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Chapter 8 Exercise 8A

Q. 1.

Q. 4.
Q

(a) R = 4j + 5j + j = 10j N
4(0) + 5(50) + 1(100) = 10(x)
x = 35 cm

R=W+x

Answer: 35 cm from P
_

W(0) + x(1) = (W + x)d

x
d = ______
W+x
x
W
The remainder is 1 ______ = ______
W+x W+x

(b) R = 2j + j + 2j = 5j

2(0) + 1(2) + 2(5) = 5x

x = 2.4 m
Answer: 2.4 m from P
_

Let the length of the plank be 1.

Let d = the distance from the resultants
line of action from the left-hand end.

x
W
The ratio of these parts = ______ : ______
W+x W+x

(c) R = j 7j + j = 5j

=x:W

1(0) 7(1) + 1(2) = 5(x)

x=1
Answer: 1 m from P
_

Q. 5.
Q
_

Taking moments about p.

(d) R = 3j 9j + 3j = 3j
x=3
_

(e) R = j 2j 3j + j = 3j

K=3

R = 2W + W + 3W = 6W

K=5

2W(0) + W(3) + 3W(6) = 6W(x)

1
x = 3__
2
1
1
__
__
Answer: 3 M and 2 M from the ends.
2
2
Q. 3.

Forces:
1m

( )

11
(ii) 4W(0) + W(1) + KW(2) = (5 + K)W ___
10
11(5
+
K)
1 + 2K = _________
10
10 + 20K = 55 + 11K

1(0) 2(2) 3(5) + 1(6) = 3(x)

1
x = 4__
3
1
Answer: 4__ m from P
3
Q. 2.

()

7
4W(0) + W(1) + KW(2) = (5 + K)W __
8
7(5 + K)
________
1 + 2K =
8
8 + 16K = 35 + 7K

3(1) 9(3) + 3(5) = 3x

Answer: 3 m from P

(i) R = 4W + W + KW = (5 + K)W

Exercise 8B
E
Q. 1.
Q

3N at (2, 1)
2N at (4, 3)

3W

1N at (10, 9)

7W

= 6N at (x, y)

x=4

Resultant:

3(1) + 2(3) + 1(9) = 6(y)

y=3

R = 7W + 3W = 10W
7W(0) + 3W(1) = 10W(x)
3
x = ___ m
10
= 30 cm = Answer

Q. 2.
Q

1N at (1, 1)
2N at (1, 7)
3N at (3, 1)
4N at (2, 3)

= 10N at (x, y)

2N at (1, 2)

x=2

3N at (1, 7)

5N at (5, 1)

y=3

2N at (x, y)

Q. 3.

= 12N at (4, 1)

x=9

3(4) + 2(9) = 5x

x=6

y = 4

3(1) + 2(9) = 5y

y=3

Q. 6.
Q

3(4) + 2(9) + 1(x) = 6(6)

( )

1
1(4) + 2(1) + 3(k) = 6 2__
2
k=3

x=6

h = 10

y=3
Q. 4.

Q. 7.
Q

(
10
= ( , 1)
3

W(3) + 2W(12) = 3W(x)

2+5+3 1+31
pqr = _________, _________
3
3

x=9
y = 13

M at (2, 1)

Answer: (9, 13) = g

__________________

|pg| = (9
____

+ (13

1)2

= 180

M at (5, 3)
M at (3, 1)

10
x = ___
3

= 6 5

____________________

___

__

M(1) + M(3) + M(1) = 3M(y)

= 45 = 3 5
__

__

|pg| : |gq| = 6 5 : 3 5
=2:1
2N at (1, 2)
3N at (1, 7)
5N at (5, 1)

y=1

10
The centre of gravity is at ___, 1
3
which is the centroid.

x=0

= 10N at (x, y)

M(1) + M(3) + M(1) + 2M(y) = 5M(1)

x=3
2(2) + 3(7) + 5(1) = 10(y)
y=2

Answer: 3i + 2j

= 3M at (x, y)

__

Q. 5.

___

W(1) + 2W(19) = 3W(y)

3)2

Centroid of triangle

y=1

Q. 8.

(i) W at (6, 5)

2W at (7, 1)
3W at (2, 11)
4W at (6, 1)

= 10W at (x, y)

W(6) + 2W(7) + 3W(2) + 4W(6) = 10W(x)

divide by W

10x = 50
x=5
W(5) + 2W(1) + 3W(11) + 4W(1) = 10W(y)

divide by W

10y = 40
y=4
The centre of gravity is at (5, 4)
(ii) W at (6, 5)
2W at (7, 1)
3W at (2, 11)
kW at (6, 1)

= (6 + k)W at (11, y)

W(6) + 2W(7) + 3W(2) + kW(6) = (6 + k)W(11)

divide by W

66 + 11k = 26 + 6k
5k = 40
k = 8
W(5) + 2W(1) + 3W(11) 8W(1) = 2W(y)

divide by W

2y = 28
y = 14
Q
Q. 9
9.

2N att ((x, 5)
3N at (11, y)
5N at (5, 6)

1(8) + 4(
4(y)) + 5(2) + 2(
2(3)
3) = 12(2)
= 10N at (6, 5)

y=3

2(x) + 3(11) + 5(5) = 10(6)

2x + 58 = 60
x=1
2(5) + 3(y) + 5(6) = 10(5)
3y 20 = 50

Q. 10.

1N at (7, 8)
4N at (1, y)
xN at (5, 2)
2N at (6, 3)

4y + 12 = 24

y = 10

Q.
Q 11.

3W at (30, 20)
2W at (20, 10)
5W at (50, 20)

= 10W at (x, y)

3W(30) + 2W(20) + 5W(50) = 10W(x)

divide by 10W
x = 38
3W(20) + 2W(10) + 5W(20) = 10W(y)
divide by 10W

= (7 + x)N at (4, 2)

y = 18
Centre of gravity is at (38, 18)

1(7) + 4(1) + x(5) + 2(6) = (7 + x)(4)

5x + 23 = 28 + 4x
x=5

Q. 12.

7
3N at __, 2
3
4N at (1, 7)

5N at (3, 7)
6N at (4, 4)

3 1
4 4
3
_

= 18N at (x, y)

tan A = ___
1_34
4

3
= __
7

7
__

= 0.4286

18x = 36

A = 23 12

x=2

(ii)

4
3

18y = 45

y = 2.5

Centre of gravity is at (2, 2.5)

Q. 13.

5 at (3, 1)
8 at (4, 2)
3 at (1, 5)
2 at (2, 6)

( )
1
2 at ( 2, ) = 8 at (x, y)
2
1
2 at ( 2, 3 )
2
1
4( ) + 2(2) + 2(2) = 8(x)
2
1
4 at __, 2
2

= 18 at (x, y)

__

__

__

18x = 48
8
x = __
3

1
x = 1__
4
1
1
__
__
4(2) + 2 + 2 3 = 8(y)
2
2
y=2
1
__
Answer: 1 , 2
4
_
1
1
4
2
tan A = ___
2
A
5
2
= __
g
8
= 0.625
1 1
4
A = 32

() ( )

5(1) + 8(2) + 3(5) + 2(6) = 18(y)

18y = 14
7
y = __
9
8 __
7
__
Centre of gravity is at ,
3 9

( )

Exercise 8C
(i)

1 2 3 4

5(3) + 8(4) + 3(1) + 2(2) = 18(x)

Q. 1.

(iii)

4
1

3
2
1

(
(

1 1
3 at __, 1__
2 2
1 1
1 at 1__, __
2 2

)
)

= 4 at (x, y)

() ( )

1
1
3 __ + 1 1__ = 4x
2
2
3
x = __
4
1
1
__
__
3 1 + 1 = 4y
2
2
3
y = 1__
4

( ) ()

__

__

__

1
1
4
3

( )
1 1
1 at ( 1 , 2 ) = 9 at (x, y)
2 2
1
4 at ( 2 , 2 )
2
1
1
1
4( ) + 1( 1 ) + 4( 2 ) = 9(x)
2
2
2
1
4 at __, 2
2

1
4 A

__

__

__

3
x = __
2

( )

1
4(2) + 1 2__ + 4(2) = 9(y)
2
37
y = ___
18
3 37
2 18

9p at (3, 0)
27p at (x, y)

35
18

3
_
2
tan A = __
35
__
18

9p(0) + 27p(y) = 36p(0) y = 0

The distance (0, 0) to (1, 0)

p
A

Q. 3.
Q

Remainder: Area = 16 1 = 15 m2

A = 37 39
(iv)

1 at (3.5, 3.5)

(13,3)

(7,3)

15 at (x, y)

3
(0,0)

(7,0)

15x = 28.5

Centroid is at
7 + 7 + 13 _________
3+3+0
___________
,
= (9, 2)
3
3
1
Area is __(6)(3) = 9 square units
2

9 at (9, 2)

( 2)
1
__

21 3

y = 1.9

Q. 4.
Q

( )

(iii) Square: Centre of gravity is at

(1.5, 1.5)
Area of square = 3 3 = 9

1.6

(
)
1 + 9 + 11 2 + 6 + 1
(ii) (
,
) = (7, 3)
3
3
1+3+5 1+5+0
(i) _________, _________ = (3, 2)
3
3
___________ _________

1
21 1__ + 9(2) = 30(y)
2
y = 1.65
5

5
1.3
A

5.1

A = 75 19

Triangle: Centre of gravity is at

3 + 3 + 9 _________
0+3+0
_________
,
= (5, 1)
3
3
1
Area of triangle = __(6)(3) = 9
2
9 at (1.5, 1.5)
= 18 at (x, y)
9 at (5, 1)

Q. 2.

= 30 at (x, y)

x = 5.15

(3,0)

x = 1.9

(1.9, 1.9)

+ 9(9) = 30(x)

5.15
tan A = ____
1.35
= 3.8148

= 16 at (2, 2)

3.5 + 15x = 32

Triangle piece:

1 1
21 at 3__, 1__
2 2

Full Square: Area = 4 4 = 16 m2

Small Square: Area = 1 1 = 1 m2

= 0.7714

= 36p at (0, 0)

37
18

27
= ___
35

9(1.5) + 9(5) = 18(x)

(6,0)

18x = 58.5
x = 3.25
9(1.5) + 9(1) = 18(y)

18y = 22.5

y = 1.25

Remainder: Area = 27p,

Centre of gravity is at (x, y)

(3.25, 1.25)

Centre of gravity is at (x, y)

1
153__ at (x, y)}
2
= 192 at (0, 4)
1
__
38 at (0, 6)
2

Area of rectangle = 16 4 = 64
Triangle: Centre of gravity is at (4, 5)
1
Area of triangle = __(16)(3) = 24
2
64 at (8, 2)
24 at (8, 5)

1
1
153__(x) + 38__(0) = 192 (0)
2
2
x=0

= 88 at (x, y)

1
1
153__(y) + 38__(6) = 192(4)
2
2
1,074
y = ______
307

64(8) + 24(8) = 88(x)

x=8
64(2) + 24(5) = 88(y)
31
y = ___
11
Centre of gravity of lamina is at
31
8, ___
11

= 3.5 cm
Q. 6.
Q

Q. 5.

Area of full disc = p(52) = 25p

Area of remainder = 25p 4p
= 21p

A(0,12)

20

20

(0,2)

(0,0)

x
B
(16,0)

C(16,0)
16

D
(0,4)

16

21p at (x, y)

4p at (2, 0)

= 25p at (0, 0)

Taking moments around the y-axis:

1
Triangle: Area = __(32)(12)
2

21x + 8 = 0

= 192

21x = 8
8
x = ___
21

Taking D as the origin, the centre of gravity

is at the centroid of A(0, 12), B(16, 0)
and C(16, 0) which is at

0 16 + 16 ___________
12 + 0 + 0
____________
3

Centre of gravity of the remainder is

8
___
m = 38 cm from O.
21

) = (0, 4)

Circle: Area = pr2

22 49
= ___ ___
7
4
77
___
=
2
1
= 38__
2
Centre of gravity is at m(0, 6)

|AB|2 = |BD|2 + |AD|2

1
The remainder: Area = 192 38__
2
1
= 153__
2

Q. 7.
Q

A
(10,3)

C
B

(0,0)

A: Area is 3 2 = 6

(8,0)

1
Centre of gravity is at 9, 4__
2
1
__
B: Area = (2)(3) = 3
2

(10,0)

15pr2(x) + pr2(2r) = 16pr2 (0)

Centre of gravity is at

( (8 + 103 + 10), 0 + 30 + 3 ) = ( 283 , 1 )

_____________ _________

2r
x = ___
15
15pr2(y) + pr2(0) = 16pr2 (0)

___

Rectangle: Area = 10 6 = 60
Centre of gravity is at (5, 3)

2r
15

Remainder C: Area = 60 6 3 = 51.

Centre of gravity is at (x, y)

(
(

1
6 at 9, 4__
2
28
___
3 at
,1
3
51 at (x, y)

)
)

Q. 9.
= 60 at (5, 3)

(50,50)
(20,20)

( )

28
6(9) + 3 ___ + 51 (x) = 60(5)
3
218
x = ____
51
1
__
6 4 + 3(1) + 51(y) = 60(3)
2
150
y = ____
51
218 150
Answer: ____, ____ = (4.27, 2.94)
51 51

22 400
= ___ ____
7
1
= 1,257

( )

Q. 8.

y=0

= 10,000

= 8,743

x=2

y = 1

8,743 at (x, y)

(b)

x = 54.3

a(0,0)

b(2r,0)

Q. 10.

90 cm

Larger circle: Area = pR2

= p(4r)2

30 cm

= 16pr2
Centre of gravity is at (0, 0)
115 cm

Smaller Circle: Area = pr2

Centre of gravity is at b(2r, 0)

30 cm

Remainder: Area = 16pr2 pr2

= 15pr2
Centre of gravity is at (x, y)
15pr2 at (x, y)
pr2 at (2r, 0)

16pr2

at (0, 0)

a(0,0)

b(90,0)

115
(i) Distance = ____
2
= 57.5 cm

Area = 90 115

270 at (16, 6)

= 10,350

378x = 4,968

Larger Section:

x = 13.14

Area = 80 70

= 5,600

378y = 2,700

Smaller Section:

y = 7.14

Area = 80 30

Centre of Gravity of lamina is at

(13.14, 7.41)

= 2,400
Centre of gravity is at (45, 95)

Q. 12.
Q

Remainder:
Area = 10,350 5,600 2,400
= 2,350
Centre of gravity is at (x, y)
5,600 at (45, 40)
2,400 at (45, 95)
2,350 at (x, y)

= 10,350
at (45, 57.5)

Taking moments about the x-axis:

5,600(40) + 2,400(95) + 2,350(y)
= 10,350 (57.5)
y = 60.9 cm
1
(i) Area DOPQ = __(base)(height)
2
take [OP] as the base
1
__

Area DOPQ = (12)(18)

2
= 108 square units
1
Area DOQR = __(base)(height)
2
take [OR] as the base
1
Area DOQR = __(30)(18)
2
(ii) Centre of Gravity of DOPQ

0 + 0 + 18 ____________
0 + 12 + 18
___________
3

= (6, 10)
Centre of Gravity of DOQR
0 + 18 + 30 0 + 18 + 0
= ____________, ___________
3
3
= (16, 6)

1
(i) Area DOPQ = __ |x1y2 x2y1|
2
1
= __| (18)(6) (6)(18) |
2
= 108
1
Area DOQR = __(base)(height)
2
take [OR] as the base
1
Area DOQR = __(36)(18)
2
= 324 square units
Area DOQR : Area DOQR = 108 : 324
=1:3
(ii) Centre of Gravity of DOPQ

0 6 + 18 0 + 6 + 18
= ___________, ___________
3
3

= (4, 8)
Centre of Gravity of DOQR

0 + 18 + 36 0 + 18 + 0
= ____________, ___________
3
3
= (18, 6)
(iii) 1 at (4, 8)
3 at (18, 6)

= 4 at (x, y)

= 378 at (x, y)

Q. 11.

(1)(4) + (3)(18) = (4)(x)

4x = 58
x = 14.5
Taking moments around the x-axis:
(1)(8) + (3)(6) = (4)(y)
4y = 26

y = 6.5
Centre of Gravity of lamina is at
(14.5, 6.5)

Q. 6.
Q

Exercise 8D
Q. 1.

(i) The centre of gravity of the cylinder

1
1
is at a height __h = __(24) = 12 cm
2
2
above the table.

Let P be the point at the right extreme end

of the central axis.

(ii) The centre of gravity of the cone is at

1
1
a height __h = __(24) = 6 cm
4
4
above the table.

Here, then, is the diagram of the forces.

The total weight of the compound body is
4W which acts through a point which is
x cm from P.

(iii) The centre of gravity of the solid

hemisphere is at a height
3
3
__
r = __(24) = 9 cm above the table.
8
8
(iv) The centre of gravity of the
hemispherical shell is at a height
1
1
__
r = __(24) = 12 cm above the table.
2
2
Q. 2.

1
(i) __h = 5
4
h = 20 cm

3W
4W

By the Principle of Moments:

W(13) + 3W(5) = 4W(x)

Q. 5.

divide by W

28 = 4x
x = 7 cm from P
Q. 7.
Q
2

1
1
2W acts through a point __h = __(14) = 7 cm
2
2
from P.
1
W acts through a point __(8) = 2 cm from
4
the base of the cone, i.e. 16 cm from P.

3
1
= __p(32)(20)
3
= 60p cm3

(i)

2W

1
(ii) V = __pr2h

Q. 4.

The difference in the heights of their

centres of gravity above the table is
8 6 = 2 cm.
Q. 3.

The centre of gravity of the solid

hemisphere is at a height
3
3
__
r = __(16) = 6 cm above the table.
8
8
The centre of gravity of the hemispherical
1
1
shell is at a height __r = __(16) = 8 cm
2
2
above the table.

3
W acts through a point __r = 3 cm from
8
the base of the cylinder.
1
3W acts through a point __h = 5 cm from
2
the base of the hemisphere.

Here, then, is the diagram of the forces.

The total weight of the compound body
is 3W, which acts through a point which is
x cm from P.

3
__

r=3
8
r = 8 cm
2
(ii) V = __pr3
3
2 3
__
= p(8 )
3
1,024p
_______
=
cm3
3
1
(i) __r = 3
2
r = 6 cm

W
2W
3W

=

2pr2
2p(62)

= 72p cm2

divide by W

30 = 3x
x = 10 cm

Q. 8.

15

15

W
3W

4W

5W

5W acts through a point

1
1
__
h = __(30) = 15 mm from P.
2
2
3
W acts through a point __(24) = 9 mm
8
from the base of the hemisphere,
i.e. 39 mm from P.

28 = 4x
x = 7 mm
Q. 10.
Q
3

Here, then, is the diagram of the forces.

The total weight of the compound body is
6W, which acts through a point which is
x mm from P.
15

24

1
W acts through a point __(12) = 3 cm
4
from the base of the hemisphere.
3
W acts through a point __(8) = 3 cm from
8
the base of the cone, i.e. 15 cm from P.

W
5W
6W

Here, then, is the diagram of the forces.

The total weight of the compound body
is 2W which acts through a point which is
x cm from P.

114 = 6x
x = 19 mm

Q. 9.
5

divide by W

2W

By the Principle of Moments,

W(15) + W(9) = 2W(x)

3W

24 = 2x

3W acts through a point

1
1
__
h = __(10) = 5 mm from P.
2
2
1
W acts through a point __(6) = 3 mm from
2
the base of the hemisphere, i.e. 13 mm
from P.

10

Here, then, is the diagram of the forces.

The total weight of the compound body is
4W, which acts through a point which is
x mm from P.

divide by W

x = 12 cm
i.e. the centre of the compound body is
12 cm from P. This is at the plane where
the bases of the two solids meet.
Q. 11.
Q

(i) vcylinder = pr2h

= p(122)(40)
= 5,760p cm3

1
vcone = __pr2h
3
1
= __p(122)(40)
3
1
__
= (5,760p) cm3
3
vcylinder = 3(vcone)

(ii)
12

cone)

2W

Let W be the weight of the

hemisphere. Therefore 2W is the
weight of the cylinder. W acts through
a point _38 r = _38(18) = 675 cm
from the top of the cylinder. 2W acts
through a point _12 h = _12(24) = 12 cm
from the base of the hemisphere.

(ii)
20

20

10

W
3W

Let W be the weight of the cone.

Therefore 3W is the weight of the

Here, then, is the diagram of the

forces. The total weight of the
compound body is 3W, which acts
through a point which is x cm from P.

cylinder. W acts through a point

1
__

1
h = __(40) = 10 cm from the base
4
4
of the cylinder. 3W acts through a
1
1
point __h = __(40) = 20 cm from the
2
2
base of the cone.

12

30

18.75

2W
3W

By the Principle of Moments:

2W(12) + W(30.75) = 3W(x)

divide by W
3x = 54.75

W
3W

x = 18.25 cm

4W

Q. 13.
Q

divide by W
110 = 4x
x = 27.5 cm
Q. 12.

=
W

Here, then, is the diagram of the

forces. The total weight of the
compound body is 4W, which acts
through a point which is x cm from P.
20

6.75

(i) vcylinder = pr2h = p(182)(24)

= 7,776p cm3
2
2
vhemisphere = __ pr3 = __ p(183)
3
3
= 3,888p cm3
vcylinder = 2(vhemisphere)
weight of cylinder : weight of cone
=2:1

10

10

O
W

W
3W

Let W be the weight of the hemisphere

and of the cone. Therefore 3W is the
weight of the cylinder. The weight of
the hemisphere, W, acts through a
point _38 r = _38(8) = 3 cm from the base
of the cylinder. The weight of the
cylinder, 3W, acts through a point
_
_
1
1
2 h = 2 (20) = 10 cm from the base of the
cylinder. The weight of the cone, W, acts
through a point _14 h = _14(16) = 4 cm from
the top of the cylinder.

11

Here, then, is the diagram of the forces.

The total weight of the compound body
is 5W which acts through a point which
is x cm from O.
14

3 10
W

Exercise 8E
E
Q. 1.
Q

3W

5W

___

_____________
__

x = 10.2 cm

______

= 8 N
__

db = 3 2

2pr2

__

__

i 3 2

( )

__

__

__

__

(ii)
Q. 2.
Q
W

Let W be the weight of the hemisphere.

Therefore 4W is the weight of the
cylinder. W acts through a point _2r
from the top of the cylinder. 4W acts
through a point _12 h = _12(4r) = 2r from
the base of the hemisphere.
Here, then, is the diagram of the
forces. The total weight of the
compound body is 5W which acts
through a point which is a distance of
x from P.
=

5W

By the Principle of Moments:

4W(2r) + W(4.5r) = 5W(x)
divide by W

x = 2.5r.

__

__

__

__________

___

c
2

___

__

__

__

__

__

__

R = 3i 2i + 5i 4j
= 8i 6j

___

__________

|R | = 82 + (6)2
____

= 100
= 10 N

Let x = the distance of its line of action

from a.
The moment of the sum = the sum of the
moments. (Taking moments about a)

5x = 12.5r

d
4

4W

2.5r

__

|R | = 12 + (5)2 = 26 N

r
2

2r

1__
___

= i 5j

___

__

The new resultant = (2i 2j ) + (3i 3j )

Wcylinder = 4(Whemisphere)

12

( )
1__
___

= 3i 3j

CSAcylinder = 4(CSAhemisphere)

4W

__

|R | = (2)2 + (2)2

5x = 51

2r

__

= 2i 2j

divide by W

CSAhemisphere =

__

R = i +__ 2j __ 3i 4j

Q. 14.

__

___

10(x) = 3(0) 2(1) 5(1) + 4(0)

7
x = ___ m
10
= 70 cm
Let it intersect at a distance k from a,
therefore a distance (1 k) from b.

Q. 5.
Q

Taking moments about the point of

intersection.

7
k = __ m
6
1
Answer: 1__ m from a.
6
Q. 3.

5m

20

10

5m

16 N
16
8m

|ad|2 + |dc|2 = |ac|2

42 + |dc|2 = 52

______________

|dc| = 3 m
3
tan A = __
4
3
sin A = __
5
4
cos A = __
_____
_ 5
ab = 16i

____

bc = 10 cos Ai + 10 sin Aj

16

2
_

___

(i) R = 2i + 4j 7i 16j
_

= 5i 12j
___

_____

(ii) |R | = (5)2 + (12)2

= 169

____

= 13 N

Q. 4.

___

___

= 10 N
Taking moments about c:

moments
_

10(x) = 16(3) + 10(0) + 20(0)

(i) R = 2i + 2j + 2i j + (8i 6j )

x = 4.8 m

= 12i 5j
___

___________

|R | =

_____________

= 100

___

R = 8i 6j
____

10

|R | = (8)2 + (6)2

13

= 8i + 6j

= 16i 12j

13(x) = 2(0) + 4(1) + 7(1) + 16(0)

x=

ca = 20 cos Ai 20 sin Aj

11
___

122

____

Q. 6.
Q

(5)2

= 169
= 13 N

(ii) Taking moments about d:

13(x) = 2(3) + 2(4) + 2(0) + 1(0) + 10(0)
14
x = ___ m
13
(iii) 13x = 2(3) + 2(4) + 2(0) + 1(0)
+ 10(0) + 12
x=2m

4N
a

3N
60
8N
_____

60

(i) ab = 8i
_____

bc = 8 cos 60i + 8 sin 60j

__

( 2 ) i + 8( 2 )j

= 8

_
1
__

_
3
___

___

= 4i + 43 j

13

__

____

__

ca = 4 cos 60i + 4 sin 60j

__

___

Q. 2.
Q

= 2i + 2 3 j
_

___

T1

1 T2

___

R = 6i + 6 3 j
___

___________
__

|R | = 62 + (6 3 )2
_________

= 36 + 108
____

T1 + T2 = 2W

11
T2 = ___W
8
5
__
T1 = W
8

= 144
= 12 N
(ii)

Q. 3.
Q

1
l
2

(i)
1

T1

2N

( 2l ) =
1
__

l2

__

x=

3
___
2

x2

T2

T1 + T2 = 2

T1 + T2 = 10

Moment of the sum = the sum of the

moments
__
3

___
12(x) = 8(0) + 8
l + 4(0)
2
__
12x = 4 3 l

8
Solving these gives T1 = __ N,
7
6
T2 = __ N
7

( )

__

x=

3
___

(ii)

3
1__
___
=
lm
3

T2

2N

T + 2T = 6
T=2N

Q. 1.

2
4N

Exercise 8F

The moment
of the forces about a
__
was 4 3__l N m, so the moment
M = 4 3 l N m.

T1
1

2T
1

Q. 4.
Q

1
x = 2 __ cm
2

(i)

W
6m

T1 + T2 = 2W

W
R

4m

3
__

T2 = W
4
1
T1 = 1 __W
4

14

mR

R=W

mR = S

Q. 7.
Q

W(2) = S(6)
1
S = __W
3
1
__
mW = W
3
1
m = __
3

(ii) 2

R
A

Q. 5.

1
R
2
S

Let the ladder have a length of 2l.

1
11 m

mR
10 m

R=W

mR = S

3
2
Q. 6.

(a)

5
W(5) = S(11) S = ___W
11
5
5
mW = ___W m = ___
11
11

R=W
1
__
R=S
2
W(l cos A) = S(2l sin A)
W cos A
W
S = _______ = _______
2 tan A
2 sin A
1
W
__
W = _______ tan A = 1
2
2 tan A
A = 45.

Q. 8.
Q
S

1
S
2

(i) Friction
(ii) Moment
W

(b) 1

R = 245

0.8R = S

245 (a cos a) = S(2a sin a)

A
1
R
2

Equation 2
S = 0.8(245) = 196
Equation 3
245 cos a = (196)2 sin a

Let the ladder have a length of 2l.

1
1
1 R + __
S = W R = W __S
2
2
1
2 __
R=S
2
1
3 W(lcos A) = S(2l sin A) + __
S(2l cos A)
2
divide by l cos A

245 = 392 tan a

245
tan a = ____
392
5
__
=
8

W = 2S tan A + S
S(2 tan A + 1) = W
W
S = __________
2 tan A + 1
2

a
R

0.8 R

25g = 245 N

( W 12S ) = S

1
__
2

__

1
1
__W __S = S 2W S = 4S
4
2
2W = 5S
5W
2W = __________
2 tan A + 1
5
2 tan A + 1 = __
2
3
__
tan A = A = 37
4

15

Q. 9.

mS

3
45
a

20g = 196

W(5 cos A) = S(10 sin A)

mR

W cos A = 2S sin A
4
4
But S = __R = __W.
5
5

R + mS = 196

mR = S

Taking moments about a:

( )

4
W cos A = 2 __W sin A
5
8
__
cos A = sin A
5
8
1 = __ tan A
5
5
tan A = __
8

196(2 cos 45) = S(4 sin 45)

+ mS(4 cos 45)
1__
But cos 45 = sin 45 = ___
2
196(2) = S(4) + mS(4)
(ii)

S + mS = 98

S(1 + m) = 98
98
S = ______
1+m
Now mR = S
98
98
1
1 ______
__
________
R = __
m S = m 1 + m = m(1 + m)
Putting these into equation 1 , we
get
98
98 = 196.
________
+ m ______
m(1 + m)
1+m

98 +

= 196m(1 + m).
Divide by 98.

1 + m2 = 2m(1 + m)
1 + m2 = 2m + 2m2

m2

+ 2m 1 = 0

m=

__

= 1 2

( )

2 2 2
__________
2

( )

__

Since m > 0, m = 2 1 Q.E.D.

Q. 10. (i)

2W

= S(10 sin A)
4
2W __x + W(4) = S(6)
5
8
__ xW + 4W = 6S
5
12
But S = ___ W
5
8
12
__
xW + 4W = 6 ___W
5
5
8x + 20 = 72
x = 6.5 m

__

______

2 4 + 4
_____________

A
4
R
5

3
3
4
Since tan A = __, cos A = __, sin A = __
5
5
4
1 R = 2W + W = 3W
4
2 __
R=S
5
4
12
S = __(3W) = ___W
5
5
3 2W(x cos A) + W(5 cos A)

Multiply by m(1 + m)
98m2

R=W
4
__
R=S
5
Taking moments about the foot

(iii)
5

5
A
4
R
5

16

W
R
A
4R
5

2W

Assume it is just on the point of slipping

when the man reaches the top.
1

Q
Q. 2.
A

R = W + 2W = 3W
4
__
R=S
5
4
12
S = __(3W) = ___W
5
5
W(5 cos A) + 2W(10 cos A)

8 cm R
B

5W = 2S tan A

________

= 15 cm
[CD] is a median of the triangle. The
2
centroid therefore lies __ of the way
3
along [CD].
2
__
(15) = 10
3
The centre of gravity is 10 cm from C.
(ii)

8
4
W

8
R
B

3 W(5) = S(8)

5
S = __W
8

from C.

5
mW = __W
8

5
m = __
8
Q. 3.
Q
A

Assume it is on the point of slipping.

Therefore, F = mR.
(ii) 1

1 R=W
2 mR = S

mR

|CD| = 172 82

17 cm

|CD|2 + 82 = 172

Exercise 8G
(i)

12
___

W,
5
24
5W = ___W tan A
5
25
tan A = ___
24

Q. 1.

= S(10 sin A)

But S =

17 cm

8 cm

29 cm
20 cm

R=W

mR = S

Taking moments about b:

20 cm R

W(2) = S(8)
1
S = __W
4
Equation 2
mR = S
1
m(W) = __W
4
1
m = __
4
1
The least value of is __.
4

W
29 cm
mR

Using Pythagoras Theorem

|CD|2 + 202 = 292

_________

|CD| = 292 202 = 21 cm

[CD] is a median of the triangle. The
2
centroid therefore lies __ of the way
3
along [CD].
2
__
3

(21) = 14

17

The centre of gravity is 14 cm

from C.
1

R=W

mR = S

Q
Q. 5. (a) See text
(b)

m
W

W(7) = S(20)

7
S = ___W
20

F q

7
mW = ___W
20

7
m = ___
20

Q. 4.

Let |pm| = x
A
25 cm

7 cm
D
7 cm

x2

2
|pg| = __
3

mR

(i) Using Pythagoras Theorem:

|CD|2

72

252

|CD| =

________

252

72

= 24 cm
[CD] is the median of the triangle. The
2
centroid therefore lies __ of the way
3
along [CD].
2
__
(24) = 16
3
The centre of gravity is 16 cm
from C.
1
1 R + __
S=W
4

1
R = W __S
4

2 mR = S
1
3 W(8) = S(7) + __
S(24)
4
8W = 13S
8
S = ___W
13
11
R = ___W
13
(ii)

( 13 )

8
11W = ___
m ___
W
13
8
m = ___
11

( 3a ) =
1
__

1
S
4

25 cm
B

18

m
1
a
2

a2

__

3
x = __ a
2

__

( )
( )
3
__

1__
a = ___
a
3
__
1 3
1__
|gm| = __ ___a = ____
a
3 2
23
1 R=W
2 F=S

( )

1
1__
3 S __
a = W ____
a
2
2 3
1__
S = ___
W
3
1__
The reactions are ___
W, W
3
If it is on the point of slipping, then F = mR.
Equation 2
mR = S
1__
mW = ___
W
3
1__
m = ___
3

1__
.
The least value of m is ___
3
Q.
Q 6. (a) See text
(b)

T1 p(0,3)

4,
(2,1)(3 1)
T2

4
W
3

W
T3 r(0,0)

q(4,0)

Centroid is at

( 0 + 30 + 4, 0 + 33 + 0 ) = ( 43, 1 )
_________ _________

__

Component of weight acting down the

3
plane = 200 sin A = 200 __ = 120 N
5
Component of weight acting perpendicular
4
to the plane = 200 cos A = 200 __ = 160 N
5
R = 160 N

4
1 T1 + T2 + T3 = __
W+W
3
7
T1 + T2 + T3 = __W
3
2 Taking moments about the y-axis:
4
4
T2(4) + T1(0) + T3 (0) = __W(2) + W __
3
3
4T2 = 4W

()

()

()

Friction = mR

T2 = W
3 Taking moments about the x-axis:
4
T1(3) + T2(0) + T3(0) = __W(1) + W(1)
3
7
__
T1 = W
9
7
__
But T1 + T2 + T3 = W
3
5
__
T3 = W
9
5
7
__
__
Answer: W, W, W
9
9

1
= __(160)
2
= 80 N
F + 80 = 120
F = 40 N
Q. 3.
Q

on the particle
R

Exercise 8H

30
3R
5

Q. 1.

F
R

Component of weight acting down

()

1
the plane = 100 sin 30 = 100 __ = 50 N
2

30

A
A

__

50

( )

4
tan A = __
3
cos A =

3
__
5

and sin A =

4
__
5

Component of weight acting down the

4
plane = 50 sin A = 50 __ = 40 N
5
F = 40 N

()

Q. 2.

F
R
mR
A

160

Component of F acting along

__
3

___
the plane = F cos 30 =
F
2
Component of F acting perpendicular to
1
the plane = F sin 30 = __F
2
__
1
R = 503 + __F
2
__

3
__

3
___

But, R + 50 =
F
5
2
__
__
3
3
1
__ 503 + __F + 50 = ___F
5
2
2
__

30 3 +

3
___

__

3
___

F + 50 =
F
2
10
__
3003 + 3F + 500 = 5 3 F
__

200
120

3
tan A = __
4

3
___

__2
= 50 3 N

40

100 N

30

3
4
cos A = __ and sin A = __
5
5

__

__

__

F=

100(3__ 3 + 5)
_____________
5 3 3

~
180 N

19

Q. 4.

Q
Q. 6.

tan a = 2
1__
2__
cos a = ___
sin a = ___
5
5

Here is a diagram of the resolved forces

acting on the body:
R

Forces

mR

A
7 sin A

7cos A

14 cos A

14 sin A

7 cos A + 7 = 14 sin A

Resolved
W
3

cos A + 1 = 2 sin A

__________

cos A + 1 = 2 1 cos2 A
square both sides

2W
5

mR
W
5

cos2 A + 2 cos A + 1 = 4 4 cos2 A

5 cos2 A + 2 cos A 3 = 0

2W
5

(5 cos A 3)(cos A + 1) = 0
3
cos A = __ OR cos A = 1
5
cos A = 1 is excluded because A is an
acute angle.

3W
2W
W__ ____
__ + ___
1 R = ____
= __
5
5
5
W__ ____
2W
2 mR + ___
= __
5
5
W
__
mR = ___
5
Dividing 1 by 2
1
m = __
3

Q. 7.
Q

(i) Particle about to slip down the plane

R

mR
19.6

98 A

Q. 5.

98 cos A
98 sin A

R = 98 cos A

19.6 + mR = 98 sin A
l
R tan l
a
a

W cos a

19.6 + 98 m cos A = 98 sin A

2 + 10 m cos A = 10 sin A
10 sin A 10 m cos A = 2

W sin a

The diagram shows the forces on the

particle. Since m = tan l, the friction force
is R tan l as shown.
Particle will slip down the plane if
W sin a > R tan l

but R = W cos a

W sin a > W cos a tan l

divide by W cos a

20

98
mR
98 A
A

98 cos A
98 sin A

R = 98 cos A
98 = mR + 98 sin A

tan a > tan l

98 = 98 m cos A + 98 sin A

a>l

10 = 10 m cos A + 10 sin A

10 sin A + 10 m cos A = 10 2
Adding equations 1 and 2 we get

3
4 = 10
10 __ + 10 m __
5
5

()

20 sin A = 12
3
sin A = __
5
3 = 36.87
A = sin1 __
5

()

6 + 8m = 10
8m = 4
1
m = __
2

()

(iii) The force diagram therefore looks like this:

his:
R
1
R
2
98
A

F sin l
F
l

F cos l

78.4
58.8

R + F sin l = 78.4

1
__
2

R = 78.4 F sin l

R + 58.8 = F cos l
R = 2F cos l 117.6

78.4 F sin l = 2F cos l 117.6

F(2 cos l + sin l) = 196
196
F = _____________
2 cos l + sin l
= 196(2 cos l + sin l)1
dF
___ = 196(2 cos l + sin l)2 (2 sin l + cos l)
dl
dF 196(cos l 2 sin l)
___ = __________________
dl
(2 cos l + sin l)2
dF
Putting ___ = 0 we get
dl
cos l 2 sin l = 0
1 2 tan l = 0
1
tan l = __
2
1
2__
___
sin l = __ and cos l = ___
5

5
196
F = _____________
2 cos l + sin l
196
= ________
___
4__
1__
+ ___
5

196
= ____
5
___
__

196
__ N
= ____
5

21

Q. 8.

m = tan l
The diagram shows resolved forces acting on the particle.
F sin q
R

mR

F cos q
W cos a
W sin a

R + F sin q = W cos a

mR + W sin a = F cos q

R = W cos a F sin q

R tan l = F cos q W sin a

F cos q W sin a
R = _______________
tan l
F cos q W sin a
_______________
W cos a F sin q =
tan l
cos l
W cos a F sin q = (F cos q W sin a) _____ multiply by sin l
sin l

W cos a sin l F sin q sin l = F cos q cos l W sin a cos l

F(cos q cos l + sin q sin l) = W(cos a sin l + sin a cos l)
F cos(q l) = W sin(a + l)
W sin(a + l)
F = ___________
cos (q l)
(i) Force acting up along the plane q = 0
W sin (a + l)
F = ____________
cos (l)

cos(l) = cos l

W sin(a + l)
F = ___________
cos l
(ii) Horizontal force q = a
W sin(a + l)
F = ___________
cos(a l)
W sin(a + l)
= ____________
cos[(a + l)]
W sin (a + l)
= ____________
cos (a + l)
= W tan (a + l)
W sin (a + l)
(iii) F = ____________
cos (q l)
Minimum force will occur when cos(q l) is at its maximum value, i.e. cos(q l) = 1
FMIN = W sin(a + l).

22

Q. 9.

(i) The normal reaction, R, and the limiting friction, F, acting on a body which is either moving
or on the point of moving, can be added to form a resultant. The angle between this
resultant and the normal reaction is the angle of friction.
(ii)

S tan l
S

W
R
R tan l

1

R + S tan l = W
R = W S tan l

R tan l = S

Wl sin a = S(2l cos a) + S tan l(2l sin a)

S(2 cos a + 2 tan l sin a) = W sin a
W sin a
S = ___________________
2(cos a + tan l sin a)

(W S tan l) tan l = S
W tan l S tan2 l = S
S(1 + tan2 l) = W tan l
W tan l
S = _________
1 + tan2 l
W sin a
W tan l
___________________ = _________
2(cos a + tan l sin a) 1 + tan2 l
(1 + tan2 l)sin a = 2 tan l(cos a + tan l sin a)
sin a + tan2 l sin a = 2 tan l cos a + 2 tan2 l sin a
tan2 l sin a + 2 tan l cos a = sin a

divide by cos a

tan2 l tan a + 2 tan l = tan a

tan a(1 tan2 l) = 2 tan l
2 tan l
tan a = _________
1 tan2 l
tan a = tan 2l
a = 2l

23

Q. 10.

S
q
R

R tan l

Let the length of the ladder be 2l.

We must firstly resolve R and R tan l into horizontal and vertical components:
The horizontal component of R is R sin a.
The vertical component of R is R cos a.
The horizontal component of R tan l is R tan l cos a.
The vertical component of R tan l is R tan l sin a
1

S + R sin a = R tan l cos a

S
R = ________________
tan l cos a sin a

W = R cos a + R tan l sin a

W = R(tan l sin a + cos a)

W(l sin q) = S(2l cos q)

1
S = __W tan q as required
2
S
________________
W=
(tan l sin a + cos a)
tan l cos a sin a

1
tan l sin a + cos a
W = __W tan q ________________
2
tan l cos a sin a

1
tan l tan a + 1
1 = __ tan q ______________
2
tan l tan a

tan q(tan l tan a + 1) = 2(tan l tan a)

tan l tan a
tan q = 2 ______________
1 + tan l tan a
tan q = 2 tan(l a)

as required.

Exercise 8I
Q. 1.

the rod PQ:
T

3
T
5

Y
X
W

4
T
5

3
1 Y = __T = W
5

24

... Equation 1

4
X + __T = W
5

Take moments about P

3
W(2) = __T(4)
... Equation 2
5
Equation 3: 5W = 6T
5
T = __W
6

... Equation 2

Equation 1:

[ ]

3 5
Y + __ __W = W
5 6
2Y + W = 2W

3W (a sin q) = W(2a)
2
sin q = __
3

2Y = W
1
Y = __W
2
5
4
Equation 2: X = __ __W
56
2
__
X= W
3
Answer: The horizontal and vertical
reactions at the hinge are
2
1
__
W and __W. The tension in
3
2 5
the string is __W.
6

[ ]

Q. 2.

= 0.6667
q = 41 49
(iii) X = W cos q
__

( )

5
= W ___
3
__

5
___

W
3
Y = 3W W sin q

on the rod:

()

2
= 3W W __
3

7W
= ____
3
Q. 4.
Q

2W sin A

5W

Taking moments about p, using

unresolved forces:

12
cos A = ___
13
2W

5
sin A = ___
13

2W cos A

Y + 2W sin A = 5W

X = 2W cos A

5
Since tan A = ___
12

Forces

5W(l sin A) = 2W(2l)

3
4
sin A = __
cos A = __
5
5
8
17
__
___
1 Y + W = 5W Y = W
5
5
6
__
2 X= W
5
4
1
(ii) A = sin __ = 53
5
Q. 3.

(i) Y
p

Resolved

5
T
13

Y
p X
W

12
T
13

5
1 Y + ___ T = W
13

X
q

p X

3W

12
2 X = ___
T
13

90 q

(W sin q)

(W cos q)

(ii) 1
2

Y + W sin q = 3W
X + W cos q = 0

25
25

slipping.

3 Taking moments about p:

5
W(6) = ___T(12)
13

F = mR
1
= __R
3

13
T = ___W
10

( )

( )

1 1
= __ 2__W
3 4

12 13
X = ___ ___W
13 10
6
= __W
5

3
= __W
4

( )

5 13
Y + ___ ___ T = W
13 10
1
Y = __W
2

(ii)
Q. 5.

10

1
R=2 W
4

(i)

a
R
A

2W

3W

Y B
a

2W

q
3
W
4

3
2 __W = X
4

a
S

3 Taking moments about B:

3
1
2W(a cosq) + __W(2a sin q) = 2__(2a cos q)
4
4

3
3
2 cos q + __ sinq = __ cos q
2
2

B X
Y

2W

1 R + Y = 2W

q
G

q
F

3 sin q = 5 cosq
3W

q
A F

q
a

3 tan q = 5
5
tan q = __
3

S
c

5
q = tan1 __
3

(ii) From system ABC

= 592

1 R + S = 2W + 3W
R + S = 5W

Q. 6.
Q

2 F=G

3 Taking moments about a.

2W(a cos q) + 3W(3a cos q) = S(4a cos q)
4S = 11W
3
S = 2__W
4
1
__
R = 2 W, from Equation 1.
4
(iii) Since R < S, mR < mS
slipping will occur at A first.

26

6
1
Answer: (i) __W, __W
5
2
13
___

X
q

R
A

2
T
W

5
T
2W

S
C

3
4
4
Since cos q = __, sin q = __ and tan q = __
5
5
3
The system ABC
1 R + S = W + 2W
R + S = 3W

1 R = W + 2W = 3W

2 T=T

2 mR = S

3 Taking moments about A:

( )

( )

1
1
W 1__ + T(2) + 2W 4__
2
2

W(5 cos f) + 2W(10 cos f + 5 cos q)

= S(10 sin f + 10 sin q)
3W + 12W + 10W cos q
= 8S + 10S sin q
15W + 10W cos q = 8S + 10S sin q

= T(2) + S(6)
3
S = 1__W
4
1
R = 1__W, from Equation 1
4
X

Y
B

T
4

5 X=S
4

The rod AB
1
1 1__
W+Y=W
4
1
Y = __W
4
2 T=X

15W + 10S sin q = 8S + 10S sin q

15
S = ___ W
8
Equation 2 now reads:

( ) ( )

1
1
T(2) + W 1__ = 1__ W(3)
4
2

mR = S
15
m(3W) = ___W
8
5
__
m=
8

1
__

T=1 W
8
1
Answer: T = 1__W,
8
1
__
R = 1 W,
4
3
__
S=1 W
4

Q. 8.

S
B

Taking moments about B:

2W(5 cos q) = S(10 sin q)
10W cos q = 10S sin q

Q. 7.

4 Y = 2W

2W

q
B

(i) Let the length of each rod be 2l.

Here are the forces acting on the rods
AB and AC:

Y2

5
f

2W

X3

X2

4
Since tan f = __,
3
4
sin f = __,
5
3
cos f = __
5

Y3

Y1
2W

X1

X1
A

Y1

f
A mR

2
1
1 W
4

Taking moments about A:

Rod AB:
Taking moments around B we get:
2W(l cos b) + Y1(2l cos b)
= X1 (2l sin b)

... divide by 2l cos b

W + Y1 = X1 tan b

... Equation 1

27

Taking moments around C we get:

Dividing Equation 3 by
Equation 4 gives:

W(l cos b) = X1(2l sin b) + Y1 (2l cos b)

3W
4
tan a = ______ ____
4 tan b 5W

Rod AC:

... divide by l cos b

W = 2X1 tan b + 2Y1
W 2Y1 = 2X1 tan b ... Equation 2
2W + 2Y1 = 2X1 tan b ... Equation 1
( 2)
Add: 3W = 4X1, tan b
3W
X1 = _______ ... substitute into
4 tan b
Equation 2
3W
W 2Y1 = 2 ______ tan b
4 tan b
... multiply by 4

)( )

3
tan a = ______
5 tan b
7 tan b
3
______ = ______
3
5 tan b
35 tan2 b = 9
9
tan2 b = ___
35
3
___
tan b = ____
35
Q
Q. 9. (i) Force diagram for the system including
the friction force at C.

4W 8Y1 = 6W

8Y1 = 2W
W
Y1 = __ ... the minus sign
4
indicates that the actual
direction of Y1 is opposite
to the direction indicated
in the diagram.

(ii) Looking again at the two rods

separately, we have the following:

CR

Take moments about A:

R2 a

R1
a

2W

3W

4 tan b

3W

4 tan b

W
R1 sin a + __ = 2W
4
7W
R1 sin a = ____
4
3W
______
R1 cos a =
4 tan b

( )(

3
4

28

3W
R2 sin a = ______
4 tan b
W
R2 cos a = W + __
4
5W
R2 cos a = ____
4

1
R = __ W tan f
2

W tan f = 2R

Now, we look at the forces on the rod

BC in isolation:
X1

B
Y1

Dividing Equation 1 by
Equation 2 gives:
7W 4 tan b
tan a = ____ ______
4
3W
7 tan b
tan a = ______
3

l
2W __ sin f = R(2l cos f)
2
divide by l cos f

C R

Taking moments around B we get:

1
F(l sin f ) = R(l cos f ) + W __ sin f
2
divide by l cos f
1
F tan f = R + __ W tan f
2
1
but R = __ W tan f
2
1
1
__
__
F tan f = W tan f + W tan f
2
2
divide by tan f

1
1
F = __ W + __ W
2
2

Now, look at the ladder [AB] in isolation.

Here are the forces when it is just on the
point of slipping:

F=W
(ii) An additional force is now applied
downwards at C. The force diagram for
the BC now looks like this:

X1 B
R

Y1
mR

C
W

R(d) = W

Taking moments around B we get:

1
W(l sin f) + W __ sin f + R(l cos f)
2
= mR(l sin f)
divide by l cos f
1
__
W tan f + W tan f + R = mR tan f
2
1
R = __ W tan f
2
1
__
W tan f + W tan f = m W tan2 f
2
divide by W tan f
1
2 = m __ tan f
multiply by 2
2
m tan f = 4
4
m = _____
tan f

Q. 10. Note: The person will need to stand at

A to maximise the chance of slipping.
Because the system will then be
symmetrical, slipping will occur at B
and C simultaneously. Here are the
forces acting on the system:

( 2 ) + mR( l

W
W
F

S
G

( )

()

( )

4R = 6W
3
R = __W
2

3
__
R= W
2

_______

3d = d + 3m l2 d2
_______

3m l2 d2 = 2d
m=

2d
_________
_______

3 l2 d2

m2

d
_________
_______
3 l2 d2

Ring C

R
T sin a

T cos a

T cos a

T sin a

mR
W

Taking moments about A we get:

4W(l cosa) = T cos a(2l sin a) +
T sin a(2l cos a)

Taking moments around C we get:

3d
d
W __ + W(d) + W ___ = R(2d)
2
2
2
multiply by __
d
W + 2W + 3W = 4R

d2 )

