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Q. 1.

Q. 4.

Q

(a) R = 4j + 5j + j = 10j N

4(0) + 5(50) + 1(100) = 10(x)

x = 35 cm

R=W+x

Answer: 35 cm from P

_

x

d = ______

W+x

x

W

The remainder is 1 ______ = ______

W+x W+x

(b) R = 2j + j + 2j = 5j

x = 2.4 m

Answer: 2.4 m from P

_

Let d = the distance from the resultants

line of action from the left-hand end.

x

W

The ratio of these parts = ______ : ______

W+x W+x

(c) R = j 7j + j = 5j

=x:W

x=1

Answer: 1 m from P

_

Q. 5.

Q

_

(d) R = 3j 9j + 3j = 3j

x=3

_

(e) R = j 2j 3j + j = 3j

K=3

R = 2W + W + 3W = 6W

K=5

1

x = 3__

2

1

1

__

__

Answer: 3 M and 2 M from the ends.

2

2

Q. 3.

Forces:

1m

( )

11

(ii) 4W(0) + W(1) + KW(2) = (5 + K)W ___

10

11(5

+

K)

1 + 2K = _________

10

10 + 20K = 55 + 11K

1

x = 4__

3

1

Answer: 4__ m from P

3

Q. 2.

()

7

4W(0) + W(1) + KW(2) = (5 + K)W __

8

7(5 + K)

________

1 + 2K =

8

8 + 16K = 35 + 7K

Answer: 3 m from P

(i) R = 4W + W + KW = (5 + K)W

Exercise 8B

E

Q. 1.

Q

3N at (2, 1)

2N at (4, 3)

3W

1N at (10, 9)

7W

= 6N at (x, y)

x=4

Resultant:

y=3

Answer: (4, 3)

R = 7W + 3W = 10W

7W(0) + 3W(1) = 10W(x)

3

x = ___ m

10

= 30 cm = Answer

Q. 2.

Q

1N at (1, 1)

2N at (1, 7)

3N at (3, 1)

4N at (2, 3)

= 10N at (x, y)

2N at (1, 2)

x=2

3N at (1, 7)

5N at (5, 1)

y=3

2N at (x, y)

Answer: (2, 3)

Q. 3.

= 12N at (4, 1)

x=9

3(4) + 2(9) = 5x

x=6

y = 4

3(1) + 2(9) = 5y

Answer: (9, 4)

y=3

Answer: (6, 3)

Q. 6.

Q

( )

1

1(4) + 2(1) + 3(k) = 6 2__

2

k=3

x=6

h = 10

y=3

Answer: (6, 3)

Q. 4.

Q. 7.

Q

(

10

= ( , 1)

3

2+5+3 1+31

pqr = _________, _________

3

3

x=9

y = 13

M at (2, 1)

__________________

|pg| = (9

____

+ (13

1)2

= 180

M at (5, 3)

M at (3, 1)

10

x = ___

3

= 6 5

____________________

___

__

= 45 = 3 5

__

__

|pg| : |gq| = 6 5 : 3 5

=2:1

2N at (1, 2)

3N at (1, 7)

5N at (5, 1)

y=1

10

The centre of gravity is at ___, 1

3

which is the centroid.

x=0

= 10N at (x, y)

x=3

2(2) + 3(7) + 5(1) = 10(y)

y=2

Answer: 3i + 2j

= 3M at (x, y)

__

Q. 5.

___

3)2

Centroid of triangle

y=1

Answer: (0, 1)

Q. 8.

(i) W at (6, 5)

2W at (7, 1)

3W at (2, 11)

4W at (6, 1)

= 10W at (x, y)

divide by W

10x = 50

x=5

W(5) + 2W(1) + 3W(11) + 4W(1) = 10W(y)

divide by W

10y = 40

y=4

The centre of gravity is at (5, 4)

(ii) W at (6, 5)

2W at (7, 1)

3W at (2, 11)

kW at (6, 1)

= (6 + k)W at (11, y)

divide by W

66 + 11k = 26 + 6k

5k = 40

k = 8

W(5) + 2W(1) + 3W(11) 8W(1) = 2W(y)

divide by W

2y = 28

y = 14

Q

Q. 9

9.

2N att ((x, 5)

3N at (11, y)

5N at (5, 6)

1(8) + 4(

4(y)) + 5(2) + 2(

2(3)

3) = 12(2)

= 10N at (6, 5)

y=3

2x + 58 = 60

x=1

2(5) + 3(y) + 5(6) = 10(5)

3y 20 = 50

Q. 10.

1N at (7, 8)

4N at (1, y)

xN at (5, 2)

2N at (6, 3)

4y + 12 = 24

y = 10

Q.

Q 11.

3W at (30, 20)

2W at (20, 10)

5W at (50, 20)

= 10W at (x, y)

divide by 10W

x = 38

3W(20) + 2W(10) + 5W(20) = 10W(y)

divide by 10W

= (7 + x)N at (4, 2)

y = 18

Centre of gravity is at (38, 18)

5x + 23 = 28 + 4x

x=5

Q. 12.

7

3N at __, 2

3

4N at (1, 7)

5N at (3, 7)

6N at (4, 4)

3 1

Answer: __, 1__

4 4

3

_

= 18N at (x, y)

tan A = ___

1_34

4

3

= __

7

7

__

= 0.4286

18x = 36

A = 23 12

x=2

(ii)

4

3

18y = 45

y = 2.5

Q. 13.

5 at (3, 1)

8 at (4, 2)

3 at (1, 5)

2 at (2, 6)

( )

1

2 at ( 2, ) = 8 at (x, y)

2

1

2 at ( 2, 3 )

2

1

4( ) + 2(2) + 2(2) = 8(x)

2

1

4 at __, 2

2

= 18 at (x, y)

__

__

__

18x = 48

8

x = __

3

1

x = 1__

4

1

1

__

__

4(2) + 2 + 2 3 = 8(y)

2

2

y=2

1

__

Answer: 1 , 2

4

_

1

1

4

2

tan A = ___

2

A

5

2

= __

g

8

= 0.625

1 1

4

A = 32

() ( )

18y = 14

7

y = __

9

8 __

7

__

Centre of gravity is at ,

3 9

( )

Exercise 8C

(i)

1 2 3 4

Q. 1.

(iii)

4

1

3

2

1

(

(

1 1

3 at __, 1__

2 2

1 1

1 at 1__, __

2 2

)

)

= 4 at (x, y)

() ( )

1

1

3 __ + 1 1__ = 4x

2

2

3

x = __

4

1

1

__

__

3 1 + 1 = 4y

2

2

3

y = 1__

4

( ) ()

__

__

__

1

1

4

3

( )

1 1

1 at ( 1 , 2 ) = 9 at (x, y)

2 2

1

4 at ( 2 , 2 )

2

1

1

1

4( ) + 1( 1 ) + 4( 2 ) = 9(x)

2

2

2

1

4 at __, 2

2

1

4 A

__

__

__

3

x = __

2

( )

1

4(2) + 1 2__ + 4(2) = 9(y)

2

37

y = ___

18

3 37

Answer: __, ___

2 18

9p at (3, 0)

27p at (x, y)

35

18

3

_

2

tan A = __

35

__

18

The distance (0, 0) to (1, 0)

Answer: 1 cm

p

A

Q. 3.

Q

Remainder: Area = 16 1 = 15 m2

A = 37 39

(iv)

1 at (3.5, 3.5)

(13,3)

(7,3)

15 at (x, y)

3

(0,0)

(7,0)

15x = 28.5

Centroid is at

7 + 7 + 13 _________

3+3+0

___________

,

= (9, 2)

3

3

1

Area is __(6)(3) = 9 square units

2

9 at (9, 2)

( 2)

1

__

21 3

y = 1.9

Q. 4.

Q

( )

(1.5, 1.5)

Area of square = 3 3 = 9

1.6

(

)

1 + 9 + 11 2 + 6 + 1

(ii) (

,

) = (7, 3)

3

3

1+3+5 1+5+0

(i) _________, _________ = (3, 2)

3

3

___________ _________

1

21 1__ + 9(2) = 30(y)

2

y = 1.65

5

5

1.3

A

5.1

A = 75 19

3 + 3 + 9 _________

0+3+0

_________

,

= (5, 1)

3

3

1

Area of triangle = __(6)(3) = 9

2

9 at (1.5, 1.5)

= 18 at (x, y)

9 at (5, 1)

Q. 2.

= 30 at (x, y)

x = 5.15

(3,0)

x = 1.9

(1.9, 1.9)

+ 9(9) = 30(x)

5.15

tan A = ____

1.35

= 3.8148

= 16 at (2, 2)

3.5 + 15x = 32

Triangle piece:

1 1

21 at 3__, 1__

2 2

Small Square: Area = 1 1 = 1 m2

= 0.7714

= 36p at (0, 0)

37

18

27

= ___

35

(6,0)

18x = 58.5

x = 3.25

9(1.5) + 9(1) = 18(y)

18y = 22.5

y = 1.25

Centre of gravity is at (x, y)

(3.25, 1.25)

1

153__ at (x, y)}

2

= 192 at (0, 4)

1

__

38 at (0, 6)

2

Area of rectangle = 16 4 = 64

Triangle: Centre of gravity is at (4, 5)

1

Area of triangle = __(16)(3) = 24

2

64 at (8, 2)

24 at (8, 5)

1

1

153__(x) + 38__(0) = 192 (0)

2

2

x=0

= 88 at (x, y)

1

1

153__(y) + 38__(6) = 192(4)

2

2

1,074

y = ______

307

x=8

64(2) + 24(5) = 88(y)

31

y = ___

11

Centre of gravity of lamina is at

31

8, ___

11

= 3.5 cm

Q. 6.

Q

Q. 5.

Area of remainder = 25p 4p

= 21p

A(0,12)

20

20

(0,2)

(0,0)

x

B

(16,0)

C(16,0)

16

D

(0,4)

16

21p at (x, y)

4p at (2, 0)

= 25p at (0, 0)

|AD| = 12

1

Triangle: Area = __(32)(12)

2

21x + 8 = 0

= 192

21x = 8

8

x = ___

21

is at the centroid of A(0, 12), B(16, 0)

and C(16, 0) which is at

0 16 + 16 ___________

12 + 0 + 0

____________

3

8

___

m = 38 cm from O.

21

) = (0, 4)

22 49

= ___ ___

7

4

77

___

=

2

1

= 38__

2

Centre of gravity is at m(0, 6)

1

The remainder: Area = 192 38__

2

1

= 153__

2

Q. 7.

Q

A

(10,3)

C

B

(0,0)

A: Area is 3 2 = 6

(8,0)

1

Centre of gravity is at 9, 4__

2

1

__

B: Area = (2)(3) = 3

2

(10,0)

Centre of gravity is at

_____________ _________

2r

x = ___

15

15pr2(y) + pr2(0) = 16pr2 (0)

___

Rectangle: Area = 10 6 = 60

Centre of gravity is at (5, 3)

2r

Answer: ___, 0

15

Centre of gravity is at (x, y)

(

(

1

6 at 9, 4__

2

28

___

3 at

,1

3

51 at (x, y)

)

)

Q. 9.

= 60 at (5, 3)

(50,50)

(20,20)

( )

28

6(9) + 3 ___ + 51 (x) = 60(5)

3

218

x = ____

51

1

__

6 4 + 3(1) + 51(y) = 60(3)

2

150

y = ____

51

218 150

Answer: ____, ____ = (4.27, 2.94)

51 51

22 400

= ___ ____

7

1

= 1,257

( )

Q. 8.

y=0

= 10,000

= 8,743

x=2

y = 1

8,743 at (x, y)

(b)

x = 54.3

a(0,0)

Answer: 54 mm

b(2r,0)

Q. 10.

90 cm

= p(4r)2

30 cm

= 16pr2

Centre of gravity is at (0, 0)

115 cm

Centre of gravity is at b(2r, 0)

30 cm

= 15pr2

Centre of gravity is at (x, y)

15pr2 at (x, y)

pr2 at (2r, 0)

16pr2

at (0, 0)

a(0,0)

b(90,0)

115

(i) Distance = ____

2

= 57.5 cm

Area = 90 115

270 at (16, 6)

= 10,350

378x = 4,968

Larger Section:

x = 13.14

Area = 80 70

= 5,600

378y = 2,700

Smaller Section:

y = 7.14

Area = 80 30

(13.14, 7.41)

= 2,400

Centre of gravity is at (45, 95)

Q. 12.

Q

Remainder:

Area = 10,350 5,600 2,400

= 2,350

Centre of gravity is at (x, y)

5,600 at (45, 40)

2,400 at (45, 95)

2,350 at (x, y)

= 10,350

at (45, 57.5)

5,600(40) + 2,400(95) + 2,350(y)

= 10,350 (57.5)

y = 60.9 cm

1

(i) Area DOPQ = __(base)(height)

2

take [OP] as the base

1

__

2

= 108 square units

1

Area DOQR = __(base)(height)

2

take [OR] as the base

1

Area DOQR = __(30)(18)

2

(ii) Centre of Gravity of DOPQ

0 + 0 + 18 ____________

0 + 12 + 18

___________

3

= (6, 10)

