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must be content with inviting his readers to the nearest height. the day. and fair the spot. be BlacF? Bool? of What us all Carmartben: prose or verse ? does it.INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. vn . therefore.' it contain ? Is it Tell about the request Of such a nature commonly addressed is are the questions and to the writer. fair Fair the birdie sings on the fragrant bough. addressed to the few. and fills new life our nostrils with the spring. the among mountains. as he goes. than a critical analysis The live latter work can be reach of better performed libraries. remote from the centres of learning. Teg yd g4n yr adaren ar berwyS Yes. living in exile A solitary man. in the forefront of the poem. What a wealth of suggestion is there in that word fair. I07'9 few flowerets by the wayside. an attempt to satisfy this natural and reasonable rather curiosity on the part of the many. by those who within great and of fellow- workers in divers branches of research. a bren. and fair his lot who listens. What follows. the — perhaps more salient features. while the tuneful adaren brings a whole world of blossom and before our vision. name one or two of and gather. whereon he may show them nature of the country.

The Priory itself is in the last stages of decay. human beliefs. however. The Black Book of Carmarthen is no exception to the rule. Its theology is not infrequently : merged in the older mythology.Con' tents. there remains but the fragment which makes up the text of this booklet. to wit: History. we must not look for definite and we do not find them in the Black Book of Carmarthen. may the still be heard in the neighbourhood of its Priory of St. which was written during the reigns of Henry II. The Dialogues must be placed in this class. founded for Black Canons about the year 1148.subject matter. as is only natural the younger is grafted on the older. In the evolution of Mythology. and Literature. but before we examine them. B. the very names of those who lived within its walls can only be traced now in the Book of Fate and of the work they did with their hands. not in the script. and his sons.c. It is held to be the law of all literatures that they must begin with verse. and they will be followed in the order named. It was written by men of Deheubarth. Still. Theology. it . Some of the compositions. for the purpose of our present examination the above divisions are sufficiently distinctive. John's.B. which ever supplies the sap. at the east end of the town of Carmarthen. whose accent origin. will be convenient to deal with the contents of our text. viii . thought and frontier-lines. before they go on to prose. sequence of the poems in the manu- but according to the four main divisions of the .. belong to earlier ages. and mothers the growth that overshadows it.

B..' . in the subject as a rule. a Greek writer of the sixth century In the island of : ' Britain soil men of ancient time built a long wall sides. point. 5-8 B. difficulties. ix . and corn. The subject is the Battle which Maelgwn and his men took. but the facts of unknown. and what if most strange. and men are not alike on both the air is On the one side seasons fruit. the natives affirm that any one passing the wall should proceed to the other side.' out for special mention to posterity.' falls. he I 'Annates Cambrie. The real difficulty The first poem in Taliessin. wholesome. in quo bello Guendoleu cecidit: Merlinus insanus effectus est. flourish.' A later MS.B.. the dialogue is between MyrSitt and an illustration in in of ArvderyS. and the curtain Our text however adds : Seith ugein haelon aethan yngwllon Seven score generosi went into the shades 6'9 in ynghoed CelySon. adds: [inter filios Elifer et Guendoleu fllium Keidiau. of the wall temperate. in the book. a decisive part: other names are singled their epitaph grave. Bellum Armterid.] Cp.C. On the other side and all 'all is different. tree Man and beast. The language is but wherever the subject their understood the words yield lies meaning itself.C. apparently. readily.. CelySon wood. These lines remind us of the words of Procopius. and they have for 'The path of Glory leads but to the their lives are : The chronicler is too brief: '573 Annus. are full of mythological and semiDia' and for that reason are often very offers logues. Seith meib Eliffer.' Vipers and is all kinds of wild beasts 'infect the place. obscure to the modern mind..The Dialogues historical allusions. B.

. I24'24. '° In another connection is said endowed Gwyn with the Annwn." that he could not But in case he could be spared he must be mounted on Ebony. ii3's. whom he sentences to till each other every Kalends of May. When Arthur heard of this he again comes as far as the north' he summons ' . releases the prisoners.' At one end of it was Tophet where This is the Gehenna of the New Testament. before destroying be spared from refuse of all sorts. on this their takes the Having thus it settled Arthur goes to ILydaw.^ J towards the north : when he has reached his destination. ii3'2. and put his chief followers in prison. wins. one or other 'doom's day. SCreurdilad in our text. Dia- he takes counsel of 'the Gwyn and Gwythyr. The theology here is not Pagan but Pauline The la^ enemy that shall be destroyed is death. : xii B. 5K 9 R. 134. and caused the dead man's son to eat it. The above rendering differs from preceding versions. extracted his heart. ^°R. Mai. The Rabbins call it the " door of hell. Gwyn however promptly beat him. Mai.C.' 9 Gwyn had in fact run away with her on the very day of her introduction to the home of Gwythyr.B. infant sacrifice to the fire-gods took place. i Corinthians xv'26. Gwyn before him. Mab. own it where was burnt.. He even put one of them to death.'7 At another time these two had a serious quarrel over CreiSilad. JK wib.8 most majestic of the maids of the island of Britain. the daughter of King Lear. CreiSilad to He also restores her father's home. who in hot haste gathered a host. She was the daughter ol Llud and appears in English as Cordelia. activity 'God had of the demons of that his life. prevails.. and establishes a truce between the two lovers.. and sought to rescue his lady." 5S iR.B. 141-28. there to live apart fight from Gwyn and Gwythyr. the horse of Moro his place.B.' the quarrel He who maid.B.

