Pole, zero and Bode plot
EC04 305 Lecture notes
YESAREKEY December 12, 2007 Authored by: Ramesh.K
The only diff b/w the two is that gain of ac amplifiers falls at low frequencies. In this frequency almost all capacitors (coupling. to evaluate how much a frequency will be phase-shifted. usually used in conjunction with the magnitude plot. The technique is particularly useful in the case of real poles and zeros.zn are called the transfer function zeros and p1…. At high frequencies the gain falls due to the internal capacitance of the device. with a linear scale for the dB values on the vertical axis and a logarithmic scale for ω on the horizontal axis.com
Pole. and a finite zero satisfies .
Pole. With the magnitude gain being logarithmic. to show the transfer function or frequency response of a linear.. The Amplifier Transfer function Amplifiers have frequency gain function either of the following two forms. internal capacitance have negligible effect and can be ignored in the gain calculations. 20 times the common logarithm of the amplitude gain. zero and Bode plot
EC04 305 Lecture notes
A rational transfer function H(S) can be expressed as a ratio of a numerator polynomial n(s) divided by a denominator polynomial d(s). A Bode magnitude plot is a graph. The complex poles or zeros must occur in conjugate pairs. that is. zero and Bode plot | 12/12/2007
The Frequency Bands As shown in the fig . Mathematically. bypass. also plotted on a log-frequency axis. bode developed a technique for computing approximate or asymptotic frequency response curves-called Bode plots. since .. bode plots make multiplication of magnitudes a simple matter of adding distances on the graph (in decibels). A Bode phase plot is a graph of phase versus frequency.pn are called transfer function poles.rameshpkd@gmail. BODE PLOTS H. The magnitude axis of the Bode plot is usually expressed as decibels. time-invariant system. They can be either real or complex. s=zi is called a finite zero of H(S).b the amplifier gain is almost constant over a wide frequency range called the mid band. Generally z1…. A finite pole satisfies as . and K is the gain constant of transfer function H(S). Also at low frequencies the bypass capacitors will not act
. Where s=pi is a finite of H(S).
The amplifier band width can be defined as Since Hence the gain band width product The low freq amp gain can be expressed by.plane. as shown below. The high freq gain For : where is the amp gain. zero and Bode plot | 12/12/2007
as a short circuit for ac. these are frequencies at which the gain drops by 3dB below the value at midband.
Pole. The extend of frequencies are defined by the two frequencies and . hence the gain falls. A pair of conjugate poles on the gives rise to sustained sinusoidal oscillations.rameshpkd@gmail. the resultant transfer gain
the feedback is will be greater than . its pole should lie in the left half of the s.
STUDY OF STABLILITY OF FEED BACK AMPLIFIERS USING BODE PLOTS
If the feedback is termed as negative feedback and if termed as positive or regenerative. Stability and Pole location: The poles of the feedback amp can be obtained by solving the characteristic equation.
EFFECT OF FEEDBACK ON THE AMPLIFIER POLES : The amplifier frequency response and stability are directly determined by its poles. 0 axis For an amplifier to be stable. Under these circumstances. Poles in the right half of the s plane gives rise to growing oscillations.
it is more convenient to plot the magnitude. will be fed back to the i/p circuit. if an attempt is made to obtain large gain by making almost equals to unity. To illustrate the instability of amplifiers with positive feedback.e. the system is stable if a transient disturbance results in a response which dies out. The gain margin is defined as the value of in dB at the o frequency at which the phase angle of is 180 . Hence the condition which must be satisfied . The condition for Stability: In the design of a feedback amplifier. a linear amp of good stability requires gain and phase margins of at least 10 dB and 50o respectively. but because of some transient disturbances.. There is little point in attempting to achieve amplification at the expense of stability. the amplifier will oscillate.. The amount of phase margin has a profound effect on the shape of the closed loop magnitude response. If we can show that is less than unity (<0 dB) when the phase angle of o. the poles of A do lie in the left hand half plane. and will appear in the o/p as an increased signal – . time and so on. For E. if a pole exists with a positive real part. In other words. usually in decibels.g. consider the following situation: no signal is applied. a signal Xo appears at the o/p.The magnitude of these quantities gives an indication of how stable an amplifier is. Feedback amplifiers are usually designed to have sufficient gain margin to allow for the inevitable changes in the loop gain with temp. zero and Bode plot | 12/12/2007
. there is the possibility that the amplifier may break put into spontaneous oscillation. if a system is to be stable. is that the pole of the transfer function must all lie on the left hand half of the s – plane . which is theoretically Bode plots relating to the defn: of gain and phase margins permissible without oscillation. The stability of an amplifier depends on pole of its transfer function.
Pole. As described above. the amplifier is potentially unstable. it must be ascertained that the circuit is stable at all frequencies. Gain and phase margins: It should be noted that instead of plotting the product in the complex plane. i. and also the phase of as a function of frequency. is 180 the closed loop amplifier will be stable.rameshpkd@gmail. If the gain margin is positive. If a system without feedback is stable. if – . at the frequency at which The phase margin is 180o minus the magnitude of the angle of is unity (0 dB). Since
Because of the reduced stability of an
amplifier with positive feedback.If the gain margin is negative this gives the dB rise in open loop gain. Hence. . (used in oscillators). then the spurious o/p has regenerated itself. a portion of this signal. this method is seldom used. It follows from the Eqn that the stability condition requires that the zeros of all lie in the left hand half of the splane. this will result in a disturbance increasing exponentially with time. If this term just equals Xo.com
the nominal gain without feed back.
Integrated Electronics: Analog and Digital Circuits And Systems . 4th edition. Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia Lecture Notes Sedra/Smith.com
Micro Electronic Circuits. Millman & Halkias
Pole. zero and Bode plot | 12/12/2007
K /ECE/MEA EC 12/20/2007
Steps to draw Bode plots
Lecture Notes-EC04 # 303#ECNT
Calculate the gain in dB magnitude of K or or K at ωL and at the lower corner frequency. Calculate the gain at ωH using the above formula.
Chose an arbitrary frequency ωH. log (ω)] in a semi log graph.com
Steps to draw Bode plots
Lecture Notes-EC04 # 303#ECNT
Steps to Plot Bode Magnitude Plot Let H(s) be the transfer function . List the corner frequencies (i. The choices of frequencies are preferably the frequency selected for magnitude plot.K /ECE/MEA EC email@example.com. less than the lowest corner frequency. greater than the highest corner frequency. the coefficients of jω’s of H(s)) in the increasing order and prepare a table as given below.Ramesh.org
. then replace s by jω.
Steps to Plot Bode Phase Plot:
Calculate the phase angle of H(jω) for various values of ω and are tabulated. Calculate the gain at every corner frequency one by one using the formula given below. In the table enter K or or K Terms Corner Frequencies Change in slope
as the first term and the other term as the increasing
order of the corner frequencies. Plot the Bode magnitude plot [A (dB) . Choose an arbitrary frequency ωL.Covert H(s) into the form .e.
Magnitude and phase of a complex umber: