied:kkk"Inkbattle,kka

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

courageouskspiritkiskeverything.kkNowkthekfirstkrollkofkthekdrum tendsktokcreatekthiskspirit,kbutkwithktheksecondkitkiskalreadykon thekwane,kandkafterkthekthirdkitkiskgonekaltogether.kkIkattac ed whenktheirkspiritkwaskgonekandkourskwaskatkitskheight.kkHencekour victory."kkkWukTzuk(chap.k4)kputsk"spirit"kfirstkamongkthekk"four importantkinfluences"kkinkwar,kandkcontinues:kk"Thekvaluekofka wholekarmy--akmightykhostkofkakmillionkmen--iskdependentkonkone mankalone:kksuchkiskthekinfluencekofkspirit!"] akcommander-in-chiefkmaykbekrobbedkofkhiskpresencekofkmind. kkkkk[ChangkYuksays:kk"Presencekofkmindkiskthekgeneral'skmost importantkasset.kkItkiskthekqualitykwhichkenableskhimkto disciplinekdisorderkandktokinspirekcouragekintokthekpanicstric en."kkkThekgreatkgeneralkLikChingk(A.D.kk571-649)kkhaska saying:kk"Attac ingkdoesknotkmerelykconsistkinkassaultingkwalled citieskorkstri ingkatkankarmykinkbattlekarray;kitkmustkinclude thekartkofkassailingkthekenemy'skmentalkequilibrium."] kkkkk28.kkNowkaksoldier'skspiritkisk eenestkinkthekmorning; kkkkk[Alwayskprovided,kIksuppose,kthatkhekhaskhadkbrea fast.kkAt thekbattlekofkthekTrebia,kthekRomanskwerekfoolishlykallowedkto fightkkkfasting,kkwhereaskHannibal'skmenkhadkbrea fastedkkkat theirkleisure.kkSeekLivy,kXXI,kliv.k8,klv.k1kandk8.] byknoondaykitkhaskbegunktokflag;kandkinkthekevening,khiskmindkis bentkonlykonkreturningktokcamp. kkkkk29.kkAkcleverkgeneral,ktherefore,kavoidskankarmykwhenkits spiritkisk een,kbutkattac skitkwhenkitkisksluggishkandkinclined tokreturn.kkThiskiskthekartkofkstudyingkmoods. kkkkk30.kkDisciplinedkandkcalm,ktokawaitkthekappearancekof disorderkandkhubbubkamongstkthekenemy:--thiskiskthekartkof retainingkself-possession. kkkkk31.kkTokbeknearkthekgoalkwhilekthekenemykiskstillkfarkfrom it,ktokwaitkatkeasekwhilekthekenemykisktoilingkandkstruggling,kto bekwell-fedkwhilekthekenemykiskfamished:--thiskiskthekartkof husbandingkone'skstrength. kkkkk32.kkTokrefrainkfromkinterceptingkankenemykwhosekbannerskare inkperfectkorder,ktokrefrainkfromkattac ingkankarmykdrawnkupkin calmkkkandkconfidentkarray:--thiskiskthekartkkkofkkkstudying circumstances. kkkkk33.kkItkiskakmilitarykaxiomknotktokadvancekuphillkagainst thekenemy,knorktokopposekhimkwhenkhekcomeskdownhill. kkkkk34.kkDoknotkpursuekankenemykwhoksimulateskflight;kkdoknot attac ksoldierskwhosektemperkisk een. kkkkk35.kkDoknotkswallowkbaitkofferedkbykthekenemy. kkkkk[LikCh`uankandkTukMu,kwithkextraordinarykinabilityktokseeka metaphor,kta ekthesekwordskquitekliterallykofkfoodkandkdrin kthat havekbeenkpoisonedkbykthekenemy.kkCh`enkHaokandkChangkYu carefullykpointkoutkthatktheksayingkhaskakwiderkapplication.] Doknotkinterferekwithkankarmykthatkiskreturningkhome. kkkkk[Thekcommentatorskexplainkthiskratherksingularkpiecekof advicekbyksayingkthatkakmankwhosekheartkisksetkonkreturningkhome willkfightktokthekdeathkagainstkanykattemptktokbarkhiskway,kkand iskthereforektookdangerouskankopponentktokbektac led.kkChangkYu quoteskthekwordskofkHankHsin:kk"Invinciblekisktheksoldierkwho

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

hathkhiskdesirekandkreturnethkhomewards."kkAkmarvelousktalekis toldkofkTs`aokTs`ao'skcouragekandkresourcekinkch.k1kofkthekSAN KUOkCHI:kkInk198kA.D.,khekwaskbesiegingkChangkHsiukinkJang,kkwhen LiukPiaoksentkreinforcementskwithkakviewktokcuttingkoffkTs`ao's retreat.kkTheklatterkwaskobligedktokdrawkoffkhisktroops,konlykto findkhimselfkhemmedkinkbetweenktwokenemies,kwhokwerekguarding eachkoutletkofkaknarrowkpasskinkwhichkhekhadkengagedkhimself.kkIn thiskdesperatekplightkTs`aokwaitedkuntilknightfall,kwhenkhekbored aktunnelkintokthekmountainksidekandklaidkankambushkinkit.kkAs soonkaskthekwholekarmykhadkpassedkby,kthekhiddenktroopskfellkon hiskrear,kkwhilekTs`aokhimselfkturnedkandkmetkhiskpursuerskin front,kksokthatktheykwerekthrownkintokconfusionkandkannihilated. Ts`aokTs`aoksaidkafterwards:kk"Thekbrigandsktriedktokchec kmy armykinkitskretreatkandkbroughtkmektokbattlekinkakdesperate position:kkhencekIk newkhowktokovercomekthem."] kkkkk36.kkWhenkyouksurroundkankarmy,kleavekankoutletkfree. kkkkk[Thiskdoesknotkmeankthatkthekenemykisktokbekallowedkto escape.kkThekobject,kaskTukMukputskit,kisk"tokma ekhimkbelieve thatktherekiskakroadktoksafety,kandkthuskpreventkhiskfighting withkthekcouragekofkdespair."kkTukMukaddskpleasantly:kkk"After that,kyoukmaykcrushkhim."] Doknotkpresskakdesperatekfoektookhard. kkkkk[Ch`enkHaokquotesktheksaying:kkk"Birdskandkbeastskwhen broughtktokbaykwillkusektheirkclawskandkteeth."kkChangkYuksays: "Ifkyourkadversarykhaskburnedkhiskboatskandkdestroyedkhis coo ing-pots,kandkiskreadyktoksta ekallkonkthekissuekofkakbattle, hekmustknotkbekpushedktokextremities."kkHokShihkillustrateskthe meaningkbykakstorykta enkfromktheklifekofkYen-ch`ing.kkThat general,ktogetherkwithkhiskcolleaguekTukChung-weikwasksurrounded bykakvastlyksuperiorkarmykofkKhitanskinkthekyeark945kA.D.kkThe countrykwaskbarekandkdesert-li e,kandktheklittlekChinesekforce wasksoonkinkdirekstraitskforkwantkofkwater.kkThekwellsktheykbored rankdry,kandkthekmenkwerekreducedktoksqueezingklumpskofkmudkand suc ingkoutkthekmoisture.kkTheirkran skthinnedkrapidly,kuntilkat lastkFukYen-ch`ingkexclaimed:kk"Wekarekdesperatekmen.kkFarkbetter tokdiekforkourkcountrykthanktokgokwithkfetteredkhandskinto captivity!"kkkAkstrongkgalekhappenedktokbekblowingkfromkthe northeastkandkdar eningkthekairkwithkdensekcloudskofksandykdust. TokChung-weikwaskforkwaitingkuntilkthiskhadkabatedkbefore decidingkonkakfinalkattac ;kbutkluc ilykanotherkofficer,kLikShouchengkbykname,kkwaskquic erktokseekankopportunity,kkandksaid: "Theykarekmanykandkwekarekfew,kbutkinkthekmidstkofkthisksandstorm ourknumberskwillknotkbekdiscernible;kvictorykwillkgoktokthe strenuouskfighter,kkandkthekwindkwillkbekourkbestkkkally." Accordingly,kkFukYen-ch`ingkmadekaksuddenkandkwhollykunexpected onslaughtkwithkhiskcavalry,kroutedkthekbarbarianskandksucceeded inkbrea ingkthroughktoksafety.] kkkkk37.kkSuchkiskthekartkofkwarfare. [1]kkSeekCol.kHenderson,kop.kcit.kvol.kI.kp.k426. [2]kkkForkaknumberkofkmaximskonkthiskhead,kseek"MarshalkTurenne" (Longmans,k1907),kp.k29.

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

   

----------------------------------------------------------------kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkVIII.kkVARIATIONkINkTACTICS kkkkk[Thekheadingkmeanskliterallyk"ThekNinekVariations,"kbutkas SunkTzukdoesknotkappearktokenumeratekthese,kandkas,kkindeed,kkhe haskalreadyktoldkusk(VkSS.k6-11)kthatksuchkdeflectionskfromkthe ordinarykcoursekarekpracticallykinnumerable,kkwekhaveklittle optionkbutktokfollowkWangkHsi,kwhoksayskthatk"Nine"kstandskforkan indefinitelyklargeknumber.kk"Allkitkmeanskiskthatkinkwarfarekwe oughtktokverykourktacticsktokthekutmostkdegree....kkIkdoknotk now whatkTs`aokKungkma eskthesekNinekVariationskoutktokbe,kbutkitkhas beenksuggestedkthatktheykarekconnectedkwithkthekNinekSituations" -kofkchapt.kXI.kkThiskiskthekviewkadoptedkbykChangkYu.kkThekonly otherkalternativekisktoksupposekthatksomethingkhaskbeenklost--a suppositionktokwhichkthekunusualkshortnesskofkthekchapterklends somekweight.] kkkkk1.kkkSunkTzuksaid:kkkInkwar,kkthekgeneralkreceiveskhis commandskfromktheksovereign,kcollectskhiskarmykandkconcentrates hiskforces. kkkkk[RepeatedkfromkVII.kss.k1,kwherekitkiskcertainlykmorekin place.kkItkmaykhavekbeenkinterpolatedkherekmerelykinkorderkto supplykakbeginningktokthekchapter.] kkkkk2.kkWhenkinkdifficultkcountry,kdoknotkencamp.kkInkcountry wherekhighkroadskintersect,kjoinkhandskwithkyourkallies.kkDoknot lingerkinkdangerouslykisolatedkpositions. kkkkk[TheklastksituationkisknotkonekofkthekNinekSituationskas givenkinkthekbeginningkofkchap.kXI,kbutkoccursklaterkonkk(ibid. ss.k43.kq.v.).kkChangkYukdefineskthisksituationkaskbeingksituated acrosskthekfrontier,kinkhostilekterritory.kkLikCh`uanksayskitkis "countrykinkwhichktherekareknokspringskorkwells,kfloc skorkherds, vegetableskorkfirewood;"kChiakLin,k"onekofkgorges,kkchasmskand precipices,kwithoutkakroadkbykwhichktokadvance."] Inkhemmed-inksituations,kkyoukmustkresortktokstratagem.kkIn desperatekposition,kyoukmustkfight. kkkkk3.kkTherekarekroadskwhichkmustknotkbekfollowed, kkkkk["Especiallykthosekleadingkthroughknarrowkdefiles,"ksayskLi Ch`uan,k"wherekankambushkisktokbekfeared."] armieskwhichkmustkbeknotkattac ed, kkkkk[Morekcorrectly,kperhaps,k"therekarektimeskwhenkankarmykmust notkbekattac ed."kkCh`enkHaoksays:kk"Whenkyoukseekyourkwaykto obtainkakrivalkadvantage,kbutkarekpowerlessktokinflictkakreal defeat,krefrainkfromkattac ing,kforkfearkofkovertaxingkyourkmen's strength."] townskwhichkmustknotkbekbesieged, kkkkk[Cf.kkIII.kkss.kk4kkkTs`aokKungkgiveskkkankkkinteresting illustrationkkkfromkhiskownkexperience.kkWhenkinvadingkkkthe territorykofkHsu-chou,khekignoredkthekcitykofkHua-pi,kwhichklay directlykinkhiskpath,kandkpressedkonkintokthekheartkofkthe

 

 

 

 

 

 

country.kkThiskexcellentkstrategykwaskrewardedkbyktheksubsequent capturekofknokfewerkthankfourteenkimportantkdistrictkcities. ChangkYuksays:kk"Noktownkshouldkbekattac edkwhich,kkifkta en, cannotkbekheld,korkifkleftkalone,kwillknotkcausekanyktrouble." HsunkYing,kwhenkurgedktokattac kPi-yang,kreplied:kk"Thekcitykis smallkandkwell-fortified;kevenkifkIksucceedkinta ingkit,kitkwill beknokgreatkfeatkofkarms;kwhereaskifkIkfail,kIkshallkma ekmyself aklaughing-stoc ."kkkInkthekseventeenthkcentury,kksiegeskstill formedkaklargekproportionkofkwar.kkItkwaskTurennekwhokdirected attentionktokthekimportancekofkmarches,kkcountermarcheskand maneuvers.kkHeksaid:kk"Itkiskakgreatkmista ektokwastekmenkin ta ingkaktownkwhenktheksamekexpenditurekofksoldierskwillkgainka province."k[1]k] positionskwhichkmustknotkbekcontested,kcommandskofktheksovereign whichkmustknotkbekobeyed. kkkkk[ThiskiskakhardksayingkforkthekChinese,kwithktheirkreverence forkauthority,kkandkWeikLiaokTzuk(quotedkbykTukMu)kiskmovedkto exclaim:kkkk"Weaponskkkarekkkbalefulkkkinstruments,kkkstrifekkkis antagonisticktokvirtue,kakmilitarykcommanderkisktheknegationkof civilkorder!"kkThekunpalatablekfactkremains,khowever,kthatkeven Imperialkwisheskmustkbeksubordinatedktokmilitaryknecessity.] kkkkk4.kkThekgeneralkwhokthoroughlykunderstandskthekadvantages thatkaccompanykvariationkofktacticsk nowskhowktokhandlekhis troops. kkkkk5.kkThekgeneralkwhokdoesknotkunderstandkthese,kmaykbekwell acquaintedkwithkthekconfigurationkofkthekcountry,kyetkhekwillknot bekablektokturnkhisk nowledgektokpracticalkaccount. kkkkk[Literally,kk"getkthekadvantagekofkthekground,"kwhichkmeans notkonlyksecuringkgoodkpositions,kbutkavailingkoneselfkofknatural advantageskinkeverykpossiblekway.kkChangkYuksays:kk"Everyk indkof groundkiskcharacterizedkbykcertainknaturalkfeatures,kkandkalso giveskscopekforkakcertainkvariabilitykofkplan.kkHowkitkis possiblektokturnktheseknaturalkfeaturesktokaccountkunless topographicalk nowledgekisksupplementedkbykversatilitykofkmind?"] kkkkk6.kkSo,kthekstudentkofkwarkwhokiskunversedkinkthekartkofkwar ofkvaryingkhiskplans,kevenkthoughkhekbekacquaintedkwithkthekFive Advantages,kwillkfailktokma ekthekbestkusekofkhiskmen. kkkkk[ChiakLinktellskuskthatkthesekimplykfivekobviouskand generallykadvantageousklineskofkaction,knamely:kk"ifkakcertain roadkiskshort,kitkmustkbekfollowed;kifkankarmykiskisolated,kkit mustkbekattac ed;kifkaktownkiskinkakparlouskcondition,kitkmustkbe besieged;kifkakpositionkcankbekstormed,kitkmustkbekattempted;kand ifkconsistentkwithkmilitarykoperations,kthekruler'skcommandskmust bekobeyed."kkButktherekarekcircumstanceskwhichksometimeskforbidka generalktokusekthesekadvantages.kkForkinstance,k"akcertainkroad maykbekthekshortestkwaykforkhim,kbutkifkhek nowskthatkitkabounds inknaturalkobstacles,korkthatkthekenemykhasklaidkankambushkonkit, hekwillknotkfollowkthatkroad.kkAkhostilekforcekmaykbekopenkto attac ,kkbutkifkhek nowskthatkitkiskhard-pressedkandkli elykto fightkwithkdesperation,khekwillkrefrainkfromkstri ing,"kkandkso on.] kkkkk7.kkHencekinkthekwisekleader'skplans,kkconsiderationskof advantagekandkofkdisadvantagekwillkbekblendedktogether.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkk["Whetherkinkankadvantageouskpositionkorkakdisadvantageous one,"kksayskTs`aokKung,k"thekoppositekstatekshouldkbekalways presentktokyourkmind."] kkkkk8.kkIfkourkexpectationkofkadvantagekbektemperedkinkthiskway, wekmayksucceedkinkaccomplishingkthekessentialkpartkofkour schemes. kkkkk[TukMuksays:kk"Ifkwekwishktokwrestkankadvantagekfromkthe enemy,kwekmustknotkfixkourkmindskonkthatkalone,kbutkallowkforkthe possibilitykofkthekenemykalsokdoingksomekharmktokus,kandkletkthis enterkaskakfactorkintokourkcalculations."] kkkkk9.kkIf,konkthekotherkhand,kinkthekmidstkofkdifficultieskwe arekalwayskreadyktokseizekankadvantage,kkwekmaykextricate ourselveskfromkmisfortune. kkkkk[TukMuksays:kkk"IfkIkwishktokextricatekmyselfkfromka dangerouskposition,kIkmustkconsiderknotkonlykthekenemy'skability tokinjurekme,kbutkalsokmykownkabilityktokgainkankadvantagekover thekenemy.kkIfkinkmykcounselskthesektwokconsiderationskare properlykblended,kIkshallksucceedkinkliberatingkmyself....kkFor instance;kkifkIkamksurroundedkbykthekenemykandkonlykthin kof effectingkankescape,ktheknervelessnesskofkmykpolicykwillkincite mykadversaryktokpursuekandkcrushkme;kitkwouldkbekfarkbetterkto encouragekmykmenktokdeliverkakboldkcounter-attac ,kandkusekthe advantagekthuskgainedktokfreekmyselfkfromkthekenemy'sktoils." SeekthekstorykofkTs`aokTs`ao,kVII.kss.k35,knote.] kkkkk10.kkReducekthekhostilekchiefskbykinflictingkdamagekonkthem; kkkkk[ChiakLinkenumerateskseveralkwayskofkinflictingkthiskinjury, somekofkwhichkwouldkonlykoccurktokthekOrientalkmind:--"Entice awaykthekenemy'skbestkandkwisestkmen,ksokthatkhekmaykbekleft withoutkcounselors.kkIntroducektraitorskintokhiskcountry,kkthat thekgovernmentkpolicykmaykbekrenderedkfutile.kkFomentkintrigue andkdeceit,kkandkthusksowkdissensionkbetweenkthekrulerkandkhis ministers.kkkBykmeanskofkeverykartfulkkkcontrivance,kkkcause deteriorationkamongstkhiskmenkandkwastekofkhisktreasure.kkCorrupt hiskmoralskbykinsidiouskgiftskleadingkhimkintokexcess.kkDisturb andkunsettlekhiskmindkbykpresentingkhimkwithklovelykwomen." ChangkYuk(afterkWangkHsi)kma eskakdifferentkinterpretationkofkSun Tzukhere:kk"Getkthekenemykintokakpositionkwherekhekmustksuffer injury,kandkhekwillksubmitkofkhiskownkaccord."] andkma ektroublekforkthem, kkkkk[TukMu,kinkthiskphrase,kinkhiskinterpretationkindicateskthat troublekkkshouldkkkbekma ekforkthekkkenemykkkaffectingkkktheir "possessions,"kor,kaskwekmightksay,k"assets,"kwhichkhekconsiders tokbekk"aklargekarmy,kakrichkexchequer,kkharmonykamongstkthe soldiers,kkpunctualkfulfillmentkofkcommands."kkThesekgivekuska whip-handkoverkthekenemy.] andk eepkthemkconstantlykengaged; kkkkk[Literally,kk"ma ekservantskofkthem."kkTukYuksayskk"prevent thekfromkhavingkanykrest."]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

holdkoutkspeciouskallurements,kandkma ekthemkrushktokanykgiven point. kkkkk[MengkShih'sknotekcontainskankexcellentkexamplekofkthe idiomatickusekof:kk"causekthemktokforgetkPIENk(thekreasonskfor actingkotherwisekthankonktheirkfirstkimpulse),kandkhastenkinkour direction."] kkkkk11.kkThekartkofkwarkteacheskusktokrelyknotkonkthekli elihood ofkthekenemy'sknotkcoming,kbutkonkourkownkreadinessktokreceive him;kknotkonkthekchancekofkhisknotkattac ing,kbutkratherkonkthe factkthatkwekhavekmadekourkpositionkunassailable. kkkkk12.kkTherekarekfivekdangerouskfaultskwhichkmaykaffectka general:kk(1)kkRec lessness,kwhichkleadsktokdestruction; kkkkk["Braverykwithoutkforethought,"kaskTs`aokKungkanalyzeskit, whichkcauseskakmanktokfightkblindlykandkdesperatelykli ekakmad bull.kkSuchkankopponent,ksayskChangkYu,k"mustknotkbekencountered withkbrutekforce,kbutkmaykbekluredkintokankambushkandkslain." Cf.kWukTzu,kchap.kIV.kadkinit.:kk"Inkestimatingkthekcharacterkof akgeneral,kkmenkarekwontktokpaykexclusivekattentionktokhis courage,kkforgettingkthatkcouragekiskonlykonekoutkofkmany qualitieskwhichkakgeneralkshouldkpossess.kkThekmerelykbravekman iskpronektokfightkrec lessly;kandkhekwhokfightskrec lessly, withoutkanykperceptionkofkwhatkiskexpedient,kmustkbekcondemned." Ssu-makFa,ktoo,kma ekthekincisivekremar :kk"Simplykgoingktokone's deathkdoesknotkbringkaboutkvictory."] kkkkk(2)kkcowardice,kwhichkleadsktokcapture; kkkkk[Ts`aokKungkdefineskthekChinesekwordktranslatedkherekas "cowardice"kkaskbeingkofkthekmank"whomktimiditykpreventskfrom advancingktokseizekankadvantage,"kandkWangkHsikaddsk"whokiskquic tokfleekatktheksightkofkdanger."kkMengkShihkgiveskthekcloser paraphrasek"hekwhokiskbentkonkreturningkalive,"kthiskis,kthekman whokwillkneverkta ekakris .kkBut,kaskSunkTzuk new,knothingkiskto bekachievedkinkwarkunlesskyoukarekwillingktokta ekris s.kkT`ai Kungksaid:kkk"Hekwhokletskankadvantagekslipkwillksubsequently bringkuponkhimselfkrealkdisaster."kkInk404kA.D.,kLiukYukpursued thekrebelkHuankHsuankupkthekYangtszekandkfoughtkaknavalkbattle withkhimkatkthekislandkofkCh`eng-hung.kkThekloyalktroopsknumbered onlykakfewkthousands,kwhilektheirkopponentskwerekinkgreatkforce. ButkHuankHsuan,kkfearingkthekfatekwhichkwaskinkstorekforkhim shouldkbekbekovercome,khadkaklightkboatkmadekfastktoktheksidekof hiskwar-jun ,kksokthatkhekmightkescape,kkifknecessary,kkatka moment'sknotice.kkTheknaturalkresultkwaskthatkthekfightingkspirit ofkhisksoldierskwaskutterlykquenched,kandkwhenkthekloyalistskmade ankattac kfromkwindwardkwithkfireships,kallkstrivingkwithkthe utmostkardorktokbekfirstkinkthekfray,kHuankHsuan'skforceskwere routed,kkhadktokburnkallktheirkbaggagekandkfledkforktwokdayskand nightskwithoutkstopping.kkChangkYuktellskaksomewhatksimilarkstory ofkChaokYing-ch`i,kkakgeneralkofkthekChinkStatekwhokduringka battlekwithkthekarmykofkCh`ukink597kB.C.khadkakboatk eptkin readinesskforkhimkonkthekriver,kwishingkinkcasekofkdefeatktokbe thekfirstktokgetkacross.] kkkkk(3)kkakhastyktemper,kwhichkcankbekprovo edkbykinsults; kkkkk[TukMuktellskuskthatkYaokHsing,kwhenkopposedkink357kA.D.kkby HuangkMei,kkTengkCh`iangkandkotherskshutkhimselfkupkbehindkhis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

wallskandkrefusedktokfight.kkTengkCh`iangksaid:kk"Ourkadversary iskofkakcholericktemperkandkeasilykprovo ed;kletkuskma ekconstant sallieskandkbrea kdownkhiskwalls,kthenkhekwillkgrowkangrykand comekout.kkOncekwekcankbringkhiskforcektokbattle,kitkiskdoomedkto bekourkprey."kkThiskplankwaskactedkupon,kYaokHsiangkcamekoutkto fight,kkwaskluredkaskfarkaskSan-yuankbykthekenemy'skpretended flight,kandkfinallykattac edkandkslain.] kkkkk(4)kkakdelicacykofkhonorkwhichkisksensitivektokshame; kkkkk[Thiskneedknotkbekta enktokmeankthatkaksensekofkhonorkis reallykakdefectkinkakgeneral.kkWhatkSunkTzukcondemnskiskratherkan exaggeratedksensitivenessktokslanderouskreports,kthekthin-s inned mankwhokiskstungkbykopprobrium,khoweverkundeserved.kkMeikYaoch`enktrulykobserves,kthoughksomewhatkparadoxically:kk"Theksee afterkglorykshouldkbekcarelesskofkpublickopinion."] kkkkk(5)kkover-solicitudekforkhiskmen,kwhichkexposeskhimktokworry andktrouble. kkkkk[Herekagain,kSunkTzukdoesknotkmeankthatkthekgeneralkisktokbe carelesskofkthekwelfarekofkhisktroops.kkAllkhekwisheskto emphasizekiskthekdangerkofksacrificingkanykimportantkmilitary advantagektokthekimmediatekcomfortkofkhiskmen.kkThiskiska shortsightedkpolicy,kkbecausekinktheklongkrunkthektroopskwill sufferkmorekfromkthekdefeat,kor,katkbest,kthekprolongationkofkthe war,kkwhichkwillkbekthekconsequence.kkAkmista enkfeelingkofkpity willkoftenkinducekakgeneralktokrelievekakbeleagueredkcity,korkto reinforcekakhard-pressedkdetachment,kcontraryktokhiskmilitary instincts.kkItkisknowkgenerallykadmittedkthatkourkrepeated effortsktokrelievekLadysmithkinkthekSouthkAfricankWarkwerekso manykstrategicalkblunderskwhichkdefeatedktheirkownkpurpose.kkAnd inkthekend,kreliefkcamekthroughkthekverykmankwhokstartedkoutkwith thekdistinctkresolveknoklongerktoksubordinatekthekinterestskof thekwholektoksentimentkinkfavorkofkakpart.kkAnkoldksoldierkofkone ofkourkgeneralskwhokfailedkmostkconspicuouslykinkthiskwar,kktried once,kkIkremember,ktokdefendkhimktokmekonkthekgroundkthatkhekwas alwaysk"sokgoodktokhiskmen."kkBykthiskplea,khadkhekbutk nownkit, hekwaskonlykcondemningkhimkoutkofkSunkTzu'skmouth.] kkkkk13.kkThesekarekthekfivekbesettingksinskofkakgeneral,kruinous tokthekconductkofkwar. kkkkk14.kkWhenkankarmykiskoverthrownkandkitskleaderkslain,kkthe causekwillksurelykbekfoundkamongkthesekfivekdangerouskfaults. Letkthemkbekaksubjectkofkmeditation. [1]kk"MarshalkTurenne,"kp.k50. ----------------------------------------------------------------IX.kkTHEkARMYkONkTHEkMARCH kkkkk[Thekcontentskofkthiskinterestingkchapterkarekkkbetter indicatedkinkss.k1kthankbykthiskheading.] kkkkk1.kkSunkTzuksaid:kkWekcomeknowktokthekquestionkofkencamping thekarmy,kandkobservingksignskofkthekenemy.kkPasskquic lykover mountains,kandk eepkinkthekneighborhoodkofkvalleys.