they brought their theology Whenever. the north it Strathclyde moved settled in Wales.C.'2 before he could take part the Boar Trwyth. I suggest that 12^-27. near Preston. By degrees.e.0rwySawg. the country west of the Severn and the Dee. in the east. associated with which extended beyond and included the ancient the territory of Dyved. Annwn is placed in safe to attribute the authorship to a descendant of the Strathclyde Britons. ^ nR. we read 5S : Moro Moro/fe^room. its own and region his of the departed followers When KuneSa and with them. Kelts occupied also the western coast from the Solway to the Dee. the land of enchantment was also in Gwladyr hud. Annwn of the Mabinogi is of Pwyll. ^5 and the south-west corner of England. as the northern immigrants became absorbed in the n Moro orwySawg. i4«. Every spirits. What the explanation. survive still. and Gwyn has told us that he called ' the enchanter.B. we are Trwyth. Mab.13 in the hunt of the .14 that Towy and the Arthur summoned Gwyn to him. is the MS. branch had south. another world. 139-8. is therefore.B. The Welsh place-names B. where Severn Gwyn Sea."* appears on the borders of the region which the girdles spirit Cower. if any ? In the sixth century the several branches of the Keltic family in Britain occupied districts so widely separated as Strathclyde in the north. In the account of the hunt when boar was lost between the mouth of the told if is Taw6.. Dyved. like Penwortham. ^iii .. and asked This he knew anything of the missing the one instance in the Kulhwch. reading. and another is the south. 15 o^ruedauc i.' Thus we spirit see that one set of documents places the in world in the north.

till : authorities grow later meet and we are forced at last to cry out with the faithful credo. . when speaking of the dying. logues. and conflicting allusions us more and more. rode on the clouds which haunt mountain-tops. moved ar wybir. at dead of night. dismal cry. attenuated into a sort of forked terminating in fan-like ends. An animal of this description was not adapted to run along the ground. while early Christian In the tenth art borrows its symbols from Jonah and the whale. which he interprets as Death's door. inhabitants. as our later. Cerberus was a tail. and is the vehicle in which the hound is said to move. The word wybir according the Latin vapor. in hands to that of the upper. mouth of the Oxfordshire. ' ' ' Mach. Rhys.'7 The form and meaning of the dog's name are uncertain. 16 Rhys suggests Dor-mar/h. out that this nuSen serves as a garment for Gwyn. as theologies are apt to do. tail. and his clawed In a fresco. century Caedmon MS. ' : ' xiv ^^•^- . it was held to prognosticate death in the neighbourhood. Coombe Church.. Mar nuben yn cravangu yn to claw one's vitals this NuSen is said ymrest i. half-howl half-whine. however. Dormarch head. 17 to Prof. Infernus is depicted by the bodiless open-mouth of a marine monster. This reminded me of the expression ymwlch savan ki. probably by a later hand. pictorial repre- sentation bodiless the foot of page 97. however. having two is and but one His body. with two tusks the Devil lies on his back across this mouth. The scribe wrote Dormarch twice. 'the jaws of death' resemble the gaping sperm whale.' Whether the word is a derivative of Nu8. but a condensed floating white cloud. is merely the Welsh form of This vapour is not diffused mist. Of the hound at Dormarch '^ we have a monster. forty years ago. Keltic theology got mixed. and our text informs us that he i. Cardiganshire. in the opening of the dog's jaw.southern Dia. but the r has been erased. a surety. the amended syllable. quia itnpossibile est. three-headed differs in with a serpent's front legs. or is unconnected with It is enough for our present purpose to point I leave others to decide. which is called Nubtn in S. means 'a bail. it. uncovered some years ago. Prof." Marth.e. a phrase current in my native When a dog uttered a place. In cold weather.' Welsh tradition seems to follow the Latin Cerberus. occurs in other places where the sense death is impossible. with his neck chained to the tusk of the lower jaw.

Edmund Jones of the Tranch. with Cwn some persons with him. though he saw them not when they came near him their voices were but small. at some distance from each other. ' the Principality of Wales. W. a man far from superstition. 1813)."' . and as if they overtook something which they hunted after.' ^ XV . . he heard. made the same dismal cry and again escaped. a deep hollew voice. like that of small beagles and the farther the louder and sometimes like the voice of a great hound sounding among them . so : We he hastened on to meet and hinder them he heard them coming towards him. (Dogs of the Fairies) and by some Cwn wybir. but increasing as they went from him whereby he knew they were what are called cwn wybir. a man perfectly firm to tell the truth. 82. then stooped down to take up a stone. . Mr. .'^ : : : . of Pembrokeshire. I have heard say that these Spiritual Hunting Dogs have been heard to pass by the eves of several houses before the death of some one in the family. and befng overtaken made a miserable cry among them. called the Devil's Nags. so that he could percieve it had a white tail and a white snip down his nose. The nearer they were . W. being out at night heard a hunting in the air. 70-71. there were in Carmarthenshire and elsewhere often heard before burials what by some were called Cwn Annwn .=° . the less their voice was. . called the Cot-moor.'* Before the light of the Gospel prevailed. p. where evil spirits are said to haunt and trouble passengers. . but in the inward part of Wales cwn annwn. HA relation of the (Newport. but his dog seemed to be much frightened.. thinking to throw at it but suddenly there came a fire round it. W. ' i9((5. xxii'ao..find a remarkable survival of this tradition in 1813. was travelling by himself through a field. p. and seemed to escape but overtaken again. by others Cwn bendith y Mamineu . went with a strong fighting mastiff with but suddenly he saw another mastiff dog coming towards He thought to set his own dog at it. . : [As] Mr. Apparition of Spirits in the County of Monmouth and by the late Rev. he was thrown over the hedge. and saw his teeth grinning at him he then knew it was one of the Infernal Dogs. 38-9. . D. Mr. As Thomas Andrew was coming towards home one night. as he thought. 20 ji. p.. him him. the sound of wyblr hunting he was afraid it was some person hunting the sheep. An acquaintance of mine. and would not go near it. and was never well afterwards. where two stones are set up.. . 5(^« ' Ps.

I will repay thee thy hospitality. the son of Mydno. I : : . which is full of suggestive matter. Ugnach blessings on thy GorseS.. i^e challenger in the conflict of song. — a conflict not mentioned elsewhere. forbids more than a few passing remarks. Grace be yours in the kingdom of the Most High blame me not I cannot stay. and withal speaks so fair and pleasant. 58 23 B.Dialogues ill In the third dialogue two horsemen meet. Copyists were careless: they misread their originals.' Thus the xvith centhe Hams" is confirmed by our xiith century manuscript. though I have seen you before. man how far are you going. 101-2. Come to my dale. for the good reason that the text is corrupt. .. Taliessin. men. the kerZ gyvergyr''^ of our text. abide here till Wednesday. however. from fighting with Jews. is the first to speak do not know you. the who is riding to Aber. 22 Vol. Ugnach you are most hospitable. and from where are you coming ? I go I come from Caer Seon. and I will give you sparkling wine. is going to Dinas. = strained. where Taliessin chief ' ' of bards. xvi ^•^•^- . Ihewon to the Caer of Lieu and Gwydion. The story of Taliessin contending with the bards in the court of Maelgwn GwyneS is known to all readers of Lady Charlotte Guest's Mabinogion. Grace and honour be thine. by being passed through a coarse cloth. That is the sense of the poem. with his white dogs and loud horns.' appears as tury chief of men. ! And I am Taliessin. I really do not know the man who repeatedly invites me to his home. in its reference to which adds a further particular conflict with Jews. chief of ! .C. My name is Ugnach. Go rather along with me to Dinas I will give you purified"' mead and gold. and not infrequently 31 1 read 'ry phe!llas' iii. I02'ii. Space. the one." We in have clearly a reference to the same tradition here.B. You look like a prosperous It is true you have not seen me daily. pages 321 — 389 contain Hanes Taliessin. other.

Under was quite natural that the fight ' at the very time the Crusades it Note 46 '2 six times. is Kertorion occurs — further supported . a native of Carmarthen. B. ^ nineteenth century. in the near the modern town of Carnarvon. How then came ISewon to be foisted into the text ? ' ' Quite naturally. 26The geography of the poem is on the sea-board lying between Carnarvon and Clynog. on the road from Caer Seon in Arvon to Dinas Dinlleu. see Index. Yn Uys meibon Deuon. or Jerusalem ' to Skene. Hanes Taliessin.B. 'Deon' with 'Deuon' of note 25: note also 'Mia fum yn Uys Don cyn geni Gwydion. therefore.. 37: 'A phan 5el yr amrysson. or of the near neighbourhood of likely to Priory. nor the old encampment. But we must not overlook another Dinas on the banks of the Llyvni. A gwys ir cerSorion. however. O ymlad a cheriorion.' The last line can not be right. a Kerdd' word occurs wildly out of harmony with the context. It is wholly foreign to the tradition embodied in the poem. 339. a quarter of a mile distant. I go to Caer Leu a Gwydion. which requires cerhorion'^. That it is the right word here by a poem on the subject in Panton MS. 352. near y Bont NewyS in the parish of Llan Wnda. ger gorseS Deon. Am gerS gywir gysson. Ugnach remains as unknown to us as he was to Taliessin when first he met him there is a GorseS still. on Lleuer Farm beyond Bryn Gwydion. which suggests itself as the Caer Leu a Gwydion. xvii . Mi a fum ynghaer Wydion.C. p.24 Whenever. ii. as proved by his therefore orthography. p. ' 27 Four Ancient Books of Wales.' Cp. From contesting with the bards^^: Y8 av Gaer Leu a Gwydion.made deliberate alterations.^^ And if. YnghyueS Gwion. p. on the left of the road to Clynog. Cp. There is a Dinas on the banks of the Gwrvei. Cp.^^ be the case with a the circumstances 24 See Paleographical ^S how much more was it likely to man engaged in copying the poem were preached. vol.' See Hanes Taliessin. Seon could only suggest Zion. Read Ban Seuav o Gaer Siion. YngwyS y Teyrnon. orion it is necessary to examine it carefully. 335. I come from Caer Seon. He was ' un- know that Caer Seon was an actual place. Ihewon is such a word here. The its ' scribe was. in the parish of Llan Dwrog.

will see it. in a wattle fence.C. blessed.' Silvan Evans. ' remark : Woe to stroyed a roll of religious music. Si'ii. which is incomplete. full of Keltic mythology. Consider my I suffering from sea worms. . is To my house you will not come. thicker than the rest.' falsehood.''^ affliction Consequently his 'penance and were heavy.' Perhaps a sort of lacustrine dwelling is meant. Iv Yscolan by name. except that it is on a pole. but whether in a coracle. In the fourth dialogue Taliessin salutes apparently should be with iZewon. all things. done a certain injury to a school. shall deliver them. For a full year I was placed in a coracle"' on the pole of If a I I weir. whose first him who angers a Gwledig if he Taliessin relates how he had burnt please him not' a church. 28 the part of Arthur. deeds. He who 817-9 page 94 we have a fifth dialogue.Dialogues The word had the same number and rhymed just as well it gave besides a touch of life and actuality to the composition. and dehis father is confessor.3° i propose to read: 'a Uyvyr ro/ vo/i. Taliessin is placed in. I ' xviii « B. is found in fuller detail in the Romance of Kulhwch and Olwen. We shall return to the subject in the fox\hcommg editio princeps of The While Book Matinogion. between Arthur and Glewlwyd Gavaelvawr. 30 The matter of this poem. 8i'6. On Who Who Who I is the porter? the Glewlwyd Gavaelvawr.' known what know : ' I should not have done what Yscolan observes Creator of thy treasures are most plenteous. Forgive betrayed thee has deceived me my me too. of syllables as kerhorion. and you Then follows a monologue on who tells the tale of Kay's heroic For 'a llyuir xod y vo/i' x)ymangor ar bawl gored. not on ('ar') a ban-gor.B. had did. . unless you can deliver [them]. or in some other kind of wattle-frame is not clear. man who asks ? Arthur and Kay the go with you ? The best men in the world.' Ban-gor=' Xhe upper row of rods.

On the other hand. a good many poems of the modern awdl religious. It is this traditional theology literature. while remembering that there religion is no antagonism between that literature and art. laid The winner of the chief prize at the cleric. There are rather RELIGION AND THEOLOGY.//. what the subject is the may the treatment nearly always didactic. The of awe.C. bankrupt in for but all with a vast capacity creating divisions and uncharitableness. EisteSvod with hardly an exception. Happily. should realize has nothing in is common with theology. These It their monastic origin. of reverence. religious of life. just as the aivdl of the chaired bard 3" reflects his little Sunday sermons. theology nothing but a speculative attempt to this make all intelligible sense it which a blind is in the blood of while ordinarily intelligence.^" Our bards. xix . great. always a 3$ 32 Words its platform of the National EisteSvod by to this effect were uttered on the most competent adjudicator. When Book of Carmarthen was written the Church was one. 31 Its priesthood is. this has the Black not always been the case. Apparently it had no theologians to divide the energies and embitter the relations of men. Theoreflect j than of the theological order. B. love. and that theology sense not religion. is tradition. of matters be. which chokes it the life of modern Welsh and makes so inane.B. is the inspiration of art and of the which ever tend to bind men together in all that is is worthy and at best. respectable Quite recently King Arthur and EisteSvodic muse his knights were converted by the chapel-goers. into and seated with the elders under the pulpit.

Stress GogoneSawc arglwyj. na thiais. and sunny. Pain and sorrow may cast shadows on life's but no gloom mantles the brow. a clean life.' 78-1 Nowhere bright is there doubt or uncertainty. hanpych gwell 35T Let church and chancel praise Thee. The Cross of Christ I'll wear alway. Gwiscav am danav yn berth. Seepages 35-36. and church support. sadness or despair. XX B. the living and the dead. church First comes worship observance. nor oppression. air and sky. 88'4 . no cant affects the voice. certain is his gift. the fountains of the deep and of the firmament. diffleis.. We are urged Respect the law of the maker of heaven. night and day. It is a sin to whine and be glum. literature and man. The ethical teaching of but to ' the text is felt throughout. and his gifted am is I. Y bore ban gyvodav When I rise at break of day Croes Crist yn wise am danav. Moses and Aaron. we hail Thee In this Benedicite omnia opera of the Welsh Catholic ath vendicco di eglwys a changell. The outlook hopeful. sun. nowhere perplexity. ! exultant Plain and precipice. I will wear it seemly well. highway..B. na tfawyll. Kyvoethog Dduw . Nis credav goel can nid certh Tis to me no fabled spell Y gwT ym crewys am nerth. moon and stars. . for The perfect God did not create us To work foolishness. it is nowhere agressively preached. a beris Ileuver llawenyJ. In my Maker do I dwelL %rl-^ : : : And again : ' I seek the protection of God. glon on the worship of God.ReU.C . fish and and bees. Cyntav gair a Jywedav. Ever the first thing I say. 86' 10 Nid er jm ciewjs Dews £r gmeotbor ambwyli.' 227. . Abraham. time and Church faith is beast. nor deceit. Glorious God. birds eternity — all bless the Lord. because the The mighty God created the light of gladness. letters.

purity must be winnowed' 84-12. to my green grave. nor isles of the sea. nid oes ynialeS. 2 15 'The oppressors have perished. The nobler ' faith is centred everywhere. nor of that 'other place'-'* to which warm-hearted men consign those who are too honest to profess belief in every tradition of the past. . 'Yea. 30*4 There is one reference. without Hght to my tumulus. but nowhere a hint of purgatory. pobloet an-tan. been There is poetical blotted out of the book of life.' justice therefore busied itself with the in- of man to man.The only safety lies in doing no wrong.X1 . seemingly. nor the paths which men make in the wilderness can provide an escape from the pure eye of Christ. Into the darkness. to my destiny. justice in this doctrine. — no. The church of the twelfth century^^ that 'the deed thought with Emerson . Before I go beneath the sod. A vu treis tranghyssant. Let us set right the wrong we have done.' if 19-5 Ymryn. 33" 1 Ymhob Rhag ' fford Crist gwyn yS elher.B. .' the judge of the quick and the dead. 41 i. not the wrong- thinking which darkens the horizon in the West. Into — my narrow abode. Nor mountains. for a timely reformation and reparation deny me not let us make peace.' It the wrong-doing.' have. 34See however. nor all valleys. but the unclean people. who is not the heretics. . woe unto thee thou be not delivered from the evil thou hast done. and not the creed It helps us in our utmost need. have a fiery experience of some kind. to my rest. to expiatory sacrifice. Teymvron. 5K 35 The creed of the church broadly set forth on pp. because ' all im. nor cares to fix is itself to form.C. X. ynhyno. yn ynysseS mor. use the gift of life. B. Hence the prayer for reconciliation. It is Men who 84-5. 25'4-6.

