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RECENT EXAMPLES ON DESIGN AERODYNAMICS FOR TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT
J. Hua, F.M. Kong, J.J. Wang, H. Zhan, R.Z. Sun, D. Qiu Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 100083 Beijing, China D.W. Fu, J.C. Liu Xi’an Aircraft Design Institute, 710089 Xi’an, China Z.Y. Zhang Northwestern Polytechnical University, 710072 Xi’an, China Keywords: transport aircraft, Design Aerodynamics, inverse method, optimization
Abstract Discussed in this paper are some of the results in Design Aerodynamics research for civil transport aircraft. An iterative inverse-direct design software for airfoils and wings has been upgraded for more accuracy, reliability and user-friend-ness. The design modification of a supercritical wing has been conducted effectively with the present method to remove a partial-span separation induced by un-equal strength shockwave at higher cruise Mach numbers. DTE wing concept is investigated numerically and experimentally, being demonstrated as a good candidate to supercritical wing modifications for stretched version aircraft. GA approach could reasonably provide optimized positions for the high-lift system, while indicating also interesting flow mechanism. Fuselage after-body flows and drag values are strongly connected with major geometry parameters, the NS analysis of the after-bodies helps to validate the engineering method and its software developed in this work, increasing the database and displaying the flow details. 1. Introduction The dramatic re-construction of the passenger aircraft manufacturers and the market share of their products in the last decade demonstrate the dominant role of the modern design technology and scientific research in this severe competitive industry. The goals of the Design Aerodynamics
for transport aircraft are still to increase the aerodynamic efficiency, the flight safety and the environmental friend-ness. The CFD methods, one of the main tools besides ground and flight tests, have been used for more complicated configurations like engine integration and 3D high-lift systems , while the reliability being kept carefully validated. The inverse design methods, due to their demonstrated engineering applicability, have been continuously studied and even combined with optimization codes for optimizing their target pressure distributions . Numerical optimization approach, as one of the promising candidates for the future multi-disciplinary design, is undertaken intensive research in its effectiveness and robustness . More quiet flows and more innovative concepts are always under investigation. In this paper some of the recent research activities on Design Aerodynamics for civil aircraft are discussed, which include: • Upgrade of a CFD 2D/3D Transonic Design software. The accuracy of the inverse method is improved by introducing an additional higher-order upwind term; the integration of more accurate direct codes extends the function and overall accuracy of the software; and the on-screen interface helps to operate the software in the way of most popular commercial codes. • A supercritical wing modification with the upgraded software.
C. 252.M. These modifications have made this inverse method much practical in engineering applications. • 2D high-lift system optimization research by combining the Genetic approach (GA) with an accurate Euler + Boundary layer code MSES. This software is responsible for the low speed and transonic airfoil.1 Modification of the inverse method The 2D and 3D inverse methods had been developed based on the “iterative residual correction” principle of Takanashi . J. the whole inverse solution procedure has been rederived and FORTRAN codes re-programmed. which is calculated in the form of upwind operators and would be effective only in hyperbolic regimes. D. wing and wing/body design and analysis. Wang. and been modified through the research and applications    by: • Deriving the closed form integral representations to replace all the numerical integrations used in the original method. The software of this method. D. It has been reached by introducing a higher order term to the Potential Equation of the inverse method: ∆φxx + ∆φyy + ∆φzz = ∂ 1 1 2 2 + ∆ − + ∆ ∆ − − ∆ ( φ φ ) φ X φ ( 1 φ φ ) x x x xx x x 2 ∂x K 2 NNNNNN NN L NNNNNNNN M χ∗ (1) Where the third part in χ ∗ is the new higher order term. in order to increase the • accuracy and enhance the stability of the algorithm. From this more accurate equation. This modification intends directly to increase the accuracy of the governing equation. further improve the convergence in the supersonic regime and b. Qiu. Zhan. TDTDTD (TwoDimensional Three-Dimensional Transonic Design). 