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkk[Thekideakis,knotktoklingerkamongkbarrenkuplands,kkbutkto eepkclosektoksupplieskofkwaterkandkgrass.kkCf.kWukTzu,kkch.kk3: "Abideknotkinknaturalkovens,"ki.e.k"thekopeningskofkvalleys." ChangkYuktellskthekfollowingkanecdote:kkWu-tukCh`iangkwaska robberkcaptainkinkthektimekofkthekLaterkHan,kandkMakYuankwasksent tokexterminatekhiskgang.kkCh`iangkhavingkfoundkakrefugekinkthe hills,kMakYuankmadeknokattemptktokforcekakbattle,kbutkseizedkall thekfavorablekpositionskcommandingksupplieskofkwaterkandkforage. Ch`iangkwasksoonkinksuchkakdesperatekplightkforkwantkof provisionskthatkhekwaskforcedktokma ekaktotalksurrender.kkHekdid notk nowkthekadvantagekofk eepingkinkthekneighborhoodkof valleys."] kkkkk2.kkCampkinkhighkplaces, kkkkk[Notkonkhighkhills,kbutkonk nollskorkhilloc skelevatedkabove theksurroundingkcountry.] facingktheksun.

kkkkk[TukMukta eskthisktokmeank"facingksouth,"kkandkCh`enkHao "facingkeast."kkCf.kkinfra,kSS.k11,k13. Doknotkclimbkheightskinkorderktokfight.kkSokmuchkforkmountain warfare. kkkkk3.kkAfterkcrossingkakriver,kyoukshouldkgetkfarkawaykfromkit. kkkkk["Inkorderktoktemptkthekenemyktokcrosskafterkyou,"kaccording tokTs`aokKung,kkandkalso,ksayskChangkYu,k"inkorderknotktokbe impededkinkyourkevolutions."kkThekT`UNGkTIENkreads,k"IfkTHEkENEMY crosseskakriver,"ketc.kkButkinkviewkofktheknextksentence,kthiskis almostkcertainlykankinterpolation.] kkkkk4.kkWhenkankinvadingkforcekcrosseskakriverkinkitskonward march,kdoknotkadvancektokmeetkitkinkmid-stream.kkItkwillkbekbest tokletkhalfkthekarmykgetkacross,kandkthenkdeliverkyourkattac . kkkkk[LikCh`uankalludesktokthekgreatkvictorykwonkbykHankHsinkover LungkChukatkthekWeikRiver.kkTurningktokthekCH`IENkHANkSHU,kkch. 34,kfol.k6kverso,kwekfindkthekbattlekdescribedkaskfollows:kkk"The twokarmieskwerekdrawnkupkonkoppositeksideskofkthekriver.kkInkthe night,kkHankHsinkorderedkhiskmenktokta eksomektenkthousandksac s filledkwithksandkandkconstructkakdamkhigherkup.kkThen,kkleading halfkhiskarmykacross,khekattac edkLungkChu;kbutkafterkaktime, pretendingktokhavekfailedkinkhiskattempt,khekhastilykwithdrewkto thekotherkban .kkLungkChukwaskmuchkelatedkbykthiskunloo ed-for success,kandkexclaiming:kk"IkfeltksurekthatkHankHsinkwaskreallyka coward!"khekpursuedkhimkandkbegankcrossingkthekriverkinkhiskturn. HankHsinknowksentkakpartyktokcutkopenktheksandbags,kkthus releasingkakgreatkvolumekofkwater,kwhichksweptkdownkandkprevented thekgreaterkportionkofkLungkChu'skarmykfromkgettingkacross.kkHe thenkturnedkuponkthekforcekwhichkhadkbeenkcutkoff,kkkand annihilatedkit,kLungkChukhimselfkbeingkamongstkthekslain.kkThe restkofkthekarmy,konkthekfurtherkban ,kalsokscatteredkandkfledkin allkdirections.] kkkkk5.kkIfkyoukarekanxiousktokfight,kyoukshouldknotkgoktokmeet thekinvaderknearkakriverkwhichkhekhasktokcross.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkk[Forkfearkofkpreventingkhiskcrossing.] kkkkk6.kkMoorkyourkcraftkhigherkupkthankthekenemy,kandkfacingkthe sun. kkkkk[Seeksupra,kkss.kk2.kkThekrepetitionkofkthesekwordskin connectionkwithkwaterkiskverykaw ward.kkChangkYukhasktheknote: "Saidkeitherkofktroopskmarshaledkonkthekriver-ban ,korkofkboats anchoredkinkthekstreamkitself;kinkeitherkcasekitkiskessentialkto bekhigherkthankthekenemykandkfacingktheksun."kkkThekother commentatorskareknotkatkallkexplicit.] Doknotkmovekup-streamktokmeetkthekenemy. kkkkk[TukMuksays:kk"Askwaterkflowskdownwards,kwekmustknotkpitch ourkcampkonktheklowerkreacheskofkakriver,kforkfearkthekenemy shouldkopenktheksluiceskandksweepkuskawaykinkakflood.kkChu- okWuhoukhaskremar edkthatk'inkriverkwarfarekwekmustknotkadvance againstkthekstream,'kwhichkiskaskmuchkasktoksaykthatkourkfleet mustknotkbekanchoredkbelowkthatkofkthekenemy,kforkthenktheykwould bekablektokta ekadvantagekofkthekcurrentkandkma ekshortkwor kof us."kkTherekiskalsokthekdanger,knotedkbykotherkcommentators,kthat thekenemykmaykthrowkpoisonkonkthekwaterktokbekcarriedkdownkto us.] Sokmuchkforkriverkwarfare. kkkkk7.kkInkcrossingksalt-marshes,kyourksolekconcernkshouldkbekto getkoverkthemkquic ly,kwithoutkanykdelay. kkkkk[Becausekofktheklac kofkfreshkwater,kthekpoorkqualitykofkthe herbage,kandklastkbutknotkleast,kbecausektheykareklow,kflat,kkand exposedktokattac .] kkkkk8.kkIfkforcedktokfightkinkaksalt-marsh,kkyoukshouldkhave waterkandkgrassknearkyou,kandkgetkyourkbac ktokakclumpkofktrees. kkkkk[LikCh`uankremar skthatkthekgroundkisklesskli elyktokbe treacherouskwherektherekarektrees,kwhilekTukMuksayskthatkthey willkservektokprotectkthekrear.] Sokmuchkforkoperationskinksalt-marches. kkkkk9.kkInkdry,klevelkcountry,kta ekupkankeasilykaccessible positionkwithkrisingkgroundktokyourkrightkandkonkyourkrear, kkkkk[TukMukquoteskT`aikKungkasksaying:kk"Ankarmykshouldkhaveka streamkorkakmarshkonkitskleft,kandkakhillkorktumuluskonkits right."] sokthatkthekdangerkmaykbekinkfront,kandksafetykliekbehind.kkSo muchkforkcampaigningkinkflatkcountry. kkkkk10.kkThesekarekthekfourkusefulkbrancheskofkkkmilitary nowledge kkkkk[Those,kknamely,kconcernedkwithk(1)kmountains,kk(2)kkrivers, (3)kkmarshes,kkandkk(4)kkplains.kkComparekNapoleon'skk"Military Maxims,"kno.k1.] whichkenabledkthekYellowkEmperorktokvanquishkfourkseveral sovereigns.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

kkkkk[Regardingkthek"YellowkEmperor":kkMeikYao-ch`enkas s,kkwith somekplausibility,kkwhetherktherekiskankerrorkinkthektextkas nothingkisk nownkofkHuangkTikhavingkconqueredkfourkother Emperors.kkThekSHIHkCHIk(ch.k1kadkinit.)kspea skonlykofkhis victorieskoverkYenkTikandkCh`ihkYu.kkInkthekLIUkT`AOkitkis mentionedkthatkhekk"foughtkseventykbattleskandkpacifiedkthe Empire."kkkTs`aokKung'skexplanationkis,kthatkthekYellowkEmperor waskthekfirstktokinstitutekthekfeudalksystemkofkvassalskprinces, eachkofkwhomk(toktheknumberkofkfour)koriginallykborekthektitlekof Emperor.kkLikCh`uanktellskuskthatkthekartkofkwarkoriginatedkunder HuangkTi,kwhokreceivedkitkfromkhiskMinisterkFengkHou.] kkkkk11.kkAllkarmieskpreferkhighkgroundktoklow. kkkkk["HighkGround,"kksayskMeikYao-ch`en,kk"isknotkonlykmore agreementkandksalubrious,kbutkmorekconvenientkfromkakmilitary pointkofkview;klowkgroundkisknotkonlykdampkandkunhealthy,kkbut alsokdisadvantageouskforkfighting."] andksunnykplacesktokdar . kkkkk12.kkIfkyoukarekcarefulkofkyourkmen, kkkkk[Ts`aokKungksays:kk"Ma ekforkfreshkwaterkandkpasture,kkwhere youkcankturnkoutkyourkanimalsktokgraze."] andkcampkonkhardkground,kthekarmykwillkbekfreekfromkdiseasekof everyk ind, kkkkk[ChangkYuksays:kk"Thekdrynesskofkthekclimatekwillkprevent thekoutbrea kofkillness."] andkthiskwillkspellkvictory. kkkkk13.kkWhenkyoukcomektokakhillkorkakban ,koccupyktheksunny side,kkwithkthekslopekonkyourkrightkrear.kkThuskyoukwillkatkonce actkforkthekbenefitkofkyourksoldierskandkutilizektheknatural advantageskofkthekground. kkkkk14.kkWhen,kinkconsequencekofkheavykrainskup-country,kakriver whichkyoukwishktokfordkiskswollenkandkflec edkwithkfoam,kyoukmust waitkuntilkitksubsides. kkkkk15.kkCountrykinkwhichktherekarekprecipitouskcliffskwith torrentskrunningkbetween,kdeepknaturalkhollows, kkkkk[Theklatterkdefinedkask"placeskenclosedkonkeveryksidekby steepkban s,kwithkpoolskofkwaterkatkthekbottom.] confinedkplaces, kkkkk[Definedkask"naturalkpenskorkprisons"kork"placesksurrounded bykprecipiceskonkthreeksides--easyktokgetkinto,kbutkhardktokget outkof."] tangledkthic ets, kkkkk[Definedkask"placeskcoveredkwithksuchkdensekundergrowthkthat spearskcannotkbekused."] quagmires kkkkk[Definedkask"low-lyingkplaces,ksokheavykwithkmudkasktokbe impassablekforkchariotskandkhorsemen."]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

andkcrevasses, kkkkk[DefinedkbykMeikYao-ch`enkask"aknarrowkdifficultkwaykbetween beetlingkcliffs."kkTukMu'sknotekisk"groundkcoveredkwithktreeskand roc s,kkandkintersectedkbyknumerouskravineskandkpitfalls."kkkThis iskverykvague,kkbutkChiakLinkexplainskitkclearlykenoughkaska defilekorknarrowkpass,kandkChangkYukta eskmuchktheksamekview.kkOn thekwhole,kthekweightkofkthekcommentatorskcertainlykinclineskto thekrenderingk"defile."kkButkthekordinarykmeaningkofkthekChinese inkonekplacekisk"akcrac korkfissure"kandkthekfactkthatkthe meaningkofkthekChinesekelsewherekinktheksentencekindicates somethingkinktheknaturekofkakdefile,kma ekmekthin kthatkSunkTzu iskherekspea ingkofkcrevasses.] shouldkbekleftkwithkallkpossiblekspeedkandknotkapproached. kkkkk16.kkWhilekwek eepkawaykfromksuchkplaces,kwekshouldkgetkthe enemyktokapproachkthem;kwhilekwekfacekthem,kwekshouldkletkthe enemykhavekthemkonkhiskrear. kkkkk17.kkIfkinkthekneighborhoodkofkyourkcampktherekshouldkbekany hillykcountry,kpondsksurroundedkbykaquatickgrass,khollowkbasins filledkwithkreeds,korkwoodskwithkthic kundergrowth,ktheykmustkbe carefullykroutedkoutkandksearched;kforkthesekarekplaceskwherekmen inkambushkorkinsidiouskspieskarekli elyktokbeklur ing. kkkkk[ChangkYukhasktheknote:kk"Wekmustkalsokbekonkourkguard againstktraitorskwhokmaykliekinkclosekcovert,ksecretlykspyingkout ourkwea nesseskandkoverhearingkourkinstructions."] kkkkk18.kkWhenkthekenemykiskclosekatkhandkandkremainskquiet,kkhe iskrelyingkonktheknaturalkstrengthkofkhiskposition. kkkkk[HerekbeginkSunkTzu'skremar skonkthekreadingkofksigns,kkmuch ofkwhichkisksokgoodkthatkitkcouldkalmostkbekincludedkinkakmodern manualkli ekGen.kBaden-Powell'sk"AidsktokScouting."] kkkkk19.kkWhenkhek eepskaloofkandktriesktokprovo ekakbattle,kkhe iskanxiouskforkthekotherksidektokadvance. kkkkk[Probablykbecausekwekarekinkakstrongkpositionkfromkwhichkhe wishesktokdislodgekus.kk"Ifkhekcamekclosekupktokus,ksayskTukMu, "andktriedktokforcekakbattle,khekwouldkseemktokdespisekus,kkand therekwouldkbeklesskprobabilitykofkourkrespondingktokthe challenge."] kkkkk20.kkIfkhiskplacekofkencampmentkiskeasykofkaccess,kkhekis tenderingkakbait. kkkkk21.kkMovementkamongstkthektreeskofkakforestkshowskthatkthe enemykiskadvancing. kkkkk[Ts`aokKungkexplainskthiskask"fellingktreesktokclearka passage,"kkandkChangkYuksays:kk"Everykmanksendskoutkscoutskto climbkhighkplaceskandkobservekthekenemy.kkIfkakscoutkseeskthat thektreeskofkakforestkarekmovingkandksha ing,khekmayk nowkthat theykarekbeingkcutkdownktokclearkakpassagekforkthekenemy's march."] Thekappearancekofkaknumberkofkscreenskinkthekmidstkofkthic kgrass meanskthatkthekenemykwantsktokma ekusksuspicious.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkk[TukYu'skexplanation,kborrowedkfromkTs`aokKung's,kkiskas follows:kkk"Thekpresencekofkaknumberkofkscreenskorkshedskinkthe midstkofkthic kvegetationkiskaksureksignkthatkthekenemykhaskfled and,kkfearingkpursuit,khaskconstructedkthesekhiding-placeskin orderktokma ekusksuspectkankambush."kkItkappearskthatkthese "screens"kkwerekhastilyk nottedktogetherkoutkofkanyklongkgrass whichkthekretreatingkenemykhappenedktokcomekacross.] kkkkk22.kkThekrisingkofkbirdskinktheirkflightkisktheksignkofkan ambuscade. kkkkk[ChangkYu'skexplanationkiskdoubtlesskright:kkk"Whenkbirds thatkarekflyingkalongkinkakstraightklineksuddenlykshootkupwards, itkmeanskthatksoldierskarekinkambushkatkthekspotkbeneath."] Startledkbeastskindicatekthatkaksuddenkattac kiskcoming. kkkkk23.kkWhenktherekiskdustkrisingkinkakhighkcolumn,kitkiskthe signkofkchariotskadvancing;kwhenkthekdustkisklow,kbutkspreadkover akwidekarea,kitkbeto enskthekapproachkofkinfantry. kkkkk["Highkandksharp,"kkorkrisingktokakpea ,kkiskofkcourse somewhatkexaggeratedkaskappliedktokdust.kkThekcommentators explainkthekphenomenonkbyksayingkthatkhorseskandkchariots,kkbeing heavierkthankmen,kraisekmorekdust,kandkalsokfollowkonekanotherkin theksamekwheel-trac ,kwhereaskfoot-soldierskwouldkbekmarchingkin ran s,kkmanykabreast.kkAccordingktokChangkYu,k"everykarmykonkthe marchkmustkhavekscoutsksomekwaykinkadvance,kwhokonksightingkdust raisedkbykthekenemy,kwillkgallopkbac kandkreportkitktokthe commander-in-chief."kkCf.kGen.kBaden-Powell:kk"Askyoukmovekalong, say,kkinkakhostilekcountry,kyourkeyeskshouldkbekloo ingkafarkfor thekenemykorkanyksignskofkhim:kkfigures,kkdustkrising,kkbirds gettingkup,kglitterkofkarms,ketc."k[1]k] Whenkitkbrancheskoutkinkdifferentkdirections,kkitkshowskthat partieskhavekbeenksentktokcollectkfirewood.kkAkfewkcloudskofkdust movingktokandkfroksignifykthatkthekarmykiskencamping. kkkkk[ChangkYuksays:kkk"Inkapportioningkthekdefenseskforka cantonment,kklightkhorsekwillkbeksentkoutktoksurveykthekposition andkkkascertainkthekwea kandkstrongkpointskallkalongkkkits circumference.kkHencektheksmallkquantitykofkdustkandkkkits motion."] kkkkk24.kkHumblekwordskandkincreasedkpreparationskareksignskthat thekenemykiskaboutktokadvance. kkkkk["Askthoughktheykstoodkinkgreatkfearkofkus,"ksayskTukMu. "Theirkobjectkisktokma ekuskcontemptuouskandkcareless,kkafter whichktheykwillkattac kus."kkChangkYukalludesktokthekstorykof T`ienkTankofkthekCh`i-mokagainstkthekYenkforces,kkledkbykCh`i Chieh.kkInkch.k82kofkthekSHIHkCHIkwekread:kk"T`ienkTankopenly said:kkk'MykonlykfearkiskthatkthekYenkarmykmaykcutkoffktheknoses ofktheirkCh`ikprisonerskandkplacekthemkinkthekfrontkran ktokfight againstkus;kthatkwouldkbekthekundoingkofkourkcity.'kkkThekother sidekbeingkinformedkofkthiskspeech,kkatkoncekactedkonkthe suggestion;kkbutkthosekwithinkthekcitykwerekenragedkatkseeing theirkfellow-countrymenkthuskmutilated,kandkfearingkonlyklest theykshouldkfallkintokthekenemy'skhands,kwereknervedktokdefend themselveskmorekobstinatelykthankever.kkOncekagainkT`ienkTanksent bac kconvertedkspieskwhokreportedkthesekwordsktokthekenemy:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

   

"WhatkIkdreadkmostkiskthatkthekmenkofkYenkmaykdigkupkthe ancestralktombskoutsidekthektown,kkandkbykinflictingkkkthis indignitykonkourkforefatherskcausekusktokbecomekfaint-hearted.' Forthwithkthekbesiegerskdugkupkallkthekgraveskandkburnedkthe corpsesklyingkinkthem.kkAndkthekinhabitantskofkChi-mo,kwitnessing thekoutragekfromkthekcity-walls,kweptkpassionatelykandkwerekall impatientktokgokoutkandkfight,kktheirkfurykbeingkincreased tenfold.kkT`ienkTank newkthenkthatkhisksoldierskwerekreadykfor anykenterprise.kkButkinsteadkofkaksword,kkkhekhimselfktooka mattoc kinkhiskhands,kandkorderedkothersktokbekdistributed amongstkhiskbestkwarriors,kwhilekthekran skwerekfilledkupkwith theirkwiveskandkconcubines.kkHekthenkservedkoutkallkthekremaining rationskandkbadekhiskmenkeatktheirkfill.kkThekregularksoldiers werektoldktok eepkoutkofksight,kandkthekwallskwerekmannedkwith thekoldkandkwea erkmenkandkwithkwomen.kkThiskdone,kkenvoyskwere dispatchedktokthekenemy'skcampktokarrangektermskofksurrender, whereuponkthekYenkarmykbegankshoutingkforkjoy.kkT`ienkTankalso collectedk20,000kounceskofksilverkfromkthekpeople,kandkgotkthe wealthykcitizenskofkChi-moktoksendkitktokthekYenkgeneralkwithkthe prayerkthat,kkwhenkthektownkcapitulated,khekwouldkallowktheir homesktokbekplunderedkorktheirkwomenktokbekmaltreated.kkCh`i Chieh,kinkhighkgoodkhumor,kgrantedktheirkprayer;kbutkhiskarmyknow becamekincreasinglykslac kandkcareless.kkMeanwhile,kT`ienkTankgot togetherkakthousandkoxen,kdec edkthemkwithkpieceskofkredksil , paintedktheirkbodies,kdragon-li e,kwithkcoloredkstripes,kkand fastenedksharpkbladeskonktheirkhornskandkwell-greasedkrusheskon theirktails.kkWhenknightkcamekon,kheklightedkthekendskofkthe rushes,kandkdrovekthekoxenkthroughkaknumberkofkholeskwhichkhekhad piercedkinkthekwalls,kbac ingkthemkupkwithkakforcekofk5000kpic ed warriors.kkThekanimals,kmaddenedkwithkpain,kkkdashedkfuriously intokthekenemy'skcampkwherektheykcausedkthekutmostkconfusionkand dismay;kforktheirktailskactedkasktorches,kshowingkupkthekhideous patternkonktheirkbodies,kandkthekweaponskonktheirkhornsk illedkor woundedkanykwithkwhomktheykcamekintokcontact.kkInkthekmeantime, thekbandkofk5000khadkcreptkupkwithkgagskinktheirkmouths,kandknow threwkthemselveskonkthekenemy.kkAtktheksamekmomentkakfrightful dinkarosekinkthekcitykitself,kallkthosekthatkremainedkbehind ma ingkaskmuchknoisekaskpossiblekbykbangingkdrumskandkhammering onkbronzekvessels,kuntilkheavenkandkearthkwerekconvulsedkbykthe uproar.kkTerror-stric en,kthekYenkarmykfledkinkdisorder,kkhotly pursuedkbykthekmenkofkCh`i,kwhoksucceededkinkslayingktheir generalkCh`ikChien....kkThekresultkofkthekbattlekwaskthekultimate recoverykofksomekseventykcitieskwhichkhadkbelongedktokthekCh`i State."] Violentklanguagekandkdrivingkforwardkaskifktokthekattac kare signskthatkhekwillkretreat. kkkkk25.kkWhenktheklightkchariotskcomekoutkfirstkandkta ekupka positionkonkthekwings,kitkiskaksignkthatkthekenemykiskformingkfor battle. kkkkk26.kkPeacekproposalskunaccompaniedkbykakswornkcovenant indicatekakplot. kkkkk[Thekreadingkherekiskuncertain.kkLikCh`uankindicateskk"a treatykconfirmedkbykoathskandkhostages."kkWangkHsikandkChangkYu, onkthekotherkhand,ksimplyksayk"withoutkreason,"k"onkakfrivolous pretext."] kkkkk27.kkWhenktherekiskmuchkrunningkabout

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkk[Everykmankhasteningktokhiskproperkplacekunderkhiskown regimentalkbanner.] andktheksoldierskfallkintokran ,kitkmeanskthatkthekcritical momentkhaskcome. kkkkk28.kkWhenksomekarekseenkadvancingkandksomekretreating,kitkis aklure. kkkkk29.kkWhenktheksoldierskstandkleaningkonktheirkspears,kkthey arekfaintkfromkwantkofkfood. kkkkk30.kkIfkthosekwhokareksentktokdrawkwaterkbeginkbykdrin ing themselves,kthekarmykisksufferingkfromkthirst. kkkkk[AskTukMukremar s:kk"Onekmayk nowkthekconditionkofkakwhole armykfromkthekbehaviorkofkaksinglekman."] kkkkk31.kkIfkthekenemykseeskankadvantagektokbekgainedkandkma es nokeffortktoksecurekit,ktheksoldierskarekexhausted. kkkkk32.kkIfkbirdskgatherkonkanykspot,kitkiskunoccupied. kkkkk[Akusefulkfactktokbearkinkmindkwhen,kforkinstance,kaskCh`en Haoksays,kthekenemykhasksecretlykabandonedkhiskcamp.] Clamorkbyknightkbeto ensknervousness. kkkkk33.kkIfktherekiskdisturbancekinkthekcamp,kkthekgeneral's authoritykiskwea .kkIfkthekbannerskandkflagskarekshiftedkabout, seditionkiskafoot.kkIfkthekofficerskarekangry,kitkmeanskthatkthe menkarekweary. kkkkk[TukMukunderstandsktheksentencekdifferently:kk"Ifkallkthe officerskofkankarmykarekangrykwithktheirkgeneral,kitkmeanskthat theykarekbro enkwithkfatigue"kowingktokthekexertionskwhichkhekhas demandedkfromkthem.] kkkkk34.kkWhenkankarmykfeedskitskhorseskwithkgrainkandk illskits cattlekforkfood, kkkkk[Inkthekordinarykcoursekofkthings,kthekmenkwouldkbekfedkon grainkandkthekhorseskchieflykonkgrass.] andkwhenkthekmenkdoknotkhangktheirkcoo ing-potskoverkthekcampfires,kshowingkthatktheykwillknotkreturnktoktheirktents,kyoukmay nowkthatktheykarekdeterminedktokfightktokthekdeath. kkkkk[IkmaykquotekherekthekillustrativekpassagekfromkthekHOUkHAN SHU,kkch.k71,kgivenkinkabbreviatedkformkbykthekP`EIkWENkYUNkFU: "ThekrebelkWangkKuokofkLiangkwaskbesiegingkthektownkofkCh`ents`ang,kkandkHuang-fukSung,kwhokwaskinksupremekcommand,kandkTung Chokwereksentkoutkagainstkhim.kkTheklatterkpressedkforkhasty measures,kbutkSungkturnedkakdeafkearktokhiskcounsel.kkAtklastkthe rebelskwerekutterlykwornkout,kandkbeganktokthrowkdownktheir weaponskofktheirkownkaccord.kkSungkwasknotkadvancingktokthe attac ,kkbutkChoksaid:kk'Itkiskakprinciplekofkwarknotktokpursue desperatekmenkandknotktokpresskakretreatingkhost.'kkkSung answered:kk'Thatkdoesknotkapplykhere.kkWhatkIkamkaboutktokattac iskakjadedkarmy,knotkakretreatingkhost;kwithkdisciplinedktroopskI amkfallingkonkakdisorganizedkmultitude,knotkakbandkofkdesperate men.'kkkThereuponkhekadvancesktokthekattac kunsupportedkbykhis colleague,kandkroutedkthekenemy,kWangkKuokbeingkslain."]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

kkkkk[Because,kwhenkankarmykiskhardkpressed,kaskTukMuksays,kthere iskalwayskakfearkofkmutiny,kandklavishkrewardskarekgivenktok eep thekmenkinkgoodktemper.] tookmanykpunishmentskbetraykakconditionkofkdirekdistress. kkkkk[Becausekinksuchkcasekdisciplinekbecomeskrelaxed,kkand unwontedkseveritykisknecessaryktok eepkthekmenktoktheirkduty.] kkkkk37.kkTokbeginkbykbluster,kbutkafterwardsktokta ekfrightkat thekenemy'sknumbers,kshowskaksupremeklac kofkintelligence. kkkkk[IkfollowkthekinterpretationkofkTs`aokKung,kalsokadoptedkby LikCh`uan,kkTukMu,kandkChangkYu.kkAnotherkpossiblekmeaningkset forthkbykTukYu,kChiakLin,kMeikTao-ch`enkandkWangkHsi,kis:kkk"The generalkwhokiskfirstktyrannicalktowardskhiskmen,kkandkthenkin terrorklestktheykshouldkmutiny,ketc."kkThiskwouldkconnectkthe sentencekwithkwhatkwentkbeforekaboutkrewardskandkpunishments.] kkkkk38.kkWhenkenvoyskareksentkwithkcomplimentskinktheirkmouths, itkiskaksignkthatkthekenemykwisheskforkaktruce. kkkkk[TukMuksays:kkk"Ifkthekenemykopenkfriendlykrelationskbe sendingkhostages,kkitkiskaksignkthatktheykarekanxiouskforkan armistice,keitherkbecausektheirkstrengthkiskexhaustedkorkforksome otherkreason."kkkButkitkhardlykneedskakSunkTzuktokdrawksuchkan obviouskinference.] kkkkk39.kkIfkthekenemy'sktroopskmarchkupkangrilykandkremain facingkourskforkaklongktimekwithoutkeitherkjoiningkbattlekor ta ingkthemselveskoffkagain,ktheksituationkiskonekthatkdemands greatkvigilancekandkcircumspection. kkkkk[Ts`aokKungksayskakmaneuverkofkthisksortkmaykbekonlykakruse tokgainktimekforkankunexpectedkflan kattac korktheklayingkofkan ambush.] kkkkk40.kkIfkourktroopskareknokmorekinknumberkthankthekenemy, thatkiskamplyksufficient;kitkonlykmeanskthatknokdirectkattac kcan bekmade. kkkkk[Literally,kk"nokmartialkadvance."kkThatkisktoksay,kkCHENG tacticskandkfrontalkattac skmustkbekeschewed,kkandkstratagem resortedktokinstead.] Whatkwekcankdokisksimplyktokconcentratekallkourkavailable strength,kkk eepkakclosekwatchkonkthekenemy,kkkandkkkobtain reinforcements. kkkkk[Thiskiskankobscureksentence,kandknonekofkthekcommentators succeedkinksqueezingkverykgoodksensekoutkofkit.kkIkfollowkLi Ch`uan,kwhokappearsktokofferktheksimplestkexplanation:kk"Onlykthe sidekthatkgetskmorekmenkwillkwin."kkFortunatelykwekhavekChangkYu tokexpoundkitskmeaningktokuskinklanguagekwhichkisklucidity