If he endow not his Lord. waking at midnight. . .' church observances are reproached: cism Ni cheuntosti bader. : ^•^•'-• . do not gift make the lives of ^*'" deserve to have that class of others a burden to them. existence. Wastrels of heaven. i8-ii. Trans. Na phylgeint na gosper. nor Evensong . Dyn dyval i ffawd Ni ervill gospawd.' He hears. . nor parent own The Child of Sloth. 25"2 hfe is in 'The mighty God owns the man whose Still. Thou hast not sung a Paternoster. by R. ' By rising at dawn. leading a useless. nor altar. Thou nor churches However. Ni phercheisti greireu. Ac onys gwaSawl y RieS. Na Hoc. Doomed o'er that dreary realm alone To go. Woe to whoso gathers treasure. And Pa yet. not the ecclesiastic's Well-done. 'The man of is diligent nature faithful will receive no punishment': he 'the good and servant' who has 'worked out his own salvation. aimless. 22'4. 3r2-4 36 This is evidently an old idea.those who neglect EccleS' iasti' the right. to the man who mark the questions and the threat addressed has not endowed the church. Well-believed. Kyvoethog 8yn 'n i Dduw a ve8 Seheu vucheS. xxii Cp.^* Not so the fate of the industrious. There 70-4. every Christian obtains forgiveness. wastrels of earth. . the following lines from Sappho gentler shades.' 85'3 hast not reverenced relics. unemployed and unemployable here. and imploring the saints. and therefore condemned to linger on for ever in the corridors of time. roSeisti oth reuveS What didst thou give of thy store Before thy association with the grave ? Kyn cywes argel ? Pa roSeisti oth olud What didst thou give of thy gold Before the silence of dissolution ? 20'6. Kyn mwyll moll mud ? Gwae a grawn mawr vertheS. but his Master's and he enters into the joy of the Lord. direid daear. is another men: Direid nev. B. nor Prime. 2r8. na llanneu. shunn'd by the Nor friend shall soothe. These are incapable of change and growth.

the Pass of the Birch tree. 40 V vedwen yngwarthav Din Vythwy A wybyS ban vo y gad jrn Ardudwy. were the writer competent. much come reserve. and in Dinvythwy. See Bruts. 97. York Powell's History of England. (1885). Kadwaladr. is background of allusion to a remoter and yield practical. Book Bed' Among the latest compositions of the Black of Carmarthen are the Bedweni. could. 47"ti. See Bruts." For instance. Pymlumon' when looks down. of 475 are Kadwaladr and Owein. 47'2. in 1143. Jg The young men. which. GwyneS returned from the sacking of Gwis Castle. ' ' These phrases are possibly an echo of some notorious event. in on Rhyd On the Knee. harried the Kynan who. 3io'24. not be done in a a general introduction. gweison ^/irijon.''" They deal with incidents in the life of Cadwaladr. the son of Griffith ap his brother Owein. 37 Compare the recent public incident 38 F. . Elvel and MaelenyS fell.///. Gr.^' on Pymlumon. See Bruts. His direct route would be through Bwlch y Vedwen. besides. — ^ xxiii . the Avalleneu and the weni Hoianeu. 314-13. secrets. the murderers of Thomas-a-Becket were seen armed under an apple tree. All that to glance at some of the more open And first the verses of the Birch-tree in the valley of the Wye. a past. which lies to the east of Din\zs\ Vowlwy. it ' Blessed the Birch-tree on 1136. 3i2'7. perhaps.'^ Hence. p. ap Kynan became a monk. the Welsh history of half a century and more. in 1 146. it is that Avallen beren bir y changeu shadows so many To clothe these tales would be to write tragic tales. 39Syrth chengeu bob un. their secret with therefore. 5K Myneich . HISTORICAL. both a second time. in his castle in Kynvael in Ardudwy. to besiege his uncle. bob dwy. Norman parasites is with with persistence and success. Howe! ap O. All three poems have the same device of re- peating a catch-phrase at the beginning of every verse. yn varchogion. i . is Some verses contain.

: He G'mi^gentes nigrae. Vochnwy. This date fell 'proceeded against the chief of Bachwy. Danes. the Black Rock the probability great that more than one battle was fought in the valley which divides these two castles. We know. that Elvel into the hands of Robert of Belesme.B. .e. mentions Bachwy once. To-day England full of rejoicing. 3ii'32-3. They are called Gennanwyr in the Bruts. and the remnant dispersed. and sundered heads will serve as balls to play with. however. A youth will arise at the head of the South.' the signal The this is defeat and death of the formidable prince. i. the young son of the fallen Rhys ap Tewdwr. Among other historical references are 41 See Bruts.A . where we are told that the King's son and son in law. It lies 'valley of Machawy' is or Bachwy is in between Pain's Castle and the Castle of . which cause rejoicing event which best illustrates in England. in 1090. where the reference in the text is explained. See p.C. The bard is also clearly antithetical. The Saxons their be slaughtered by the ashen spears. some drowned.. Rhys ab It Tewdwr.' This youth is Griffith. xxvii.'-" The fragrant Apple-tree verses open with a reference — ' -eneu to ' very gory blades. Germanwyr 48'! came apparently from Llwch Gannon' ' in Ireland. See Bruts 326'i2. But the Brut does not locate the only place 'in Breconshire' where this happened. xxiv B. 47*16 Arbenigawl Men = Kadwaladr. 2-6 below. the ferry across the Dyvi. but to-morrow the ' Kymry will will raise the shout of triumph.' is too late. and sees the some mailed Normans and their alh'es vanquished. killed. 309-ro. Robert and Alexander. the lord of Brecon. Where is the chronicler is vague we should expect the bard of the house of Dinevor to be precise. and that the Elvel.