2. F.W. Sun. The methods. A different approach to enhance the supersonic convergence was introduced to the same method in DLR  and the effect has been verified by a validation study . J. Kong. together with flow analysis by a NS solver for validation and geometry parameter study. which is very essential for generating transonic and laminar flow configurations correctly.J. software and expertise developed in this paper are found satisfactory and applicable. both 2D and 3D inverse codes are further modified based on the DLR approach. Validation of the new modification is done by 2D and 3D design and re-design examples in both sub-critical and supercritical cases. Liu and Z. R. 2. • Development of an engineering method and software for airplane after-body design. Zhang Study of the Divergent Trailing Edge (DTE) wing concept for the stretched passenger jets application. • Utilizing the numerical matrix condition analysis to ensure the correct meshing over the wing planforms.Z. upgrade the accuracy of the complete tool to the same lever of the modern direct solvers. Fu. • Investigating a direct-viscous-iteration principle to realize the design in viscous flow conditions.2 . H. Hua. • Finding out and implementing a special formulated supercritical weighted smoothing function to improve the convergence in the supersonic flow area and also around the shocks. Upgrade of a CFD Design Software An iterative residual correction method being developed for transonic airfoil and wing designs and used for many years has been again modified in order to: a.J.Y. In order to make the current TDTDTD software more reliable and robust. is composed of two inverse codes and a number of 2D/3D direct flow solvers which are closely coupled to generate the airfoil and wing geometries with their pressure coefficient (Cp) distributions converging to the designer prescribed Cp targets.
1 for a 3D wing design case. INITIAL TARGET ITER10 • 1. as shown in Fig.2 The upgrade of the analysis codes One of the most important features of this iterative method is that it brings the inverse design to the same accuracy of the direct analysis methods coupled into the system. 1. -CP 2. • A reliable 3D Full Potential + BoundaryLayer code for the wing designs with the presence of the real fuselage and the wing/fuselage fairing.35 0. the inverse computation time is almost not affected.3 .25 0. in principle. Target Cp on-screen modification code • A software interface based on the Visual Basic is constructed which includes the 242. Recent integration of modern analysis codes into the TDTDTD software includes: • A reliable 2D airfoil analysis code MSES  for turbulent and laminar airfoil designs.50 X/C Fig.4 0. the design by Euler/NS has become engineering practical. so the upgrade of the entire CFD tool could be done by integrating the above inverse codes with 2D/3D Euler/NS solvers of the modern CFD.8 0. the wing geometry is corrected in each of the inverse-direct iterations by taking both viscosity and elasticity into account. but the final tooling wing geometry.2 1. and the wing designs with the presence of the engine nacelles. Comparison of the designed.45 0. Due to the very small number of the direct-inverse iterations needed to reach the target pressure distribution. The design engineer could easily modify the wanted target Cp distributions with the mouse.6 • 0. When the wing Cp distributions converge to the target.RECENT EXAMPLES ON DESIGN AERODYNAMICS FOR TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT Because the additional term appears only in the right-hand side of the final equations. 2 for a wing section. target and initial Cp distributions of a wing section at 0. The convergence along the supersonic roof and near the strong shocks has been found very satisfactory. the software generates instead of the theoretical rigid wing. as shown in Fig.2 0. In this design process.3 The on-screen operation interface • An on-screen target Cp editing software based on Visual Basic and Windows platform has been developed. M=0.40 0. A 3D Aero-elastic code (Full Potential + Boundary-Layer + Finite Element structure deformation analysis) to realize the aerodynamic/structural integrated design of transport wings.4 semi-span. Fig.79 2.30 0.0 Y=0. A 3D Euler/Navier-Stokes Solver with both structured and unstructured grid capacity is coupled into the design iteration for more complicated wing/body configurations. 2.4 0.