Centre of Gravity of DOQR

0 + 18 + 30 0 + 18 + 0

= ____________, ___________

3

3

= (16, 6)

1

(i) Area DOPQ = __ |x1y2 x2y1|

2

1

= __| (18)(6) (6)(18) |

2

= 108

1

Area DOQR = __(base)(height)

2

take [OR] as the base

1

Area DOQR = __(36)(18)

2

= 324 square units

Area DOQR : Area DOQR = 108 : 324

=1:3

(ii) Centre of Gravity of DOPQ

0 6 + 18 0 + 6 + 18

= ___________, ___________

3

3

= (4, 8)

Centre of Gravity of DOQR

0 + 18 + 36 0 + 18 + 0

= ____________, ___________

3

3

= (18, 6)

(iii) 1 at (4, 8)

3 at (18, 6)

= 4 at (x, y)

= 378 at (x, y)

Q. 11.

4x = 58

x = 14.5

Taking moments around the x-axis:

(1)(8) + (3)(6) = (4)(y)

4y = 26

y = 6.5

Centre of Gravity of lamina is at

(14.5, 6.5)

Q. 6.

Q

Exercise 8D

Q. 1.

1

1

is at a height __h = __(24) = 12 cm

2

2

above the table.

of the central axis.

1

1

a height __h = __(24) = 6 cm

4

4

above the table.

The total weight of the compound body is

4W which acts through a point which is

x cm from P.

hemisphere is at a height

3

3

__

r = __(24) = 9 cm above the table.

8

8

(iv) The centre of gravity of the

hemispherical shell is at a height

1

1

__

r = __(24) = 12 cm above the table.

2

2

Q. 2.

1

(i) __h = 5

4

h = 20 cm

3W

4W

W(13) + 3W(5) = 4W(x)

Q. 5.

divide by W

28 = 4x

x = 7 cm from P

Q. 7.

Q

2

1

1

2W acts through a point __h = __(14) = 7 cm

2

2

from P.

1

W acts through a point __(8) = 2 cm from

4

the base of the cone, i.e. 16 cm from P.

3

1

= __p(32)(20)

3

= 60p cm3

(i)

2W

1

(ii) V = __pr2h

Q. 4.

centres of gravity above the table is

8 6 = 2 cm.

Q. 3.

hemisphere is at a height

3

3

__

r = __(16) = 6 cm above the table.

8

8

The centre of gravity of the hemispherical

1

1

shell is at a height __r = __(16) = 8 cm

2

2

above the table.

3

W acts through a point __r = 3 cm from

8

the base of the cylinder.

1

3W acts through a point __h = 5 cm from

2

the base of the hemisphere.

The total weight of the compound body

is 3W, which acts through a point which is

x cm from P.

3

__

r=3

8

r = 8 cm

2

(ii) V = __pr3

3

2 3

__

= p(8 )

3

1,024p

_______

=

cm3

3

1

(i) __r = 3

2

r = 6 cm

W

2W

3W

=

2pr2

2p(62)

= 72p cm2

divide by W

30 = 3x

x = 10 cm

Q. 8.

15

15

W

3W

4W

5W

1

1

__

h = __(30) = 15 mm from P.

2

2

3

W acts through a point __(24) = 9 mm

8

from the base of the hemisphere,

i.e. 39 mm from P.

28 = 4x

x = 7 mm

Q. 10.

Q

3

The total weight of the compound body is

6W, which acts through a point which is

x mm from P.

15

24

1

W acts through a point __(12) = 3 cm

4

from the base of the hemisphere.

3

W acts through a point __(8) = 3 cm from

8

the base of the cone, i.e. 15 cm from P.

W

5W

6W

The total weight of the compound body

is 2W which acts through a point which is

x cm from P.

114 = 6x

x = 19 mm

Q. 9.

5

divide by W

2W

W(15) + W(9) = 2W(x)

3W

24 = 2x

1

1

__

h = __(10) = 5 mm from P.

2

2

1

W acts through a point __(6) = 3 mm from

2

the base of the hemisphere, i.e. 13 mm

from P.

10

The total weight of the compound body is

4W, which acts through a point which is

x mm from P.

divide by W

x = 12 cm

i.e. the centre of the compound body is

12 cm from P. This is at the plane where

the bases of the two solids meet.

Q. 11.

Q

= p(122)(40)

= 5,760p cm3

1

vcone = __pr2h

3

1

= __p(122)(40)

3

1

__

= (5,760p) cm3

3

vcylinder = 3(vcone)

(ii)

12

cone)

2W

hemisphere. Therefore 2W is the

weight of the cylinder. W acts through

a point _38 r = _38(18) = 675 cm

from the top of the cylinder. 2W acts

through a point _12 h = _12(24) = 12 cm

from the base of the hemisphere.

(ii)

20

20

10

W

3W

Therefore 3W is the weight of the

forces. The total weight of the

compound body is 3W, which acts

through a point which is x cm from P.

1

__

1

h = __(40) = 10 cm from the base

4

4

of the cylinder. 3W acts through a

1

1

point __h = __(40) = 20 cm from the

2

2

base of the cone.

12

30

18.75

2W

3W

2W(12) + W(30.75) = 3W(x)

divide by W

3x = 54.75

W

3W

x = 18.25 cm

4W

Q. 13.

Q

divide by W

110 = 4x

x = 27.5 cm

Q. 12.

=

W

forces. The total weight of the

compound body is 4W, which acts

through a point which is x cm from P.

20

6.75

= 7,776p cm3

2

2

vhemisphere = __ pr3 = __ p(183)

3

3

= 3,888p cm3

vcylinder = 2(vhemisphere)

weight of cylinder : weight of cone

=2:1

10

10

O

W

W

3W

and of the cone. Therefore 3W is the

weight of the cylinder. The weight of

the hemisphere, W, acts through a

point _38 r = _38(8) = 3 cm from the base

of the cylinder. The weight of the

cylinder, 3W, acts through a point

_

_

1

1

2 h = 2 (20) = 10 cm from the base of the

cylinder. The weight of the cone, W, acts

through a point _14 h = _14(16) = 4 cm from

the top of the cylinder.

11

The total weight of the compound body

is 5W which acts through a point which

is x cm from O.

14

3 10

W

Exercise 8E

E

Q. 1.

Q

3W

5W

___

_____________

__

x = 10.2 cm

______

= 8 N

__

db = 3 2

2pr2

__

__

i 3 2

( )

__

__

__

__

(ii)

Q. 2.

Q

W

Therefore 4W is the weight of the

cylinder. W acts through a point _2r

from the top of the cylinder. 4W acts

through a point _12 h = _12(4r) = 2r from

the base of the hemisphere.