Griffith at once takes the offensive and. and his head Griffith makes good his escape. and this ' ! English rulers delighted to practise such it barbarism on the bodies of Welsh princes. near Cardigan. and at punishment on the garrison Blaen Forth. then let him be slain. seeks and obtains the Henry promptly him alive. and old territory. 298. the voice of slander poisons his mind Griffith. growing in favour every day in his father's This makes the King apprehensive. For about Avail 'Eneu two years he lives quietly among his friends and relatives. While returning to his base in ILan Goedmor in parish. See Bruts. where the protection ap Kynan. and is only natural that the bad example should be followed. with varying success. such as — 'This for the ' small heads many King. he meets the Saxons force near Crug Mawr. if that demands be not possible. tossing them to and fro as so balls. XXV . He then crosses the Teivi. attacks one castle after another in the counties of Carmarthen and inflicts dire Pembroke. against young who. ' the fugitive to be sent to people flock to his standard. B.' with some grim jest. There is no reason to doubt that the bard is a faithful histo/ian in this particular.C. reaches the sanctuary of the church at Aber Daron he flees thence by water to Ystrat Towy. & sent to England. and practically annihilates them.B.returns from his exile in Ireland in 1112. upon hearing of of Griffith it. pages 294-96. it In the intoxi- cation of victory is remembered that the King had : demanded the head of the triumphant leader wonder then if the Welsh warriors cut off the of the Saxon slain.

summoned the Northmen. The brothers met and made peace. 5K 44 /i. and ILywelyn ap Cadwgan in Gwyne8. and the narrow defile of ConThe sillt Wood. aneu are written in the manuscript. to his brother. but everywhere the metre demands its omission. which range between 1135 and 1215. in which they Piggie. 268-9. yswein. from Dublin to succour him. Kadwaladir. the followers of the ' two princes. There flourished as far as about that time RhySerch''^ 'ap Caradog in Deheubarth. sons of Griffith ap Kynan. See j5ra/i.B. The Coed llwyvein refer to the dangerous pass of Euloe Wood. Before however a blow had been struck. was 'laid waste' by the Welsh in 1055. either or both. Hush-a-bye HoiThe order. are purely narrative. This alludes to the devastating expeditions of 1135-36.''*'' Owein figures again at 6o'i-6. because pre- vented lawlessness and suffering. 587-16. is not the order of the events chronicled.' 43 VoT Kynan Kadwaladir. in the order of time. pp. . except ' 52-9-14.e. xxvi B. near Flint Castle. 309-312. in conference. destroyed the castles belonging fearing the loss of everthing. near Hawarden. read. —a peace worthy of it the plaudits of Kymry's armed forces.The verses beginning Hoian o Barchellan. . JK 45 See *'Wyron 5ra<j pages 318-19. which refers to the success of the Kymry Aber Taradr.*^ intervened. hosting and thefts. i. Owein. is The next verse. some miles from Acornbury in the county of Hereford.' Bruts. and his brother Cadwaladr. made Owein south of the Dyvi by Owein GwyneS. where we have a summary of Henry H.' A place of that name. 311 28-29. deu briodawr. who. Later.C.'*' English forces were severely punished. the Danes. in the one and 42 The text always adds hael.'s incursion into Wales in 1156.

in 1 1 7 2. who had obtained possession of Anglesey in 1151. who proved settlers himself so skilled a leader against the sudden attack of Carmarthen Castle by the Norman and Flemish of Pembrokeshire 'kynn bei bychan in in 1145. between the father and Richard. On his King from Normandy' visits the way thither he makes a pilgrimage David on Michaelmas day. father The Youngster with the great arm. All readers name accurately defined by our of history know the conflicts between and son in 1173-74. after Henry's death. but had soon after fled to England. who was crowned king at Westminster in 170.' We meet with the English King later at 54-1-10. consequence of Richard Strongbow's conquest of Irethe 'fifth unhappy ' isle. however. and heartened B. and again funds Winchester title. When peace was established aneu between the opponents. is 'After Henry.'s 1 son Henry. Cadwaladr. See Bruts. trouble : to the shrine of St. y Bychan breichvras of 62-1.B.' he matched himself successfully personal combat against tried veterans. xxvii . answers to Meredith ap Griffith. No power. and again.' And I prophesy that will come from the quarrels of father and son the country will know it' There the be. and 'the Saxons disappeared from the territories of Britain. Though young in years. 1172. a troublesome world there will is This brenhin na vrenhin at Henry II. 328-29. accompanied the nor even a worthy allowance of — nothing but the empty poet. In land.' is a second prophesy at 62-12-16. Ho!- was re-established in his island.the other. The English fleet also suffered heavily at the hands of the men of Mon. y oet.C. King who no king.

lead by the sons of Gerald their two Judases in perceived how few men were inside land-hunger') ( ? 'the the castle.B. Cardigan and Kilgerran. who has of Snowdon. who were his kinsmen. ILywelyn ap Jorwerth. Carmarthen.' Welsh princes generally collect in a vast host at Among them are Rhys & Owein ap Griffith the two whelps. Six years later. common territory.' 57-8. . Clare. 'There will come .' This took place in 1202. and the Saxon slain xxviu in the 'confluences of war. Laugharne. are. having permitted as> those this. and building Dyganwy. 'summoning the other princes. See Bru/s. were taken. Baffled and angry the King orders the burning of Bangor. promptly precipitated the ladders. slain. fled to the fastness And in 12 10 y Berveh-wlad.his followers to the degree of enthusiasm. 345-47. See Bruts. when 'ILywelyn and Carmarthen. patron saint. We the close with the year 1215. thus incurring the its wrath of Deiniol. King John follows a similar route in pursuit of ILywelyn. to arm and make war upon Gwenwynwyn. Meredith. Fishguard. 34323.' See Bruts. into the ditch below. KidSt. their weli. i. as well them.. they scaled the walls. The words of our text. who share the government of The castles of SenghenyS. deu keneu. S7'3-4. Many were the swift the flight of those who made good See Bruts. we find the Earl of Chester pitching In the north his tents in the land of the Etheling. who had mounted and their escape. When the Hoi- aneu enemy. 313-1-23. a day of wrath between the prince of Powys and the clan of GwyneS.. the prince of Powys.3S4B.e.C. we meet with Wales's greatest general. ILan Stephan.

ennobles the motive. cain. No assumption could be farther removed from the unless by literature be meant the Drama. their mer gerSeu . far better matter than the modern drama. and has. in the Black Book. They delight us with their mel varSoni. or any one who is not a pedant. because the Welsh pulpit has enlisted in its service all the dramatic talent and power produced in Wales. and none knew better that the wind bloweth where it listeth.' Man y mae meillon. and good literature too. a gwlith ar dirion. then there is Literature. It is a common assumption is that there in is nothing worthy of the name of Literature of Carmarthen. The Welsh muse has.LITERATURE. ' — — ^•^•^- xxix . or even thrice in the same day' as at a Sassiwn. If they were English sermons neither could I. and I prefer the Sassiwn it is more dramatic. The Welsh sermon is often built on the lines of the drama. and I have tried the Sassiwn.— nothingf that terest to the Black Book of in- intelligible. and no country has ever bred better exponents of the dramatic But if by Literature be meant that witchery over words and ideas which charms the mind. Man y mae cerSorion ynghyweir gysson. and lead us where ' the white clover blows where the dew pearls the fields where the minstrels are in constant harmony. or a philologist. An Englishman can sit for hours at a theatre. kindles the art. The better Welsh poets have ever lived in the closest communion with nature. at its best. been dramatic. and that twice. The dramatic element and the concrete method make all the difference. 26'3 4* English people cannot imagine how the Welsh can stand two or three sermons running. and gives eyes to see and understand what was never realized before. I have tried the theatre.46 emotion. fact. at no period.

. BraiS allan orsevir.. molawd esmwyih. The very coats.. Who forget that has once read the ode to winter can ever it ? Not he who has experience of the moods hill of the elements on and if dale. difference. Ereidr yn rhych.. and bare the hill.Their soothing Liter- praise. the trees with tumultuous arms swing wildly in the woods. brithottor tireS . hard cold .' 13-3 Musig a gan. scarce out can man remain. 'The dust eddies. Ban ganhont gogeu ar vlaen gwyS gwiw.B. . 89' 1-4 is 'Keen to find is . the gull rides the surf. mal eur — min wahanieth.C. and has watched the heaving sea. ceinhav amser Dyar adar.' 7-9 gro. first lines cause us instinctively to button our put up our collars and prepare to run Llym awel. wakes music ' like ature unto a golden organ — small the orian. its They fair ' see visions in the night as the wave broken upon the pebbled liw BreuSwyd a welvvn . 33" Kynhevin. ych yngweS GvvyrS mor. XXX . the ship scuds with bare poles at sea.. with : chirming of birds and green shoots present a variety of colours calls in the leafy the plows are in the furrow.. . and a maiden shore.. when trees. a bun deg gwaneg To them 'the Spring is the choicest season. not especially he can say with the bard Adeileis dy vry ar y vron. shelter .' the cuckoo branches of the . the oxen yoked..' The penetrates the very marrow. Uwm bryn AnhawS caffel clyd . the breeze. glas calleS . the tempest grows. and the face of the fields . wave upon wave thunders B.

can be a Coherent whole. red grows the dawn.upon the shore. the kind can ever forget the pathos of The ode has many such touches. bees live in confinement. and the whole is deserves to be rendered into English by a poet familiar with the bleak places of the earth. and ' : Liter- ature mountain tempests flood the is lea.' What is a picture of the extreme severity of the weather conjured by the slow-moving couplet: gi-io Briwhid tal glann Gan garw culgrwm cam. the lake is frozen. where in we have instead what appears to be a Dialogue. birds grow mute. his back and seeks the glen.' And hill again ' : the ford roughened. is merely a summ. the night lengthens. doubled up by want and cold. till he comes to a place where the stream runs swift there in his effort to reach the water 'the bank crumbles' beneath his hoof. the ox is stalled. the cotton grass withers. because the subject of winter appears fitfully in the latter part. stag. as we have it. the feeble perish. over the frozen snow-covered ground in search of drink. dark the sea. the stag hunches the field. snow mantles and dale. Who that has witnessed a scene of it. It is doubtful if the poem. wandering with melancholy step. the warriors quit idle lies the shield : and beautiful is the shield on the shoulder of the brave. What translated above lines. which the persons and the D XXXI .' Again the day shortens. and the hills echo the resounding roar. the dew ceases. grown lean with hard fare.ary of the sense of selected without adhering to the order of the original. and he has hardly the strength to Behold the : regain his footing.

it is said.' We are told that this tamer of horses was the little else. near kinship of tears to laughter. i/iou — nor chieftain : be in the day of stress thou wert not a woman born. ' son of Llywarch hen. sentiment and is the creature of extremes. im gorweS. the child of Whatever may be the fruitful cause it is emotion. Alas. lines 14-16 of page xxi. unben — Nith elwir ynyS rh. quoted under previous headings. We have also an englyn.B. How gently does fold after fold of the curtain fall Kyn myned im gweryd. im gorod. MechyS. im irveS Ynhywyll. for the Kelt. heb ganwyll im gorseS Im gwein-vod. literature. KinSilig ! Many of the poems. So that we are in its in who does not understand. Consider the passage already translated. nid wyd eleig. anticipating the crossing of the bar. .allusions are equally obscure. who is he? And what is the ^^l"l ature Wherefore.aid : Och Thou art Wilt GinSilig ! na buost wraig. Nid wyd scolheig. Norman and Saxon long centuries lived under the heel others to the . and when did this history of Mwngc ? ill-tempered stranger administer 'a cudgelling to the gallant chieftain. If Pelis be a proper name. which has no perceptible connection with its setting. neither scholar nor hermit. It is make good unnecessary to give them again. who was the first to bridle horse. but the position of Drudwas. as seems likely. The minor is Some attribute weight of the ever the major note of the this to Welsh muse. . withering sarcasm. that the strength of the one B. 30-3 .C. patent to all who are familiar with the best poetry in lies in Welsh xxxii and English.' 937.

