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Electrical equipment in hazardous areas - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In electrical engineering, a hazardous location is defined as a place where concentrations of flammable gases, vapors, or dusts occur. Electrical equipment that must be installed in such locations is especially designed and tested to ensure it does not initiate an explosion, due to arcing contacts or high surface temperature of equipment. For example a household light switch may emit a small, harmless visible spark when switching; in an ordinary atmosphere this arc is of no concern, but if a flammable vapor is present, the arc might start an explosion. Electrical equipment intended for use in a chemical factory or refinery is designed either to contain any explosion within the device, or is designed not to produce sparks with sufficient energy to trigger an explosion. Many strategies exist for safety in electrical installations. The simplest strategy is to minimize the amount of electrical equipment This inspection lamp is constructed installed in a hazardous area, either by keeping the equipment out of so that it cannot set off an explosion the area altogether or by making the area less hazardous by process when surrounded by specified improvements or ventilation with clean air. Intrinsic safety, or flammable gases or dust. non-incendive equipment and wiring methods, is a set of practices for apparatus designed with low power levels and low stored energy. Insufficient energy is available to produce an arc that can ignite the surrounding explosive mixture. Equipment enclosures can be pressurized with clean air or inert gas and designed with various controls to remove power or provide notification in case of supply or pressure loss of such gases. Arc-producing elements of the equipment can also be isolated from the surrounding atmosphere by encapsulation, immersion in oil, sand, etc. Heat producing elements such as motor winding, electrical heaters, including heat tracing and lighting fixtures are often designed to limit their maximum temperature below the autoignition temperature of the material involved. Both external and internal temperatures are taken into consideration. As in most fields of electrical installation, different countries have approached the standardization and testing of equipment for hazardous areas in different ways. As world trade becomes more important in distribution of electrical products, international standards are slowly converging so that a wider range of acceptable techniques can be approved by national regulatory agencies. Area classification is required by governmental bodies, for example by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration and compliance is enforced. Documentation requirements are varied. Often an area classification plan-view is provided to identify equipment ratings and installation techniques to be used for each classified plant area. The plan may contain the list of chemicals with their group and temperature rating, and elevation details shaded to indicate Class, Division(Zone) and group combination. The area classification process would require the participation of operations, maintenance, safety, electrical and instrumentation professionals, the use of process diagrams and material flows, MSDS and any pertinent documents, information and knowledge to determine the hazards and their extent and the countermeasures to be employed. Area classification documentations are reviewed and updated to reflect process changes.

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2 North America 11 See also 12 References 13 External links 14 Further reading Soon after the introduction of electric power into coal mines. resulted in sparks which could ignite methane. two bare wires were run along the length of a drift.10. the guiding standard is IEC 61421. Refineries and chemical plants are then divided into areas of risk of release of 1 History 2 Gas divisions or zones 3 Dust zones 4 Gas groups 5 Equipment protection level 6 Temperature classification 6. The hazard of fire damp or methane accumulation in mines was well known by the time electricity was introduced. At least two British mine explosions were attributed to an electric bell signal system. vapor or dust known as divisions or zones.Electrical equipment in hazardous areas . combined with breaking of contacts by exposed metal surfaces. it was discovered that lethal explosions could be initiated by electrical equipment such as lighting. In some cases the gas. or during an incident. and any miner desiring to signal the surface would momentarily touch the wires to each other or bridge the wires with a metal tool.m.10.Wikipedia. or API 500 and according to their adaptation by other areas gas zones is given in the current edition of IEC 60079. but hydrogen and ammonia are common industrial gases that are flammable.1 Europe 10. equipment deterioration between maintenance periods. The inductance of the signal bell coils. along with the danger of suspended coal dust.wikipedia.[1] In an industrial plant such as a refinery or chemical process plant. Guidance on assessing the extent of the hazard is given in the NFPA 497 Standard. the free encyclopedia http://en. .1 Auto-ignition temperatures 6.1 Multiple protection 8 ANSI/NFPA areas description 9 Equipment category 10 Labeling 10. causing an explosion. 2 de 12 30/07/2013 03:02 p. or motors. Other areas would have a dangerous concentration of flammable substances only during process upsets.2 Auto-ignition temperatures (dust) 7 Type of protection 7. ignitable vapor or dust is present all the time or for long periods. Typical gas hazards are from hydrocarbon compounds. For hazardous dusts. In this system. handling of large quantities of flammable liquids and gases creates a risk of leaks. The process of determining the type and size of these hazardous areas is called area classification. signals.

The ANSI/NEC classification method consider this environment a Division 1 area. In this zone the gas.1–10% of the time. as set out in directive 1999/92/EU implemented in the UK as the Dangerous Substances and Explosives Atmospheres Regulations 2002 The boundaries and extent of these three dimensional zones should be decided by a competent person. The only explosive or flammable liquid would be paint and brush cleaner.wikipedia. occasionally. this can be defined as over 1000 hours/year or >10% of the time. An old system of area classification to a British standard used a system of letters to designate the zones. . Division 2 or Zone 2 area This is a step up from the safe area. the free encyclopedia http://en.Wikipedia.m. Zone 22 A place in which an explosive atmosphere in the form of a cloud of combustible dust in air is not 3 de 12 30/07/2013 03:02 p. vapor or mist would only be present under abnormal conditions (most often leaks under abnormal conditions). Zone 21 A place in which an explosive atmosphere in the form of a cloud of combustible dust in air is likely to occur. unwanted substances should only be present under 10 hours/year or 0–0. Non hazardous areas on chemical and other plant are present where the hazardous gas is diluted to a concentration below 25% of its lower flammability limit (or lower explosive limit (LEL)). As a guide for Zone 0. As a general guide for Zone 2. this can be defined as 10–1000 hours/year or 0. There must be a site plan drawn up of the factory with the zones marked on. The zone definitions are: Zone 20 A place in which an explosive atmosphere in the form of a cloud of combustible dust in air is present continuously. These are classed as very low risk of causing an explosion and are more of a fire risk (although gas explosions in residential buildings do occur).[2] Zone 0 area Gas or vapor is present all of the time. where the only risk of a release of explosive or flammable gas would be such things as the propellant in an aerosol spray. vapor or mist will be present or expected to be present for long periods of time under normal operating conditions. An example of this would be the vapor space above the liquid in the top of a tank or drum.[2] Division 1 or Zone 1 area Gas. An explosion of dust at this grain elevator in Kansas killed five workers in 1998. As a guide for Zone 1.[2] Flammable dusts when suspended in air can explode. or for long periods or frequently. in normal operation.Electrical equipment in hazardous areas .org/wiki/Electrical_equipment_in_hazardous_areas Non-Hazardous Area An area such as a residence or office would be classed as Non Hazardous (safe area).1% of the time. This has been replaced by a European numerical system.

IIC being the most volatile and IIA being the least. and maximum rate of pressure rise. or C after then it is suitable for any gas group.wikipedia. simplifying the selection of equipment for hazardous areas. will persist for a short period only Explosive gases. minimum ignition energy. The above groups are formed in order of how volatile the gas or vapor would be if it was ignited.Electrical equipment in hazardous areas . B. If a piece of equipment has just II and no A. Firedamp (methane) Industrial methane. propane. The flash-point is the temperature at which the material will generate sufficient quantity of vapor to form an ignitable mixture. if it does occur. Such properties include flame temperature. spontaneous ignition temperature. IIC marked equipment can be used for both IIA and IIB. carbon disulphide Apparatus marked IIB can also be used for IIA gases. . Group I IIA IIB IIC Representative Gases All Underground Coal Mining.[3] Flammability of combustible liquids are defined by their flash-point. explosion pressure and time to peak pressure. A material may have a relatively low autoignition temperature yet if its flash-point is above the ambient temperature.m. The groups also indicate how much energy is required to ignite the gas by spark ignition. petrol and the majority of industrial Ethylene. then the area may not need to be classified. the area must be classified. The flash point determines if an area needs to be likely to occur in normal operation but. Group IIA requiring the most energy and IIC the least.Wikipedia. The required Protection level is linked to the intended use in the zones described below: 4 de 12 30/07/2013 03:02 p. Conversely if the same material is heated and handled above its flash-point. coke oven gas and other industrial gases Hydrogen. acetylene. minimum ignition current. vapors and dusts have different chemical properties that affect the likelihood and severity of an explosion. Every substance has a differing combination of properties but it is found that they can be ranked into similar ranges. Empirical testing is done to determine parameters such as the maximum experimental safe gap. upper and lower explosive limits. and molecular weight. A list must be drawn up of every chemical gas or vapor that is on the refinery/chemical complex and included in the site plan of the classified areas. [citation needed] Each chemical gas or vapour used in industry is classified into a gas group. In recent years also the Equipment Protection Level (EPL) is specified for several kinds of protection. the free encyclopedia http://en.

300 UK °C Germany °C Continuous .100 T3 .wikipedia. The exact temperature value determined depends on the laboratory test conditions and apparatus.180 G4: 110 .90 T3A .85 T6 . gas or vapor is the temperature at which the substance will ignite without any external heat source.160 T3 .215 T5 .180 T1 .200 T6 .270 G3: 160 .120 T5 .280 T3C . Such temperatures for common substances are: 5 de 12 30/07/2013 03:02 p. py.450 T3B . s n.Short Time G1: 360 . The surface temperature or any parts of the electrical equipment that may be exposed to the hazardous atmosphere should be tested that it does not exceed 80% of the auto-ignition temperature of the specific gas or vapor in the area where the equipment is intended to be used.125 G5: 80 .m. Auto-ignition temperatures The auto-ignition temperature of a liquid.135 T4 . pz explosive atmosphere between 10 and 1000 hrs/yr 1 explosive atmosphere between 1 and 10 hrs/yr explosive surface > 1000 hrs/yr explosive surface between 10 and 1000 hrs/yr explosive surface between 1 and 10 hrs/yr 2 20 21 22 Another important consideration is the temperature classification of the electrical equipment.100 T2D . o. e.85 The above table tells us that the surface temperature of a piece of electrical equipment with a temperature classification of T3 will not rise above 200 °C. the free encyclopedia http://en. px. ma ib. The temperature classification on the electrical equipment label will be one of the following (in degree Celsius): USA °C T1 .260 T4 .org/wiki/Electrical_equipment_in_hazardous_areas Group I (mines) I (mines) II (gas) II (gas) II (gas) III (dust) III (dust) III (dust) Ex risk energized de-energized in presence of Ex atmosphere explosive atmosphere > 1000 hrs/yr Zone EPL Minimum type of protection Ma Mb 0 Ga Gb Gc Da Db Dc ia.135 T2C . mb.400 G2: 240 .230 T4A .Electrical equipment in hazardous areas . ic.200 T2B .Wikipedia. .450 T2 .165 T2 . q.300 T2A .

wikipedia. Examples for common materials are: Substance Temperature Sugar Wood Flour 460 °C 340 °C 340 °C Grain dust 300 °C Tea 300 °C To ensure safety in a given situation.Wikipedia. equipment is placed into protection level categories according to manufacture method and suitability for different Gas Methane Hydrogen Propane Ethylene Acetylene Naphtha Temperature 580 °C 560 °C 493 °C 425 °C 305 °C 290 °C Carbon disulfide 102 °C The surface of a high pressure steam pipe may be above the autoignition temperature of some fuel/air mixtures. . the free encyclopedia http://en. Category 1 is the highest safety level and Category 3 the lowest. Although there are many types of protection.Electrical equipment in hazardous areas . Auto-ignition temperatures (dust) The auto-ignition temperature of a dust is usually higher than that of vapours & gases. a few are detailed 6 de 12 30/07/2013 03:02 p.m.

The escaping (hot) gases must sufficiently cool down Zone 1 if gas along the escape path that IEC/EN 60079-1 group & temp. 0.Wikipedia. computers 7 de 12 30/07/2013 03:02 p. control boxes. (pz) thus the surrounding ignitable atmosphere can Analysers. electronics Increased Safety e Motors. lighting.Electrical equipment in hazardous areas . .wikipedia. the free encyclopedia http://en.m. or zone 2 with air or an inert gas. junction boxes Heavy current equipment Electronics. chokes Oil Filled o Sand/Powder /Quartz Filled q Zone 2 or IEC/EN 60079-5 Zone 1 Encapsulated m Equipment components of the equipment are IEC/EN usually encased in a resin 60079-18 type material Zone 1 (Ex Electronics (no mb) or Zone 0 heat) (Ex ma) Pressurised/purged p Equipment is pressurised to a positive pressure relative to the Zone 1 (px or surrounding atmosphere IEC/EN 60079-2 py).004" acetylene/hydrogen) Equipment is very robust Zone 2 or and components are made IEC/EN 60079-7 Zone 1 to a high quality Equipment components are completely submerged in oil Equipment components are completely covered with a layer of Sand. by the time they reach the class correct outside of the enclosure not to be a source of ignition of the outside. telephones. lighting. Equipment has flameproof gaps (max 0.006" propane/ Ex Code Description Standard Location Use Flameproof d Equipment construction is such that it can withstand an internal explosion and provide relief of the external pressure via flamegap(s) such as the labyrinth created by threaded fittings or machined flanges. potentially ignitable surroundings. junction boxes. motors. powder or quartz IEC/EN 60079-6 Zone 2 or Zone 1 Motors.

org/wiki/Electrical_equipment_in_hazardous_areas not come in contact with energized parts of the apparatus. IEC/EN 'ib': Zone 1 measurement. A special standard for instrumentation is IEC/EN 60079-27. being by definition special. junction boxes. A 'Zener Barrier' or 'opto isol' or 'galvanic' unit may be used to assist with certification. 60079-11 'ic: zone 2 control IEC/EN60079-27 Non Incendive n Zone 2 Special Protection s This method. electronic equipment Intrinsically safe i IEC/EN 60079-25 'ia': Zone 0 & Instrumentation. Much early 60079-33 equipment having Ex s protection was designed with encapsulation and this has now been incorporated into IEC 60079-18 [Ex m].Electrical equipment in hazardous areas . . Any arcs or sparks in this equipment has insufficient energy (heat) to ignite a vapour Equipment can be installed in ANY housing provided to IP54. describing requirements for Fieldbus Intrinsically Safe Concept (FISCO) (zone 0. 1 or 2) Equipment is non-incendive or non-sparking. In effect it is any method which can be shown to have the required degree of safety IEC/EN in use. 8 de 12 30/07/2013 03:02 p.m. lighting. has no specific rules. Ex s is Zone depending As its upon certification Manufacturers states Certification. the free encyclopedia http://en. The overpressure is monitored.Wikipedia. describing requirements for Fieldbus Non-Incendive Concept (FNICO) (zone 2) IEC/EN 60079-15 IEC/EN 60079-27 Motors. maintained and controlled. A special standard for instrumentation is IEC/EN 60079-27.wikipedia.

Where ignitable concentrations of flammable gases. Group A": Class I Areas: Group A: Acetylene / Group B: Hydrogen / Group C: Propane and Ethylene / Group D: Benzene. taking into account more the one independent component faults simultaneously. 2 . Class II.Where ignitable concentrations of combustible dust are present within the atmosphere under abnormal operating conditions. Common Materials within Associated Class & Group Ratings.Where ignitable concentrations of combustible dusts are present within the atmosphere under normal operation conditions.Where easily ignitable fibers or materials producing combustible flyings are present within the atmosphere under abnormal operating conditions. The IEC standard EN 60079-33 is made public and is expected to become effective soon. ia. Div. 1 . the free encyclopedia http://en. Div. These would be then labeled with each of the individual methods.Where easily ignitable fibers or materials producing combustible flyings are present within the atmosphere under normal operation conditions. Starch. Div.Electrical equipment in hazardous areas . 1 . a coding referenced in IEC 60079-0.Wikipedia. 2 . px. 2 . For example a socket outlet labeled EEx'de' might have a case made to EEx 'e' and switches that are made to EEx 'd'. The use of EPL and ATEX Category directly is an alternative for “s” marking. py and pz. Wood & Plastic Class III Areas: NO GROUP: Cotton & Sawdust 9 de 12 30/07/2013 03:02 p. so that the normal Ex certification will also be possible for Ex-s The types of protection are subdivided into several sub classes. The a subdivisions have the most stringent safety requirements. Class III. ib and ic. Methane & Propane Class II Areas: Group E: Metal Dust / Group F: Carbon & Charcoal / Group G: Flour.wikipedia.Where ignitable concentrations of flammable gases. Div. vapors or liquids are present continuously or frequently within the atmosphere under normal operation conditions. Class III. Butane. Class II. linked to EPL: ma and mb. Div. . Division 1. Class I. Multiple protection Many items of EEx rated equipment will employ more than one method of protection in different components of the apparatus. 1 . vapors. Class I. or liquids are present within the atmosphere under abnormal operating conditions. such as "Class I.

1 suitability and their listing as approved method of installation in the NEC serves as the permission. All equipment in Division 1 areas must have an approval label. EEx ia IIC T4. special conditions apply).wikipedia.Wikipedia. North America In North America the suitability of equipment for the specific hazardous area must be tested by a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory. Category and. Some manufacturers claim "suitability" or "built-to" hazardous areas in their technical literature. The CE marking is complemented with the Ex mark.The National Electric Code. Some equipment in Division 2 areas do not 10 de 12 30/07/2013 03:02 p. as published by the National Fire Protection Association. followed by the indication of the Group. The equipment category indicates the level of protection offered by the equipment. Directly adjacent on the label one will find the mark of the listing agency. Temperature category 3. Mark for ATEX certified electrical equipment for explosive Temperature category 4). industrial electrical equipment for hazardous area has to conform to appropriate parts of standard BS EN 60079 and in some cases. Gas) Specific type or types of protection being used will be marked. such as rigid metallic conduit. Europe In Europe the label must show the CE mark and the code number of the certifying body. and a certificate from any of these will be accepted across the EU.pdf). the free encyclopedia For more information see Article 500 of NFPA 70 .berr. FM. the indication relating to gases (G) or dust (D). Category 2 equipment may be used in zone 1 or zone 2 areas. if group II equipment. (Type ia. but in effect lack the testing agency's certification and thus unacceptable for the AHJ (Authority Having Jurisdiction) to permit operation of the electrical installation/system.m. for example. Category 3 equipment may only be used in zone 2 areas. of which Sira and Baseefa are the most well known. Category 1./Div. Such institutes are UL. does not have a specific label indicating the Cl. For example: Ex II 1 G (Explosion protected. EEx nA II T3 X (Type n.Electrical equipment in hazardous areas . Group 2C gases. CSA or Intertek (ETL). In the United Kingdom. The DTI appoint and maintain a list of Notified Bodies within the UK (http://www. Category 1 equipment may be used in zone 0. Group /file44775. zone 1 or zone 2 areas. Division(s) and may list the Group(s) and temperature Code. certified as meeting that standard. MET. but certain materials. The label will always list the Class(es). non-sparking. Group 2 gases. All equipment certified for use in hazardous areas must be labelled to show the type and level of protection applied. Independent test houses (known as Notified Bodies)are established in most European countries. .

php?title=Electrical_equipment_in_hazardous_areas& oldid=566327053" Categories: Electrical engineering Electrical safety Explosion protection 11 de 12 30/07/2013 03:02 p. but it is usually independent of the Classified Area preview available at Google Books at http://books.asp) ATEX "Use" Directive (http://www. year of manufacture and any special conditions of Airo Wireless. ISBN 0-7506-3768-4. ^ John Bossert and Randolph Hurst.wikipedia. Electrical Installations in Hazardous Areas. Canadian Standards Association.htm) Alan McMillan. the free encyclopedia Hazardous area basics (http://www. Smartphones and PDA's (http://www. Butterworth-Heineman 1998. The NEMA enclosure rating or IP code may also be indicated. equipment in hazardous areas . Also included in the marking are the manufacturers name or trademark and /docs/IntrinsicallySafe. Toronto 1986 ISBN 0-9690124-5-4. Chapter 9 ATEX Explained ( /books?id=WbKRE9FfhOQC&printsec=frontcover& dq=electrical+installations+in+hazardous+areas&lr=&source=gbs_book_other_versions_r& cad=5#v=onepage&q=electrical%20installations%20in%20hazardous%20areas&f=false Intrinsic Safety in Cellphones.hse. such as standard 3 phase induction motors that do not contain normally arcing components. Electrical conduit Intrinsic safety ATEX directive Pressure piling Mineral-insulated copper-clad cable Grounding kit 1.m. 1997.wikipedia. the apparatus / require a specific ISBN 0-87765-423-9.htm) ATEX Directive in Detail (http://www.pdf) (PDF). name and serial number. preview available at Google Books at http://books. ^ Bossert 86 page 17 Retrieved from "http://en.sparkinstitute. Hazardous Locations A Guide for the Design. Construction and Installation of Electrical /books?id=Ojke07cRCzQC&printsec=frontcover& dq=electrical+installations+in+hazardous+areas+mcmillan#v=onepage&q=&f=false Peter Schram Electrical Installations in Hazardous 3.htm) Hazardous area information (http://www. ^ a b c http://www.extronics. Jones and Bartlett.

12 de 12 30/07/2013 03:02 p. Inc. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.. . the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.Electrical equipment in hazardous areas . additional terms may This page was last modified on 29 July 2013 at 19:42. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.m.Wikipedia. By using this site. a non-profit organization.