Here, then, is the diagram of the

forces. The total weight of the

compound body is 5W which acts

through a point which is a distance of

x from P.

=

5W

4W(2r) + W(4.5r) = 5W(x)

divide by W

x = 2.5r.

__

__

__

__________

___

c

2

___

__

__

__

__

__

__

R = 3i 2i + 5i 4j

= 8i 6j

___

__________

|R | = 82 + (6)2

____

= 100

= 10 N

from a.

The moment of the sum = the sum of the

moments. (Taking moments about a)

5x = 12.5r

d

4

4W

2.5r

__

|R | = 12 + (5)2 = 26 N

r

2

2r

1__

___

= i 5j

___

__

Wcylinder = 4(Whemisphere)

12

( )

1__

___

= 3i 3j

CSAcylinder = 4(CSAhemisphere)

4W

__

|R | = (2)2 + (2)2

5x = 51

2r

__

= 2i 2j

divide by W

CSAhemisphere =

__

R = i +__ 2j __ 3i 4j

Q. 14.

__

___

7

x = ___ m

10

= 70 cm

Let it intersect at a distance k from a,

therefore a distance (1 k) from b.

Q. 5.

Q

intersection.

7

k = __ m

6

1

Answer: 1__ m from a.

6

Q. 3.

5m

20

10

5m

16 N

16

8m

42 + |dc|2 = 52

______________

|dc| = 3 m

3

tan A = __

4

3

sin A = __

5

4

cos A = __

_____

_ 5

ab = 16i

____

bc = 10 cos Ai + 10 sin Aj

16

2

_

___

(i) R = 2i + 4j 7i 16j

_

= 5i 12j

___

_____

= 169

____

= 13 N

Q. 4.

___

___

= 10 N

Taking moments about c:

moments

_

(i) R = 2i + 2j + 2i j + (8i 6j )

x = 4.8 m

= 12i 5j

___

___________

|R | =

_____________

= 100

___

R = 8i 6j

____

10

|R | = (8)2 + (6)2

13

= 8i + 6j

= 16i 12j

x=

ca = 20 cos Ai 20 sin Aj

11

___

122

____

Q. 6.

Q

(5)2

= 169

= 13 N

13(x) = 2(3) + 2(4) + 2(0) + 1(0) + 10(0)

14

x = ___ m

13

(iii) 13x = 2(3) + 2(4) + 2(0) + 1(0)

+ 10(0) + 12

x=2m

4N

a

3N

60

8N

_____

60

(i) ab = 8i

_____

__

( 2 ) i + 8( 2 )j

= 8

_

1

__

_

3

___

___

= 4i + 43 j

13

__

____

__

__

___

Q. 2.

Q

= 2i + 2 3 j

_

___

T1

1 T2

___

R = 6i + 6 3 j

___

___________

__

|R | = 62 + (6 3 )2

_________

= 36 + 108

____

T1 + T2 = 2W

11

T2 = ___W

8

5

__

T1 = W

8

= 144

= 12 N

(ii)

Q. 3.

Q

1

l

2

(i)

1

T1

2N

( 2l ) =

1

__

l2

__

x=

3

___

2

x2

T2

T1 + T2 = 2

T1 + T2 = 10

moments

__

3

___

12(x) = 8(0) + 8

l + 4(0)

2

__

12x = 4 3 l

8

Solving these gives T1 = __ N,

7

6

T2 = __ N

7

( )

__

x=

3

___

(ii)

3

1__

___

=

lm

3

T2

2N

T + 2T = 6

T=2N

Q. 1.

2

4N

Exercise 8F

The moment

of the forces about a

__

was 4 3__l N m, so the moment

M = 4 3 l N m.

T1

1

2T

1

Q. 4.

Q

1

x = 2 __ cm

2

(i)

W

6m

T1 + T2 = 2W

W

R

4m

3

__

T2 = W

4

1

T1 = 1 __W

4

14

mR

R=W

mR = S

Q. 7.

Q

W(2) = S(6)

1

S = __W

3

1

__

mW = W

3

1

m = __

3

(ii) 2

R

A

Q. 5.

1

R

2

S

1

11 m

mR

10 m

R=W

mR = S

3

2

Q. 6.

(a)

5

W(5) = S(11) S = ___W

11

5

5

mW = ___W m = ___

11

11

R=W

1

__

R=S

2

W(l cos A) = S(2l sin A)

W cos A

W

S = _______ = _______

2 tan A

2 sin A

1

W

__

W = _______ tan A = 1

2

2 tan A

A = 45.

Q. 8.

Q

S

1

S

2

(i) Friction

(ii) Moment

W

(b) 1

R = 245

0.8R = S

A

1

R

2

Equation 2

S = 0.8(245) = 196

Equation 3

245 cos a = (196)2 sin a

1

1

1 R + __

S = W R = W __S

2

2

1

2 __

R=S

2

1

3 W(lcos A) = S(2l sin A) + __

S(2l cos A)

2

divide by l cos A

245

tan a = ____

392

5

__

=

8

W = 2S tan A + S

S(2 tan A + 1) = W

W

S = __________

2 tan A + 1

2

a

R

0.8 R

25g = 245 N

( W 12S ) = S

1

__

2

__

1

1

__W __S = S 2W S = 4S

4

2

2W = 5S

5W

2W = __________

2 tan A + 1

5

2 tan A + 1 = __

2

3

__

tan A = A = 37

4

15

Q. 9.

mS

3

45

a

20g = 196

mR

W cos A = 2S sin A

4

4

But S = __R = __W.

5

5

R + mS = 196

mR = S

( )

4

W cos A = 2 __W sin A

5

8

__

cos A = sin A

5

8

1 = __ tan A

5

5

tan A = __

8

+ mS(4 cos 45)

1__

But cos 45 = sin 45 = ___

2

196(2) = S(4) + mS(4)

(ii)

S + mS = 98

S(1 + m) = 98

98

S = ______

1+m

Now mR = S

98

98

1

1 ______

__

________

R = __

m S = m 1 + m = m(1 + m)

Putting these into equation 1 , we

get

98

98 = 196.

________

+ m ______

m(1 + m)

1+m

98 +

= 196m(1 + m).

Divide by 98.

1 + m2 = 2m(1 + m)

1 + m2 = 2m + 2m2

m2

+ 2m 1 = 0

m=

__

= 1 2

( )

2 2 2

__________

2

( )

__

Q. 10. (i)

2W

= S(10 sin A)

4

2W __x + W(4) = S(6)

5

8

__ xW + 4W = 6S

5

12

But S = ___ W

5

8

12

__

xW + 4W = 6 ___W

5

5

8x + 20 = 72

x = 6.5 m

__

______

2 4 + 4

_____________

A

4

R

5

3

3

4

Since tan A = __, cos A = __, sin A = __

5

5

4

1 R = 2W + W = 3W

4

2 __

R=S

5

4

12

S = __(3W) = ___W

5

5

3 2W(x cos A) + W(5 cos A)

Multiply by m(1 + m)

98m2

R=W

4

__

R=S

5

Taking moments about the foot

of the ladder:

(iii)

5

5

A

4

R

5

16

W

R

A

4R

5

2W

when the man reaches the top.

1

Q

Q. 2.

A

R = W + 2W = 3W

4

__

R=S

5

4

12

S = __(3W) = ___W

5

5

W(5 cos A) + 2W(10 cos A)

8 cm R

B

5W = 2S tan A

________

= 15 cm

[CD] is a median of the triangle. The

2

centroid therefore lies __ of the way

3

along [CD].

2

__

(15) = 10

3

The centre of gravity is 10 cm from C.

(ii)

8

4

W

8

R

B

3 W(5) = S(8)

5

S = __W

8

from C.

5

mW = __W

8

5

m = __

8

Q. 3.

Q

A

Therefore, F = mR.

(ii) 1

1 R=W

2 mR = S

mR

|CD| = 172 82

17 cm

|CD|2 + 82 = 172

Exercise 8G

(i)

12

___

W,

5

24

5W = ___W tan A

5

25

tan A = ___

24

Q. 1.

= S(10 sin A)

But S =

17 cm

8 cm

29 cm

20 cm

R=W

mR = S

20 cm R

W(2) = S(8)

1

S = __W

4

Equation 2

mR = S

1

m(W) = __W

4

1

m = __

4

1

The least value of is __.

4

W

29 cm

mR

|CD|2 + 202 = 292

_________

[CD] is a median of the triangle. The

2

centroid therefore lies __ of the way

3

along [CD].

2

__

3

(21) = 14

17

from C.

1

R=W

mR = S

Q

Q. 5. (a) See text

(b)

m

W

W(7) = S(20)

7

S = ___W

20

F q

7

mW = ___W

20

7

m = ___

20

Q. 4.

Let |pm| = x

A

25 cm

7 cm

D

7 cm

x2

2

|pg| = __

3

mR

|CD|2

72

252

|CD| =

________

252

72

= 24 cm

[CD] is the median of the triangle. The

2

centroid therefore lies __ of the way

3

along [CD].

2

__

(24) = 16

3

The centre of gravity is 16 cm

from C.

1

1 R + __

S=W

4

1

R = W __S

4

2 mR = S

1

3 W(8) = S(7) + __

S(24)

4

8W = 13S

8

S = ___W

13

11

R = ___W

13

(ii)

( 13 )

8

11W = ___

m ___

W

13

8

m = ___

11

( 3a ) =

1

__

1

S

4

25 cm

B

18

m

1

a

2

a2

__

3

x = __ a

2

__

( )

( )

3

__

1__

a = ___

a

3

__

1 3

1__

|gm| = __ ___a = ____

a

3 2

23

1 R=W

2 F=S

( )

1

1__

3 S __

a = W ____

a

2

2 3

1__

S = ___

W

3

1__

The reactions are ___

W, W

3

If it is on the point of slipping, then F = mR.

Equation 2

mR = S

1__

mW = ___

W

3

1__

m = ___

3

1__

.

The least value of m is ___

3

Q.

Q 6. (a) See text

(b)

T1 p(0,3)

4,

(2,1)(3 1)

T2

4

W

3

W

T3 r(0,0)

q(4,0)

Centroid is at

( 0 + 30 + 4, 0 + 33 + 0 ) = ( 43, 1 )

_________ _________

__

3

plane = 200 sin A = 200 __ = 120 N

5

Component of weight acting perpendicular

4

to the plane = 200 cos A = 200 __ = 160 N

5

R = 160 N

4

1 T1 + T2 + T3 = __

W+W

3

7

T1 + T2 + T3 = __W

3

2 Taking moments about the y-axis:

4

4

T2(4) + T1(0) + T3 (0) = __W(2) + W __

3

3

4T2 = 4W

()

()

()

Friction = mR

T2 = W

3 Taking moments about the x-axis:

4

T1(3) + T2(0) + T3(0) = __W(1) + W(1)

3

7

__

T1 = W

9

7

__

But T1 + T2 + T3 = W

3

5

__

T3 = W

9

5

7

__

__

Answer: W, W, W

9

9

1

= __(160)

2

= 80 N

F + 80 = 120

F = 40 N

Q. 3.

Q

on the particle

R

Exercise 8H

30

3R

5

Q. 1.

F

R

()

1

the plane = 100 sin 30 = 100 __ = 50 N

2

30

A

A

__

50

( )

4

tan A = __

3

cos A =

3

__

5

and sin A =

4

__

5

4

plane = 50 sin A = 50 __ = 40 N

5

F = 40 N

()

Q. 2.

F

R

mR

A

160

__

3

___

the plane = F cos 30 =

F

2

Component of F acting perpendicular to

1

the plane = F sin 30 = __F

2

__

1

R = 503 + __F

2

__

3

__

3

___

But, R + 50 =

F

5

2

__

__

3

3

1

__ 503 + __F + 50 = ___F

5

2

2

__

30 3 +

3

___

__

3

___

F + 50 =

F

2

10

__

3003 + 3F + 500 = 5 3 F

__

200

120

3

tan A = __

4

3

___

__2

= 50 3 N

40

100 N

30

3

4

cos A = __ and sin A = __

5

5

__

__

__

F=

100(3__ 3 + 5)

_____________

5 3 3

~

180 N

19

Q. 4.

Q

Q. 6.

tan a = 2

1__

2__

cos a = ___

sin a = ___

5

5

acting on the body:

R

Forces

mR

A

7 sin A

7cos A

14 cos A

14 sin A

7 cos A + 7 = 14 sin A

Resolved

W

3

cos A + 1 = 2 sin A

__________

cos A + 1 = 2 1 cos2 A

square both sides

2W

5

mR

W

5

5 cos2 A + 2 cos A 3 = 0

2W

5

(5 cos A 3)(cos A + 1) = 0

3

cos A = __ OR cos A = 1

5

cos A = 1 is excluded because A is an

acute angle.

3W

2W

W__ ____

__ + ___

1 R = ____

= __

5

5

5

W__ ____

2W

2 mR + ___

= __

5

5

W

__

mR = ___

5

Dividing 1 by 2

1

m = __

3

Q. 7.

Q

R

mR

19.6

98 A

Q. 5.

98 cos A

98 sin A

R = 98 cos A

19.6 + mR = 98 sin A

l

R tan l

a

a

W cos a

2 + 10 m cos A = 10 sin A

10 sin A 10 m cos A = 2

W sin a

particle. Since m = tan l, the friction force

is R tan l as shown.

Particle will slip down the plane if

W sin a > R tan l

but R = W cos a

divide by W cos a

20

98

mR

98 A

A

98 cos A

98 sin A

R = 98 cos A

98 = mR + 98 sin A

98 = 98 m cos A + 98 sin A

a>l

10 = 10 m cos A + 10 sin A

10 sin A + 10 m cos A = 10 2

Adding equations 1 and 2 we get

3

4 = 10

10 __ + 10 m __

5

5

()

20 sin A = 12

3

sin A = __

5

3 = 36.87

A = sin1 __

5

()

6 + 8m = 10

8m = 4

1

m = __

2

()

his:

R

1

R

2

98

A

F sin l

F

l

F cos l

78.4

58.8

R + F sin l = 78.4

1

__

2

R = 78.4 F sin l

R + 58.8 = F cos l

R = 2F cos l 117.6

F(2 cos l + sin l) = 196

196

F = _____________

2 cos l + sin l

= 196(2 cos l + sin l)1

dF

___ = 196(2 cos l + sin l)2 (2 sin l + cos l)

dl

dF 196(cos l 2 sin l)

___ = __________________

dl

(2 cos l + sin l)2

dF

Putting ___ = 0 we get

dl

cos l 2 sin l = 0

1 2 tan l = 0

1

tan l = __

2

1

2__

___

sin l = __ and cos l = ___

5

5

196

F = _____________

2 cos l + sin l

196

= ________

___

4__

1__

+ ___

5

196

= ____

5

___

__

196

__ N

= ____

5

21

Q. 8.

m = tan l

The diagram shows resolved forces acting on the particle.

F sin q

R

mR

F cos q

W cos a

W sin a

R + F sin q = W cos a

mR + W sin a = F cos q

R = W cos a F sin q

F cos q W sin a

R = _______________

tan l

F cos q W sin a

_______________

W cos a F sin q =

tan l

cos l

W cos a F sin q = (F cos q W sin a) _____ multiply by sin l

sin l

F(cos q cos l + sin q sin l) = W(cos a sin l + sin a cos l)

F cos(q l) = W sin(a + l)

W sin(a + l)

F = ___________

cos (q l)

(i) Force acting up along the plane q = 0

W sin (a + l)

F = ____________

cos (l)

cos(l) = cos l

W sin(a + l)

F = ___________

cos l

(ii) Horizontal force q = a

W sin(a + l)

F = ___________

cos(a l)

W sin(a + l)

= ____________

cos[(a + l)]

W sin (a + l)

= ____________

cos (a + l)

= W tan (a + l)

W sin (a + l)

(iii) F = ____________

cos (q l)

Minimum force will occur when cos(q l) is at its maximum value, i.e. cos(q l) = 1

FMIN = W sin(a + l).

22

Q. 9.

(i) The normal reaction, R, and the limiting friction, F, acting on a body which is either moving

or on the point of moving, can be added to form a resultant. The angle between this

resultant and the normal reaction is the angle of friction.

(ii)

S tan l

S

W

R

R tan l

1

R + S tan l = W

R = W S tan l

R tan l = S

S(2 cos a + 2 tan l sin a) = W sin a

W sin a

S = ___________________

2(cos a + tan l sin a)

(W S tan l) tan l = S

W tan l S tan2 l = S

S(1 + tan2 l) = W tan l

W tan l

S = _________

1 + tan2 l

W sin a

W tan l

___________________ = _________

2(cos a + tan l sin a) 1 + tan2 l

(1 + tan2 l)sin a = 2 tan l(cos a + tan l sin a)

sin a + tan2 l sin a = 2 tan l cos a + 2 tan2 l sin a

tan2 l sin a + 2 tan l cos a = sin a

divide by cos a

tan a(1 tan2 l) = 2 tan l

2 tan l

tan a = _________

1 tan2 l

tan a = tan 2l

a = 2l

23

Q. 10.

S

q

R

R tan l

We must firstly resolve R and R tan l into horizontal and vertical components:

The horizontal component of R is R sin a.

The vertical component of R is R cos a.

The horizontal component of R tan l is R tan l cos a.

The vertical component of R tan l is R tan l sin a

1

S

R = ________________

tan l cos a sin a

W = R(tan l sin a + cos a)

1

S = __W tan q as required

2

S

________________

W=

(tan l sin a + cos a)

tan l cos a sin a

1

tan l sin a + cos a

W = __W tan q ________________

2

tan l cos a sin a

1

tan l tan a + 1

1 = __ tan q ______________

2

tan l tan a

tan l tan a

tan q = 2 ______________

1 + tan l tan a

tan q = 2 tan(l a)

as required.

Exercise 8I

Q. 1.

the rod PQ:

T

3

T

5

Y

X

W

4

T

5

3

1 Y = __T = W

5

24

... Equation 1

4

X + __T = W

5

3

W(2) = __T(4)

... Equation 2

5

Equation 3: 5W = 6T

5

T = __W

6

... Equation 2

Equation 1:

[ ]

3 5

Y + __ __W = W

5 6

2Y + W = 2W

3W (a sin q) = W(2a)

2

sin q = __

3

2Y = W

1

Y = __W

2

5

4

Equation 2: X = __ __W

56

2

__

X= W

3

Answer: The horizontal and vertical

reactions at the hinge are

2

1

__

W and __W. The tension in

3

2 5

the string is __W.

6

[ ]

Q. 2.

= 0.6667

q = 41 49

(iii) X = W cos q

__

( )

5

= W ___

3

__

5

___

W

3

Y = 3W W sin q

on the rod:

()

2

= 3W W __

3

7W

= ____

3

Q. 4.

Q

2W sin A

5W

unresolved forces:

12

cos A = ___

13

2W

5

sin A = ___

13

2W cos A

Y + 2W sin A = 5W

X = 2W cos A

5

Since tan A = ___

12

Forces

3

4

sin A = __

cos A = __

5

5

8

17

__

___

1 Y + W = 5W Y = W

5

5

6

__

2 X= W

5

4

1

(ii) A = sin __ = 53

5

Q. 3.

(i) Y

p

Resolved

5

T

13

Y

p X

W

12

T

13

5

1 Y + ___ T = W

13

X

q

p X

3W

12

2 X = ___

T

13

90 q

(W sin q)

(W cos q)

(ii) 1

2

Y + W sin q = 3W

X + W cos q = 0

25

25

slipping.