_______
3
1
3
__
__
__
Wd = Wd + m W l2 d2
2
2
2
2
__
multiply by
W

4W

_______

d
__

l2 d2

Because we are now at limiting

friction, the friction force is mR.

mR

Lengths

divide by 2l cos a
2W = T sin a + T sin a
2W = 2T sin a
W = T sin a

29

From the diagram of forces on the ring

C we can see that
mR = T cos a

Equation 1

and R = T sin a + W
but W = T sin a
R = 2T sin a

Equation 2

Dividing Equation 1 by
Equation 2 we get:
1
m = _______
2 tan a
2m tan a = 1
1
tan a = ___
2m
(ii) W = T sin a

(ii) Taking moments around the hinge

we get:

( )

1.5
__ = R(1)
80 ___
2

__
120
__ = 60 2 N
R = ____
2

R__
(iii) S = ___
+ 40
2
R__
mS = ___
2

R__
R__
m ____
+ 40 = ___
2
2
(i)

__

but R = 60 2
m(60 + 40) = 60

1
tan a = ___
2m

T = W/sin a

1
________
sin a = _________
1 + 4m2

100m = 60
m = 0.6

________

T = W 1 + 4m2

Q. 13. Assume ladders are on the point of

slipping. We will then be at the smallest
value of m that will prevent slipping from
occurring. Here is the force diagram for
the system:

R
q q
80 N
Y
W

Hemisphere

mR

R
mS
40 N

mR

Note: Because both ladders have the same

weight, both reaction forces are the same
and slipping occurs simultaneously at A
and C.
2R = 2W
R=W

Lengths

Now, we examine the forces on the ladder

[AB] in isolation:
X
q

3
1

90 1
45

45

30

R
mR

X is the supporting force from the other

ladder. There is no Y component as the
vectors in the Y direction already sum to
zero.
Taking moments around B we get:
l
R(l sin q) = mR(l cos q) + W __ sin q
2
2
multiply by ______ and let W = R
l cos q

2R tan q = 2mR + R tan q

divide by R
2 tan q = 2m + tan q
2m = tan q
1
m = __ tan q
2
This is the minimum value of q that will
prevent slipping from occurring.
1
__
m tan q
2
Q. 14. (i) Let x equal the distance from P to
where the block touches the rod.
0.8y
sin a = ____
x

4
tan a = __
3

4
sin a = __
5
0.8y
4
__ = ____
x
5
multiply both sides by 5x
4x = 4y

(iii) Firstly, examine the diagram of the rod.

Taking moments around the hinge we
get:
3
cos a = __
5

18
R = ___g
5

Now, examine the diagram of the

block:
1 S = R cos a + 6g

( )( )

18 3
S = ___g __ + 6g
5
5
204
S = ____g
25
2 mS = R sin a

) ( )( )

204
18 4
m ____g = ___g __
5
5
25

25
multiply by ___
g

204m = 72
6
72
m = ____ = ___
204 17
(iv) Looking at the diagram of the rod:
X = R sin a

( )( )

18 4
= ___g __
5
5
= 28.224

x=y

Y + R cos a = 2g

(ii) Rod

Y = 2g R cos a

( )( )

18 3
= 2g ___g __
5
5

= 1.568

2g
a
X

i.e. 1.568 N downwards

Reaction at hinge
_

Block

= 28.224i 1.568j N
S

Magnitude
__________________

= (28.224)2 + (1.568)2

a R

= 28 N

mS
6g

31

Q
Q. 3.

Exercise 8J
Q. 1.

Forces:

Y
a

r
1
sin A = ______ = __
3r + r 4

A 3r

(ii)
X
A

cos A =

2.

___

15
____
4

240

R
r

b
P

1.5

Resolved Forces:

|ak|2 + |kb|2 = |ab|2

|ak|2 + 2.25 = 6.25
|ak| = 2

15
T
4

(1) Y = 240

1
T
4

(2) P + X = 0 X = P
(3) Taking moments about a:

R
W

240(0.75) = P(2)

___

(1)

15
____
4

T=W

T=

___

4W
____
___

P = 90 N
__ ___

15

______________

= (90)2 + (240)2

( )

= 256 N
Q. 4.
Q

(i) Forces:

Forces:
F
W
3

Resolved Forces:

1
T
2
__

(1)

3
___
2

T+

30
__

3
___
2

5
R
A
2

30 N

3
T
2

1
T
2

3
T
2

3
4
Since sin A = __, cos A = __
5
5
Resolved Forces:
F
W

T = 30

30
__
T = ___
3

3
R
5
__

= 10 3 N

4
R
5

32

___

Resultant = 90i + 240j = | R |

1
(2) R = __T
4
1 4W
___
= __ ____
4 15
W
___
= ____
15
Q. 2.

__

X = 90i , Y = 240j

5
3
(iii) (1) __ R = W R = __W
5
3
5
4 __
4
4
__
__
(2) F = R =
W = __W
5
5 3
3

Resultant:

( )

Q. 5.

(a)

Forces:
x

100

The sum of the moment = the moment of

the sum

150

A
150

1
mg
2

3g

( )

1
__
2

150 3
cos A = ____ = __
250 5
4
sin A = __
5
Resolved Forces:

1
1
mg __l + mg(l ) = 1 __mg(x)
2
2
5
__
x= l
6
O

y
x

3
T
5

T1

4
T
5

mg
2

3
The resultant weight, __mg acts through g,
2
which must be below in accordance with
Theorem 8.7

3g

Step 1. To find centre of gravity:

Forces:

T1(x) = T2(y)
5
7
But x = __ l sin A, y = __ l sin A
6
6
5
__
7
__
T1 l sin A = T2 l sin A
6
6
T1 __
7
__
=
T2 5

15
4
(1) __ T = 3g T = ___ g
5
4
Q. 6.

5
R
6

Q. 7.
Q

) (

4
r
5
1
2l
1
mg
2

T2
A

7
l
6

1
2l

P
q
A
A

mg

3
r
5

4
sin A = __
5
3
cos A = __
5

33

obstacle:

Taking moments about a:

W (2 sin A) = S(6 sin B)
8
24
___
W ____
= S ___
5
17
5W
_____
S = ___
3 17
Taking moments about b:

( ) ( )

P
r sin (A + q)
A+q
r
OBSTACLE

( ) ( )

( )

3
W __r = P(r sin (A + q))
5
3W
P = __________
5 sin (A + q)
(i) In this case q = 0
3W
3W
P = ______ = ____
4
5 sin A
(ii) In this case we want a minimum value
3W
for ___________ . This value is attained
5 sin (A + q)
3W
when sin (A + q) = 1, and is ____
5

16
24
___ = S ___
W ____
5
17
10W
_____
R = ___
3 17

Q. 9.

Q. 8.

AB
W

r
S
y

R
x
A
c
5
B
a

5
4

g A
1 m
2 W

S
B

Let m be the midpoint [ab].

|cm| = 4___
(by Pythagoras), |gm| = 1 and
|gc| = 17
4
4
___
sin A = ____
and sin B = __
5
17

34

1
1__
2__
Since tan A = __, sin A = ___
and cos A = ___
2
5

5
3
3
4
Since tan B = __, sin B = __ and cos B = __
5
5
4
Also, sin (A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B
3
1__ __
4
2__ __
= ___
+ ___
5 5
5 5
10__
= ____
5 5
2__
= ___
5
Taking moments about x:

( ) ( ) ( )( )

1__
2__
W ___
r = S ___
r
5
5
1
S = __ W
2

( ) ( )

Q.E.D.