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# 1 Assignment 7

## Dual nature of matter, Atoms and Nuclei

GUIDE LINE FOR PREPARING CBSE P!"SICS# E\$A%INA&ION &!ROUG! PRE'IOUS "EARS (UES&IONS OF CBSE %AR)ED *I&! S&ARS # 1. 2. ". (. ,. 0. 5. Diagrammatically show the spectral series of hydrogen atom. Also give the limitations of Bohrs theory.*** State Bohrs theory of the spectrum of hydrogen atomic spectra. Hence o tain an e!pression for radius of or it and the energy of or ital electron in hydrogen atom.** #ame the series of hydrogen spectrum which lies in the visi le region of electromagnetic spectrum\$**
%Ans&Balmar series lies in visi le region'

#ame the series of hydrogen spectrum which lies in the ) * regopn\$** %Ans& +ymen series lies in ).*region' #ame the series of hydrogen spectrum which lies in the infrared region of electromagnetic spectrum\$**
%Ans&-aschen series. Brac/ett series an -fund series.'

1he ioni2ation potential of hydrogen is 1".0 volt .3alculate the energy of its first e!cited state. ** %Ans& 4"., ev' 1he energy of an electron in nth or it is given y E 6 4 1".07 n2 eV . 3alculate the energy re8uired to ta/e and electron from ground state to the second e!cited state.**** %Ans& 12.9: ev' ;. -rove that energy is 8uanti2ed in an atom. <n the asis of it. draw energy level diagram of hydrogen spectrum. :. =hat is photoelectric effect\$ >ive the circuit diagram for studying photoelectric effect. Draw the four sets of characteristic curves related to photoelectric effect and write the important conclusions that you draw form these curves\$ =rite ?insteins photoelectric e8uation and use it to e!plain the @iA independence of ma!imum energy of emitted photoelectrons from intensity of incident light. and @iiA e!istence of threshold fre8uency for a given photo4sensitive surface. How you can determine the value of -lan/s constant. An electromagnetic wave of wavelength is incident on a photosensitive surface of negligi le wor/ function. Bf the photo4electrons emitted form this surface has the de4Broglie wavelength 1. prove that = @2mc/hA 12 19. Derive the e!pression for the de4Broglie wave length of an electron moving under the potential difference of V volt. =hat will e the de4Broglie wavelength when the accelerating potential is increased to ( V . An electron. an alpha particle and a proton have the same /inetic energy. =hich one of these particles has @iA the shortest and @iiA the largest. de4Broglie wavelength\$ An electron and alpha particle have the same de4Broglie wavelength associated with them. How are their /inetic energies related to each other\$ =ith what purpose was famous Davission4>ermer e!periment with electrons performed\$ Descri e Davisson and >ermers e!periment to demonstrate the wave nature of electrons. Draw a la eled diagram of apparatus used. 11. =hat will e the ratio of radii of two nuclei of mass num ers A1 and A2.** 3ompare the radii of two nuclei with mass num ers 1 and 25 respectively.**%Ans.17"' =hat is the nuclear radius of 125 Fe if that of 27Al is ".0 fermi\$**
0.9 fermi'

%Ans&

Assuming the nuclei to e spherical al in shape. how does the surface area of a nucleus of mass num er A1 compare with that of a nucleus of mass num er A2.** 12. =hat is the ratio of nuclear densities of the two nuclei having mass num er in the ratio 1&(.******%Ans& #uclear
density is independent of mass num er so this ration is 1&1'

1".

State three properties of nuclear forces. Show that the density of nuclear mater is independent of mass num er A.

2 Draw a graph showing the variation of potential energy etween a pair of nucleons as a function of their separation. Bndicate the regions in which the nucleus for is @iA attractive and @iiA repulsive. Descri e Cutherford scattering e!periment. =hat are its o servations and conclusion\$ Derive an e!pression for the distance of closest approach in Cutherfords 4scattering e!periment and then calculate its value of 4particle and gold nucleus. Draw a diagram to show the variation of inding energy per nucleon with mass num er for different nuclei. =rite conclusions drawn from the graph. Also e!plain fission and fusion on its asis\$ 3alculate the inding energy per nucleon of 26Fe56 . %>iven& m (26Fe56 ) 6 ,,.:"(:"2 amuD m (neutronA6 1.99;0;, amuD m (protonA6 1.995;2, amu ' 10. 15. Distinguish etween isotopes and iso ars.>ivce one e!ample for each of the species.** 1he radioactive isotope D4decays according to the se8uence.
- Particle - particle

1(.

1,.

D D1 D2 Bf the mass num er and atomic num er of are 150 and 51 respectively. what is mass num er and @iiA atomic num er of D\$***** %Ans A61;9 and E6 52'

the @iA

1;.

## A radioactive isotope D decays according to se8uence.

D D1 D2 Bf the mass num er and atomic num er of D2 are 150 and 51 respectively find the mass num er and atomic num er of D. Amongst. D , D1 and D2 do we have any iso ars or isotopes\$***
%Ans A61;1 and E6 5".the mass num er of D is 1;1 and atomic num er 5".3learly D. D1 are isotopes.'

1:.

## Bn radioactive decay as follows

A A1 A2 1he mass and atomic num ers of A2 are 150 and 51 respectively. what are the num ers and atomic num ers of A1 and A .=hich of these elements are iso ars.**
%Ans 1he mass num er of A1 and A are 1;9 each. 1he atomic num ers of A1 and A are 5" and 5( respectively. 1he elements A1 and A are iso ars are isotopes.'

mass

29.

## A radioactive nucleus A undergoes a series of decay according to the following scheme& A A1 A2 A3 A4

- Particle - particle - particle - particle

1he mass num er and atomic num er of A are 1;9 and 52 respeci ely.=hat are num ers for A4.**
%Ans 1he mass num er of A4 is 152 and atomic num er is 0:'

these

21.

=rite the laws of radioactive disintegration. -rove& N 6 No e- t . S/etch a graph to illustrate the radioactive decay. Define the terms half life period and decay constant of a radioactive su stance. )sing e!ponential decay law. o tain the formula for the half4life of a radioactive nuclide in terms of its disintegration constant. *****

" Find out an e!pression for mean life time. Define the term Activity of a radioactive su stance. State its SB unit. >ive a plot of activity of a radioactive species versus time. =hat is activity of radioactive su stance. prove that A 6 Ao e- t Show that the decay rate R of a sample of radioactive nuclei N at the same instant can e e!pressed as R = N. -rove that the instantaneous rate of change of the activity of a radioactive su stance is inversely proportional to the s8uare of its half life 22. Define the )nits& @iA 3urie *@iiA Cutherford **and @iiiA Bec8uerel*.@ivA Fermi* 2". A radioactive isotope has a half4life of , years. After how much time is its activity reduced to ".12,G of its original activity\$ (CBSE 2008) %Ans& 2, yrs' 2(. ?!plain the terms& @iA 3ritical si2e.** @iiA 1hermal neutrons.** @iiiA Hodulator. @ivA 3ontrol rod **and @vA coolant.** 2,. State reason. why heavy water is generally used as a moderator in a nuclear reactor. #ame the a sor ing material used to control the reaction rate of neutron in a nuclear

reactor.**