5

W(6) = ___T(12)

13

F = mR

1

= __R

3

13

T = ___W

10

( )

( )

1 1

= __ 2__W

3 4

12 13

X = ___ ___W

13 10

6

= __W

5

3

= __W

4

( )

5 13

Y + ___ ___ T = W

13 10

1

Y = __W

2

(ii)

Q. 5.

10

1

R=2 W

4

(i)

a

R

A

2W

3W

Y B

a

2W

q

3

W

4

3

2 __W = X

4

a

S

3

1

2W(a cosq) + __W(2a sin q) = 2__(2a cos q)

4

4

3

3

2 cos q + __ sinq = __ cos q

2

2

B X

Y

2W

1 R + Y = 2W

q

G

q

F

3 sin q = 5 cosq

3W

q

A F

q

a

3 tan q = 5

5

tan q = __

3

S

c

5

q = tan1 __

3

= 592

1 R + S = 2W + 3W

R + S = 5W

Q. 6.

Q

2 F=G

2W(a cos q) + 3W(3a cos q) = S(4a cos q)

4S = 11W

3

S = 2__W

4

1

__

R = 2 W, from Equation 1.

4

(iii) Since R < S, mR < mS

slipping will occur at A first.

26

6

1

Answer: (i) __W, __W

5

2

13

___

X

q

R

A

2

T

W

5

T

2W

S

C

3

4

4

Since cos q = __, sin q = __ and tan q = __

5

5

3

The system ABC

1 R + S = W + 2W

R + S = 3W

1 R = W + 2W = 3W

2 T=T

2 mR = S

( )

( )

1

1

W 1__ + T(2) + 2W 4__

2

2

= S(10 sin f + 10 sin q)

3W + 12W + 10W cos q

= 8S + 10S sin q

15W + 10W cos q = 8S + 10S sin q

= T(2) + S(6)

3

S = 1__W

4

1

R = 1__W, from Equation 1

4

X

Y

B

T

4

5 X=S

4

The rod AB

1

1 1__

W+Y=W

4

1

Y = __W

4

2 T=X

15

S = ___ W

8

Equation 2 now reads:

( ) ( )

1

1

T(2) + W 1__ = 1__ W(3)

4

2

mR = S

15

m(3W) = ___W

8

5

__

m=

8

1

__

T=1 W

8

1

Answer: T = 1__W,

8

1

__

R = 1 W,

4

3

__

S=1 W

4

Q. 8.

S

B

2W(5 cos q) = S(10 sin q)

10W cos q = 10S sin q

Q. 7.

4 Y = 2W

2W

q

B

Here are the forces acting on the rods

AB and AC:

Y2

5

f

2W

X3

X2

4

Since tan f = __,

3

4

sin f = __,

5

3

cos f = __

5

Y3

Y1

2W

X1

X1

A

Y1

f

A mR

2

1

1 W

4

Rod AB:

Taking moments around B we get:

2W(l cos b) + Y1(2l cos b)

= X1 (2l sin b)

W + Y1 = X1 tan b

... Equation 1

27

Dividing Equation 3 by

Equation 4 gives:

3W

4

tan a = ______ ____

4 tan b 5W

Rod AC:

W = 2X1 tan b + 2Y1

W 2Y1 = 2X1 tan b ... Equation 2

2W + 2Y1 = 2X1 tan b ... Equation 1

( 2)

Add: 3W = 4X1, tan b

3W

X1 = _______ ... substitute into

4 tan b

Equation 2

3W

W 2Y1 = 2 ______ tan b

4 tan b

... multiply by 4

)( )

3

tan a = ______

5 tan b

7 tan b

3

______ = ______

3

5 tan b

35 tan2 b = 9

9

tan2 b = ___

35

3

___

tan b = ____

35

Q

Q. 9. (i) Force diagram for the system including

the friction force at C.

4W 8Y1 = 6W

8Y1 = 2W

W

Y1 = __ ... the minus sign

4

indicates that the actual

direction of Y1 is opposite

to the direction indicated

in the diagram.

separately, we have the following:

CR

R2 a

R1

a

2W

3W

4 tan b

3W

4 tan b

W

R1 sin a + __ = 2W

4

7W

R1 sin a = ____

4

3W

______

R1 cos a =

4 tan b

( )(

3

4

28

3W

R2 sin a = ______

4 tan b

W

R2 cos a = W + __

4

5W

R2 cos a = ____

4

1

R = __ W tan f

2

W tan f = 2R

BC in isolation:

X1

B

Y1

Dividing Equation 1 by

Equation 2 gives:

7W 4 tan b

tan a = ____ ______

4

3W

7 tan b

tan a = ______

3

l

2W __ sin f = R(2l cos f)

2

divide by l cos f

C R

1

F(l sin f ) = R(l cos f ) + W __ sin f

2

divide by l cos f

1

F tan f = R + __ W tan f

2

1

but R = __ W tan f

2

1

1

__

__

F tan f = W tan f + W tan f

2

2

divide by tan f

1

1

F = __ W + __ W

2

2

Here are the forces when it is just on the

point of slipping:

F=W

(ii) An additional force is now applied

downwards at C. The force diagram for

the BC now looks like this:

X1 B

R

Y1

mR

C

W

R(d) = W

1

W(l sin f) + W __ sin f + R(l cos f)

2

= mR(l sin f)

divide by l cos f

1

__

W tan f + W tan f + R = mR tan f

2

1

R = __ W tan f

2

1

__

W tan f + W tan f = m W tan2 f

2

divide by W tan f

1

2 = m __ tan f

multiply by 2

2

m tan f = 4

4

m = _____

tan f

A to maximise the chance of slipping.

Because the system will then be

symmetrical, slipping will occur at B

and C simultaneously. Here are the

forces acting on the system:

( 2 ) + mR( l

W

W

F

S

G

( )

()

( )

4R = 6W

3

R = __W

2

3

__

R= W

2

_______

3d = d + 3m l2 d2

_______

3m l2 d2 = 2d

m=

2d

_________

_______

3 l2 d2

m2

d

_________

_______

3 l2 d2

Ring C

R

T sin a

T cos a

T cos a

T sin a

mR

W

4W(l cosa) = T cos a(2l sin a) +

T sin a(2l cos a)

3d

d

W __ + W(d) + W ___ = R(2d)

2

2

2

multiply by __

d

W + 2W + 3W = 4R

d2 )

_______

3

1

3

__

__

__

Wd = Wd + m W l2 d2

2

2

2

2

__

multiply by

W

4W

_______

d

__

l2 d2

friction, the friction force is mR.