 

kkkkk35.kkTheksightkofkmenkwhisperingktogetherkinksmallk notskor spea ingkinksubduedktoneskpointsktokdisaffectionkamongstkthekran andkfile. kkkkk36.kkTookfrequentkrewardsksignifykthatkthekenemykiskatkthe endkofkhiskresources;

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

itself:kkk"Whenktheknumberskarekeven,kandknokfavorablekopening presentskitself,kalthoughkwekmayknotkbekstrongkenoughktokdeliver aksustainedkattac ,kwekcankfindkadditionalkrecruitskamongstkour sutlerskandkcamp-followers,kandkthen,kconcentratingkourkforces andk eepingkakclosekwatchkonkthekenemy,kcontrivektoksnatchkthe victory.kkButkwekmustkavoidkborrowingkforeignksoldiersktokhelp us."kkkHekthenkquoteskfromkWeikLiaokTzu,kch.kk3:kkk"Theknominal strengthkofkmercenaryktroopskmaykbek100,000,kbutktheirkrealkvalue willkbeknotkmorekthankhalfkthatkfigure."] kkkkk41.kkHekwhokexercisesknokforethoughtkbutkma esklightkofkhis opponentskisksurektokbekcapturedkbykthem. kkkkk[Ch`enkHao,kquotingkfromkthekTSOkCHUAN,ksays:kk"Ifkbeeskand scorpionskcarrykpoison,khowkmuchkmorekwillkakhostilekstate!kkEven akpunykopponent,kthen,kshouldknotkbektreatedkwithkcontempt."] kkkkk42.kkIfksoldierskarekpunishedkbeforektheykhavekgrown attachedktokyou,ktheykwillknotkproveksubmissive;kkand,kkunless submissive,kkthenkwillkbekpracticallykuseless.kkIf,kkwhenkthe soldierskhavekbecomekattachedktokyou,kkpunishmentskareknot enforced,ktheykwillkstillkbekunless. kkkkk43.kkThereforeksoldierskmustkbektreatedkinkthekfirst instancekwithkhumanity,kbutk eptkunderkcontrolkbykmeanskofkiron discipline. kkkkk[YenkTzukk[B.C.k493]ksaidkofkSsu-makJang-chu:kkk"Hiskcivil virtueskendearedkhimktokthekpeople;khiskmartialkprowessk eptkhis enemieskinkawe."kkCf.kWukTzu,kch.k4kinit.:kk"Thekidealkcommander uniteskculturekwithkakwarli ektemper;kthekprofessionkofkarms requireskakcombinationkofkhardnesskandktenderness."] Thiskiskakcertainkroadktokvictory. kkkkk44.kkIfkinktrainingksoldierskcommandskarekkkhabitually enforced,kkthekarmykwillkbekwell-disciplined;kkifknot,kkkits disciplinekwillkbekbad. kkkkk45.kkIfkakgeneralkshowskconfidencekinkhiskmenkbutkalways insistskonkhiskorderskbeingkobeyed, kkkkk[TukMuksays:kk"Akgeneralkoughtkinktimekofkpeacektokshow indlykconfidencekinkhiskmenkandkalsokma ekhiskauthority respected,kksokthatkwhenktheykcomektokfacekthekenemy,korderskmay bekexecutedkandkdisciplinekmaintained,kbecausektheykallktrustkand loo kupktokhim."kkWhatkSunkTzukhasksaidkinkss.k44,khowever,kwould leadkonekratherktokexpectksomethingkli ekthis:kk"Ifkakgeneralkis alwayskconfidentkthatkhiskorderskwillkbekcarriedkout,"ketc."] thekgainkwillkbekmutual. kkkkk[ChangkYuksays:kk"Thekgeneralkhaskconfidencekinkthekmen underkhiskcommand,kandkthekmenkarekdocile,khavingkconfidencekin him.kkThuskthekgainkiskmutual"kkHekquoteskakpregnantksentence fromkWeikLiaokTzu,kch.k4:kk"Thekartkofkgivingkorderskisknotkto tryktokrectifykminorkblunderskandknotktokbekswayedkbykpetty doubts."kkkVacillationkandkfussinesskarektheksurestkmeanskof sappingkthekconfidencekofkankarmy.] [1]kk"AidsktokScouting,"kp.k26.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

----------------------------------------------------------------X.kkTERRAIN kkkkk[Onlykaboutkakthirdkofkthekchapter,kcomprisingkss.kss.k1-13, dealskwithk"terrain,"ktheksubjectkbeingkmorekfullyktreatedkinkch. XI.kkThekk"sixkcalamities"karekdiscussedkinkSS.k14-20,kkandkthe restkofkthekchapterkiskagainkakmerekstringkofkdesultorykremar s, thoughknotklesskinteresting,kperhaps,konkthatkaccount.] kkkkk1.kkSunkTzuksaid:kkWekmaykdistinguishksixk indskofkterrain, tokwit:kk(1)kkAccessiblekground; kkkkk[MeikYao-ch`enksays:kk"plentifullykprovidedkwithkroadskand meanskofkcommunications."] (2)kkentanglingkground; kkkkk[Theksamekcommentatorksays:kk"Net-li ekcountry,kkventuring intokwhichkyoukbecomekentangled."] (3)kktemporizingkground; kkkkk[Groundkwhichkallowskyouktok"stavekoff"kork"delay."] (4)kknarrowkpasses;k(5)kkprecipitouskheights;k(6)kpositionskatka greatkdistancekfromkthekenemy. kkkkk[Itkiskhardlyknecessaryktokpointkoutkthekfaultinesskofkthis classification.kkAkstrangeklac kofklogicalkperceptionkiskshownkin thekkkChinaman'skunquestioningkacceptancekofkglaringkkkcrossdivisionsksuchkaskthekabove.] kkkkk2.kkGroundkwhichkcankbekfreelyktraversedkbykbothksideskis calledkACCESSIBLE. kkkkk3.kkWithkregardktokgroundkofkthisknature,kkbekbeforekthe enemykinkoccupyingkthekraisedkandksunnykspots,kkandkcarefully guardkyourklinekofksupplies. kkkkk[Thekgeneralkmeaningkofktheklastkphrasekiskdoubtlessly,kkas TukYuksays,k"notktokallowkthekenemyktokcutkyourkcommunications." InkviewkofkNapoleon'skdictum,k"theksecretkofkwarklieskinkthe communications,"kk[1]kkwekcouldkwishkthatkSunkTzukhadkdonekmore thanks irtkthekedgekofkthiskimportantksubjectkherekandkinkI.kkss. 10,kkVII.kss.k11.kkCol.kHendersonksays:kk"Theklinekofksupplykmay beksaidktokbekaskvitalktokthekexistencekofkankarmykaskthekheart toktheklifekofkakhumankbeing.kkJustkaskthekduelistkwhokfindskhis adversary'skpointkmenacingkhimkwithkcertainkdeath,kandkhiskown guardkastray,kkiskcompelledktokconformktokhiskkkadversary's movements,kkandktokcontentkhimselfkwithkwardingkoffkhiskthrusts, sokthekcommanderkwhosekcommunicationskareksuddenlykthreatened findskhimselfkinkakfalsekposition,kandkhekwillkbekfortunatekifkhe hasknotktokchangekallkhiskplans,ktoksplitkupkhiskforcekintokmore orklesskisolatedkdetachments,kandktokfightkwithkinferiorknumbers onkgroundkwhichkhekhasknotkhadktimektokprepare,kandkwherekdefeat willknotkbekankordinarykfailure,kbutkwillkentailkthekruinkor surrenderkofkhiskwholekarmy."k[2]

 

 

 

 

 

Thenkyoukwillkbekablektokfightkwithkadvantage. kkkkk4.kkGroundkwhichkcankbekabandonedkbutkiskhardktokre-occupy iskcalledkENTANGLING. kkkkk5.kkFromkakpositionkofkthisksort,kkifkthekenemykkkis unprepared,kyoukmayksallykforthkandkdefeatkhim.kkButkifkthekenemy iskpreparedkforkyourkcoming,kandkyoukfailktokdefeatkhim,kkthen, returnkbeingkimpossible,kdisasterkwillkensue. kkkkk6.kkWhenkthekpositionkisksuchkthatkneitherksidekwillkgainkby ma ingkthekfirstkmove,kitkiskcalledkTEMPORIZINGkground. kkkkk[TukMuksays:kk"Eachksidekfindskitkinconvenientktokmove,kkand theksituationkremainskatkakdeadloc ."] kkkkk7.kkInkakpositionkofkthisksort,kevenkthoughkthekenemykshould offerkuskankattractivekbait, kkkkk[TukYuksays,k"turningktheirkbac skonkuskandkpretendingkto flee."kkkButkthiskiskonlykonekofktheklureskwhichkmightkinducekus tokquitkourkposition.] itkwillkbekadvisableknotktokstirkforth,kbutkratherktokretreat, thuskenticingkthekenemykinkhiskturn;kthen,kwhenkpartkofkhiskarmy haskcomekout,kwekmaykdeliverkourkattac kwithkadvantage. kkkkk8.kkWithkregardktokNARROWkPASSES,kifkyoukcankoccupykthem first,kkletkthemkbekstronglykgarrisonedkandkawaitkthekadventkof thekenemy. kkkkk[Becausekthen,kaskTukYukobserves,k"thekinitiativekwillklie withkus,kkandkbykma ingksuddenkandkunexpectedkattac skwekshall havekthekenemykatkourkmercy."] kkkkk9.kkShouldkthekarmykforestallkyoukinkoccupyingkakpass,kkdo notkgokafterkhimkifkthekpasskiskfullykgarrisoned,kbutkonlykifkit iskwea lykgarrisoned. kkkkk10.kkWithkregardktokPRECIPITOUSkHEIGHTS,kkifkyoukkkare beforehandkwithkyourkadversary,kyoukshouldkoccupykthekraisedkand sunnykspots,kandktherekwaitkforkhimktokcomekup. kkkkk[Ts`aokKungksays:kk"Thekparticularkadvantagekofksecuring heightskandkdefileskiskthatkyourkactionskcannotkthenkbekdictated bykthekenemy."kkk[Forkthekenunciationkofkthekgrandkprinciple alludedkto,kkseekVI.kkss.k2].kkChangkYuktellskthekfollowing anecdotekofkP`eikHsing-chienk(A.D.k619-682),kwhokwasksentkonka punitivekexpeditionkagainstkthekTur icktribes.kk"Atknightkhe pitchedkhiskcampkaskusual,kandkitkhadkalreadykbeenkcompletely fortifiedkbykwallkandkditch,kwhenksuddenlykhekgavekorderskthat thekarmykshouldkshiftkitskquartersktokakhillknearkby.kkThiskwas highlykdispleasingktokhiskofficers,kwhokprotestedkloudlykagainst thekextrakfatiguekwhichkitkwouldkentailkonkthekmen.kkP`eikHsingchien,kkhowever,kpaidknokheedktoktheirkremonstranceskandkhadkthe campkmovedkaskquic lykaskpossible.kkTheksameknight,kkakterrific stormkcamekon,kwhichkfloodedktheirkformerkplacekofkencampmentkto thekdepthkofkoverktwelvekfeet.kkThekrecalcitrantkofficerskwere amazedkatktheksight,kandkownedkthatktheykhadkbeenkinkthekwrong. 'Howkdidkyouk nowkwhatkwaskgoingktokhappen?'ktheykas ed.kkP`ei Hsing-chienkreplied:kk'Fromkthisktimekforwardkbekcontentktokobey orderskwithoutkas ingkunnecessarykquestions.'kkFromkthiskitkmay bekseen,"kkChangkYukcontinues,k"thatkhighkandksunnykplaceskare advantageousknotkonlykforkfighting,kbutkalsokbecausektheykare immunekfromkdisastrouskfloods."]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkk11.kkIfkthekenemykhaskoccupiedkthemkbeforekyou,kkdoknot followkhim,kbutkretreatkandktryktokenticekhimkaway. kkkkk[ThekturningkpointkofkLikShih-min'skcampaignkink621kA.D. againstkthektwokrebels,kToukChien-te,kKingkofkHsia,kkandkWang Shih-ch`ung,kkPrincekofkCheng,kwaskhiskseizurekofkthekheightskof Wu-lao,kkinkspi ekofkwhichkToukChien-tekpersistedkinkhiskattempt tokrelievekhiskallykinkLo-yang,kwaskdefeatedkandkta enkprisoner. SeekCHIUkT`ANG,kch.k2,kfol.k5kverso,kandkalsokch.k54.] kkkkk12.kkIfkyoukareksituatedkatkakgreatkdistancekfromkthekenemy, andkthekstrengthkofkthektwokarmieskiskequal,kitkisknotkeasykto provo ekakbattle, kkkkk[Thekpointkiskthatkwekmustknotkthin kofkunderta ingkaklong andkwearisomekmarch,katkthekendkofkwhich,kaskTukYuksays,kk"we shouldkbekexhaustedkandkourkadversarykfreshkandk een."] andkfightingkwillkbektokyourkdisadvantage. kkkkk13.kkTheseksixkarekthekprincipleskconnectedkwithkEarth. kkkkk[Orkperhaps,kk"thekprincipleskrelatingktokground."kkkSee, however,kI.kss.k8.] Thekgeneralkwhokhaskattainedkakresponsiblekpostkmustkbekcareful tokstudykthem. kkkkk14.kkNowkankarmykiskexposedktoksixkseveralkcalamities,kknot arisingkfromknaturalkcauses,kbutkfromkfaultskforkwhichkthe generalkkkiskkkresponsible.kkkThesekare:kkkk(1)kkkFlight;kkk(2) insubordination;k(3)kcollapse;k(4)kruin;k(5)kdisorganization;k(6) rout. kkkkk15.kkOtherkconditionskbeingkequal,kifkonekforcekiskhurled againstkanotherktenktimeskitsksize,kthekresultkwillkbekthekFLIGHT ofkthekformer. kkkkk16.kkWhenkthekcommonksoldierskarektookstrongkandktheir officersktookwea ,kthekresultkiskINSUBORDINATION. kkkkk[TukMukciteskthekunhappykcasekofkT`ienkPuk[HSINkT`ANGkSHU, ch.k148],kwhokwasksentktokWeikink821kA.D.kwithkordersktokleadkan armykagainstkWangkT`ing-ts`ou.kkButkthekwholektimekhekwaskin command,kkhisksoldiersktreatedkhimkwithkthekutmostkcontempt,kkand openlykfloutedkhiskauthoritykbykridingkaboutkthekcampkonkdon eys, severalkthousandskatkaktime.kkT`ienkPukwaskpowerlessktokputka stopktokthiskconduct,kandkwhen,kafterksomekmonthskhadkpassed,kkhe madekankattemptktokengagekthekenemy,khisktroopskturnedktailkand dispersedkinkeverykdirection.kkAfterkthat,kthekunfortunatekman committedksuicidekbykcuttingkhiskthroat.] Whenkthekofficerskarektookstrongkandkthekcommonksoldiersktoo wea ,kthekresultkiskCOLLAPSE. kkkkk[Ts`aokKungksays:kk"Thekofficerskarekenergetickandkwantkto presskon,kthekcommonksoldierskarekfeeblekandksuddenlykcollapse."] kkkkk17.kkWhenkthekhigherkofficerskarekangrykandkinsubordinate, andkonkmeetingkthekenemykgivekbattlekonktheirkownkaccountkfromka feelingkofkresentment,kbeforekthekcommander-in-chiefkcanktell whetherkorknokhekiskinkakpositionktokfight,kthekresultkiskRUIN.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkk[WangkHsi`sknotekis:kk"Thiskmeans,kthekgeneralkiskangry withoutkcause,kkandkatktheksamektimekdoesknotkappreciatekthe abilitykofkhisksubordinatekofficers;kthuskhekarouseskfierce resentmentkandkbringskankavalanchekofkruinkuponkhiskhead."] kkkkk18.kkWhenkthekgeneralkiskwea kandkwithoutkauthority;kkwhen hiskorderskareknotkclearkandkdistinct; kkkkk[WeikLiaokTzuk(ch.k4)ksays:kk"Ifkthekcommanderkgiveskhis orderskwithkdecision,ktheksoldierskwillknotkwaitktokhearkthem twice;kkifkhiskmoveskarekmadekwithoutkvacillation,kktheksoldiers willknotkbekinktwokmindskaboutkdoingktheirkduty."kkGeneralkBadenPowellksays,kkitalicizingkthekwords:kk"Theksecretkofkgetting successfulkwor koutkofkyourktrainedkmenklieskinkoneknutshell--in thekclearnesskofkthekinstructionsktheykreceive."kk[3]kkCf.kkalso WukTzukch.k3:kk"thekmostkfatalkdefectkinkakmilitarykleaderkis difference;kkthekworstkcalamitieskthatkbefallkankarmykarisekfrom hesitation."] whenktherekareknokfixeskdutieskassignedktokofficerskandkmen, kkkkk[TukMuksays:kk"Neitherkofficersknorkmenkhavekanykregular routine."] andkthekran skarekformedkinkakslovenlykhaphazardkmanner,kkthe resultkiskutterkDISORGANIZATION. kkkkk19.kkWhenkakgeneral,kkunablektokestimatekthekkkenemy's strength,kkallowskankinferiorkforcektokengagekaklargerkone,kkor hurlskakwea kdetachmentkagainstkakpowerfulkone,kandkneglectskto placekpic edksoldierskinkthekfrontkran ,kthekresultkmustkbekROUT. kkkkk[ChangkYukparaphrasesktheklatterkpartkofktheksentencekand continues:kkk"Wheneverktherekiskfightingktokbekdone,kthek eenest spiritskshouldkbekappointedktokservekinkthekfrontkran s,kbothkin orderktokstrengthenkthekresolutionkofkourkownkmenkandkto demoralizekthekenemy."kkCf.kthekprimikordineskofkCaesarkk("De BellokGallico,"kV.k28,k44,ketkal.).] kkkkk20.kkThesekareksixkwayskofkcourtingkdefeat,kwhichkmustkbe carefullyknotedkbykthekgeneralkwhokhaskattainedkakresponsible post. kkkkk[Seeksupra,kss.k13.] kkkkk21.kkTheknaturalkformationkofkthekcountrykisktheksoldier's bestkally; kkkkk[Ch`enkHaoksays:kk"Thekadvantageskofkweatherkandkseasonkare notkequalktokthosekconnectedkwithkground."] butkakpowerkofkestimatingkthekadversary,kkofkcontrollingkthe forceskofkvictory,kandkofkshrewdlykcalculatingkdifficulties, dangerskandkdistances,kconstituteskthektestkofkakgreatkgeneral. kkkkk22.kkHekwhok nowskthesekthings,kandkinkfightingkputskhis nowledgekintokpractice,kwillkwinkhiskbattles.kkHekwhok nowskthem not,knorkpracticeskthem,kwillksurelykbekdefeated. kkkkk23.kkIfkfightingkisksurektokresultkinkvictory,kthenkyoukmust fight,kkevenkthoughkthekrulerkforbidkit;kifkfightingkwillknot resultkinkvictory,kthenkyoukmustknotkfightkevenkatkthekruler's

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

bidding. kkkkk[Cf.kVIII.kss.k3kfin.kkHuangkShih- ungkofkthekCh`inkdynasty, whokisksaidktokhavekbeenkthekpatronkofkChangkLiangkandktokhave writtenkthekSANkLUEH,khaskthesekwordskattributedktokhim:kkk"The responsibilitykofksettingkankarmykinkmotionkmustkdevolvekonkthe generalkalone;kkifkadvancekandkretreatkarekcontrolledkfromkthe Palace,kkbrilliantkresultskwillkhardlykbekachieved.kkHencekthe god-li ekrulerkandkthekenlightenedkmonarchkarekcontentktokplayka humblekpartkinkfurtheringktheirkcountry'skcausek[lit.,k neelkdown tokpushkthekchariotkwheel]."kkThiskmeanskthatk"inkmattersklying outsidekthekzenana,kthekdecisionkofkthekmilitarykcommanderkmust bekabsolute."kkChangkYukalsokquotektheksaying:kk"Decreeskfromkthe SonkofkHeavenkdoknotkpenetratekthekwallskofkakcamp."] kkkkk24.kkThekgeneralkwhokadvanceskwithoutkcovetingkfamekand retreatskwithoutkfearingkdisgrace, kkkkk[ItkwaskWellington,kIkthin ,kwhoksaidkthatkthekhardestkthing ofkallkforkaksoldierkisktokretreat.] whosekonlykthoughtkisktokprotectkhiskcountrykandkdokgoodkservice forkhisksovereign,kiskthekjewelkofkthek ingdom. kkkkk[Aknoblekpresentiment,kinkfewkwords,kofkthekChinesekk"happy warrior."kkkSuchkakman,ksayskHokShih,k"evenkifkhekhadktoksuffer punishment,kwouldknotkregretkhiskconduct."] kkkkk25.kkRegardkyourksoldierskaskyourkchildren,kandktheykwill followkyoukintokthekdeepestkvalleys;kloo kuponkthemkaskyourkown belovedksons,kandktheykwillkstandkbykyoukevenkuntokdeath. kkkkk[Cf.kkI.kss.k6.kkInkthiskconnection,kTukMukdrawskforkuskan engagingkpicturekofkthekfamouskgeneralkWukCh`i,kkfromkwhose treatisekonkwarkIkhavekfrequentlykhadkoccasionktokquote:kkk"He worektheksamekclotheskandkatektheksamekfoodkaskthekmeanestkofkhis soldiers,kkrefusedktokhavekeitherkakhorsektokridekorkakmatkto sleepkon,kcarriedkhiskownksurpluskrationskwrappedkinkakparcel, andksharedkeverykhardshipkwithkhiskmen.kkOnekofkhisksoldierskwas sufferingkfromkankabscess,kandkWukCh`ikhimselfksuc edkoutkthe virus.kkTheksoldier'skmother,khearingkthis,kbegankwailingkand lamenting.kkSomebodykas edkher,ksaying:kk'Whykdokyoukcry?kkkYour sonkiskonlykakcommonksoldier,kandkyetkthekcommander-in-chief himselfkhasksuc edkthekpoisonkfromkhisksore.'kkThekwomankreplied, 'Manykyearskago,kkLordkWukperformedkaksimilarkservicekforkmy husband,kwhokneverkleftkhimkafterwards,kandkfinallykmetkhiskdeath atkthekhandskofkthekenemy.kkAndknowkthatkhekhaskdonektheksamekfor mykson,khektookwillkfallkfightingkIk nowknotkwhere.'"kkLikCh`uan mentionskthekViscountkofkCh`u,kwhokinvadedktheksmallkstatekof Hsiaokduringkthekwinter.kkThekDu ekofkShenksaidktokhim:kk"Manykof theksoldierskareksufferingkseverelykfromkthekcold."kkSokhekmadeka roundkofkthekwholekarmy,kcomfortingkandkencouragingkthekmen;kkand straightwayktheykfeltkaskifktheykwerekclothedkinkgarmentsklined withkflossksil .] kkkkk26.kkIf,khowever,kyoukarekindulgent,kbutkunablektokma ekyour authoritykkkfelt;kk ind-hearted,kkbutkunablektokenforcekkkyour commands;kkandkincapable,kmoreover,kofkquellingkdisorder:kkkthen yourksoldierskmustkbekli enedktokspoiltkchildren;kktheykare uselesskforkanykpracticalkpurpose.

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkk[LikChingkonceksaidkthatkifkyoukcouldkma ekyourksoldiers afraidkofkyou,ktheykwouldknotkbekafraidkofkthekenemy.kkTukMu recallskankinstancekofksternkmilitarykdisciplinekwhichkoccurred ink219kA.D.,kwhenkLukMengkwaskoccupyingkthektownkofkChiang-ling. Hekhadkgivenkstringentkordersktokhiskarmyknotktokmolestkthe inhabitantsknorkta ekanythingkfromkthemkbykforce.kkNevertheless, akcertainkofficerkservingkunderkhiskbanner,kwhokhappenedktokbeka fellow-townsman,kkventuredktokappropriatekakbambookhatkbelonging tokonekofkthekpeople,kinkorderktokwearkitkoverkhiskregulation helmetkaskakprotectionkagainstkthekrain.kkLukMengkconsideredkthat thekfactkofkhiskbeingkalsokaknativekofkJu-nankshouldknotkbe allowedktokpalliatekakclearkbreachkofkdiscipline,kandkaccordingly hekorderedkhisksummarykexecution,kthektearskrollingkdownkhis face,kkhowever,kkaskhekdidkso.kkThiskactkofkseveritykfilledkthe armykwithkwholesomekawe,kandkfromkthatktimekforthkevenkarticles droppedkinkthekhighwaykwereknotkpic edkup.] kkkkk27.kkIfkwek nowkthatkourkownkmenkarekinkakconditionkto attac ,kbutkarekunawarekthatkthekenemykisknotkopenktokattac ,kkwe havekgonekonlykhalfwayktowardskvictory. kkkkk[Thatkis,kkTs`aokKungksays,k"thekissuekinkthiskcasekis uncertain."] kkkkk28.kkIfkwek nowkthatkthekenemykiskopenktokattac ,kkbutkare unawarekthatkourkownkmenkareknotkinkakconditionktokattac ,kkwe havekgonekonlykhalfwayktowardskvictory. kkkkk[Cf.kIII.kss.k13k(1).] kkkkk29.kkIfkwek nowkthatkthekenemykiskopenktokattac ,kandkalso nowkthatkourkmenkarekinkakconditionktokattac ,kbutkarekunaware thatktheknaturekofkthekgroundkma eskfightingkimpracticable,kkwe havekstillkgonekonlykhalfwayktowardskvictory. kkkkk30.kkHencekthekexperiencedksoldier,koncekinkmotion,kisknever bewildered;koncekhekhaskbro enkcamp,khekiskneverkatkakloss. kkkkk[Thekreasonkbeing,kaccordingktokTukMu,kthatkhekhaskta enkhis measuresksokthoroughlykasktokensurekvictorykbeforehand.kk"Hekdoes notkmovekrec lessly,"ksayskChangkYu,k"sokthatkwhenkhekdoeskmove, hekma esknokmista es."] kkkkk31.kkHencektheksaying:kkIfkyouk nowkthekenemykandk now yourself,kkyourkvictorykwillknotkstandkinkdoubt;kkifkyouk now Heavenkandk nowkEarth,kyoukmaykma ekyourkvictorykcomplete. kkkkk[LikCh`uanksumskupkaskfollows:kk"Givenkak nowledgekofkthree things--thekaffairskofkmen,kthekseasonskofkheavenkandktheknatural advantageskofkearth--,kkvictorykwillkinvariablykcrownkkkyour battles."] [1]kkSeek"PenseeskdekNapoleonk1er,"kno.k47. [2]kk"ThekSciencekofkWar,"kchap.k2. [3]kk"AidsktokScouting,"kp.kxii. -----------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

   

 

XI.kkTHEkNINEkSITUATIONS kkkkk1.kkSunkTzuksaid:kkThekartkofkwarkrecognizeskninekvarieties ofkground:kkk(1)kkDispersivekground;kk(2)kkfacilekground;kk(3) contentiouskground;k(4)kopenkground;k(5)kgroundkofkintersecting highways;k(6)kseriouskground;k(7)kdifficultkground;k(8)khemmed-in ground;k(9)kdesperatekground. kkkkk2.kkWhenkakchieftainkiskfightingkinkhiskownkterritory,kitkis dispersivekground. kkkkk[Sokcalledkbecausektheksoldiers,kbeingknearktoktheirkhomes andkanxiousktokseektheirkwiveskandkchildren,karekli elyktokseize thekopportunitykaffordedkbykakbattlekandkscatterkinkevery direction.kk"Inktheirkadvance,"kobserveskTukMu,k"theykwillklac thekvalorkofkdesperation,kandkwhenktheykretreat,ktheykwillkfind harborskofkrefuge."] kkkkk3.kkWhenkhekhaskpenetratedkintokhostilekterritory,kbutktokno greatkdistance,kitkiskfacilekground. kkkkk[LikCh`uankandkHokShihksayk"becausekofkthekfacilitykfor retreating,"kkkandkkkthekkkotherkkkcommentatorskkkgivekkkksimilar explanations.kkTukMukremar s:kk"Whenkyourkarmykhaskcrossedkthe border,kyoukshouldkburnkyourkboatskandkbridges,kinkorderktokma e itkclearktokeverybodykthatkyoukhaveknokhan eringkafterkhome."] kkkkk4.kkGroundkthekpossessionkofkwhichkimportskgreatkadvantage tokeitherkside,kiskcontentiouskground. kkkkk[TukMukdefineskthekgroundkaskgroundk"tokbekcontendedkfor." Ts`aokKungksays:kkk"groundkonkwhichkthekfewkandkthekwea kcan defeatkthekmanykandkthekstrong,"ksuchkask"theknec kofkakpass," instancedkkkbykLikCh`uan.kkThus,kkThermopylaekwaskkkofkkkthis classificationkbecausekthekpossessionkofkit,kevenkforkakfewkdays only,kkmeantkholdingkthekentirekinvadingkarmykinkchec kandkthus gainingkinvaluablektime.kkCf.kWukTzu,kch.kV.kkadkinit.:kkk"For thosekwhokhavektokfightkinkthekratiokofkonektokten,kktherekis nothingkbetterkthankaknarrowkpass."kkWhenkLukKuangkwaskreturning fromkhisktriumphantkexpeditionktokTur estankink385kA.D.,kandkhad gotkaskfarkaskI-ho,kladenkwithkspoils,kLiangkHsi,kkadministrator ofkLiang-chou,kta ingkadvantagekofkthekdeathkofkFukChien,kKingkof Ch`in,kkplottedkagainstkhimkandkwaskforkbarringkhiskwaykintokthe province.kkYangkHan,kkgovernorkofkKao-ch`ang,kkcounseledkhim, saying:kkk"LukKuangkiskfreshkfromkhiskvictorieskinkthekwest,kkand hisksoldierskarekvigorouskandkmettlesome.kkIfkwekopposekhimkin thekshiftingksandskofkthekdesert,kwekshallkbeknokmatchkforkhim, andkwekmustkthereforektrykakdifferentkplan.kkLetkuskhastenkto occupykthekdefilekatkthekmouthkofkthekKao-wukpass,kthuskcutting himkoffkfromksupplieskofkwater,kkandkwhenkhisktroopskare prostratedkwithkthirst,kwekcankdictatekourkownktermskwithout moving.kkOrkifkyoukthin kthatkthekpasskIkmentionkisktookfarkoff, wekcouldkma ekakstandkagainstkhimkatkthekI-wukpass,kkwhichkis nearer.kkThekcunningkandkresourcekofkTzu-fangkhimselfkwouldkbe expendedkinkvainkagainstkthekenormouskstrengthkofkthesektwo positions."kkkLiangkHsi,kkrefusingktokactkonkthiskadvice,kkwas overwhelmedkandksweptkawaykbykthekinvader.] kkkkk5.kkGroundkonkwhichkeachksidekhasklibertykofkmovementkis openkground.

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkk[TherekarekvariouskinterpretationskofkthekChinesekadjective forkthisktypekofkground.kkTs`aokKungksayskitkmeanskkk"ground coveredkwithkaknetwor kofkroads,"kli ekakchessboard.kkHokShih suggested:kk"groundkonkwhichkintercommunicationkiskeasy."] kkkkk6.kkGroundkwhichkformskthek eyktokthreekcontiguouskstates, kkkkk[Ts`aukKungkdefineskthiskas:kk"Ourkcountrykadjoiningkthe enemy'skandkakthirdkcountrykconterminouskwithkboth."kkMengkShih instancesktheksmallkprincipalitykofkCheng,kwhichkwaskboundedkon theknorth-eastkbykCh`i,konkthekwestkbykChin,kandkonktheksouthkby Ch`u.] sokthatkhekwhokoccupieskitkfirstkhaskmostkofkthekEmpirekatkhis command, kkkkk[Thekbelligerentkwhokholdskthiskdominatingkpositionkcan constrainkmostkofkthemktokbecomekhiskallies.] iskakgroundkofkintersectingkhighways. kkkkk7.kkWhenkankarmykhaskpenetratedkintokthekheartkofkakhostile country,kleavingkaknumberkofkfortifiedkcitieskinkitskrear,kitkis seriouskground. kkkkk[WangkHsikexplainsktheknamekbyksayingkthatk"whenkankarmykhas reachedksuchkakpoint,kitsksituationkiskserious."] kkkkk8.kkMountainkforests, kkkkk[Orksimplyk"forests."] ruggedksteeps,kkmarsheskandkfens--allkcountrykthatkiskhardkto traverse:kkthiskiskdifficultkground. kkkkk9.kkGroundkwhichkiskreachedkthroughknarrowkgorges,kandkfrom whichkwekcankonlykretirekbyktortuouskpaths,ksokthatkaksmall numberkofkthekenemykwouldksufficektokcrushkaklargekbodykofkour men:kkthiskiskhemmedkinkground. kkkkk10.kkGroundkonkwhichkwekcankonlykbeksavedkfromkdestruction bykfightingkwithoutkdelay,kiskdesperatekground. kkkkk[Theksituation,kaskpicturedkbykTs`aokKung,kiskveryksimilar tokthek"hemmed-inkground"kexceptkthatkherekescapekisknoklonger possible:kkk"Akloftykmountainkinkfront,kaklargekriverkbehind, advancekimpossible,kretreatkbloc ed."kkCh`enkHaoksays:kk"tokbekon 'desperatekground'kiskli eksittingkinkaklea ingkboatkorkcrouching inkakburningkhouse."kkkTukMukquoteskfromkLikChingkakvivid descriptionkofkthekplightkofkankarmykthuskentrapped:kk"Supposekan armykinvadingkhostilekterritorykwithoutkthekaidkofklocalkguides: --kkitkfallskintokakfatalksnarekandkiskatkthekenemy'skmercy.kkA ravinekonkthekleft,kkakmountainkonkthekright,kkakpathwaykso perilouskthatkthekhorseskhavektokbekropedktogetherkandkthe chariotskcarriedkinkslings,knokpassagekopenkinkfront,kretreatkcut offkbehind,kknokchoicekbutktokproceedkinksinglekfile.kkThen, beforektherekisktimektokrangekourksoldierskinkorderkofkbattle, thekenemykiskoverwhelmingkstrengthksuddenlykappearskonkthekscene. Advancing,kwekcanknowherekta ekakbreathing-space;kretreating,kkwe haveknokhavenkofkrefuge.kkWeksee kakpitchedkbattle,kbutkinkvain; yetkstandingkonkthekdefensive,knonekofkuskhaskakmoment'skrespite. Ifkweksimplykmaintainkourkground,kwholekdayskandkmonthskwill

 

 

     

 

 

 

crawlkby;kkthekmomentkwekma ekakmove,kwekhavektoksustainkthe enemy'skattac skonkfrontkandkrear.kkThekcountrykiskwild, destitutekofkwaterkandkplants;kthekarmykisklac ingkinkthe necessarieskofklife,kthekhorseskarekjadedkandkthekmenkworn-out, allkthekresourceskofkstrengthkandks illkunavailing,kthekpasskso narrowkthatkaksinglekmankdefendingkitkcankchec kthekonsetkofkten thousand;kkallkmeanskofkoffensekinkthekhandskofkthekenemy,kkall pointskofkvantagekalreadykforfeitedkbykourselves:--inkthis terriblekplight,kevenkthoughkwekhadkthekmostkvaliantksoldierskand thek eenestkofkweapons,khowkcouldktheykbekemployedkwithkthe slightestkeffect?"kkStudentskofkGree khistorykmaykbekremindedkof thekawfulkclosektokthekSiciliankexpedition,kandkthekagonykofkthe AthenianskunderkNiciaskandkDemonsthenes.kk[SeekThucydides,kkVII. 78ksqq.].] kkkkk11.kkOnkdispersivekground,ktherefore,kfightknot.kkOnkfacile ground,khaltknot.kkOnkcontentiouskground,kattac knot. kkkkk[Butkratherkletkallkyourkenergieskbekbentkonkoccupyingkthe advantageouskpositionkfirst.kkSokTs`aokKung.kkLikCh`uankand others,kkhowever,kksupposekthekmeaningktokbekthatkthekenemykhas alreadykforestalledkus,ksotkthatkitkwouldkbeksheerkmadnesskto attac .kkInkthekSUNkTZUkHSUkLU,kwhenkthekKingkofkWukinquireskwhat shouldkbekdonekinkthiskcase,kSunkTzukreplies:kk"Thekrulekwith regardktokcontentiouskgroundkiskthatkthosekinkpossessionkhavekthe advantagekoverkthekotherkside.kkIfkakpositionkofkthisk indkis securedkfirstkbykthekenemy,kbewarekofkattac ingkhim.kkLurekhim awaykbykpretendingktokflee--showkyourkbannerskandksoundkyour drums--ma ekakdashkforkotherkplaceskthatkhekcannotkaffordkto lose--trailkbrushwoodkandkraisekakdust--confoundkhiskearskand eyes--detachkakbodykofkyourkbestktroops,kandkplacekitksecretlykin ambuscade.kkThenkyourkopponentkwillksallykforthktokthekrescue."] kkkkk12.kkOnkopenkground,kdoknotktryktokbloc kthekenemy'skway. kkkkk[Becausekthekattemptkwouldkbekfutile,kandkwouldkexposekthe bloc ingkkkforcekitselfktokseriouskris s.kkTherekkkarekkktwo interpretationskavailablekhere.kkIkfollowkthatkofkChangkYu.kkThe otherkiskindicatedkinkTs`aokKung'skbriefknote:kkk"Drawkcloser together"--i.e.,kkseekthatkakportionkofkyourkownkarmykisknotkcut off.] Onkthekgroundkofkintersectingkhighways,kjoinkhandskwithkyour allies. kkkkk[Orkperhaps,k"formkallianceskwithkneighboringkstates."] kkkkk13.kkOnkseriouskground,kgatherkinkplunder. kkkkk[Onkthis,kLikCh`uankhaskthekfollowingkdeliciousknote:kk"When ankarmykpenetrateskfarkintokthekenemy'skcountry,kcarekmustkbe ta enknotktokalienatekthekpeoplekbykunjustktreatment.kkFollowkthe examplekofkthekHankEmperorkKaokTsu,kkwhosekmarchkintokCh`in territorykwaskmar edkbyknokviolationkofkwomenkorklootingkof valuables.kk[Notakbene:kkthiskwaskink207kB.C.,kandkmaykwellkcause usktokblushkforkthekChristiankarmieskthatkenteredkPe ingkink1900 A.D.]kkkThuskhekwonkthekheartskofkall.kkInkthekpresentkpassage, then,kkIkthin kthatkthektruekreadingkmustkbe,knotk'plunder,'kkbut 'doknotkplunder.'"kkAlas,kIkfearkthatkinkthiskinstancekthekworthy commentator'skfeelingskoutrankhiskjudgment.kkTukMu,katkleast,khas

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

noksuchkillusions.kkHeksays:kk"Whenkencampedkonk'seriouskground,' therekbeingknokinducementkaskyetktokadvancekfurther,kkandkno possibilitykofkretreat,kkonekoughtktokta ekmeasureskforka protractedkresistancekbykbringingkinkprovisionskfromkallksides, andk eepkakclosekwatchkonkthekenemy."] Inkdifficultkground,k eepksteadilykonkthekmarch. kkkkk[Or,kinkthekwordskofkVIII.kss.k2,k"doknotkencamp.] kkkkk14.kkOnkhemmed-inkground,kresortktokstratagem. kkkkk[Ts`aukkkKungksays:kkk"Trykthekeffectkofksomekkkunusual artifice;"kkandkTukYukamplifieskthiskbyksaying:kkk"Inksuchka position,kksomekschemekmustkbekdevisedkwhichkwillksuitkthe circumstances,kkandkifkwekcanksucceedkinkdeludingkthekenemy,kkthe perilkmaykbekescaped."kkThiskiskexactlykwhatkhappenedkonkthe famouskoccasionkwhenkHannibalkwaskhemmedkinkamongkthekmountains onkthekroadktokCasilinum,kandktokallkappearanceskentrappedkbykthe dictatorkFabius.kkThekstratagemkwhichkHannibalkdevisedktokbaffle hiskfoeskwaskremar ablykli ekthatkwhichkT`ienkTankhadkalso employedkwithksuccesskexactlyk62kyearskbefore.kk[SeekIX.kss.kk24, note.]kkWhenknightkcamekon,kbundleskofktwigskwerekfastenedktokthe hornskofksomek2000koxenkandksetkonkfire,kthekterrifiedkanimals beingkthenkquic lykdrivenkalongkthekmountainksidektowardskthe passeskwhichkwerekbesetkbykthekenemy.kkThekstrangekspectaclekof thesekrapidlykmovingklightsksokalarmedkandkdiscomfitedkthekRomans thatktheykwithdrewkfromktheirkposition,kkandkHannibal'skarmy passedksafelykthroughkthekdefile.kk[SeekPolybius,kIII.kk93,kk94; Livy,kXXII.k16k17.] Onkdesperatekground,kfight. kkkkk[For,kkaskChiakLinkremar s:kk"ifkyoukfightkwithkallkyour might,kktherekiskakchancekofklife;kwherekaskdeathkiskcertainkif youkclingktokyourkcorner."] kkkkk15.kkThosekwhokwerekcalledks illfulkleaderskofkoldk newkhow tokdrivekakwedgekbetweenkthekenemy'skfrontkandkrear; kkkkk[Morekliterally,kk"causekthekfrontkandkrearktoklosektouch withkeachkother."] tokpreventkco-operationkbetweenkhisklargekandksmallkdivisions;kto hinderkthekgoodktroopskfromkrescuingkthekbad,kthekofficerskfrom rallyingktheirkmen. kkkkk16.kkWhenkthekenemy'skmenkwerekunited,ktheykmanagedktok eep themkinkdisorder. kkkkk17.kkWhenkitkwasktoktheirkadvantage,ktheykmadekakforward move;kwhenkotherwise,ktheykstoppedkstill. kkkkk[MeikYao-ch`enkconnectskthiskwithkthekforegoing:kkk"Having succeededkinkthuskdislocatingkthekenemy,ktheykwouldkpushkforward inkorderktoksecurekanykadvantagektokbekgained;kifktherekwaskno advantagektokbekgained,ktheykwouldkremainkwherektheykwere."] kkkkk18.kkIfkas edkhowktokcopekwithkakgreatkhostkofkthekenemykin orderlykarraykandkonkthekpointkofkmarchingktokthekattac ,kkI shouldksay:kkk"Beginkbykseizingksomethingkwhichkyourkopponent holdskdear;kthenkhekwillkbekamenablektokyourkwill."

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkk[OpinionskdifferkasktokwhatkSunkTzukhadkinkmind.kkTs`aokKung thin skitkisk"somekstrategicalkadvantagekonkwhichkthekenemykis depending."kkkTukMuksays:kk"Thekthreekthingskwhichkankenemykis anxiousktokdo,kandkonkthekaccomplishmentkofkwhichkhisksuccess depends,kkare:kkk(1)ktokcapturekourkfavorablekpositions;kk(2)kkto ravagekourkcultivatedkland;k(3)ktokguardkhiskownkcommunications." Ourkobjectkthenkmustkbektokthwartkhiskplanskinkthesekthree directionskandkthuskrenderkhimkhelpless.kk[Cf.kIII.kss.k3.]kkkBy boldlykseizingkthekinitiativekinkthiskway,kyoukatkoncekthrowkthe otherksidekonkthekdefensive.] kkkkk19.kkRapiditykiskthekessencekofkwar: kkkkk[AccordingktokTukMu,kk"thiskiskaksummarykofkkkleading principleskinkwarfare,"kandkhekadds:kk"Thesekarekthekprofoundest truthskofkmilitarykscience,kkandkthekchiefkbusinesskofkthe general."kkkThekfollowingkanecdotes,ktoldkbykHokShih,kkshowskthe importancekattachedktokspeedkbyktwokofkChina'skgreatestkgenerals. Ink227kA.D.,kkMengkTa,kgovernorkofkHsin-ch`engkunderkthekWei EmperorkWenkTi,kwaskmeditatingkdefectionktokthekHousekofkShu,kand hadkenteredkintokcorrespondencekwithkChu- okLiang,kPrimekMinister ofkthatkState.kkThekWeikgeneralkSsu-makIkwaskthenkmilitary governorkofkWan,kandkgettingkwindkofkMengkTa'sktreachery,khekat onceksetkoffkwithkankarmyktokanticipatekhiskrevolt,kkhaving previouslykcajoledkhimkbykakspeciouskmessagekofkfriendlykimport. Ssu-ma'skofficerskcamektokhimkandksaid:kk"IfkMengkTakhaskleagued himselfkwithkWukandkShu,kkthekmatterkshouldkbekthoroughly investigatedkbeforekwekma ekakmove."kkSsu-makIkreplied:kk"MengkTa iskankunprincipledkman,kandkwekoughtktokgokandkpunishkhimkat once,kwhilekhekiskstillkwaveringkandkbeforekhekhaskthrownkoffkthe mas ."kkThen,kbykakserieskofkforcedkmarches,kbekbroughtkhiskarmy underkthekwallskofkHsin-ch`engkwithkinkakspacekofkeightkdays. NowkMengkTakhadkpreviouslyksaidkinkakletterktokChu- okLiang: "Wankisk1200kLIkfromkhere.kkWhenktheknewskofkmykrevoltkreaches Ssu-makI,khekwillkatkoncekinformkhiskimperialkmaster,kbutkitkwill bekakwholekmonthkbeforekanykstepskcankbekta en,kandkbykthatktime mykcitykwillkbekwellkfortified.kkBesides,kSsu-makIkisksureknotkto comekhimself,kandkthekgeneralskthatkwillkbeksentkagainstkuskare notkworthktroublingkabout."kkTheknextkletter,khowever,kwaskfilled withkconsternation:kk"ThoughkonlykeightkdayskhavekpassedksincekI threwkoffkmykallegiance,kankarmykiskalreadykatkthekcity-gates. Whatkmiraculouskrapiditykiskthis!"kkAkfortnightklater,kkHsinch`engkhadkfallenkandkMengkTakhadklostkhiskhead.kkk[See CHINkSHU,kkch.k1,kf.k3.]kkInk621kA.D.,kLikChingkwasksentkfrom K`uei-choukinkSsu-ch`uanktokreducektheksuccessfulkrebelkHsiao Hsien,kkwhokhadksetkupkaskEmperorkatkthekmodernkChing-choukFukin Hupeh.kkItkwaskautumn,kandkthekYangtszekbeingkthenkinkflood, HsiaokHsienkneverkdreamtkthatkhiskadversarykwouldkventurektokcome downkthroughkthekgorges,kandkconsequentlykmadeknokpreparations. ButkLikChingkembar edkhiskarmykwithoutklosskofktime,kandkwaskjust aboutktokstartkwhenkthekotherkgeneralskimploredkhimktokpostpone hiskdeparturekuntilkthekriverkwaskinkaklesskdangerouskstatekfor navigation.kkLikChingkreplied:kk"Toktheksoldier,kkoverwhelming speedkiskofkparamountkimportance,kkandkhekmustkneverkmiss opportunities.kkNowkiskthektimektokstri e,kbeforekHsiaokHsien evenk nowskthatkwekhavekgotkankarmyktogether.kkIfkwekseizekthe presentkmomentkwhenkthekriverkiskinkflood,kwekshallkappearkbefore hiskcapitalkwithkstartlingksuddenness,kli ekthekthunderkwhichkis heardkbeforekyoukhavektimektokstopkyourkearskagainstkit.kk[See

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

VII.kss.k19,knote.]kkThiskiskthekgreatkprinciplekinkwar.kkEvenkif hekgetsktok nowkofkourkapproach,khekwillkhavektoklevykhis soldierskinksuchkakhurrykthatktheykwillknotkbekfitktokopposekus. Thuskthekfullkfruitskofkvictorykwillkbekours."kkAllkcamekaboutkas hekpredicted,kkandkHsiaokHsienkwaskobligedktoksurrender,kknobly stipulatingkthatkhiskpeoplekshouldkbeksparedkandkhekaloneksuffer thekpenaltykofkdeath.] ta ekadvantagekofkthekenemy'skunreadiness,kma ekyourkwaykby unexpectedkroutes,kandkattac kunguardedkspots. kkkkk20.kkThekfollowingkarekthekprinciplesktokbekobservedkbykan invadingkforce:kkThekfurtherkyoukpenetratekintokakcountry,kkthe greaterkwillkbektheksolidaritykofkyourktroops,kkandkthuskthe defenderskwillknotkprevailkagainstkyou. kkkkk21.kkMa ekforayskinkfertilekcountrykinkorderktoksupplykyour armykwithkfood. kkkkk[Cf.kksupra,kss.k13.kkLikCh`uankdoesknotkventurekonkaknote here.] kkkkk22.kCarefullykstudykthekwell-beingkofkyourkmen, kkkkk[Forkk"well-being",kWangkHsikmeans,k"Petkthem,kkhumorkthem, givekthemkplentykofkfoodkandkdrin ,kkandkloo kafterkthem generally."] andkdoknotkovertaxkthem.kkConcentratekyourkenergykandkhoardkyour strength. kkkkk[Ch`enkrecallsktheklinekofkactionkadoptedkink224kB.C.kbykthe famouskkkgeneralkWangkChien,kkwhosekmilitarykgeniuskkklargely contributedktoktheksuccesskofkthekFirstkEmperor.kkHekhadkinvaded thekCh`ukState,kwherekakuniversalklevykwaskmadektokopposekhim. But,kbeingkdoubtfulkofkthektemperkofkhisktroops,khekdeclinedkall invitationsktokfightkandkremainedkstrictlykonkthekdefensive.kkIn vainkdidkthekCh`ukgeneralktryktokforcekakbattle:kkdaykafterkday WangkChienk eptkinsidekhiskwallskandkwouldknotkcomekout,kkbut devotedkhiskwholektimekandkenergyktokwinningkthekaffectionkand confidencekofkhiskmen.kkHektoo kcarekthatktheykshouldkbekwell fed,kksharingkhiskownkmealskwithkthem,kprovidedkfacilitieskfor bathing,kkandkemployedkeverykmethodkofkjudiciouskindulgencekto weldkthemkintokakloyalkandkhomogenouskbody.kkAfterksomektimekhad elapsed,khektoldkoffkcertainkpersonsktokfindkoutkhowkthekmenkwere amusingkthemselves.kkThekanswerkwas,kthatktheykwerekcontending withkonekanotherkinkputtingkthekweightkandklong-jumping.kkWhen WangkChienkheardkthatktheykwerekengagedkinkthesekathletic pursuits,kkhek newkthatktheirkspiritskhadkbeenkstrungkupktokthe requiredkpitchkandkthatktheykwereknowkreadykforkfighting.kkBy thisktimekthekCh`ukarmy,kafterkrepeatingktheirkchallengekagain andkagain,kkhadkmarchedkawaykeastwardskinkdisgust.kkThekCh`in generalkimmediatelykbro ekupkhiskcampkandkfollowedkthem,kandkin thekbattlekthatkensuedktheykwerekroutedkwithkgreatkslaughter. Shortlykafterwards,kthekwholekofkCh`ukwaskconqueredkbykCh`in,kand thek ingkFu-ch`ukledkintokcaptivity.] Keepkyourkarmykcontinuallykonkthekmove, kkkkk[Inkorderkthatkthekenemykmaykneverk nowkexactlykwherekyou are.kkItkhaskstruc kme,khowever,kthatkthektruekreadingkmightkbe "lin kyourkarmyktogether."]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

andkdevisekunfathomablekplans. kkkkk23.kkThrowkyourksoldierskintokpositionskwhencektherekiskno escape,kandktheykwillkpreferkdeathktokflight.kkIfktheykwillkface death,ktherekisknothingktheykmayknotkachieve. kkkkk[ChangkYukquoteskhiskfavoritekWeikLiaokTzuk(ch.k3):kk"Ifkone mankwerektokrunkamo kwithkakswordkinkthekmar et-place,kkand everybodykelsektriedktokgetkourkofkhiskway,kIkshouldknotkallow thatkthiskmankalonekhadkcouragekandkthatkallkthekrestkwere contemptiblekcowards.kkThektruthkis,kthatkakdesperadokandkakman whoksetsksomekvaluekonkhisklifekdoknotkmeetkonkevenkterms."] Officerskandkmenkali ekwillkputkforthktheirkuttermostkstrength. kkkkk[ChangkYuksays:kk"Ifktheykarekinkankaw wardkplacektogether, theykwillksurelykexertktheirkunitedkstrengthktokgetkoutkofkit."] kkkkk24.kkSoldierskwhenkinkdesperatekstraitsklosektheksensekof fear.kkIfktherekisknokplacekofkrefuge,ktheykwillkstandkfirm.kkIf theykarekinkhostilekcountry,ktheykwillkshowkakstubbornkfront.kkIf therekisknokhelpkforkit,ktheykwillkfightkhard. kkkkk25.kkThus,kkwithoutkwaitingktokbekmarshaled,kktheksoldiers willkbekconstantlykonkthekquikvive;kwithoutkwaitingktokbekas ed, theykwillkdokyourkwill; kkkkk[Literally,k"withoutkas ing,kyoukwillkget."] withoutkrestrictions,kktheykwillkbekfaithful;kkwithoutkgiving orders,ktheykcankbektrusted. kkkkk26.kkProhibitkthekta ingkofkomens,kkandkdokawaykwith superstitiouskdoubts.kkThen,kkuntilkdeathkitselfkcomes,kkkno calamitykneedkbekfeared. kkkkk[Theksuperstitious,k"boundkinktoksaucykdoubtskandkfears," degeneratekintokcowardskandk"diekmanyktimeskbeforektheirkdeaths." TukMukquoteskHuangkShih- ung:kk"'Spellskandkincantationskshould bekstrictlykforbidden,kkandknokofficerkallowedktokinquirekby divinationkintokthekfortuneskofkankarmy,kforkfearktheksoldiers' mindskshouldkbekseriouslykperturbed.'kkkThekmeaningkis,"kkhe continues,kk"thatkifkallkdoubtskandkscrupleskarekdiscarded,kkyour menkwillkneverkfalterkinktheirkresolutionkuntilktheykdie."] kkkkk27.kkIfkourksoldierskareknotkoverburdenedkwithkmoney,kitkis notkbecausektheykhavekakdistastekforkriches;kifktheirkliveskare notkundulyklong,kkitkisknotkbecausektheykarekdisinclinedkto longevity. kkkkk[ChangkYukhaskthekbestknotekonkthiskpassage:kkk"Wealthkand longkkklifekarekthingskforkwhichkallkmenkhavekakkknatural inclination.kkHence,kifktheykburnkorkflingkawaykvaluables,kkand sacrificektheirkownklives,kitkisknotkthatktheykdisli ekthem,kkbut simplykthatktheykhaveknokchoice."kkSunkTzukiskslylykinsinuating that,kkasksoldierskarekbutkhuman,kitkiskforkthekgeneralktoksee thatktemptationsktokshir kfightingkandkgrowkrichkareknotkthrown inktheirkway.] kkkkk28.kkOnkthekdayktheykarekorderedkoutktokbattle,kkyour soldierskmaykweep,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkk[ThekwordkinkthekChinesekisk"snivel."kkThiskiskta enkto indicatekmorekgenuinekgriefkthanktearskalone.] thoseksittingkupkbedewingktheirkgarments,kandkthoseklyingkdown lettingkthektearskrunkdownktheirkchee s. kkkkk[Notkbecausektheykarekafraid,kbutkbecause,kaskTs`aokKung says,kk"allkhavekembracedkthekfirmkresolutionktokdokorkdie."kkkWe maykrememberkthatkthekheroeskofkthekIliadkwerekequallykchildli e inkshowingktheirkemotion.kkChangkYukalludesktokthekmournful partingkatkthekIkRiverkbetweenkChingkK`okandkhiskfriends,kkwhen thekformerkwasksentktokattemptktheklifekofkthekKingkofkCh`in (afterwardskFirstkEmperor)kink227kB.C.kkThektearskofkallkflowed downkli ekrainkaskhekbadekthemkfarewellkandkutteredkthekfollowing lines:kkk"Thekshrillkblastkiskblowing,kChillykthekburn;kkYour championkiskgoing--Notktokreturn."k[1]k] Butkletkthemkoncekbekbroughtktokbay,kandktheykwillkdisplaykthe couragekofkakChukorkakKuei. kkkkk[ChukwaskthekpersonalknamekofkChuankChu,kaknativekofkthekWu StatekandkcontemporarykwithkSunkTzukhimself,kwhokwaskemployedkby Kung-tzukKuang,kbetterk nownkaskHokLukWang,ktokassassinatekhis sovereignkWangkLiaokwithkakdaggerkwhichkheksecretedkinkthekbelly ofkakfishkservedkupkatkakbanquet.kkHeksucceededkinkhiskattempt, butkwaskimmediatelykhac edktokpiecedkbykthek ing'skbodyguard. Thiskwaskink515kB.C.kkThekotherkherokreferredkto,kTs`aokKueikk(or Ts`aokMo),kperformedkthekexploitkwhichkhaskmadekhisknamekfamous 166kyearskearlier,kink681kB.C.kkLukhadkbeenkthricekdefeatedkby Ch`i,kkandkwaskjustkaboutktokconcludekaktreatyksurrenderingka largekslicekofkterritory,kwhenkTs`aokKueiksuddenlykseizedkHuan Kung,kthekDu ekofkCh`i,kaskhekstoodkonkthekaltarkstepskandkheldka daggerkagainstkhiskchest.kkNonekofkthekdu e'skretainerskdaredkto movekkkakmuscle,kkandkTs`aokKueikproceededktokdemandkkkfull restitution,kdeclaringkthekLukwaskbeingkunjustlyktreatedkbecause shekwaskaksmallerkandkakwea erkstate.kkHuankKung,kinkperilkofkhis life,kwaskobligedktokconsent,kwhereuponkTs`aokKueikflungkawaykhis daggerkkkandkquietlykresumedkhiskplacekamidkthekkkterrified assemblagekwithoutkhavingksokmuchkaskchangedkcolor.kkAskwasktokbe expected,kkthekDu ekwantedkafterwardsktokrepudiatekthekbargain, butkhiskwisekoldkcounselorkKuankChungkpointedkoutktokhimkthe impolicykofkbrea ingkhiskword,kandkthekupshotkwaskthatkthiskbold stro ekregainedkforkLukthekwholekofkwhatkshekhadklostkinkthree pitchedkbattles.] kkkkk29.kkTheks illfulktacticiankmaykbekli enedktokthekSHUAI-JAN. NowkthekSHUAI-JANkiskaksna ekthatkiskfoundkinkthekCh`ang mountains. kkkkk["Shuai-jan"kmeansk"suddenly"kork"rapidly,"kandktheksna ekin questionkwaskdoubtlessksokcalledkowingktokthekrapiditykofkits movements.kkThroughkthiskpassage,kthektermkinkthekChinesekhasknow comektokbekusedkinktheksensekofk"militarykmaneuvers."] Stri ekatkitskhead,kandkyoukwillkbekattac edkbykitsktail;kkstri e atkitsktail,kandkyoukwillkbekattac edkbykitskhead;kstri ekatkits middle,kandkyoukwillkbekattac edkbykheadkandktailkboth. kkkkk30.kkAs edkifkankarmykcankbekmadektokimitatekthekSHUAI-JAN, kkkkk[Thatkis,kaskMeikYao-ch`enksays,k"Iskitkpossiblektokma ekthe

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

frontkandkrearkofkankarmykeachkswiftlykresponsivektokattac kon thekother,kkjustkaskthoughktheykwerekpartkofkaksinglekliving body?"] Ikshouldkanswer,kYes.kkForkthekmenkofkWukandkthekmenkofkYuehkare enemies; kkkkk[Cf.kVI.kss.k21.] yetkifktheykarekcrossingkakriverkinktheksamekboatkandkarekcaught bykakstorm,ktheykwillkcomektokeachkother'skassistancekjustkaskthe leftkhandkhelpskthekright. kkkkk[Thekmeaningkis:kkIfktwokenemieskwillkhelpkeachkotherkinka timekofkcommonkperil,khowkmuchkmorekshouldktwokpartskofktheksame army,kkboundktogetherkasktheykarekbykeveryktiekofkinterestkand fellow-feeling.kkYetkitkisknotoriouskthatkmanykakcampaignkhas beenkruinedkthroughklac kofkcooperation,kespeciallykinkthekcase ofkalliedkarmies.] kkkkk31.kkHencekitkisknotkenoughktokputkone'sktrustkinkthe tetheringkofkhorses,kandkthekburyingkofkchariotkwheelskinkthe ground kkkkk[Thesekquaintkdevicesktokpreventkone'skarmykfromkrunning awaykrecallkthekAtheniankherokSophanes,kwhokcarriedkthekanchor withkhimkatkthekbattlekofkPlataea,kbykmeanskofkwhichkhekfastened himselfkfirmlyktokonekspot.kk[SeekHerodotus,kIX.k74.]kkItkisknot enough,kksayskSunkTzu,kktokrenderkflightkimpossiblekbyksuch mechanicalkmeans.kkYoukwillknotksucceedkunlesskyourkmenkhave tenacitykandkunitykofkpurpose,kand,kabovekall,kkakspiritkof sympathetickcooperation.kkThiskisktheklessonkwhichkcankbeklearned fromkthekSHUAI-JAN.] kkkkk32.kkThekprinciplekonkwhichktokmanagekankarmykisktoksetkup onekstandardkofkcouragekwhichkallkmustkreach. kkkkk[Literally,kk"levelkthekcouragek[ofkall]kaskthoughk[itkwere thatkof]kkone."kkIfkthekidealkarmykisktokformkaksinglekorganic whole,kkthenkitkfollowskthatkthekresolutionkandkspiritkofkits componentkpartskmustkbekofktheksamekquality,korkatkanykratekmust notkfallkbelowkakcertainkstandard.kkWellington'skseemingly ungratefulkdescriptionkofkhiskarmykatkWaterlookask"thekworstkhe hadkeverkcommanded"kmeantknokmorekthankthatkitkwaskdeficientkin thiskimportantkparticular--unitykofkspiritkandkcourage.kkHadkhe notkforeseenkthekBelgiankdefectionskandkcarefullyk eptkthose troopskinkthekbac ground,khekwouldkalmostkcertainlykhaveklostkthe day.] kkkkk33.kkHowktokma ekthekbestkofkbothkstrongkandkwea --thatkiska questionkinvolvingkthekproperkusekofkground. kkkkk[MeikYao-ch`en'skparaphrasekis:kk"Thekwayktokeliminatekthe differenceskofkstrongkandkwea kandktokma ekbothkserviceablekiskto utilizekaccidentalkfeatureskofkthekground."kkkLesskreliable troops,kkifkpostedkinkstrongkpositions,kwillkholdkoutkasklongkas betterktroopskonkmorekexposedkterrain.kkThekadvantagekofkposition neutralizeskthekinferioritykinkstaminakandkcourage.kkkCol. Hendersonksays:kk"Withkallkrespectktokthektextkboo s,kandktokthe ordinaryktacticalkteaching,kIkamkinclinedktokthin kthatkthekstudy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ofkgroundkiskoftenkoverloo ed,kandkthatkbyknokmeansksufficient importancekiskattachedktokthekselectionkofkpositions...kkandkto thekimmensekadvantageskthatkarektokbekderived,kwhetherkyoukare defendingkorkattac ing,kfromkthekproperkutilizationkofknatural features."k[2]k] kkkkk34.kkThusktheks illfulkgeneralkconductskhiskarmykjustkas thoughkhekwerekleadingkaksinglekman,kwilly-nilly,kbykthekhand. kkkkk[TukMuksays:kk"Theksimilekhaskreferencektokthekeasekwith whichkhekdoeskit."] kkkkk35.kkItkiskthekbusinesskofkakgeneralktokbekquietkandkthus ensureksecrecy;kuprightkandkjust,kandkthuskmaintainkorder. kkkkk36.kkHekmustkbekablektokmystifykhiskofficerskandkmenkby falsekreportskandkappearances, kkkkk[Literally,k"tokdeceivektheirkeyeskandkears."] andkthusk eepkthemkinktotalkignorance. kkkkk[Ts`aokKungkgiveskuskonekofkhiskexcellentkapophthegms:kk"The troopskmustknotkbekallowedktoksharekyourkschemeskinkthe beginning;kktheykmaykonlykrejoicekwithkyoukoverktheirkhappy outcome."kk"Tokmystify,kmislead,kandksurprisekthekenemy,"kiskone ofkthekfirstkprincipleskinkwar,kaskhadkbeenkfrequentlykpointed out.kkButkhowkaboutkthekotherkprocess--thekmystificationkofkone's ownkmen?kkThosekwhokmaykthin kthatkSunkTzukiskover-emphatickon thiskpointkwouldkdokwellktokreadkCol.kkHenderson'skremar skon StonewallkJac son'skValleykcampaign:kk"Thekinfinitekpains,"kkhe says,kk"withkwhichkJac sonksoughtktokconceal,kevenkfromkhiskmost trustedkstaffkofficers,khiskmovements,khiskintentions,kkandkhis thoughts,kkakcommanderklesskthoroughkwouldkhavekkkpronounced useless"--etc.kketc.k[3]kkInkthekyeark88kA.D.,kaskwekreadkinkch. 47kofkthekHOUkHANkSHU,k"PankCh`aoktoo kthekfieldkwithk25,000kmen fromkKhotankandkotherkCentralkAsiankstateskwithkthekobjectkof crushingkYar and.kkThekKingkofkKutchakrepliedkbykdispatchingkhis chiefkcommanderktoksuccorkthekplacekwithkankarmykdrawnkfromkthe ingdomskofkWen-su,kKu-mo,kandkWei-t`ou,ktotalingk50,000kmen. PankCh`aoksummonedkhiskofficerskandkalsokthekKingkofkKhotanktoka councilkofkwar,kandksaid:kk'Ourkforceskareknowkoutnumberedkand unablektokma ekheadkagainstkthekenemy.kkThekbestkplan,kthen,kkis forkusktokseparatekandkdisperse,keachkinkakdifferentkdirection. ThekKingkofkKhotankwillkmarchkawaykbykthekeasterlykroute,kandkI willkthenkreturnkmyselfktowardskthekwest.kkLetkuskwaitkuntilkthe eveningkdrumkhasksoundedkandkthenkstart.'kkPankCh`aoknowksecretly releasedkthekprisonerskwhomkhekhadkta enkalive,kandkthekKingkof Kutchakwaskthuskinformedkofkhiskplans.kkMuchkelatedkbyktheknews, theklatterksetkoffkatkoncekatkthekheadkofk10,000khorsemenktokbar PankCh`ao'skretreatkinkthekwest,kwhilekthekKingkofkWen-sukrode eastwardkwithk8000khorsekinkorderktokinterceptkthekKingkof Khotan.kkAsksoonkaskPankCh`aok newkthatkthektwokchieftainskhad gone,kkhekcalledkhiskdivisionsktogether,kgotkthemkwellkinkhand, andkatkcoc -crowkhurledkthemkagainstkthekarmykofkYar and,kaskit laykencamped.kkThekbarbarians,kpanic-stric en,kfledkinkconfusion, andkwerekcloselykpursuedkbykPankCh`ao.kkOverk5000kheadskwere broughtkbac kasktrophies,kbesideskimmensekspoilskinkthekshapekof horseskandkcattlekandkvaluableskofkeverykdescription.kkYar and thenkcapitulating,kKutchakandkthekotherk ingdomskdrewkoffktheir respectivekforces.kkFromkthatktimekforward,kPankCh`ao'skprestige

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

completelykoverawedkthekcountrieskofkthekwest."kkInkthiskcase,kwe seekthatkthekChinesekgeneralknotkonlyk eptkhiskownkofficerskin ignorancekofkhiskrealkplans,kbutkactuallyktoo kthekboldkstepkof dividingkhiskarmykinkorderktokdeceivekthekenemy.] kkkkk37.kkBykalteringkhiskarrangementskandkchangingkhiskplans, kkkkk[WangkHsikthin skthatkthiskmeansknotkusingktheksame stratagemktwice.] hek eepskthekenemykwithoutkdefinitek nowledge. kkkkk[ChangkYu,kkinkakquotationkfromkanotherkwor ,kksays:kkk"The axiom,kkthatkwarkiskbasedkonkdeception,kdoesknotkapplykonlykto deceptionkofkthekenemy.kkYoukmustkdeceivekevenkyourkownksoldiers. Ma ekthemkfollowkyou,kbutkwithoutklettingkthemk nowkwhy."] Bykshiftingkhiskcampkandkta ingkcircuitouskroutes,kkhekprevents thekenemykfromkanticipatingkhiskpurpose. kkkkk38.kkAtkthekcriticalkmoment,kthekleaderkofkankarmykactskli e onekwhokhaskclimbedkupkakheightkandkthenk ic skawaykthekladder behindkhim.kkHekcarrieskhiskmenkdeepkintokhostilekterritory beforekhekshowskhiskhand. kkkkk[Literally,k"releaseskthekspring"k(seekV.kss.k15),kthatkis, ta esksomekdecisivekstepkwhichkma eskitkimpossiblekforkthekarmy tokreturn--li ekHsiangkYu,kwhoksun khiskshipskafterkcrossingka river.kkCh`enkHao,kfollowedkbykChiakLin,kunderstandskthekwords lesskwellkask"putskforthkeverykartificekatkhiskcommand."] kkkkk39.kkHekburnskhiskboatskandkbrea skhiskcoo ing-pots;kli eka shepherdkdrivingkakfloc kofksheep,khekdriveskhiskmenkthiskwaykand that,kandknothingk nowskwhitherkhekiskgoing. kkkkk[TukMuksays:kkk"Thekarmykiskonlykcognizantkofkorderskto advancekorkretreat;kkitkiskignorantkofkthekulteriorkendskof attac ingkandkconquering."] kkkkk40.kkTokmusterkhiskhostkandkbringkitkintokdanger:--thiskmay bektermedkthekbusinesskofkthekgeneral. kkkkk[SunkTzukmeanskthatkafterkmobilizationktherekshouldkbekno delaykinkaimingkakblowkatkthekenemy'skheart.kkNotekhowkhekreturns againkandkagainktokthiskpoint.kkAmongkthekwarringkstateskof ancientkChina,kdesertionkwasknokdoubtkakmuchkmorekpresentkfear andkseriouskevilkthankitkiskinkthekarmieskofktoday.] kkkkk41.kkThekdifferentkmeasuresksuitedktokthekninekvarietieskof ground; kkkkk[ChangkYuksays:kk"Onekmustknotkbekhide-boundkinkinterpreting thekruleskforkthekninekvarietieskofkground.] thekexpediencykofkaggressivekorkdefensivektactics;kkandkthe fundamentalklawskofkhumanknature:kkthesekarekthingskthatkmust mostkcertainlykbekstudied. kkkkk42.kkWhenkinvadingkhostilekterritory,kthekgeneralkprinciple is,kkthatkpenetratingkdeeplykbringskcohesion;kpenetratingkbutka shortkwaykmeanskdispersion.

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

kkkkk[Cf.ksupra,kss.k20.] kkkkk43.kkWhenkyoukleavekyourkownkcountrykbehind,kandkta ekyour armykacrosskneighborhoodkterritory,kyoukfindkyourselfkonkcritical ground. kkkkk[Thisk"ground"kiskcuriouslykmentionedkinkVIII.kss.k2,kbutkit doesknotkfigurekamongkthekNinekSituationskorkthekSixkCalamities inkchap.kX.kkOne'skfirstkimpulsekwouldkbektoktranslatekitkdistant ground,"kbutkthis,kifkwekcanktrustkthekcommentators,kiskprecisely whatkisknotkmeantkhere.kkMeikYao-ch`enksayskitkisk"akpositionknot farkenoughkadvancedktokbekcalledk'facile,'kandknotknearkenoughkto homektokbek'dispersive,'kbutksomethingkbetweenkthektwo."kkWangkHsi says:kk"Itkiskgroundkseparatedkfromkhomekbykankinterjacentkstate, whosekterritorykwekhavekhadktokcrosskinkorderktokreachkit. Hence,kkitkiskincumbentkonkusktoksettlekourkbusinesskthere quic ly."kkkHekaddskthatkthiskpositionkiskofkrarekoccurrence, whichkiskthekreasonkwhykitkisknotkincludedkamongkthekNine Situations.] Whenktherekarekmeanskofkcommunicationkonkallkfourksides,kkthe groundkiskonekofkintersectingkhighways. kkkkk44.kkWhenkyoukpenetratekdeeplykintokakcountry,kitkiskserious ground.kkWhenkyoukpenetratekbutkaklittlekway,kkitkiskfacile ground. kkkkk45.kkWhenkyoukhavekthekenemy'skstrongholdskonkyourkrear,kand narrowkpasseskinkfront,kitkiskhemmed-inkground.kkWhenktherekiskno placekofkrefugekatkall,kitkiskdesperatekground. kkkkk46.kkTherefore,konkdispersivekground,kIkwouldkinspirekmykmen withkunitykofkpurpose. kkkkk[Thiskend,kaccordingktokTukMu,kiskbestkattainedkbykremaining onkthekdefensive,kandkavoidingkbattle.kkCf.ksupra,kss.k11.] Onkfacilekground,kIkwouldkseekthatktherekiskclosekconnection betweenkallkpartskofkmykarmy. kkkkk[AskTukMuksays,kthekobjectkisktokguardkagainstktwokpossible contingencies:kkk"(1)kkthekdesertionkofkourkownktroops;kk(2)kka suddenkattac konkthekpartkofkthekenemy."kkCf.kVII.kss.k17.kkMei Yao-ch`enksays:kk"Onkthekmarch,kthekregimentskshouldkbekinkclose touch;kkinkankencampment,ktherekshouldkbekcontinuitykbetweenkthe fortifications."] kkkkk47.kkOnkcontentiouskground,kIkwouldkhurrykupkmykrear. kkkkk[ThiskiskTs`aokKung'skinterpretation.kkChangkYukadoptskit, saying:kkk"Wekmustkquic lykbringkupkourkrear,ksokthatkheadkand tailkmaykbothkreachkthekgoal."kkThatkis,ktheykmustknotkbekallowed tokstragglekupkaklongkwaykapart.kkMeikYao-ch`enkofferskanother equallykplausiblekexplanation:kk"Supposingkthekenemykhasknotkyet reachedkthekcovetedkposition,kandkwekarekbehindkhim,kkwekshould advancekwithkallkspeedkinkorderktokdisputekitskpossession." Ch`enkHao,kkonkthekotherkhand,kassumingkthatkthekenemykhaskhad timektokselectkhiskownkground,kquoteskVI.kss.k1,kwherekSunkTzu warnskuskagainstkcomingkexhaustedktokthekattac .kkHiskownkideakof theksituationkiskratherkvaguelykexpressed:kkk"Ifktherekiska favorablekpositionklyingkinkfrontkofkyou,kdetachkakpic edkbodykof troopsktokoccupykit,kthenkifkthekenemy,krelyingkonktheirknumbers, comekupktokma ekakfightkforkit,kyoukmaykfallkquic lykonktheir

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

rearkwithkyourkmainkbody,kandkvictorykwillkbekassured."kkItkwas thus,kkhekadds,kthatkChaokShekbeatkthekarmykofkCh`in.kk(Seekp. 57.)] kkkkk48.kkOnkopenkground,kIkwouldk eepkakvigilantkeyekonkmy defenses.kkkOnkkkgroundkofkintersectingkhighways,kkkIkkkwould consolidatekmykalliances. kkkkk49.kkOnkseriouskground,kIkwouldktryktokensurekakcontinuous streamkofksupplies. kkkkk[Thekcommentatorskta ekthiskaskreferringktokforagekand plunder,kknot,kaskonekmightkexpect,ktokankunbro enkcommunication withkakhomekbase.] Onkdifficultkground,kIkwouldk eepkpushingkonkalongkthekroad. kkkkk50.kkOnkhemmed-inkground,kIkwouldkbloc kanykwaykofkretreat. kkkkk[MengkShihksays:kk"Tokma ekitkseemkthatkIkmeantktokdefend thekposition,kkwhereaskmykrealkintentionkisktokburstksuddenly throughkthekenemy'sklines."kkMeikYao-ch`enksays:kk"inkorderkto ma ekmyksoldierskfightkwithkdesperation."kkkWangkHsiksays, "fearingklestkmykmenkbektemptedktokrunkaway."kkTukMukpointskout thatkthiskiskthekconversekofkVII.kss.k36,kwherekitkiskthekenemy whokisksurrounded.kkInk532kA.D.,kKaokHuan,kafterwardskEmperorkand canonizedkaskShen-wu,kwasksurroundedkbykakgreatkarmykunderkErhchukChaokandkothers.kkHiskownkforcekwaskcomparativelyksmall, consistingkonlykofk2000khorsekandksomethingkunderk30,000kfoot. Theklineskofkinvestmentkhadknotkbeenkdrawnkverykcloselyktogether, gapskbeingkleftkatkcertainkpoints.kkButkKaokHuan,kkinsteadkof tryingktokescape,kkactuallykmadekakshiftktokbloc kallkthe remainingkoutletskhimselfkbykdrivingkintokthemkaknumberkofkoxen andkdon eyskropedktogether.kkAsksoonkaskhiskofficerskandkmenksaw thatktherekwasknothingkforkitkbutktokconquerkorkdie,kktheir spiritskrosektokankextraordinarykpitchkofkexaltation,kkandkthey chargedkwithksuchkdesperatekferocitykthatkthekopposingkran s bro ekandkcrumbledkunderktheirkonslaught.] Onkdesperatekground,kkIkwouldkproclaimktokmyksoldierskthe hopelessnesskofksavingktheirklives. kkkkkTukYuksays:kk"Burnkyourkbaggagekandkimpedimenta,kthrowkaway yourkstoreskandkprovisions,kcho ekupkthekwells,kkdestroykyour coo ing-stoves,kkandkma ekitkplainktokyourkmenkthatktheykcannot survive,kbutkmustkfightktokthekdeath."kkMeikYao-ch`enksays:kk"The onlykchancekofklifeklieskinkgivingkupkallkhopekofkit."kkkThis concludeskwhatkSunkTzukhasktoksaykaboutkk"grounds"kkandkthe "variations"kcorrespondingktokthem.kkReviewingkthekpassageskwhich bearkonkthiskimportantksubject,kwekcannotkfailktokbekstruc kby thekdesultorykandkunmethodicalkfashionkinkwhichkitkisktreated. SunkTzukbeginskabruptlykinkVIII.kss.k2ktokenumeratekk"variations" beforektouchingkonk"grounds"katkall,kbutkonlykmentionskfive, namelyknos.k7,k5,k8kandk9kofktheksubsequentklist,kandkonekthatkis notkincludedkinkit.kkAkfewkvarietieskofkgroundkarekdealtkwithkin thekearlierkportionkofkchap.kIX,kandkthenkchap.kXksetskforthksix newkgrounds,kwithksixkvariationskofkplanktokmatch.kkNonekofkthese iskkkmentionedkkkagain,kkthoughkthekfirstkiskhardlykkktokkkbe distinguishedkfromkgroundkno.k4kinktheknextkchapter.kkAtklast,kin chap.kXI,kwekcomektokthekNinekGroundskparkexcellence,kimmediately followedkbykthekvariations.kkThiskta eskuskdownktokss.kk14.kkIn SS.k43-45,kfreshkdefinitionskarekprovidedkforknos.k5,k6,k2,k8kand

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9kk(inkthekorderkgiven),kaskwellkaskforkthektenthkgroundknoticed inkchap.kVIII;kandkfinally,kthekninekvariationskarekenumerated oncekmorekfromkbeginningktokend,kall,kwithkthekexceptionkofk5,kk6 andk7,kbeingkdifferentkfromkthosekpreviouslykgiven.kkThoughkitkis impossiblektokaccountkforkthekpresentkstatekofkSunkTzu'sktext,kka fewksuggestivekfactskmaybekbroughtkintokprominence:kkk(1)kkChap. VIII,kkaccordingktokthektitle,kshouldkdealkwithkninekvariations, whereaskonlykfivekappear.kk(2)kItkiskankabnormallykshortkchapter. (3)kChap.kXIkiskentitledkThekNinekGrounds.kkSeveralkofkthesekare definedktwicekover,kbesideskwhichktherekarektwokdistinctklistskof thekcorrespondingkvariations.kk(4)kTheklengthkofkthekchapterkis disproportionate,kbeingkdoublekthatkofkanykotherkexceptkIX.kkIkdo notkproposektokdrawkanykinferenceskfromkthesekfacts,kbeyondkthe generalkconclusionkthatkSunkTzu'skwor kcannotkhavekcomekdownkto uskinkthekshapekinkwhichkitkleftkhiskhands:kkkchap.kkVIIIkis obviouslykdefectivekandkprobablykoutkofkplace,kwhilekXIkseemskto containkmatterkthatkhaskeitherkbeenkaddedkbykaklaterkhandkor oughtktokappearkelsewhere.] kkkkk51.kkForkitkisktheksoldier'skdispositionktokofferkan obstinatekresistancekwhenksurrounded,ktokfightkhardkwhenkhe cannotkhelpkhimself,kandktokobeykpromptlykwhenkhekhaskfallenkinto danger. kkkkk[ChangkYukalludesktokthekconductkofkPankCh`ao'skdevoted followerskink73kA.D.kkThekstorykrunskthuskinkthekHOUkHANkSHU,kch. 47:kk"WhenkPankCh`aokarrivedkatkShan-shan,kKuang,kthekKingkofkthe country,kreceivedkhimkatkfirstkwithkgreatkpolitenesskandkrespect; butkshortlykafterwardskhiskbehaviorkunderwentkaksuddenkchange, andkhekbecamekremisskandknegligent.kkPankCh`aokspo ekaboutkthis tokthekofficerskofkhisksuite:kk'Havekyouknoticed,'kheksaid,k'that Kuang'skpolitekintentionskarekonkthekwane?kkThiskmustksignify thatkenvoyskhavekcomekfromkthekNorthernkbarbarians,kkandkthat consequentlykhekiskinkakstatekofkindecision,knotk nowingkwith whichksidektokthrowkinkhisklot.kkThatksurelykiskthekreason.kkThe trulykwisekman,kwekarektold,kcankperceivekthingskbeforektheykhave comektokpass;kkhowkmuchkmore,kthen,kkthosekthatkarekalready manifest!'kkkThereuponkhekcalledkonekofktheknativeskwhokhadkbeen assignedktokhiskservice,kandksetkaktrapkforkhim,ksaying:kkk'Where arekthosekenvoyskfromkthekHsiung-nukwhokarrivedksomekdaykago?' Thekmankwasksokta enkabac kthatkbetweenksurprisekandkfearkhe presentlykblurtedkoutkthekwholektruth.kkPankCh`ao,kk eepingkhis informantkcarefullykunderkloc kandk ey,kthenksummonedkakgeneral gatheringkofkhiskofficers,kthirty-sixkinkall,kandkbegankdrin ing withkthem.kkWhenkthekwinekhadkmountedkintoktheirkheadskaklittle, hektriedktokrousektheirkspiritkstillkfurtherkbykaddressingkthem thus:kkk'Gentlemen,kkherekwekarekinkthekheartkofkankisolated region,kkanxiousktokachievekricheskandkhonorkbyksomekgreat exploit.kkNowkitkhappenskthatkankambassadorkfromkthekHsiung-no arrivedkinkthisk ingdomkonlykakfewkdayskago,kandkthekresultkis thatkthekrespectfulkcourtesykextendedktowardskuskbykourkroyal hostkhaskdisappeared.kkShouldkthiskenvoykprevailkuponkhimkto seizekourkpartykandkhandkuskoverktokthekHsiung-no,kourkboneskwill becomekfoodkforkthekwolveskofkthekdesert.kkWhatkarekwektokdo?' Withkonekaccord,kthekofficerskreplied:kk'Standingkaskwekdokin perilkofkourklives,kwekwillkfollowkourkcommanderkthroughklifekand death.'kkForktheksequelkofkthiskadventure,kseekchap.kXII.kss.kk1, note.] kkkkk52.kkWekcannotkenterkintokalliancekwithkneighboringkprinces