H. This problem has been quickly solved by re-prescribing the Cp distribution near that span area with the equal-isobar principle. Hua. iteration display. 4. Wang. and running the design method a few more iterations. J. as shown in Fig.Y. Fig. convergence display and post-processing by 2D/3D plot software. target Cp modification. 4.4 . J. brought it to the high standard of the up-to-date direct methods.span shock induced separation (upper) 252. Kong. the isobars are not straight enough. This intends to operate the software as convenient as most of the commercial CFD/FEA codes (Fig.W. D. Cp Contour and isobars of a sample wing at higher cruise Mach number 0. Qiu. Examining the flow at design Mach number 0. inverse and direct codes selection.81 3. Sun. Zhan.78.J. separation is induced by the non-equal strength of the shockwave when the Mach number increases. Liu and Z. Fu. D. 5.C. as shown in Fig. initial geometry preparation. the boundary layer thickness at this span position is already higher than its inboard and outboard neighborhood. One of the sample wings had a part-span separation at higher cruise Mach number 0. 5. 3). 3. flow parameter input. Zhang pre-processing. Fig. R. A display of the operating interface of the TDTDTD software (Chinese Version) Design examples with each of the above codes combinations suggest that this upgrading has greatly extended the design capacity of the TDTDTD software. and provided a practical and user friendly 2D/3D design and analysis CFD package. Modified design (lower) of the sample wing towards the removal of the part. It is clear that this local Fig. Example of a Wing Design Modification One of the design examples with the above upgraded software is a supercritical wing for a hundred-seat passage jet.M. F.J.Z. The wing was designed considering the influence from the fuselage and the wing/body fairing.81.
0003.2% L/D increase is obtained in the required operating lift CL=0. 6. 242.5 . according to . Fig.6 m2 high-speed wind tunnel of CARDC. with the wing planform and the wing-fuselage joint section unchanged might be a better choice. To increase the wing area involves the redesign of the whole wing and sometimes the center wing box and the center fuselage.4 degree less incidence. The modern digitalized production procedure could help to reduce the cost of the new wing. In this paper. 6. Examples include a well-known rear-fuselagemounted twin-engine jet modified by inserting extended inboard and outboard wing spansections. The corresponding increase of the base-drag 0. it is supposed that a supercritical wing should be modified with minimum expense for a stretched passenger jet. Aerodynamically it is no more than reducing the additional induced drag when the wing has to work at higher than design lift coefficient CL in the stretched airplane. too.8. is plotted in Fig. but the design. as numerically studied for a wing-mounted twinengine jet configuration in .7%. named BUAADT5 has the relative trailing edge thickness 0. test. DTE effectiveness for supercritical wings has been studied in Europe.RECENT EXAMPLES ON DESIGN AERODYNAMICS FOR TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT 4. a 9. when calculated with CFD codes like BGKJ.80. Sometimes. The design software used is the same as the above discussed. Divergent Trailing-Edge (DTE) Wing The common practice to provide additional lift for stretched passenger aircraft derivatives has been to increase wing areas or to use winglets.80. suggesting that the analysis results from MSES are accurate and reliable. DTE airfoil has the advantage of the minimum structure and manufactory expense.6x0. Based on the above analysis and considering that the stretching of the fuselage could provide larger pitching balance momentum. too. to change into a completely new supercritical wing. Even though great efforts on redesign. CFD analysis also shows postponed drag-rise and acceptable pitching moment. At CL=0. compared with the original. instead of CL=0. the DT5 has 0. compared with the original value 0. The idea has been discovered from the Cp behavior of different trailing edge geometry.5%. 7. the aerodynamic efficiency of the larger wing was not increased enough because of the original classic wing sections unchanged. the DTE concept is studied here. Fig. It is certain that the DTE airfoil will increase the absolute pitching moment. which means more balance drag. The baseline airfoil should then operate at M=0.65 for the original design. To use the winglets is relatively a simple way. The final change of the trailing edge to the original airfoil. a weaker shock and a slightly increased lift to drag ratio L/D. The benefit of using the DTE concept to modify a conventional transport wing has also been demonstrated by Henne . Comparison of the trailing edges of the DT5 and the original SP7 airfoils Both airfoils are tested in a 0.73 and CL=0. 9 is the comparison of the measured L/D plot. Fig. 8 is a comparison of the measured and computed Cp distributions. for conventional wings. NPU-SP7. based on the MSES computation as shown in Fig. re-test and manufactory tooling change spent. while provides additional lift and supercritical characteristics to an existing wing.0% stronger absolute pitching moment is also measured. is considered acceptable. The new geometry. structure modification and the maintenance will draw additional concerns. while a 9.