mR

Lengths

divide by 2l cos a

2W = T sin a + T sin a

2W = 2T sin a

W = T sin a

29

C we can see that

mR = T cos a

Equation 1

and R = T sin a + W

but W = T sin a

R = 2T sin a

Equation 2

Dividing Equation 1 by

Equation 2 we get:

1

m = _______

2 tan a

2m tan a = 1

1

tan a = ___

2m

(ii) W = T sin a

we get:

( )

1.5

__ = R(1)

80 ___

2

__

120

__ = 60 2 N

R = ____

2

R__

(iii) S = ___

+ 40

2

R__

mS = ___

2

R__

R__

m ____

+ 40 = ___

2

2

(i)

__

but R = 60 2

m(60 + 40) = 60

1

tan a = ___

2m

T = W/sin a

1

________

sin a = _________

1 + 4m2

100m = 60

m = 0.6

________

T = W 1 + 4m2

slipping. We will then be at the smallest

value of m that will prevent slipping from

occurring. Here is the force diagram for

the system:

R

q q

80 N

Y

W

Hemisphere

mR

R

mS

40 N

mR

weight, both reaction forces are the same

and slipping occurs simultaneously at A

and C.

2R = 2W

R=W

Lengths

[AB] in isolation:

X

q

3

1

90 1

45

45

30

R

mR

ladder. There is no Y component as the

vectors in the Y direction already sum to

zero.

Taking moments around B we get:

l

R(l sin q) = mR(l cos q) + W __ sin q

2

2

multiply by ______ and let W = R

l cos q

divide by R

2 tan q = 2m + tan q

2m = tan q

1

m = __ tan q

2

This is the minimum value of q that will

prevent slipping from occurring.

1

__

m tan q

2

Q. 14. (i) Let x equal the distance from P to

where the block touches the rod.

0.8y

sin a = ____

x

4

tan a = __

3

4

sin a = __

5

0.8y

4

__ = ____

x

5

multiply both sides by 5x

4x = 4y

Taking moments around the hinge we

get:

3

cos a = __

5

18

R = ___g

5

block:

1 S = R cos a + 6g

( )( )

18 3

S = ___g __ + 6g

5

5

204

S = ____g

25

2 mS = R sin a

) ( )( )

204

18 4

m ____g = ___g __

5

5

25

25

multiply by ___

g

204m = 72

6

72

m = ____ = ___

204 17

(iv) Looking at the diagram of the rod:

X = R sin a

( )( )

18 4

= ___g __

5

5

= 28.224

x=y

Y + R cos a = 2g

(ii) Rod

Y = 2g R cos a

( )( )

18 3

= 2g ___g __

5

5

= 1.568

2g

a

X

Reaction at hinge

_

Block

= 28.224i 1.568j N

S

Magnitude

__________________

= (28.224)2 + (1.568)2

a R

= 28 N

mS

6g

31

Q

Q. 3.

Exercise 8J

Q. 1.

Forces:

Y

a

r

1

sin A = ______ = __

3r + r 4

A 3r

(ii)

X

A

cos A =

2.

___

15

____

4

240

R

r

b

P

1.5

Resolved Forces:

|ak|2 + 2.25 = 6.25

|ak| = 2

15

T

4

(1) Y = 240

1

T

4

(2) P + X = 0 X = P

(3) Taking moments about a:

R

W

240(0.75) = P(2)

___

(1)

15

____

4

T=W

T=

___

4W

____

___

P = 90 N

__ ___

15

______________

= (90)2 + (240)2

( )

= 256 N

Q. 4.

Q

(i) Forces:

Forces:

F

W

3

Resolved Forces:

1

T

2

__

(1)

3

___

2

T+

30

__

3

___

2

5

R

A

2

30 N

3

T

2

1

T

2

3

T

2

3

4

Since sin A = __, cos A = __

5

5

Resolved Forces:

F

W

T = 30

30

__

T = ___

3

3

R

5

__

= 10 3 N

4

R

5

32

___

1

(2) R = __T

4

1 4W

___

= __ ____

4 15

W

___

= ____

15

Q. 2.

__

X = 90i , Y = 240j

5

3

(iii) (1) __ R = W R = __W

5

3

5

4 __

4

4

__

__

(2) F = R =

W = __W

5

5 3

3

Resultant:

( )

Q. 5.

(a)

Forces:

x

100

the sum

150

A

150

1

mg

2

3g

( )

1

__

2

150 3

cos A = ____ = __

250 5

4

sin A = __

5

Resolved Forces:

1

1

mg __l + mg(l ) = 1 __mg(x)

2

2

5

__

x= l

6

O

y

x

3

T

5

T1

4

T

5

mg

2

3

The resultant weight, __mg acts through g,

2

which must be below in accordance with

Theorem 8.7

3g

Forces:

T1(x) = T2(y)

5

7

But x = __ l sin A, y = __ l sin A

6

6

5

__

7

__

T1 l sin A = T2 l sin A

6

6

T1 __

7

__

=

T2 5

15

4

(1) __ T = 3g T = ___ g

5

4

Q. 6.

5

R

6

Q. 7.

Q

) (

4

r

5

1

2l

1

mg

2

T2

A

7

l

6

1

2l

P

q

A

A

mg

3

r

5

4

sin A = __

5

3

cos A = __

5

33

obstacle:

W (2 sin A) = S(6 sin B)

8

24

___

W ____

= S ___

5

17

5W

_____

S = ___

3 17

Taking moments about b:

( ) ( )

P

r sin (A + q)

A+q

r

OBSTACLE

( ) ( )

( )

3

W __r = P(r sin (A + q))

5

3W

P = __________

5 sin (A + q)

(i) In this case q = 0

3W

3W

P = ______ = ____

4

5 sin A

(ii) In this case we want a minimum value

3W

for ___________ . This value is attained

5 sin (A + q)

3W

when sin (A + q) = 1, and is ____

5

16

24

___ = S ___

W ____

5

17

10W

_____

R = ___

3 17

Q. 9.

Q. 8.

AB

W

r

S

y

R

x

A

c

5

B

a

5

4

g A

1 m

2 W

S

B

|cm| = 4___

(by Pythagoras), |gm| = 1 and

|gc| = 17

4

4

___

sin A = ____

and sin B = __

5

17

34

1

1__

2__

Since tan A = __, sin A = ___

and cos A = ___

2

5

5

3

3

4

Since tan B = __, sin B = __ and cos B = __

5

5

4

Also, sin (A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B

3

1__ __

4

2__ __

= ___

+ ___

5 5

5 5

10__

= ____

5 5

2__

= ___

5

Taking moments about x:

( ) ( ) ( )( )

1__

2__

W ___

r = S ___

r

5

5

1

S = __ W

2

( ) ( )

Q.E.D.

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