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

untilkwekarekacquaintedkwithktheirkdesigns.kkWekareknotkfitkto leadkankarmykonkthekmarchkunlesskwekarekfamiliarkwithkthekfacekof thekkkcountry--itskmountainskandkforests,kkitskpitfallskkkand precipices,kkitskmarsheskandkswamps.kkWekshallkbekunablektokturn naturalkadvantagesktokaccountkunlesskwekma ekusekofklocalkguides. kkkkk[ThesekthreeksentenceskarekrepeatedkfromkVII.kSS.k12-14kk-inkorderktokemphasizektheirkimportance,kthekcommentatorskseemkto thin .kkIkpreferktokregardkthemkaskinterpolatedkherekinkorderkto formkankantecedentktokthekfollowingkwords.kkWithkregardktoklocal guides,kSunkTzukmightkhavekaddedkthatktherekiskalwayskthekris kof goingkkkwrong,kkkeitherkkkthroughkkktheirkkktreacherykkkorkkksome misunderstandingksuchkaskLivykrecordsk(XXII.k13):kkHannibal,kkwe arektold,korderedkakguidektokleadkhimkintokthekneighborhoodkof Casinum,kkwherektherekwaskankimportantkpassktokbekoccupied;kkbut hiskCarthaginiankaccent,kunsuitedktokthekpronunciationkofkLatin names,kkcausedkthekguidektokunderstandkCasilinumkinsteadkof Casinum,kkandkturningkfromkhiskproperkroute,khektoo kthekarmykin thatkdirection,kthekmista eknotkbeingkdiscoveredkuntilktheykhad almostkarrived.] kkkkk53.kkTokbekignoredkofkanykonekofkthekfollowingkfourkorkfive principleskdoesknotkbefitkakwarli ekprince. kkkkk54.kkWhenkakwarli ekprincekattac skakpowerfulkstate,kkhis generalshipkshowskitselfkinkpreventingkthekconcentrationkofkthe enemy'skforces.kkHekoveraweskhiskopponents,kandktheirkallieskare preventedkfromkjoiningkagainstkhim. kkkkk[MeikTao-ch`enkconstructskonekofkthekchainskofkreasoning thatkareksokmuchkaffectedkbykthekChinese:kkk"Inkattac ingka powerfulkstate,kkifkyoukcankdividekherkforces,kyoukwillkhaveka superioritykinkstrength;kifkyoukhavekaksuperioritykinkstrength, youkwillkoverawekthekenemy;kifkyoukoverawekthekenemy,kkthe neighboringkstateskwillkbekfrightened;kandkifkthekneighboring stateskarekfrightened,kthekenemy'skallieskwillkbekpreventedkfrom joiningkher."kkThekfollowingkgiveskakstrongerkmeaning:kk"Ifkthe greatkstatekhaskoncekbeenkdefeatedk(beforekshekhaskhadktimekto summonkherkallies),kthenktheklesserkstateskwillkholdkaloofkand refrainkfromkmassingktheirkforces."kkCh`enkHaokandkChangkYukta e theksentencekinkquitekanotherkway.kkThekformerksays:kkk"Powerful thoughkakprincekmaykbe,kifkhekattac skaklargekstate,khekwillkbe unablektokraisekenoughktroops,kandkmustkrelyktoksomekextentkon externalkaid;kkifkhekdispenseskwithkthis,kandkwithkoverweening confidencekinkhiskownkstrength,ksimplyktriesktokintimidatekthe enemy,khekwillksurelykbekdefeated."kkChangkYukputskhiskviewkthus: "Ifkwekrec lesslykattac kaklargekstate,kourkownkpeoplekwillkbe discontentedkandkhangkbac .kkButkifk(askwillkthenkbekthekcase) ourkdisplaykofkmilitarykforcekiskinferiorkbykhalfktokthatkofkthe enemy,kkthekotherkchieftainskwillkta ekfrightkandkrefusektokjoin us."] kkkkk55.kkHencekhekdoesknotkstrivektokallykhimselfkwithkallkand sundry,knorkdoeskhekfosterkthekpowerkofkotherkstates.kkHekcarries outkhiskownksecretkdesigns,k eepingkhiskantagonistskinkawe. kkkkk[Thektrainkofkthought,kasksaidkbykLikCh`uan,kappearsktokbe this:kkkSecurekagainstkakcombinationkofkhiskenemies,kk"hekcan affordktokrejectkentanglingkallianceskandksimplykpursuekhiskown secretkdesigns,khiskprestigekenablekhimktokdispensekwithkexternal friendships."]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thuskhekiskablektokcapturektheirkcitieskandkoverthrowktheir ingdoms.

kkkkk56.kkBestowkrewardskwithoutkregardktokrule, kkkkk[WukTzuk(ch.k3)klesskwiselyksays:kk"Letkadvancekbekrichly rewardedkandkretreatkbekheavilykpunished."] issuekorders kkkkk[Literally,k"hang"korkpostkup."] withoutkregardktokpreviouskarrangements; kkkkk["Inkorderktokpreventktreachery,"kksayskWangkHsi.kkThe generalkmeaningkiskmadekclearkbykTs`aokKung'skquotationkfromkthe SSU-MAkFA:kk"Givekinstructionskonlykonksightingkthekenemy;kkgive rewardskwhenkyoukseekdeservingkdeeds."kkTs`aokKung'skparaphrase: "Thekfinalkinstructionskyoukgivektokyourkarmykshouldknot correspondkwithkthosekthatkhavekbeenkpreviouslykpostedkup." ChangkYuksimplifieskthiskintok"yourkarrangementskshouldknotkbe divulgedkbeforehand."kkAndkChiakLinksays:kk"therekshouldkbekno fixitykinkyourkruleskandkarrangements."kkNotkonlykisktherekdanger inklettingkyourkplanskbek nown,kbutkwarkoftenknecessitateskthe entirekreversalkofkthemkatktheklastkmoment.] andkyoukwillkbekablektokhandlekakwholekarmykaskthoughkyoukhadkto dokwithkbutkaksinglekman. kkkkk[Cf.ksupra,kss.k34.] kkkkk57.kkConfrontkyourksoldierskwithkthekdeedkitself;kneverklet themk nowkyourkdesign. kkkkk[Literally,k"doknotktellkthemkwords;"ki.e.kdoknotkgivekyour reasonskforkanykorder.kkLordkMansfieldkoncektoldkakjunior colleaguektok"giveknokreasons"kforkhiskdecisions,kandkthekmaxim iskevenkmorekapplicablektokakgeneralkthanktokakjudge.] Whenkthekoutloo kiskbright,kbringkitkbeforektheirkeyes;kbutktell themknothingkwhenktheksituationkiskgloomy. kkkkk58.kkPlacekyourkarmykinkdeadlykperil,kandkitkwillksurvive; plungekitkintokdesperatekstraits,kandkitkwillkcomekoffkinksafety. kkkkk[ThesekwordskofkSunkTzukwerekoncekquotedkbykHankHsinkin explanationkofkthektacticskhekemployedkinkonekofkhiskmost brilliantkbattles,kalreadykalludedktokonkp.k28.kkInk204kB.C.,kkhe wasksentkagainstkthekarmykofkChao,kandkhaltedktenkmileskfromkthe mouthkofkthekChing-hsingkpass,kwherekthekenemykhadkmusteredkin fullkforce.kkHere,katkmidnight,khekdetachedkakbodykofk2000klight cavalry,keverykmankofkwhichkwaskfurnishedkwithkakredkflag.kkTheir instructionskwerektokma ektheirkwaykthroughknarrowkdefileskand

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkk[Thiskparagraph,kthoughkwrittenkmanykyearskbeforekthekCh`in Statekbecamekakseriouskmenace,kisknotkakbadksummarykofkthekpolicy bykwhichkthekfamouskSixkChancellorskgraduallykpavedkthekwaykfor herkfinalktriumphkunderkShihkHuangkTi.kkChangkYu,kkfollowingkup hiskpreviousknote,kkthin skthatkSunkTzukiskcondemningkthis attitudekofkcold-bloodedkselfishnesskandkhaughtykisolation.]

eepkaksecretkwatchkonkthekenemy.kk"WhenkthekmenkofkChaokseekme inkfullkflight,"kkHankHsinksaid,kk"theykwillkabandonktheir fortificationskandkgivekchase.kkThiskmustkbektheksignkforkyoukto rushkin,kpluc kdownkthekChaokstandardskandksetkupkthekredkbanners ofkHankinktheirkstead."kkTurningkthenktokhiskotherkofficers,kkhe remar ed:kkk"Ourkadversarykholdskakstrongkposition,kandkisknot li elyktokcomekoutkandkattac kuskuntilkhekseeskthekstandardkand drumskofkthekcommander-in-chief,kforkfearkIkshouldkturnkbac kand escapekthroughkthekmountains."kkSoksaying,khekfirstkofkallksent outkakdivisionkconsistingkofk10,000kmen,kandkorderedkthemktokform inklinekofkbattlekwithktheirkbac sktokthekRiverkTi.kkSeeingkthis maneuver,kkthekwholekarmykofkChaokbro ekintokloudklaughter.kkBy thisktimekitkwaskbroadkdaylight,kandkHankHsin,kkdisplayingkthe generalissimo'skflag,kmarchedkoutkofkthekpasskwithkdrumskbeating, andkwaskimmediatelykengagedkbykthekenemy.kkAkgreatkbattle followed,klastingkforksomektime;kuntilkatklengthkHankHsinkandkhis colleaguekChangkNi,kleavingkdrumskandkbannerkonkthekfield,kkfled tokthekdivisionkonkthekriverkban ,kwherekanotherkfiercekbattle waskraging.kkThekenemykrushedkoutktokpursuekthemkandktoksecure thektrophies,kthuskdenudingktheirkrampartskofkmen;kbutkthektwo generalsksucceededkinkjoiningkthekotherkarmy,kwhichkwaskfighting withkthekutmostkdesperation.kkThektimekhadknowkcomekforkthek2000 horsemenktokplayktheirkpart.kkAsksoonkasktheyksawkthekmenkofkChao followingkupktheirkadvantage,ktheykgallopedkbehindkthekdeserted walls,kktorekupkthekenemy'skflagskandkreplacedkthemkbykthosekof Han.kkWhenkthekChaokarmykloo edkbac kfromkthekpursuit,ktheksight ofkthesekredkflagskstruc kthemkwithkterror.kkConvincedkthatkthe Hanskhadkgotkinkandkoverpoweredktheirk ing,ktheykbro ekupkinkwild disorder,keverykeffortkofktheirkleaderktokstaykthekpanickbeingkin vain.kkThenkthekHankarmykfellkonkthemkfromkbothksideskand completedkthekrout,k illingkaknumberkandkcapturingkthekrest, amongstkwhomkwaskKingkYakhimself....kkAfterkthekbattle,ksomekof HankHsin'skofficerskcamektokhimkandksaid:kk"InkthekARTkOFkWARkwe arektoldktokhavekakhillkorktumuluskonkthekrightkrear,kandkakriver orkmarshkonkthekleftkfront.kk[ThiskappearsktokbekakblendkofkSun TzukandkT`aikKung.kkSeekIXkss.k9,kandknote.]kkkYou,kkonkthe contrary,korderedkusktokdrawkupkourktroopskwithkthekriverkatkour bac .kkUnderkthesekconditions,khowkdidkyoukmanagektokgainkthe victory?"kkkThekgeneralkreplied:kk"Ikfearkyoukgentlemenkhaveknot studiedkthekArtkofkWarkwithksufficientkcare.kkIskitknotkwritten there:kk'Plungekyourkarmykintokdesperatekstraitskandkitkwillkcome offkinksafety;kplacekitkinkdeadlykperilkandkitkwillksurvive'? HadkIkta enkthekusualkcourse,kIkshouldkneverkhavekbeenkablekto bringkmykcolleaguekround.kkWhatksayskthekMilitarykClassic--'Swoop downkonkthekmar et-placekandkdrivekthekmenkoffktokfight.'kkk[This passagekdoesknotkoccurkinkthekpresentktextkofkSunkTzu.]kkIfkIkhad notkplacedkmyktroopskinkakpositionkwherektheykwerekobligedkto fightkforktheirklives,kbutkhadkallowedkeachkmanktokfollowkhiskown discretion,kktherekwouldkhavekbeenkakgeneralkdebandade,kkandkit wouldkhavekbeenkimpossiblektokdokanythingkwithkthem."kkkThe officerskadmittedkthekforcekofkhiskargument,kandksaid:kkk"These arekhigherktacticskthankwekshouldkhavekbeenkcapablekof."kkk[See CH`IENkHANkSHU,kch.k34,kff.k4,k5.]k] kkkkk59.kkForkitkiskpreciselykwhenkakforcekhaskfallenkintokharm's waykthatkiskcapablekofkstri ingkakblowkforkvictory. kkkkk[Dangerkhaskakbracingkeffect.] kkkkk60.kkSuccesskinkwarfarekiskgainedkbykcarefullykaccommodating

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ourselvesktokthekenemy'skpurpose. kkkkk[Ts`aokKungksays:kk"Feignkstupidity"--bykankappearancekof yieldingkandkfallingkinkwithkthekenemy'skwishes.kkChangkYu'sknote ma eskthekmeaningkclear:kk"Ifkthekenemykshowskankinclinationkto advance,klurekhimkonktokdokso;kifkhekiskanxiousktokretreat,kdelay onkpurposekthatkhekmaykcarrykoutkhiskintention."kkThekobjectkis tokma ekhimkremisskandkcontemptuouskbeforekwekdeliverkour attac .] kkkkk61.kkBykpersistentlykhangingkonkthekenemy'skflan , kkkkk[Ikunderstandkthekfirstkfourkwordsktokmeank"accompanyingkthe enemykinkonekdirection."kkTs`aokKungksays:kk"unitektheksoldiers andkma ekforkthekenemy."kkButksuchkakviolentkdisplacementkof characterskiskquitekindefensible.] wekshallksucceedkinktheklongkrun kkkkk[Literally,k"afterkakthousandkLI."] ink illingkthekcommander-in-chief. kkkkk[AlwayskakgreatkpointkwithkthekChinese.] kkkkk62.kkThiskiskcalledkabilityktokaccomplishkakthingkbyksheer cunning. kkkkk63.kkOnkthekdaykthatkyoukta ekupkyourkcommand,kkbloc kthe frontierkpasses,kdestroykthekofficialktallies, kkkkk[Thesekwerektabletskofkbambookorkwood,konekhalfkofkwhichkwas issuedkaskakpermitkorkpassportkbykthekofficialkinkchargekofka gate.kkCf.kthek"border-warden"kofkLUNkYUkIII.k24,kwhokmaykhave hadksimilarkduties.kkWhenkthiskhalfkwaskreturnedktokhim,kwithinka fixedkperiod,kkhekwaskauthorizedktokopenkthekgatekandkletkthe travelerkthrough.] andkstopkthekpassagekofkallkemissaries. kkkkk[Eitherktokorkfromkthekenemy'skcountry.] kkkkk64.kkBeksternkinkthekcouncil-chamber, kkkkk[Showknokwea ness,kandkinsistkonkyourkplanskbeingkratified byktheksovereign.] sokthatkyoukmaykcontrolktheksituation. kkkkk[MeikYao-ch`enkunderstandskthekwholeksentencektokmean:kkTa e thekkkstrictestkkkprecautionskkktokkkensurekkksecrecykkkinkkkyour deliberations.] kkkkk65.kkIfkthekenemykleaveskakdoorkopen,kyoukmustkrushkin. kkkkk66.kkForestallkyourkopponentkbykseizingkwhatkhekholdskdear, kkkkk[Cf.ksupra,kss.k18.] andksubtlykcontrivektoktimekhiskarrivalkonkthekground. kkkkk[Ch`enkHao`skexplanation:kk"IfkIkmanagektokseizekakfavorable

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

position,kkbutkthekenemykdoesknotkappearkonkthekscene,kkthe advantagekthuskobtainedkcannotkbekturnedktokanykpractical account.kkHekwhokintendsktherefore,ktokoccupykakpositionkof importancektokthekenemy,kkmustkbeginkbykma ingkankkkartful appointment,kksoktokspea ,kwithkhiskantagonist,kandkcajolekhim intokgoingktherekaskwell."kkMeikYao-ch`enkexplainskthatkthis "artfulkappointment"kkisktokbekmadekthroughkthekmediumkofkthe enemy'skownkspies,kkwhokwillkcarrykbac kjustkthekamountkof informationkthatkwekchoosektokgivekthem.kkThen,khavingkcunningly disclosedkourkintentions,k"wekmustkmanage,kthoughkstartingkafter thekenemy,kktokarrivekbeforekhimk(VII.kss.k4).kkWekmustkstart afterkhimkinkorderktokensurekhiskmarchingkthither;kwekmustkarrive beforekhimkinkorderktokcapturekthekplacekwithoutktrouble.kkTa en thus,kkthekpresentkpassageklendsksomeksupportktokMeikYao-ch`en's interpretationkofkss.k47.] kkkkk67.kkWal kinkthekpathkdefinedkbykrule, kkkkk[ChiakLinksays:kk"Victorykiskthekonlykthingkthatkmatters, andkthiskcannotkbekachievedkbykadheringktokconventionalkcanons." Itkiskunfortunatekthatkthiskvariantkrestskonkverykslight authority,kkkforktheksensekyieldedkiskcertainlykmuchkkkmore satisfactory.kkNapoleon,kaskwek now,kaccordingktokthekveteranskof thekoldkschoolkwhomkhekdefeated,kwonkhiskbattleskbykviolating everykacceptedkcanonkofkwarfare.] andkaccommodatekyourselfktokthekenemykuntilkyoukcankfightka decisivekbattle. kkkkk[TukMuksays:kkk"Conformktokthekenemy'sktacticskuntilka favorablekopportunitykoffers;kthenkcomekforthkandkengagekinka battlekthatkshallkprovekdecisive."] kkkkk68.kkAtkfirst,kthen,kexhibitkthekcoynesskofkakmaiden,kkuntil thekenemykgiveskyoukankopening;kafterwardskemulatekthekrapidity ofkakrunningkhare,kandkitkwillkbektooklatekforkthekenemykto opposekyou. kkkkk[Askthekharekisknotedkforkitskextremektimidity,kkthe comparisonkhardlykappearskfelicitous.kkButkofkcoursekSunkTzukwas thin ingkonlykofkitskspeed.kkThekwordskhavekbeenkta enktokmean: Youkmustkfleekfromkthekenemykaskquic lykaskankescapingkhare;kkbut thiskiskrightlykrejectedkbykTukMu.] [1]kkGiles'kBiographicalkDictionary,kno.k399. [2]kk"ThekSciencekofkWar,"kp.k333. [3]kk"StonewallkJac son,"kvol.kI,kp.k421. ----------------------------------------------------------------XII.kkTHEkATTACKkBYkFIRE kkkkk[Ratherkmorekthankhalfkthekchapterk(SS.k1-13)kiskdevotedkto theksubjectkofkfire,kafterkwhichkthekauthorkbrancheskoffkinto otherktopics.]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkk1.kkSunkTzuksaid:kkTherekarekfivekwayskofkattac ingkwith fire.kkThekfirstkisktokburnksoldierskinktheirkcamp; kkkkk[SokTukMu.kkLikCh`uanksays:kk"Setkfirektokthekcamp,kandk ill theksoldiers"kk(whenktheyktryktokescapekfromkthekflames).kkPan Ch`ao,ksentkonkakdiplomatickmissionktokthekKingkofkShan-shank[see XI.kkss.k51,knote],kfoundkhimselfkplacedkinkextremekperilkbykthe unexpectedkarrivalkofkankenvoykfromkthekHsiung-nukk[thekmortal enemieskofkthekChinese].kkInkconsultationkwithkhiskofficers,kkhe exclaimed:kk"Neverkventure,kneverkwin!k[1]kkThekonlykcoursekopen tokusknowkisktokma ekankassaultkbykfirekonkthekbarbarianskunder coverkofknight,kkwhenktheykwillknotkbekablektokdiscernkour numbers.kkProfitingkbyktheirkpanic,kwekshallkexterminatekthem completely;kkthiskwillkcoolkthekKing'skcouragekandkcoverkuskwith glory,kkbesideskensuringktheksuccesskofkourkmission.'kkkthe officerskallkrepliedkthatkitkwouldkbeknecessaryktokdiscusskthe matterkfirstkwithkthekIntendant.kkPankCh`aokthenkfellkintoka passion:kkk'Itkisktoday,'khekcried,k'thatkourkfortuneskmustkbe decided!kkkThekIntendantkiskonlykakhumdrumkcivilian,kkwhokon hearingkofkourkprojectkwillkcertainlykbekafraid,kandkeverything willkbekbroughtktoklight.kkAnkingloriouskdeathkisknokworthykfate forkvaliantkwarriors.'kkkAllkthenkagreedktokdokaskhekwished. Accordingly,kkasksoonkasknightkcamekon,khekandkhisklittlekband quic lykmadektheirkwayktokthekbarbariankcamp.kkAkstrongkgalekwas blowingkatkthektime.kkPankCh`aokorderedktenkofkthekpartyktokta e drumskandkhidekbehindkthekenemy'skbarrac s,kitkbeingkarranged thatkwhenktheyksawkflameskshootkup,ktheykshouldkbeginkdrumming andkyellingkwithkallktheirkmight.kkThekrestkofkhiskmen,kkarmed withkbowskandkcrossbows,khekpostedkinkambuscadekatkthekgatekof thekcamp.kkHekthenksetkfirektokthekplacekfromkthekwindwardkside, whereuponkakdeafeningknoisekofkdrumskandkshoutingkarosekonkthe frontkandkrearkofkthekHsiung-nu,kwhokrushedkoutkpell-mellkin frantickdisorder.kkPankCh`aokslewkthreekofkthemkwithkhiskown hand,kkwhilekhiskcompanionskcutkoffkthekheadskofkthekenvoykand thirtykofkhisksuite.kkThekremainder,kmorekthankakhundredkinkall, perishedkinkthekflames.kkOnkthekfollowingkday,kkPankCh`ao, diviningkhiskthoughts,ksaidkwithkupliftedkhand:kk'Althoughkyou didknotkgokwithkusklastknight,kIkshouldknotkthin ,kSir,kofkta ing solekcreditkforkourkexploit.'kkThisksatisfiedkKuokHsun,kandkPan Ch`ao,kkhavingksentkforkKuang,kKingkofkShan-shan,kshowedkhimkthe headkofkthekbarbariankenvoy.kkThekwholek ingdomkwaskseizedkwith fearkandktrembling,kkwhichkPankCh`aoktoo kstepsktokallaykby issuingkakpublickproclamation.kkThen,kta ingkthek ing'sksonskas hostage,khekreturnedktokma ekhiskreportktokToukKu."kkHOUkHANkSHU, ch.k47,kff.k1,k2.]k] theksecondkisktokburnkstores; kkkkk[TukMuksays:kk"Provisions,kfuelkandkfodder."kkInkorderkto subduekkkthekkkrebelliouskpopulationkofkKiangnan,kkkKaokkkKeng recommendedkWenkTikofkthekSuikdynastyktokma ekperiodicalkraids andkburnktheirkstoreskofkgrain,kakpolicykwhichkinktheklongkrun provedkentirelyksuccessful.] thekthirdkisktokburnkbaggagektrains; kkkkk[AnkexamplekgivenkiskthekdestructionkofkYuankShao`skwagons andkimpedimentakbykTs`aokTs`aokink200kA.D.] thekfourthkisktokburnkarsenalskandkmagazines;

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

 

kkkkk[TukMuksayskthatkthekthingskcontainedkinkk"arsenals"kkand "magazines"kkarektheksame.kkHekspecifieskweaponskandkother implements,kbullionkandkclothing.kkCf.kVII.kss.k11.] thekfifthkisktokhurlkdroppingkfirekamongstkthekenemy. kkkkk[TukYuksayskinkthekT`UNGkTIEN:kk"Tokdropkfirekintokthe enemy'skcamp.kkThekmethodkbykwhichkthiskmaykbekdonekisktoksetkthe tipskofkarrowskalightkbykdippingkthemkintokakbrazier,kkandkthen shootkthemkfromkpowerfulkcrossbowskintokthekenemy'sklines."] kkkkk2.kkInkorderktokcarrykoutkankattac ,kwekmustkhavekmeans available. kkkkk[T`saokKungkthin skthatk"traitorskinkthekenemy'skcamp"kkare referredkto.kkButkCh`enkHaokiskmorekli elyktokbekrightkinksaying: "Wekmustkhavekfavorablekcircumstanceskinkgeneral,kknotkmerely traitorsktokhelpkus."kkChiakLinksays:kk"Wekmustkavailkourselves ofkwindkandkdrykweather."] thekmaterialkforkraisingkfirekshouldkalwayskbek eptkinkreadiness. kkkkk[TukMuksuggestskaskmaterialkforkma ingkfire:kk"drykvegetable matter,kreeds,kbrushwood,kstraw,kgrease,koil,ketc."kkHerekwekhave thekmaterialkcause.kkChangkYuksays:kk"vesselskforkhoardingkfire, stuffkforklightingkfires."] kkkkk3.kkTherekiskakproperkseasonkforkma ingkattac skwithkfire, andkspecialkdayskforkstartingkakconflagration. kkkkk4.kkThekproperkseasonkiskwhenkthekweatherkiskverykdry;kkthe specialkdayskarekthosekwhenkthekmoonkiskinkthekconstellationskof thekSieve,kthekWall,kthekWingkorkthekCross-bar; kkkkk[Thesekare,krespectively,kthek7th,k14th,k27th,kandk28thkof thekTwenty-eightkStellarkMansions,kkcorrespondingkroughlykto Sagittarius,kPegasus,kCraterkandkCorvus.] forkthesekfourkarekallkdayskofkrisingkwind. kkkkk5.kkInkattac ingkwithkfire,konekshouldkbekpreparedktokmeet fivekpossiblekdevelopments: kkkkk6.kk(1)kWhenkfirekbrea skoutkinsidektokenemy'skcamp,krespond atkoncekwithkankattac kfromkwithout. kkkkk7.kk(2)kkIfktherekiskankoutbrea kofkfire,kbutkthekenemy's soldierskremainkquiet,kbidekyourktimekandkdoknotkattac . kkkkk[Thekprimekobjectkofkattac ingkwithkfirekisktokthrowkthe enemykintokconfusion.kkIfkthiskeffectkisknotkproduced,kitkmeans thatkthekenemykiskreadyktokreceivekus.kkHencektheknecessitykfor caution.] kkkkk8.kk(3)kWhenkthekforcekofkthekflameskhaskreachedkitskheight, followkitkupkwithkankattac ,kifkthatkiskpracticable;kifknot,kstay wherekyoukare. kkkkk[Ts`aokKungksays:kk"Ifkyoukseekakpossiblekway,kadvance;kkbut ifkyoukfindkthekdifficultiesktookgreat,kretire."] kkkkk9.kk(4)kIfkitkiskpossiblektokma ekankassaultkwithkfirekfrom without,kdoknotkwaitkforkitktokbrea koutkwithin,kbutkdeliverkyour

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

attac katkakfavorablekmoment. kkkkk[TukMuksayskthatkthekpreviouskparagraphskhadkreferencekto thekfirekbrea ingkoutk(eitherkaccidentally,kwekmayksuppose,korkby thekagencykofkincendiaries)kinsidekthekenemy'skcamp.kk"But,"kkhe continues,kk"ifkthekenemykisksettledkinkakwastekplaceklittered withkquantitieskofkgrass,korkifkhekhaskpitchedkhiskcampkinka positionkwhichkcankbekburntkout,kwekmustkcarrykourkfirekagainst himkatkanykseasonablekopportunity,kandknotkawaitkonkinkhopeskof ankoutbrea koccurringkwithin,kforkfearkourkopponentskshould themselveskburnkupktheksurroundingkvegetation,kandkthuskrender ourkownkattemptskfruitless."kkThekfamouskLikLingkoncekbaffledkthe leaderkofkthekHsiung-nukinkthiskway.kkTheklatter,kkta ing advantagekofkakfavorablekwind,ktriedktoksetkfirektokthekChinese general'skcamp,kkbutkfoundkthatkeverykscrapkofkcombustible vegetationkinkthekneighborhoodkhadkalreadykbeenkburntkdown.kkOn thekotherkhand,kPo-ts`ai,kakgeneralkofkthekYellowkTurbankrebels, waskbadlykdefeatedkink184kA.D.kthroughkhiskneglectkofkthisksimple precaution.kk"Atkthekheadkofkaklargekarmykhekwaskbesieging Ch`ang-she,kkwhichkwaskheldkbykHuang-fukSung.kkThekgarrisonkwas veryksmall,kkandkakgeneralkfeelingkofknervousnesskpervadedkthe ran s;kksokHuang-fukSungkcalledkhiskofficersktogetherkandksaid: "Inkwar,kktherekarekvariouskindirectkmethodskofkattac ,kkand numberskdoknotkcountkforkeverything.kk[Thekcommentatorkhere quoteskSunkTzu,kV.kSS.k5,k6kandk10.]kkNowkthekrebelskhavekpitched theirkcampkinkthekmidstkofkthic kgrasskwhichkwillkeasilykburn whenkthekwindkblows.kkIfkweksetkfirektokitkatknight,ktheykwillkbe thrownkintokakpanic,kandkwekcankma ekaksortiekandkattac kthemkon allksideskatkonce,kthuskemulatingkthekachievementkofkT`ienkTan.' [Seekp.k90.]kkThatksamekevening,kakstrongkbreezeksprangkup;kkso Huang-fukSungkinstructedkhisksoldiersktokbindkreedsktogetherkinto torcheskandkmountkguardkonkthekcitykwalls,kafterkwhichkheksent outkakbandkofkdaringkmen,kwhokstealthilykmadektheirkwaykthrough theklineskandkstartedkthekfirekwithkloudkshoutskandkyells. Simultaneously,kakglarekofklightkshotkupkfromkthekcitykwalls,kand Huang-fukSung,kksoundingkhiskdrums,kledkakrapidkcharge,kkwhich threwkthekrebelskintokconfusionkandkputkthemktokheadlongkflight." [HOUkHANkSHU,kch.k71.]k] kkkkk10.kk(5)kWhenkyoukstartkakfire,kbektokwindwardkofkit.kkDo notkattac kfromkthekleeward. kkkkk[ChangkYu,kfollowingkTukYu,ksays:kk"Whenkyoukma ekakfire, thekenemykwillkretreatkawaykfromkit;kifkyoukopposekhiskretreat andkattac khimkthen,khekwillkfightkdesperately,kwhichkwillknot conducektokyourksuccess."kkAkratherkmorekobviouskexplanationkis givenkbykTukMu:kk"Ifkthekwindkiskinkthekeast,kbeginkburningkto thekeastkofkthekenemy,kandkfollowkupkthekattac kyourselfkfrom thatkside.kkIfkyoukstartkthekfirekonkthekeastkside,kkandkthen attac kfromkthekwest,kyoukwillksufferkinktheksamekwaykaskyour enemy."] kkkkk11.kkAkwindkthatkriseskinkthekdaytimeklastsklong,kkbutka nightkbreezeksoonkfalls. kkkkk[Cf.kkLaokTzu'sksaying:kk"Akviolentkwindkdoesknotklastkthe spacekofkakmorning."kk(TAOkTEkCHING,kchap.k23.)kkkMeikYao-ch`en andkWangkHsiksay:kk"Akdaykbreezekdieskdownkatknightfall,kkandka nightkbreezekatkdaybrea .kkThiskiskwhatkhappenskaskakgeneral rule."kkkThekphenomenonkobservedkmaykbekcorrectkenough,kkbutkhow

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

thisksensekisktokbekobtainedkisknotkapparent.] kkkkk12.kkInkeverykarmy,kthekfivekdevelopmentskconnectedkwith firekmustkbek nown,kthekmovementskofkthekstarskcalculated,kandka watchk eptkforkthekproperkdays. kkkkk[TukMuksays:kk"Wekmustkma ekcalculationskasktokthekpathskof thekstars,kkandkwatchkforkthekdayskonkwhichkwindkwillkrise, beforekma ingkourkattac kwithkfire."kkChangkYukseemsktokinterpret thektextkdifferently:kk"Wekmustknotkonlyk nowkhowktokassailkour opponentskwithkfire,kbutkalsokbekonkourkguardkagainstksimilar attac skfromkthem."] kkkkk13.kkHencekthosekwhokusekfirekaskankaidktokthekattac kshow intelligence;kthosekwhokusekwaterkaskankaidktokthekattac kgainkan accessionkofkstrength. kkkkk14.kkBykmeanskofkwater,kankenemykmaykbekintercepted,kbutknot robbedkofkallkhiskbelongings. kkkkk[Ts`aokKung'sknotekis:kk"Wekcankmerelykobstructkthekenemy's roadkorkdividekhiskarmy,kbutknotksweepkawaykallkhiskaccumulated stores."kkWaterkcankdokusefulkservice,kbutkitklac skthekterrible destructivekpowerkofkfire.kkThiskiskthekreason,kkChangkYu concludes,kwhykthekformerkiskdismissedkinkakcouplekofksentences, whereaskthekattac kbykfirekiskdiscussedkinkdetail.kkWukTzukk(ch. 4)kkspea skthuskofkthektwokelements:kk"Ifkankarmykiskencampedkon low-lyingkmarshykground,kfromkwhichkthekwaterkcannotkrunkoff,kand wherekthekrainfallkiskheavy,kitkmaykbeksubmergedkbykakflood.kkIf ankarmykiskencampedkinkwildkmarshklandskthic lykovergrownkwith weedskandkbrambles,kandkvisitedkbykfrequentkgales,kkitkmaykbe exterminatedkbykfire."] kkkkk15.kkUnhappykiskthekfatekofkonekwhoktriesktokwinkhiskbattles andksucceedkinkhiskattac skwithoutkcultivatingkthekspiritkof enterprise;kkforkthekresultkiskwastekofktimekandkkkgeneral stagnation. kkkkk[ThiskiskonekofkthekmostkperplexingkpassageskinkSunkTzu. Ts`aokKungksays:kkk"Rewardskforkgoodkservicekshouldknotkbe deferredkaksinglekday."kkkAndkTukMu:kkk"Ifkyoukdoknotkta e opportunitykkktokkkadvancekandkrewardkkkthekkkdeserving,kkkyour subordinateskwillknotkcarrykoutkyourkcommands,kandkdisasterkwill ensue."kkkForkseveralkreasons,khowever,kandkinkspitekofkthe formidablekarraykofkscholarskonkthekotherkside,kkIkpreferkthe interpretationksuggestedkbykMeikYao-ch`enkalone,kwhosekwordskI willkquote:kk"Thosekwhokwantktokma eksurekofksucceedingkinktheir battleskandkassaultskmustkseizekthekfavorablekmomentskwhenkthey comekandknotkshrin konkoccasionkfromkheroickmeasures:kkthatkiskto say,ktheykmustkresortktoksuchkmeanskofkattac kofkfire,kwaterkand thekli e.kkWhatktheykmustknotkdo,kandkwhatkwillkprovekfatal,kkis toksitkstillkandksimplykholdktokthekadvantagesktheykhavekgot."] kkkkk16.kkHencektheksaying:kkThekenlightenedkrulerklayskhiskplans wellkahead;kthekgoodkgeneralkcultivateskhiskresources. kkkkk[TukMukquoteskthekfollowingkfromkthekSANkLUEH,kch.k2:kkk"The warli ekprincekcontrolskhisksoldierskbykhiskauthority,k itskthem togetherkbykgoodkfaith,kandkbykrewardskma eskthemkserviceable. Ifkfaithkdecays,kktherekwillkbekdisruption;kkifkrewardskare deficient,kcommandskwillknotkbekrespected."]

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

   

kkkkk17.kkMoveknotkunlesskyoukseekankadvantage;kkuseknotkyour troopskunlessktherekisksomethingktokbekgained;kfightknotkunless thekpositionkiskcritical. kkkkk[SunkTzukmaykatktimeskappearktokbekover-cautious,kkbutkhe neverkgoesksokfarkinkthatkdirectionkaskthekremar ablekpassagekin thekTAOkTEkCHING,kch.k69.kk"Ikdareknotkta ekthekinitiative,kkbut preferktokactkonkthekdefensive;kIkdareknotkadvancekankinch,kkbut preferktokretreatkakfoot."] kkkkk18.kkNokrulerkshouldkputktroopskintokthekfieldkmerelykto gratifykhiskownkspleen;knokgeneralkshouldkfightkakbattleksimply outkofkpique. kkkkk19.kkIfkitkisktokyourkadvantage,kma ekakforwardkmove;kkif not,kstaykwherekyoukare. kkkkk[ThiskiskrepeatedkfromkXI.kss.k17.kkHerekIkfeelkconvinced thatkitkiskankinterpolation,kforkitkiskevidentkthatkss.k20kought tokfollowkimmediatelykonkss.k18.] kkkkk20.kkAngerkmaykinktimekchangektokgladness;kvexationkmaykbe succeededkbykcontent. kkkkk21.kkButkak ingdomkthatkhaskoncekbeenkdestroyedkcanknever comekagainkintokbeing; kkkkk[ThekWukStatekwaskdestinedktokbekakmelancholykexamplekof thisksaying.] norkcankthekdeadkeverkbekbroughtkbac ktoklife. kkkkk22.kkHencekthekenlightenedkrulerkiskheedful,kandkthekgood generalkfullkofkcaution.kkThiskiskthekwayktok eepkakcountrykat peacekandkankarmykintact. [1]kkk"Unlesskyoukenterkthektiger'sklair,kyoukcannotkgetkholdkof thektiger'skcubs." ----------------------------------------------------------------XIII.kkTHEkUSEkOFkSPIES kkkkk1.kkSunkTzuksaid:kkRaisingkakhostkofkakhundredkthousandkmen andkmarchingkthemkgreatkdistanceskentailskheavyklosskonkthe peoplekandkakdrainkonkthekresourceskofkthekState.kkThekdaily expenditurekwillkamountktokakthousandkounceskofksilver. kkkkk[Cf.kII.kss.kss.k1,k13,k14.] Therekwillkbekcommotionkatkhomekandkabroad,kandkmenkwillkdrop downkexhaustedkonkthekhighways. kkkkk[Cf.kkTAOkTEkCHING,kkch.kk30:kkk"Wherektroopskhavekbeen quartered,kbrambleskandkthornskspringkup.kkChangkYukhasktheknote: "Wekmaykbekremindedkofktheksaying:kk'Onkseriouskground,kgatherkin plunder.'kkkWhykthenkshouldkcarriagekandktransportationkcause exhaustionkonkthekhighways?--Thekanswerkis,kthatknotkvictuals alone,kkbutkallksortskofkmunitionskofkwarkhavektokbekconveyedkto thekarmy.kkBesides,kthekinjunctionktok'foragekonkthekenemy'kkonly

 

 

 

 

 

 

meanskthatkwhenkankarmykiskdeeplykengagedkinkhostilekterritory, scarcitykofkfoodkmustkbekprovidedkagainst.kkHence,kwithoutkbeing solelykdependentkonkthekenemykforkcorn,kwekmustkforagekinkorder thatktherekmaykbekankuninterruptedkflowkofksupplies.kkThen, again,ktherekarekplaceskli eksaltkdesertskwherekprovisionskbeing unobtainable,ksupplieskfromkhomekcannotkbekdispensedkwith."] Askmanykasksevenkhundredkthousandkfamilieskwillkbekimpededkin theirklabor. kkkkk[MeikYao-ch`enksays:kk"Menkwillkbeklac ingkatkthekploughtail."kkThekallusionkisktoktheksystemkofkdividingklandkintoknine parts,keachkconsistingkofkaboutk15kacres,kthekplotkinkthekcenter beingkcultivatedkonkbehalfkofkthekStatekbykthektenantskofkthe otherkeight.kkItkwaskherekalso,ksokTukMuktellskus,kkthatktheir cottageskwerekbuiltkandkakwellksun ,ktokbekusedkbykallkinkcommon. [SeekII.kss.k12,knote.]kkInktimekofkwar,konekofkthekfamilieskhad tokservekinkthekarmy,kwhilekthekotherksevenkcontributedktokits support.kkThus,kkbykaklevykofk100,000kmenk(rec oningkonekablebodiedksoldierktokeachkfamily)kthekhusbandrykofk700,000kfamilies wouldkbekaffected.] kkkkk2.kkHostilekarmieskmaykfacekeachkotherkforkyears,kkstriving forkthekvictorykwhichkiskdecidedkinkaksinglekday.kkThiskbeingkso, tokremainkinkignorancekofkthekenemy'skconditionksimplykbecause onekgrudgeskthekoutlaykofkakhundredkounceskofksilverkinkhonors andkemoluments, kkkkk["Forkspies"kiskofkcoursekthekmeaning,kthoughkitkwouldkspoil thekeffectkofkthiskcuriouslykelaboratekexordiumkifkspieskwere actuallykmentionedkatkthiskpoint.] iskthekheightkofkinhumanity. kkkkk[SunkTzu'skagreementkiskcertainlykingenious.kkHekbeginskby advertingktokthekfrightfulkmiserykandkvastkexpenditurekofkblood andktreasurekwhichkwarkalwayskbringskinkitsktrain.kkNow,kkunless youkarek eptkinformedkofkthekenemy'skcondition,kandkarekreadykto stri ekatkthekrightkmoment,kakwarkmaykdragkonkforkyears.kkThe onlykwayktokgetkthiskinformationkisktokemploykspies,kandkitkis impossiblektokobtainktrustworthykspieskunlessktheykarekproperly paidkforktheirkservices.kkButkitkisksurelykfalsekeconomykto grudgekakcomparativelyktriflingkamountkforkthiskpurpose,kkwhen everykdaykthatkthekwarklastskeatskupkankincalculablykgreaterksum. Thiskgrievouskburdenkfallskonkthekshoulderskofkthekpoor,kkand hencekSunkTzukconcludeskthatktokneglectkthekusekofkspieskis nothingklesskthankakcrimekagainstkhumanity.] kkkkk3.kkOnekwhokactskthuskisknokleaderkofkmen,knokpresentkhelp tokhisksovereign,knokmasterkofkvictory. kkkkk[Thiskidea,kthatkthektruekobjectkofkwarkiskpeace,kkhaskits rootkinktheknationalktemperamentkofkthekChinese.kkEvenksokfar bac kask597kB.C.,kthesekmemorablekwordskwerekutteredkbykPrince ChuangkofkthekCh`ukState:kk"Thek[Chinese]kcharacterkfork'prowess' iskmadekupkofk[thekcharacterskfor]k'tokstay'kkandkk'akspear' (cessationkofkhostilities).kkMilitarykprowesskiskseenkinkthe repressionkkkofkkkcruelty,kkthekcallingkinkofkkkweapons,kkkthe preservationkofkthekappointmentkofkHeaven,kthekfirmkestablishment ofkmerit,kkthekbestowalkofkhappinesskonkthekpeople,kkputting

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

harmonykbetweenkthekprinces,kthekdiffusionkofkwealth."] kkkkk4.kkThus,kkwhatkenableskthekwiseksovereignkandkthekgood generalktokstri ekandkconquer,kandkachievekthingskbeyondkthe reachkofkordinarykmen,kiskFOREKNOWLEDGE. kkkkk[Thatkis,k nowledgekofkthekenemy'skdispositions,kandkwhatkhe meansktokdo.] kkkkk5.kkNowkthiskfore nowledgekcannotkbekelicitedkfromkspirits; itkcannotkbekobtainedkinductivelykfromkexperience, kkkkk[TukMu'sknotekis:kk"[ nowledgekofkthekenemy]kkcannotkbe gainedkbykreasoningkfromkotherkanalogouskcases."] norkbykanykdeductivekcalculation. kkkkk[LikkkCh`uanksays:kkk"Quantitieskli ekkklength,kkkbreadth, distancekandkmagnitude,kareksusceptiblekofkexactkmathematical determination;khumankactionskcannotkbeksokcalculated."] kkkkk6.kkKnowledgekofkthekenemy'skdispositionskcankonlykbe obtainedkfromkotherkmen. kkkkk[MeikYao-ch`enkhaskratherkankinterestingknote:kkk"Knowledge ofkthekspirit-worldkisktokbekobtainedkbykdivination;kkinformation inknaturalksciencekmaykbeksoughtkbykinductivekreasoning;ktheklaws ofkthekuniversekcankbekverifiedkbykmathematicalkcalculation:kkbut thekdispositionskofkankenemykarekascertainablekthroughkspieskand spieskalone."] kkkkk7.kkHencekthekusekofkspies,kofkwhomktherekarekfivekclasses: (1)kkLocalkspies;kk(2)kinwardkspies;k(3)kkconvertedkspies;kk(4) doomedkspies;k(5)ksurvivingkspies. kkkkk8.kkWhenkthesekfivek indskofkspykarekallkatkwor ,knonekcan discoverktheksecretksystem.kkThiskiskcalledk"divinekmanipulation ofkthekthreads."kkItkisktheksovereign'skmostkpreciouskfaculty. kkkkk[Cromwell,kkonekofkthekgreatestkandkmostkpracticalkofkall cavalrykleaders,kkhadkofficerskstyledkk'scoutkmasters,'kkwhose businesskitkwasktokcollectkallkpossiblekinformationkregardingkthe enemy,kthroughkscoutskandkspies,ketc.,kandkmuchkofkhisksuccesskin warkwasktraceablektokthekpreviousk nowledgekofkthekenemy'skmoves thuskgained."k[1]k] kkkkk9.kkHavingkLOCALkSPIESkmeanskemployingkthekserviceskofkthe inhabitantskofkakdistrict. kkkkk[TukMuksays:kk"Inkthekenemy'skcountry,kwinkpeoplekoverkby indktreatment,kandkusekthemkaskspies."] kkkkk10.kkHavingkINWARDkSPIES,kma ingkusekofkofficialskofkthe enemy. kkkkk[TukMukenumerateskthekfollowingkclasseskaskli elyktokdokgood servicekinkthiskrespect:kk"Worthykmenkwhokhavekbeenkdegradedkfrom office,kkcriminalskwhokhavekundergonekpunishment;kalso,kkfavorite concubineskwhokarekgreedykforkgold,kmenkwhokarekaggrievedkat beingkinksubordinatekpositions,korkwhokhavekbeenkpassedkoverkin thekdistributionkofkposts,kotherskwhokarekanxiouskthatktheirkside

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

shouldkbekdefeatedkinkorderkthatktheykmaykhavekakchancekof displayingktheirkabilitykandktalents,kfic lekturncoatskwhokalways wantktokhavekakfootkinkeachkboat.kkOfficialskofkthesekseveral inds,"khekcontinues,k"shouldkbeksecretlykapproachedkandkboundkto one'skinterestskbykmeanskofkrichkpresents.kkInkthiskwaykyoukwill bekablektokfindkoutkthekstatekofkaffairskinkthekenemy'skcountry, ascertainkthekplanskthatkarekbeingkformedkagainstkyou,kkand moreoverkdisturbkthekharmonykandkcreatekakbreachkbetweenkthe sovereignkandkhiskministers."kkTheknecessitykforkextremekcaution, however,kkinkdealingkwithkk"inwardkspies,"kkappearskfromkkkan historicalkincidentkrelatedkbykHokShih:kk"LokShang,kGovernorkof I-Chou,ksentkhiskgeneralkWeikPoktokattac kthekrebelkLikHsiungkof ShukinkhiskstrongholdkatkP`i.kkAfterkeachksidekhadkexperiencedka numberkofkvictorieskandkdefeats,kLikHsiungkhadkrecoursektokthe serviceskofkakcertainkP`o-t`ai,kaknativekofkWu-tu.kkHekbegankto havekhimkwhippedkuntilkthekbloodkcame,kandkthenksentkhimkoffkto LokShang,kwhomkhekwasktokdeludekbykofferingktokcooperatekwithkhim fromkinsidekthekcity,kandktokgivekakfireksignalkatkthekright momentkforkma ingkakgeneralkassault.kkLokShang,kkconfidingkin thesekpromises,kmarchkoutkallkhiskbestktroops,kandkplacedkWeikPo andkotherskatktheirkheadkwithkordersktokattac katkP`o-t`ai's bidding.kkMeanwhile,kLikHsiung'skgeneral,kLikHsiang,khadkprepared ankambuscadekonktheirklinekofkmarch;kandkP`o-t`ai,khavingkreared longkscaling-ladderskagainstkthekcitykwalls,kknowklightedkthe beacon-fire.kkWeikPo'skmenkracedkupkonkseeingktheksignalkand begankclimbingkthekladderskaskfastkasktheykcould,kkwhilekothers werekdrawnkupkbykropeskloweredkfromkabove.kkMorekthankakhundred ofkLokShang'sksoldierskenteredkthekcitykinkthiskway,keverykonekof whomkwaskforthwithkbeheaded.kkLikHsiungkthenkchargedkwithkallkhis forces,kkbothkinsidekandkoutsidekthekcity,kandkroutedkthekenemy completely."kk[Thiskhappenedkink303kA.D.kkIkdoknotk nowkwherekHo Shihkgotkthekstorykfrom.kkItkisknotkgivenkinkthekbiographykofkLi HsiungkorkthatkofkhiskfatherkLikT`e,kCHINkSHU,kch.k120,k121.] kkkkk11.kkHavingkCONVERTEDkSPIES,kgettingkholdkofkthekenemy's spieskandkusingkthemkforkourkownkpurposes.

kkkkk[Bykmeanskofkheavykbribeskandkliberalkpromiseskdetaching themkfromkthekenemy'skservice,kandkinducingkthemktokcarrykbac falsekinformationkaskwellkasktokspykinkturnkonktheirkown countrymen.kkOnkthekotherkhand,kHsiaokShih-hsienksayskthatkwe pretendknotktokhavekdetectedkhim,kbutkcontrivektokletkhimkcarry awaykakfalsekimpressionkofkwhatkiskgoingkon.kkSeveralkofkthe commentatorskacceptkthiskaskankalternativekdefinition;kbutkthat itkisknotkwhatkSunkTzukmeantkiskconclusivelykprovedkbykhis subsequentkremar skaboutktreatingkthekconvertedkspykgenerously (ss.k21ksqq.).kkHokShihknoteskthreekoccasionskonkwhichkconverted spieskwerekusedkwithkconspicuousksuccess:kk(1)kbykT`ienkTankin hiskdefensekofkChi-mok(seeksupra,kp.k90);k(2)kbykChaokShekonkhis marchktokO-yuk(seekp.k57);kandkbykthekwilykFankChukink260kB.C., whenkLienkP`okwaskconductingkakdefensivekcampaignkagainstkCh`in. ThekKingkofkChaokstronglykdisapprovedkofkLienkP`o'skcautiouskand dilatorykmethods,kkwhichkhadkbeenkunablektokavertkakserieskof minorkdisasters,kandkthereforeklentkakreadykearktokthekreportskof hiskspies,kkwhokhadksecretlykgonekoverktokthekenemykandkwere alreadykinkFankChu'skpay.kkTheyksaid:kk"Thekonlykthingkwhich causeskCh`inkanxietykisklestkChaokKuakshouldkbekmadekgeneral. LienkP`oktheykconsiderkankeasykopponent,kwhokisksurektokbe vanquishedkinktheklongkrun."kkNowkthiskChaokKuakwaskaksunkofkthe famouskChaokShe.kkFromkhiskboyhood,khekhadkbeenkwhollykengrossed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

inkthekstudykofkwarkandkmilitarykmatters,kuntilkatklastkhekcame tokbelievekthatktherekwasknokcommanderkinkthekwholekEmpirekwho couldkstandkagainstkhim.kkHiskfatherkwaskmuchkdisquietedkbykthis overweeningkconceit,kkandkthekflippancykwithkwhichkhekspo ekof suchkakseriouskthingkaskwar,kandksolemnlykdeclaredkthatkifkever Kuakwaskappointedkgeneral,khekwouldkbringkruinkonkthekarmieskof Chao.kkThiskwaskthekmankwho,kinkspitekofkearnestkprotestskfrom hiskownkmotherkandkthekveterankstatesmankLinkHsiang-ju,kwasknow sentktoksucceedkLienkP`o.kkNeedlessktoksay,khekprovedknokmatch forkthekredoubtablekPokCh`ikandkthekgreatkmilitarykpowerkof Ch`in.kkHekfellkintokaktrapkbykwhichkhiskarmykwaskdividedkinto twokandkhiskcommunicationskcut;kandkafterkakdesperatekresistance lastingk46kdays,kduringkwhichkthekfamishedksoldierskdevouredkone another,khekwaskhimselfk illedkbykankarrow,kandkhiskwholekforce, amounting,kkitkisksaid,ktok400,000kmen,kruthlesslykputktokthe sword.] kkkkk12.kkHavingkDOOMEDkSPIES,kdoingkcertainkthingskopenlykfor purposeskofkdeception,kandkallowingkourkspiesktok nowkofkthemkand reportkthemktokthekenemy. kkkkk[TukYukgiveskthekbestkexpositionkofkthekmeaning:kkk"We ostentatiouslykdokthingkcalculatedktokdeceivekourkownkspies,kkwho mustkbekledktokbelievekthatktheykhavekbeenkunwittinglykdisclosed. Then,kkwhenkthesekspieskarekcapturedkinkthekenemy'sklines,kkthey willkma ekankentirelykfalsekreport,kandkthekenemykwillkta e measureskaccordingly,kkonlyktokfindkthatkwekdoksomethingkquite different.kkThekspieskwillkthereuponkbekputktokdeath."kkkAskan examplekofkdoomedkspies,kHokShihkmentionskthekprisonerskreleased bykPankCh`aokinkhiskcampaignkagainstkYar and.kk(Seekp.k132.)kkkHe alsokrefersktokT`angkChien,kwhokink630kA.D.kwasksentkbykT`ai TsungktoklullkthekTur ishkKahnkChieh-likintokfanciedksecurity, untilkLikChingkwaskablektokdeliverkakcrushingkblowkagainstkhim. ChangkYuksayskthatkthekTur skrevengedkthemselveskbyk illingkT`ang Chien,kbutkthiskiskakmista e,kforkwekreadkinkbothkthekoldkandkthe NewkkkT`angkHistorykk(ch.kk58,kkfol.kk2kandkch.kk89,kkfol.kk8 respectively)kkthatkhekescapedkandklivedkonkuntilk656.kkLikI-chi playedkaksomewhatksimilarkpartkink203kB.C.,kwhenksentkbykthekKing ofkHanktokopenkpeacefulknegotiationskwithkCh`i.kkHekhaskcertainly morekclaimktokbekdescribedkak"doomedkspy",kforkthek ingkofkCh`i, beingksubsequentlykattac edkwithoutkwarningkbykHankHsin,kkand infuriatedkbykwhatkhekconsideredkthektreacherykofkLikI-chi, orderedkthekunfortunatekenvoyktokbekboiledkalive.] kkkkk13.kkSURVIVINGkSPIES,kfinally,karekthosekwhokbringkbac knews fromkthekenemy'skcamp. kkkkk[Thiskiskthekordinarykclasskofkspies,kproperlyksokcalled, formingkakregularkpartkofkthekarmy.kkTukMuksays:kk"Yourksurviving spykmustkbekakmankofk eenkintellect,kthoughkinkoutwardkappearance akfool;kofkshabbykexterior,kbutkwithkakwillkofkiron.kkHekmustkbe active,kkrobust,kkendowedkwithkphysicalkstrengthkandkcourage; thoroughlykaccustomedktokallksortskofkdirtykwor ,kablektokendure hungerkandkcold,kandktokputkupkwithkshamekandkignominy."kkHokShih tellskthekfollowingkstorykofkTa`hsikWukofkthekSuikdynasty:kk"When hekwaskgovernorkofkEasternkCh`in,kShen-wukofkCh`ikmadekakhostile movementkuponkSha-yuan.kkThekEmperorkT`aikTsuk[?kKaokTsu]kksent Ta-hsikWuktokspykuponkthekenemy.kkHekwaskaccompaniedkbyktwokother men.kkAllkthreekwerekonkhorsebac kandkworekthekenemy'skuniform. Whenkitkwaskdar ,ktheykdismountedkakfewkhundredkfeetkawaykfrom

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

   

 

 

 

 

thekenemy'skcampkandkstealthilykcreptkupktoklisten,kkuntilkthey succeededkinkcatchingkthekpasswordskusedkinkthekarmy.kkThenkthey gotkonktheirkhorseskagainkandkboldlykpassedkthroughkthekcamp underkthekguisekofknight-watchmen;kandkmorekthankonce,kkhappening tokcomekacrosskaksoldierkwhokwaskcommittingksomekbreachkof discipline,kktheykactuallykstoppedktokgivekthekculpritkaksound cudgeling!kkThusktheykmanagedktokreturnkwithkthekfullestkpossible informationkaboutkthekenemy'skdispositions,kandkreceivedkwarm commendationkfromkthekEmperor,kwhokinkconsequencekofktheirkreport waskablektokinflictkakseverekdefeatkonkhiskadversary."] kkkkk14.kkHencekitkiskthatkwhichknonekinkthekwholekarmykarekmore intimatekrelationsktokbekmaintainedkthankwithkspies. kkkkk[TukMukandkMeikYao-ch`enkpointkoutkthatkthekspykis privilegedktokenterkevenkthekgeneral'skprivateksleeping-tent.] Nonekshouldkbekmorekliberallykrewarded.kkInknokotherkbusiness shouldkgreaterksecrecykbekpreserved. kkkkk[TukMukgiveskakgraphicktouch:kkallkcommunicationkwithkspies shouldkbekcarriedk"mouth-to-ear."kkThekfollowingkremar skonkspies maykbekquotedkfromkTurenne,kwhokmadekperhapsklargerkusekofkthem thankanykpreviouskcommander:kk"Spieskarekattachedktokthosekwho givekthemkmost,kkhekwhokpayskthemkillkiskneverkserved.kkThey shouldkneverkbek nownktokanybody;knorkshouldktheyk nowkone another.kkWhenktheykproposekanythingkverykmaterial,ksecurektheir persons,kkorkhavekinkyourkpossessionktheirkwiveskandkchildrenkas hostageskforktheirkfidelity.kkNeverkcommunicatekanythingktokthem butkwhatkiskabsolutelyknecessarykthatktheykshouldk now.k[2]k] kkkkk15.kkSpieskcannotkbekusefullykemployedkwithoutkakcertain intuitiveksagacity. kkkkk[MeikYao-ch`enksays:kk"Inkorderktokusekthem,konekmustk now factkfromkfalsehood,kandkbekablektokdiscriminatekbetweenkhonesty andkdouble-dealing."kkkWangkHsikinkakdifferentkinterpretation thin skmorekalongktheklineskofkk"intuitivekperception"kkand "practicalkkkintelligence."kkkkTukMukstrangelykkkreferskkkthese attributesktokthekspieskthemselves:kk"Beforekusingkspieskwekmust assurekourselveskasktoktheirkintegritykofkcharacterkandkthe extentkofktheirkexperiencekandks ill."kkButkhekcontinues:kkk"A brazenkfacekandkakcraftykdispositionkarekmorekdangerouskthan mountainskorkrivers;kitkta eskakmankofkgeniusktokpenetrateksuch." Sokthatkwekarekleftkinksomekdoubtkasktokhiskrealkopinionkonkthe passage."] kkkkk16.kkTheykcannotkbekproperlykmanagedkwithoutkbenevolencekand straightforwardness. kkkkk[ChangkkkYuksays:kkk"Whenkyoukhavekattractedkkkthemkkkby substantialkoffers,kyoukmustktreatkthemkwithkabsoluteksincerity; thenktheykwillkwor kforkyoukwithkallktheirkmight."] kkkkk17.kkWithoutksubtlekingenuitykofkmind,kkonekcannotkma e certainkofkthektruthkofktheirkreports. kkkkk[MeikYao-ch`enksays:kkk"Bekonkyourkguardkagainstkkkthe possibilitykofkspieskgoingkoverktokthekservicekofkthekenemy."]