Sun. 10. One of the design cases with the GA approach is shown in Fig.W. stretched-fuselage passenger jets equipped with supercritical wings. Liu and Z. where the NLR7301 configuration is used.C. the flap deflection angle is fixed at 10o. reduce structure complexities and control the flow separation noise. Because of the multi-parameter and multi-freedom nature. Zhan. A powerful CFD tool could. As a chapter of a degree work . not only provide better design and better understanding of the flow in the system. Zhang under the test Reynolds number with fixed transition. H. the contours of both main airfoil and the flap are unchanged.Y.J. in this process. 7. F. This method is also applied to the design investigation of the systems and the flow mechanism analysis study. 9. Comparison of the calculated and measured Cp distributions of the DT5 airfoil This 2D investigation demonstrates that the DTE wing sections could provide necessary lift with minimum structure and manufacture changes and acceptable additional pitching moment. D. High-Lift System Optimization Successful high-lift system design could greatly increase the take-off and landing performance of an airplane.J. originally Fig. high-lift system design becomes a most suitable topic for numerical optimization methods. The flow condition is M=0.M. J. 252. Fu. Qiu. R. Hua. 8. Comparison of the DT5 and the SP7 airfoils: measured L/D curves 5.Z. Wang. but also reduce the experimental work substantially. which might be a solution for . D. The objective is the lift alone. Comparison of the DT5 and SP7 airfoils: Calculated pressure distributions and the aerodynamic coefficients Fig. J. Kong.6 Fig. the Genetic method (GA) has been used to couple with the MSES code for the 2D high-lift system optimization.25.
7 . The flap movement is indicated by the center of its leading edge. by correcting the equations and increasing the database. The second step involves the NS computations of different after-body configurations. the lift of the main wing increases. the fineness ratio and the flatness. Fig. and another two fuselages of existing airplanes. The more the after-body flatness. After-Body Design Research The main parameters defining the geometry of a fuselage after-body are the upswept angle. It could be seen from the figure that the flap first moves backward and little down. similar to the 2D/3D design software shown in Fig. The purpose of the flow analysis is both to modify the accuracy of the above engineering method. 11 shows the flow patterns over an after-body with large upswept angle. The computation models are a passenger jet fuselage with different after-bodies. Fig.RECENT EXAMPLES ON DESIGN AERODYNAMICS FOR TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT α=8o and Re=2. 11. • When the flap moves up. 2 and 3. The optimized position is obtained after 6 generations. respectively. and a large enough allowed moving area is specified.5E6. • When the flap moves down. This is an on-screen interface in VB platform. because the blocking of the slot increases the circulation of the main. 10. a computerized engineering aerodynamic estimation method has been developed and corresponding software constructed. more flow moves through the gap so as to increase the lift of the flap while reduce the lift of the main. the lift increases as expected. It could be seen that the flap dose not move far away from the main. even though the large space allowed. for a fast drag assessment during the after-body preliminary design phase. without suffering additional drag. then moves up and slight backward. There are 60 members in each Genetic generation and the mesh around the flap and in the slot is refined. the more 242. Structured grid and k-ε models are used in the computation. but reduces the lift of the flap. Computed flow pattern over an afterbody surface The results show that the pressure drag coefficient increases rapidly with increasing upswept angle and contraction ratio. The flow concentration could be recognized which generates vertices in the wake. GA results of a high-lift system optimization case Further investigation by separating the lift increments of the main and the flap in this and other cases indicates the following: • When the flap moves back. 6. This method is theoretically based on some of the drag calculating equations and a database. and to provide better understanding of the after-body flow mechanism. Fig. The friction drag coefficient increases with increasing after-body fineness ratio. As the first step. the contraction ratio.