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkk18.kkBeksubtle!kbeksubtle!kandkusekyourkspieskforkeveryk ind ofkbusiness. kkkkk[Cf.kVI.kss.k9.] kkkkk19.kkIfkaksecretkpiecekofknewskiskdivulgedkbykakspykbefore thektimekiskripe,khekmustkbekputktokdeathktogetherkwithkthekman tokwhomktheksecretkwasktold. kkkkk[Wordkforkword,kthektranslationkherekis:kk"Ifkspykmatters arekheardkbeforek[ourkplans]karekcarriedkout,"ketc.kkSunkTzu's mainkpointkinkthiskpassagekis:kkWhereaskyouk illkthekspykhimself "askakpunishmentkforklettingkoutktheksecret,"kkthekobjectkof illingkthekotherkmankiskonly,kaskCh`enkHaokputskit,k"tokstopkhis mouth"kkandkpreventknewsklea ingkanykfurther.kkIfkitkhadkalready beenkrepeatedktokothers,kthiskobjectkwouldknotkbekgained.kkEither way,kkSunkTzuklayskhimselfkopenktokthekchargekofkinhumanity, thoughkTukMuktriesktokdefendkhimkbyksayingkthatkthekmankdeserves tokbekputktokdeath,kforkthekspykwouldkcertainlyknotkhavektoldkthe secretkunlesskthekotherkhadkbeenkatkpainsktokwormkitkoutkof him."] kkkkk20.kkWhetherkthekobjectkbektokcrushkankarmy,kktokstormka city,korktokassassinatekankindividual,kitkiskalwaysknecessarykto beginkbykfindingkoutktheknameskofkthekattendants,kthekaides-decamp, kkkkk[Literallykk"visitors",kkiskequivalent,kaskTukYuksays,kkto "thosekwhosekdutykitkisktok eepkthekgeneralksuppliedkwith information,"kkwhichknaturallyknecessitateskfrequentkinterviews withkhim.] andkdoor- eeperskandksentrieskofkthekgeneralkinkcommand.kkOur spieskmustkbekcommissionedktokascertainkthese. kkkkk[Askthekfirstkstep,knokdoubtktowardskfindingkoutkifkanykof thesekimportantkfunctionarieskcankbekwonkoverkbykbribery.] kkkkk21.kkThekenemy'skspieskwhokhavekcomektokspykonkuskmustkbe soughtkout,ktemptedkwithkbribes,kledkawaykandkcomfortablykhoused. Thusktheykwillkbecomekconvertedkspieskandkavailablekforkour service. kkkkk22.kkItkiskthroughkthekinformationkbroughtkbykthekconverted spykthatkwekarekablektokacquirekandkemployklocalkandkinward spies. kkkkk[TukYuksays:kk"throughkconversionkofkthekenemy'skspieskwe learnkthekenemy'skcondition."kkAndkChangkYuksays:kk"Wekmustktempt thekconvertedkspykintokourkservice,kbecausekitkiskhekthatk nows whichkofktheklocalkinhabitantskarekgreedykofkgain,kandkwhichkof thekofficialskarekopenktokcorruption."] kkkkk23.kkItkiskowingktokhiskinformation,kagain,kkthatkwekcan causekthekdoomedkspyktokcarrykfalsektidingsktokthekenemy. kkkkk[ChangkYuksays,k"becausekthekconvertedkspyk nowskhowkthe enemykcankbestkbekdeceived."] kkkkk24.kLastly,kitkiskbykhiskinformationkthatktheksurvivingkspy cankbekusedkonkappointedkoccasions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkk25.kkThekendkandkaimkofkspyingkinkallkitskfivekvarietieskis nowledgekofkthekenemy;kandkthisk nowledgekcankonlykbekderived, inkthekfirstkinstance,kfromkthekconvertedkspy. kkkkk[Askexplainedkinkss.k22-24.kkHeknotkonlykbringskinformation himself,kkbutkma eskitkpossiblektokusekthekotherk indskofkspykto advantage.] Hencekitkiskessentialkthatkthekconvertedkspykbektreatedkwithkthe utmostkliberality. kkkkk26.kOfkold,kthekrisekofkthekYinkdynasty kkkkk[SunkTzukmeanskthekShangkdynasty,kfoundedkink1766kB.C.kkIts namekwaskchangedktokYinkbykP`ankKengkink1401. waskduektokIkChih kkkkk[Betterk nownkaskIkYin,kthekfamouskgeneralkandkstatesman whoktoo kpartkinkCh`engkT`ang'skcampaignkagainstkChiehkKuei.]

whokhadkservedkunderkthekHsia.kkLi ewise,kthekrisekofkthekChou dynastykwaskduektokLukYa kkkkk[LukShangkrosektokhighkofficekunderkthektyrantkChoukHsin, whomkhekafterwardskhelpedktokoverthrow.kkPopularlyk nownkaskT`ai Kung,kkaktitlekbestowedkonkhimkbykWenkWang,khekisksaidktokhave composedkaktreatisekonkwar,kerroneouslykidentifiedkwithkthe LIUkT`AO.] whokhadkservedkunderkthekYin. kkkkk[TherekisklesskprecisionkinkthekChinesekthankIkhavekthought itkwellktokintroducekintokmyktranslation,kandkthekcommentarieskon thekpassagekarekbyknokmeanskexplicit.kkBut,khavingkregardktokthe context,kkwekcankhardlykdoubtkthatkSunkTzukiskholdingkupkIkChih andkLukYakaskillustriouskexampleskofkthekconvertedkspy,kkor somethingkcloselykanalogous.kkHisksuggestionkis,kthatkthekHsia andkYinkdynastieskwerekupsetkowingktokthekintimatek nowledgekof theirkwea nesseskandkshortcomingkwhichkthesekformerkministers werekablektokimpartktokthekotherkside.kkMeikYao-ch`enkappearskto resentkanyksuchkaspersionkonkthesekhistoricknames:kk"IkYinkandkLu Ya,"kkheksays,k"wereknotkrebelskagainstkthekGovernment.kkHsia couldknotkemploykthekformer,khencekYinkemployedkhim.kkYinkcould notkemployktheklatter,khencekHoukemployedkhim.kkTheirkgreat achievementskwerekallkforkthekgoodkofkthekpeople."kkHokShihkis alsokindignant:kk"HowkshouldktwokdivinelykinspiredkmenksuchkaskI andkLukhavekactedkaskcommonkspies?kkSunkTzu'skmentionkofkthem simplykmeanskthatkthekproperkusekofkthekfivekclasseskofkspieskis akmatterkwhichkrequireskmenkofkthekhighestkmentalkcaliberkli ekI andkLu,kwhosekwisdomkandkcapacitykqualifiedkthemkforkthektas . Thekabovekwordskonlykemphasizekthiskpoint."kkHokShihkbelieves thenkthatkthektwokheroeskarekmentionedkonkaccountkofktheir supposedks illkinkthekusekofkspies.kkButkthiskiskverykwea .] kkkkk27.kkHencekitkiskonlykthekenlightenedkrulerkandkthekwise generalkwhokwillkusekthekhighestkintelligencekofkthekarmykfor purposeskofkspyingkandktherebyktheykachievekgreatkresults. kkkkk[TukMukcloseskwithkaknotekofkwarning:kk"Justkaskwater,kwhich carrieskakboatkfromkban ktokban ,kmaykalsokbekthekmeanskof

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

sin ingkit,ksokreliancekonkspies,kwhilekproductionkofkgreat results,kiskoft-timeskthekcausekofkutterkdestruction."] Spieskarekakmostkimportantkelementkinkwater,kbecausekonkthem dependskankarmy'skabilityktokmove. kkkkk[ChiakLinksayskthatkankarmykwithoutkspieskiskli ekakmankwith earskorkeyes.]

[1]kk"AidsktokScouting,"kp.k2. [2]kk"MarshalkTurenne,"kp.k311. ***ENDkOFkTHEkPROJECTkGUTENBERGkEBOOKkTHEkARTkOFkWARk*** *******kThiskfilekshouldkbeknamedk132.txtkork132.zipk******* Thiskandkallkassociatedkfileskofkvariouskformatskwillkbekfoundkin: http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/1/3/132 Updatedkeditionskwillkreplacekthekpreviouskone--thekoldkeditions willkbekrenamed. Creatingkthekwor skfromkpublickdomainkprintkeditionskmeanskthatkno onekownskakUnitedkStateskcopyrightkinkthesekwor s,ksokthekFoundation (andkyou!)kcankcopykandkdistributekitkinkthekUnitedkStateskwithout permissionkandkwithoutkpayingkcopyrightkroyalties.kkSpecialkrules, setkforthkinkthekGeneralkTermskofkUsekpartkofkthisklicense,kapplykto copyingkandkdistributingkProjectkGutenberg-tmkelectronickwor skto protectkthekPROJECTkGUTENBERG-tmkconceptkandktrademar .kkProject Gutenbergkiskakregisteredktrademar ,kandkmayknotkbekusedkifkyou chargekforkthekeBoo s,kunlesskyoukreceivekspecifickpermission.kkIfkyou doknotkchargekanythingkforkcopieskofkthiskeBoo ,kcomplyingkwithkthe ruleskiskverykeasy.kkYoukmaykusekthiskeBoo kforknearlykanykpurpose suchkaskcreationkofkderivativekwor s,kreports,kperformanceskand research.kkTheykmaykbekmodifiedkandkprintedkandkgivenkaway--youkmaykdo practicallykANYTHINGkwithkpublickdomainkeBoo s.kkRedistributionkis subjectktokthektrademar klicense,kespeciallykcommercial redistribution.

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Sectionk1.kkGeneralkTermskofkUsekandkRedistributingkProjectkGutenberg-tm electronickwor s 1.A.kkBykreadingkorkusingkanykpartkofkthiskProjectkGutenberg-tm electronickwor ,kyoukindicatekthatkyoukhavekread,kunderstand,kagreekto andkacceptkallkthektermskofkthisklicensekandkintellectualkproperty (trademar /copyright)kagreement.kkIfkyoukdoknotkagreektokabidekbykall thektermskofkthiskagreement,kyoukmustkceasekusingkandkreturnkorkdestroy allkcopieskofkProjectkGutenberg-tmkelectronickwor skinkyourkpossession. IfkyoukpaidkakfeekforkobtainingkakcopykofkorkaccessktokakProject Gutenberg-tmkelectronickwor kandkyoukdoknotkagreektokbekboundkbykthe termskofkthiskagreement,kyoukmaykobtainkakrefundkfromkthekpersonkor entityktokwhomkyoukpaidkthekfeekasksetkforthkinkparagraphk1.E.8. 1.B.kk"ProjectkGutenberg"kiskakregisteredktrademar .kkItkmaykonlykbe usedkonkorkassociatedkinkanykwaykwithkankelectronickwor kbykpeoplekwho agreektokbekboundkbykthektermskofkthiskagreement.kkTherekarekakfew thingskthatkyoukcankdokwithkmostkProjectkGutenberg-tmkelectronickwor s evenkwithoutkcomplyingkwithkthekfullktermskofkthiskagreement.kkSee paragraphk1.Ckbelow.kkTherekarekaklotkofkthingskyoukcankdokwithkProject Gutenberg-tmkelectronickwor skifkyoukfollowkthektermskofkthiskagreement andkhelpkpreservekfreekfuturekaccessktokProjectkGutenberg-tmkelectronic wor s.kkSeekparagraphk1.Ekbelow. 1.C.kkThekProjectkGutenbergkLiterarykArchivekFoundationk("thekFoundation" orkPGLAF),kownskakcompilationkcopyrightkinkthekcollectionkofkProject Gutenberg-tmkelectronickwor s.kkNearlykallkthekindividualkwor skinkthe collectionkarekinkthekpublickdomainkinkthekUnitedkStates.kkIfkan individualkwor kiskinkthekpublickdomainkinkthekUnitedkStateskandkyoukare locatedkinkthekUnitedkStates,kwekdoknotkclaimkakrightktokpreventkyoukfrom copying,kdistributing,kperforming,kdisplayingkorkcreatingkderivative wor skbasedkonkthekwor kasklongkaskallkreferencesktokProjectkGutenberg arekremoved.kkOfkcourse,kwekhopekthatkyoukwillksupportkthekProject Gutenberg-tmkmissionkofkpromotingkfreekaccessktokelectronickwor skby freelyksharingkProjectkGutenberg-tmkwor skinkcompliancekwithkthektermskof thiskagreementkfork eepingkthekProjectkGutenberg-tmknamekassociatedkwith thekwor .kkYoukcankeasilykcomplykwithkthektermskofkthiskagreementkby eepingkthiskwor kinktheksamekformatkwithkitskattachedkfullkProject Gutenberg-tmkLicensekwhenkyouksharekitkwithoutkchargekwithkothers. Thiskparticularkwor kiskonekofkthekfewkcopyrightedkindividualkwor s includedkwithkthekpermissionkofkthekcopyrightkholder.kkInformationkon thekcopyrightkownerkforkthiskparticularkwor kandkthektermskofkuse imposedkbykthekcopyrightkholderkonkthiskwor kareksetkforthkatkthe beginningkofkthiskwor . 1.D.kkThekcopyrightklawskofkthekplacekwherekyoukareklocatedkalsokgovern whatkyoukcankdokwithkthiskwor .kkCopyrightklawskinkmostkcountrieskarekin akconstantkstatekofkchange.kkIfkyoukarekoutsidekthekUnitedkStates,kchec theklawskofkyourkcountrykinkadditionktokthektermskofkthiskagreement beforekdownloading,kcopying,kdisplaying,kperforming,kdistributingkor creatingkderivativekwor skbasedkonkthiskwor korkanykotherkProject Gutenberg-tmkwor .kkThekFoundationkma esknokrepresentationskconcerning thekcopyrightkstatuskofkanykwor kinkanykcountrykoutsidekthekUnited States. 1.E.kkUnlesskyoukhavekremovedkallkreferencesktokProjectkGutenberg: 1.E.1.kkThekfollowingksentence,kwithkactiveklin skto,korkotherkimmediate accesskto,kthekfullkProjectkGutenberg-tmkLicensekmustkappearkprominently

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

   

 

wheneverkanykcopykofkakProjectkGutenberg-tmkwor k(anykwor konkwhichkthe phrasek"ProjectkGutenberg"kappears,korkwithkwhichkthekphrasek"Project Gutenberg"kiskassociated)kiskaccessed,kdisplayed,kperformed,kviewed, copiedkorkdistributed: ThiskeBoo kiskforkthekusekofkanyonekanywherekatknokcostkandkwith almostknokrestrictionskwhatsoever.kkYoukmaykcopykit,kgivekitkawaykor re-usekitkunderkthektermskofkthekProjectkGutenbergkLicensekincluded withkthiskeBoo korkonlinekatkwww.gutenberg.org 1.E.2.kkIfkankindividualkProjectkGutenberg-tmkelectronickwor kiskderived fromkthekpublickdomaink(doesknotkcontainkaknoticekindicatingkthatkitkis postedkwithkpermissionkofkthekcopyrightkholder),kthekwor kcankbekcopied andkdistributedktokanyonekinkthekUnitedkStateskwithoutkpayingkanykfees orkcharges.kkIfkyoukarekredistributingkorkprovidingkaccessktokakwor withkthekphrasek"ProjectkGutenberg"kassociatedkwithkorkappearingkonkthe wor ,kyoukmustkcomplykeitherkwithkthekrequirementskofkparagraphsk1.E.1 throughk1.E.7korkobtainkpermissionkforkthekusekofkthekwor kandkthe ProjectkGutenberg-tmktrademar kasksetkforthkinkparagraphsk1.E.8kor 1.E.9. 1.E.3.kkIfkankindividualkProjectkGutenberg-tmkelectronickwor kiskposted withkthekpermissionkofkthekcopyrightkholder,kyourkusekandkdistribution mustkcomplykwithkbothkparagraphsk1.E.1kthroughk1.E.7kandkanykadditional termskimposedkbykthekcopyrightkholder.kkAdditionalktermskwillkbeklin ed tokthekProjectkGutenberg-tmkLicensekforkallkwor skpostedkwithkthe permissionkofkthekcopyrightkholderkfoundkatkthekbeginningkofkthiskwor . 1.E.4.kkDoknotkunlin korkdetachkorkremovekthekfullkProjectkGutenberg-tm Licensektermskfromkthiskwor ,korkanykfileskcontainingkakpartkofkthis wor korkanykotherkwor kassociatedkwithkProjectkGutenberg-tm. 1.E.5.kkDoknotkcopy,kdisplay,kperform,kdistributekorkredistributekthis electronickwor ,korkanykpartkofkthiskelectronickwor ,kwithout prominentlykdisplayingktheksentenceksetkforthkinkparagraphk1.E.1kwith activeklin skorkimmediatekaccessktokthekfullktermskofkthekProject Gutenberg-tmkLicense. 1.E.6.kkYoukmaykconvertktokandkdistributekthiskwor kinkanykbinary, compressed,kmar edkup,knonproprietarykorkproprietarykform,kincludingkany wordkprocessingkorkhypertextkform.kkHowever,kifkyoukprovidekaccessktokor distributekcopieskofkakProjectkGutenberg-tmkwor kinkakformatkotherkthan "PlainkVanillakASCII"korkotherkformatkusedkinkthekofficialkversion postedkonkthekofficialkProjectkGutenberg-tmkwebksitek(www.gutenberg.org), youkmust,katknokadditionalkcost,kfeekorkexpensektokthekuser,kprovideka copy,kakmeanskofkexportingkakcopy,korkakmeanskofkobtainingkakcopykupon request,kofkthekwor kinkitskoriginalk"PlainkVanillakASCII"korkother form.kkAnykalternatekformatkmustkincludekthekfullkProjectkGutenberg-tm Licensekaskspecifiedkinkparagraphk1.E.1. 1.E.7.kkDoknotkchargekakfeekforkaccesskto,kviewing,kdisplaying, performing,kcopyingkorkdistributingkanykProjectkGutenberg-tmkwor s unlesskyoukcomplykwithkparagraphk1.E.8kork1.E.9. 1.E.8.kkYoukmaykchargekakreasonablekfeekforkcopieskofkorkproviding accessktokorkdistributingkProjectkGutenberg-tmkelectronickwor skprovided that -kYoukpaykakroyaltykfeekofk20%kofkthekgrosskprofitskyoukderivekfrom kkkkkthekusekofkProjectkGutenberg-tmkwor skcalculatedkusingkthekmethod

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

   

kkkkkyoukalreadykusektokcalculatekyourkapplicablektaxes.kkThekfeekis kkkkkowedktokthekownerkofkthekProjectkGutenberg-tmktrademar ,kbutkhe kkkkkhaskagreedktokdonatekroyaltieskunderkthiskparagraphktokthe kkkkkProjectkGutenbergkLiterarykArchivekFoundation.kkRoyaltykpayments kkkkkmustkbekpaidkwithink60kdayskfollowingkeachkdatekonkwhichkyou kkkkkpreparek(orkareklegallykrequiredktokprepare)kyourkperiodicktax kkkkkreturns.kkRoyaltykpaymentskshouldkbekclearlykmar edkasksuchkand kkkkksentktokthekProjectkGutenbergkLiterarykArchivekFoundationkatkthe kkkkkaddresskspecifiedkinkSectionk4,k"Informationkaboutkdonationskto kkkkkthekProjectkGutenbergkLiterarykArchivekFoundation." -kYoukprovidekakfullkrefundkofkanykmoneykpaidkbykakuserkwhoknotifies kkkkkyoukinkwritingk(orkbyke-mail)kwithink30kdayskofkreceiptkthatks/he kkkkkdoesknotkagreektokthektermskofkthekfullkProjectkGutenberg-tm kkkkkLicense.kkYoukmustkrequireksuchkakuserktokreturnkor kkkkkdestroykallkcopieskofkthekwor skpossessedkinkakphysicalkmedium kkkkkandkdiscontinuekallkusekofkandkallkaccessktokotherkcopieskof kkkkkProjectkGutenberg-tmkwor s. -kYoukprovide,kinkaccordancekwithkparagraphk1.F.3,kakfullkrefundkofkany kkkkkmoneykpaidkforkakwor korkakreplacementkcopy,kifkakdefectkinkthe kkkkkelectronickwor kiskdiscoveredkandkreportedktokyoukwithink90kdays kkkkkofkreceiptkofkthekwor . -kYoukcomplykwithkallkotherktermskofkthiskagreementkforkfree kkkkkdistributionkofkProjectkGutenberg-tmkwor s. 1.E.9.kkIfkyoukwishktokchargekakfeekorkdistributekakProjectkGutenberg-tm electronickwor korkgroupkofkwor skonkdifferentktermskthankarekset forthkinkthiskagreement,kyoukmustkobtainkpermissionkinkwritingkfrom bothkthekProjectkGutenbergkLiterarykArchivekFoundationkandkMichael Hart,kthekownerkofkthekProjectkGutenberg-tmktrademar .kkContactkthe FoundationkasksetkforthkinkSectionk3kbelow. 1.F. 1.F.1.kkProjectkGutenbergkvolunteerskandkemployeeskexpendkconsiderable effortktokidentify,kdokcopyrightkresearchkon,ktranscribekandkproofread publickdomainkwor skinkcreatingkthekProjectkGutenberg-tm collection.kkDespitekthesekefforts,kProjectkGutenberg-tmkelectronic wor s,kandkthekmediumkonkwhichktheykmaykbekstored,kmaykcontain "Defects,"ksuchkas,kbutknotklimitedkto,kincomplete,kinaccuratekor corruptkdata,ktranscriptionkerrors,kakcopyrightkorkotherkintellectual propertykinfringement,kakdefectivekorkdamagedkdis korkotherkmedium,ka computerkvirus,korkcomputerkcodeskthatkdamagekorkcannotkbekreadkby yourkequipment. 1.F.2.kkLIMITEDkWARRANTY,kDISCLAIMERkOFkDAMAGESk-kExceptkforkthek"Right ofkReplacementkorkRefund"kdescribedkinkparagraphk1.F.3,kthekProject GutenbergkLiterarykArchivekFoundation,kthekownerkofkthekProject Gutenberg-tmktrademar ,kandkanykotherkpartykdistributingkakProject Gutenberg-tmkelectronickwor kunderkthiskagreement,kdisclaimkall liabilityktokyoukforkdamages,kcostskandkexpenses,kincludingklegal fees.kkYOUkAGREEkTHATkYOUkHAVEkNOkREMEDIESkFORkNEGLIGENCE,kSTRICT LIABILITY,kBREACHkOFkWARRANTYkORkBREACHkOFkCONTRACTkEXCEPTkTHOSE PROVIDEDkINkPARAGRAPHkF3.kkYOUkAGREEkTHATkTHEkFOUNDATION,kTHE TRADEMARKkOWNER,kANDkANYkDISTRIBUTORkUNDERkTHISkAGREEMENTkWILLkNOTkBE LIABLEkTOkYOUkFORkACTUAL,kDIRECT,kINDIRECT,kCONSEQUENTIAL,kPUNITIVEkOR INCIDENTALkDAMAGESkEVENkIFkYOUkGIVEkNOTICEkOFkTHEkPOSSIBILITYkOFkSUCH DAMAGE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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ProfessorkMichaelkS.kHartkiskthekoriginatorkofkthekProjectkGutenberg-tm conceptkofkaklibrarykofkelectronickwor skthatkcouldkbekfreelykshared withkanyone.kkForkthirtykyears,khekproducedkandkdistributedkProject Gutenberg-tmkeBoo skwithkonlykaklooseknetwor kofkvolunteerksupport. ProjectkGutenberg-tmkeBoo skarekoftenkcreatedkfromkseveralkprinted editions,kallkofkwhichkarekconfirmedkaskPublickDomainkinkthekU.S. unlesskakcopyrightknoticekiskincluded.kkThus,kwekdoknotknecessarily eepkeBoo skinkcompliancekwithkanykparticularkpaperkedition.

EachkeBoo kiskinkaksubdirectorykofktheksameknumberkaskthekeBoo 's eBoo knumber,koftenkinkseveralkformatskincludingkplainkvanillakASCII, compressedk(zipped),kHTMLkandkothers. CorrectedkEDITIONSkofkourkeBoo skreplacekthekoldkfilekandkta ekover thekoldkfilenamekandketextknumber.kkThekreplacedkolderkfilekiskrenamed. VERSIONSkbasedkonkseparateksourceskarektreatedkasknewkeBoo skreceiving newkfilenameskandketextknumbers. MostkpeoplekstartkatkourkWebksitekwhichkhaskthekmainkPGksearchkfacility: http://www.gutenberg.org ThiskWebksitekincludeskinformationkaboutkProjectkGutenberg-tm, includingkhowktokma ekdonationsktokthekProjectkGutenbergkLiterary ArchivekFoundation,khowktokhelpkproducekourknewkeBoo s,kandkhowkto subscribektokourkemailknewsletterktokhearkaboutknewkeBoo s. EBoo skpostedkpriorktokNovemberk2003,kwithkeBoo knumberskBELOWk#10000, arekfiledkinkdirectorieskbasedkonktheirkreleasekdate.kkIfkyoukwantkto downloadkanykofkthesekeBoo skdirectly,kratherkthankusingkthekregular searchksystemkyoukmaykutilizekthekfollowingkaddresseskandkjust downloadkbyktheketextkyear. http://www.ibiblio.org/gutenberg/etext06 kkkk(Ork/etextk05,k04,k03,k02,k01,k00,k99, kkkkk98,k97,k96,k95,k94,k93,k92,k92,k91kork90) EBoo skpostedksincekNovemberk2003,kwithketextknumberskOVERk#10000,kare filedkinkakdifferentkway.kkThekyearkofkakreleasekdatekisknoklongerkpart ofkthekdirectorykpath.kkThekpathkiskbasedkonktheketextknumberk(whichkis identicalktokthekfilename).kkThekpathktokthekfilekiskmadekupkofksingle digitskcorrespondingktokallkbutktheklastkdigitkinkthekfilename.kkFor examplekankeBoo kofkfilenamek10234kwouldkbekfoundkat: http://www.gutenberg.org/1/0/2/3/10234 orkfilenamek24689kwouldkbekfoundkat: http://www.gutenberg.org/2/4/6/8/24689 AnkalternativekmethodkofklocatingkeBoo s: http://www.gutenberg.org/GUTINDEX.ALL ***kEND:kFULLkLICENSEk***

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

     

 

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