38. Zhan. AIAA 2001-2532.8 . Towards Efficient Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Based on the Navier-Stokes Equations. • • • • • Acknowledgement These research activities are conducted under the Civil Aircraft Pre-Research Projects of the Chinese Government. 2000. Journal of Aircraft.7. No. Efficient Inverse Aerodynamic Design Method for Subsonic Flows. H. Fu D. The wave drag coefficient increases with increasing upswept angle at transonic speed.  Takanashi S. Wang. J. 18. 1989  Hua J and Zhang Z. Entwurf transsonischer Profile auf der Basis der Loesung der Euler-/Navier-StokesGleichungen. Transonic Wing Design for Transport Aircraft. Applied Computational Aerodynamics. Hua.Z. Zhang the pressure drag.W. Kong. D. R. feature minimum structure and production change and acceptable pitching moment increment. Thanks are also to those AVIC/BUAA/NPU and DLR scientists for their help and discussion.7.4. Numerical Investigation on Two Airfoil Analysis Codes Using the Euler and NavierStokes Equations In Inviscid and Viscous Flows. NPU. An Iterative Procedure for ThreeDimensional Transonic Wing design by the Integral Equation Method.  Hua J.M. No. References  Rudnik R. which could provide additional lift without suffering drag rise. NPU.  Hua J.  Zhan H. Yang Q. 2001.W. Good coincidence of the engineering and CFD results with known test data has been verified. 5. The design modification of a supercritical wing could be conducted effectively with the present method and the isobar principle.H.L.  Milholen W. 1990. Sun.3. The upgrade of the TDTDTD software has made it a more accurate. 5. AIAA 90-1470. Thesis.K. Koester H. Ronzheimer A and Broderson O. 2002. GA approach could reasonably provide optimized positions for the high-lift systems. J.W. To be published. 1994. 1994  Bartelheimer W. 2001  Pulliam T. Journal of Aircraft.Y. pp895-903. Ph. AIAA-85-1595. Melber S. co-organized by AVIC I. 7. Zhang Z. Weltraumforsch. 1985  Hua J. 1990.C. After-body flows and drag values are strongly connected to the main geometry parameters. reliable and user-friendly design tool. 1990  Henne P. DTE wing concept is found a good candidate to supercritical wing modifications for stretched version aircraft. and indicate interesting flow mechanism that may advise the flap system design. for their advice and support in the area of the high-lift system optimization. pp918-923. M. The authors are very much grateful to Professor D. Zingg and Mr. while the NS analysis helps to validate the engineering software. 1997. F. increase the database and display the flow details. Fu. Xi D. Flugwiss. Bartelheimer W and Rohardt C-H. The engineering software will be further modified with the wind tunnel measurements of the fuselage models.D.  Obayashi S. ICAS 944. Three-Dimensional Navier-Stokes Simulation for Transport Aircraft High-Lift Configuration. Design and Experimental Investigation of Transonic Natural Laminar Flow Wings. the engineering method developed in this paper aims to provide designers with a fast assessment tool. 125. Design Research of Transonic Wings and Airfoils. Zingg. Redeker G.Y.J. Vol.Y. Published by AIAA. Z.E. Vol. Thesis.  Nemec M and Zingg D. ICAS 90-3.D. von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics. 2001. W. Lecture Series 1997-05. 252. Inverse Design and Optimization Methods.J. 1995  Drela M. D. Nemec M. Conclusions • Design Aerodynamics research for civil transport aircraft plays an important role in the competitive products development.A. Liu and Z. 38. Holst T and D. Nemec of the University of Toronto Institute of Aerospace Studies. DLR IB-129-95/5.W and Zhang Z. Vol. Newton Solution of Coupled ViscousInviscid Multi-element Airfoil Flow. Ph.Z. Comparison of Genetic and Adjoint Methods for Multi-Objective Viscous Airfoil Optimizations. Qiu.
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