Sans hearing. for my loved ones have gone whence they came." .C.B. 47 In England no one hears of anything but 'guns going off spontaneously. and the grave. in estimating its literary qualities. All wrinkled to the finger-tips. sans teeth. The same alphabet differently it is at the service of all. and how much it is A little less. but how is combined. the charm and music of assonance and rhyme vanish like a fairy at a touch. while the Lltef- other excels in the region of the affections. dy drem. life. Can ethyw vynghereint yn adweS. wail and sympathy with a nation's sorrow. 33"9.abstract thought. as it were. Dychrycha croen dy vyseS. Prose can do no more than approximate the sense of verse. am restless. be use a step-dame's speech. Amlwg anhuneS. dy 8eint neud adweS. therefore.' The note and the interests are ever difEerent. material . is the is other : is How i tremulously haunting this line Ag yB oe8 ovud Iwro And there was grief along the harp-strings of the people. and what a world's away. remembered by those who cannot read the original. in narrative. and particularly in the expression of that wistful ature mystery which broods over nature. sans sight. etherial. strings of their The descent of life is also graphically painted : Dynessa heneint a lied arnad Dy glust. The one teint tud. The thrill in I own" motion. the shortcomings of the renderings must be eliminated. xxxiii . The difference be- comes more marked to still in the case of one condemned Let it. broader grown. that. Old age approaches thee. B. even by those at the top of the talk in their mother tongue. in the drama . " a little more.

reaching far back into the ages.. glory are his portion.Liter' ' When Pan aned Gereint oe8 agored pyrth nev. peerless in grace and thought and action. I will many melodies.B. Let him who ' To hold to my faith. its tender utterances. So it came about 'that he Pen llu vu ira vu i amser. a ffaw a phlant. she. there something wrong with They give a golden sheen to every page. . Universal benediction follows the happy-born. literature. If anyone would know and appreciate the B.' ' Kenhittor kyrn elwch.' : led while he lived.C. and illumine in life. If passages is such as these are not pure literature. Gereint was born the portals of heaven were open. children his happiness. when sons muse was uncradled. ature At his first cry the graces and the gifts rushed headlong filled his through. dreams They ever waited on him till he grew up to be a prince among his fellows. favour. its will dissent. many an experience As the fallen leaf rustles beneath the foot. rhad ag anaw. Were : the Wales acquainted with their heritage. I 8uw gwyn gwengerS a ganav — the blessed God a holy lay will I sing. tho' this year born. cathl heSwch a hinon.' for this rich as yet England's legacy of noble poetry. of xxxiv B. Yea. and worthy of it. Wherever he went the order always was Sound the horn of gladness. UrSen amaw.C.B. the prophecy might yet be fulfilled Kymry a orvyi. let him apply his mind to it. eleni ganed. An acquaintance extending over twenty years has taught the writer to love its it for inspiration. sing the song of peace and sunshine. Orders. cain vyhy dyd.— they rocked his cradle and with visions. the lips : words come unbidden to the Old is Mn hi.

The tongue of our contemporaries is mightier than the pen. in all sorts of places. but did not always tread the path of virtue.' and never afpears in print at all.C." Horace.THE EDITOR'S APOLOGIA. XXXV . Book II. When the Myvyrian Archaiology of '' Wales was a undertaken the conception of editorial duties Mr.. His knowledge of WeLsh was inadequate for his purpose. He wandered over the hills of Wales in moonshine he saw a North Briton — in every gorse-bush bending before the wind — he to affixed. ' ' — HE Black Book of Carmarthen has been printed several times. Nunc aliquis dicat mihi : ' Quid tu ? Nullane habes vitia ?' Immo alia et fortasse minora. in the pointed out the true did not go beyond printing the most accessible text from late transcript. Strathclyde labels to familiar Welsh place-names. those of my predecessors. however. " Tkt great mass of criticism is delivered 'viva voce. It is repeated again and again. on hundreds of occasions. He set to work with prepossessions. and cannot fail to make dints in people's minds . not to B.. Skene. William F. Satire iii." AUGUSTINE BlRRELL. of which he knows so little.B." My concern has been throughout to avoid errors call attention to <)f my own. — The man who is laughing at you drags a tail also and shall be taught to look into the wallet on his own back. Four Ancient Books of Wales. method. and definite theories to propagate.. like a geographical pioneer. This spoken criticism is of far greater importance than the printed criticism. and he was apt « discover sixth century incidents in twelfth century historical facts. and his purpose was inadequate for the attainment of an accurate text.

A list of these contributions I am unable to give. o byb bat. same ground owe him a debt of and far be it from me to cast at him a stone. I have been chained. For example Prof Strachan in the Archiv Celtische informs me of a series of Notes Philologie by Prof Loth.much Other less to execute the usual war-dance on their till work 'ers prostrate bodies. if somewhat out of date. and cannot refer to books and fur that should be consulted. who travel over the gratitude. line for line. Various commentators have written on detached portions of the text. to manuscripts and texts for a quarter of a century. and especially Prof. faintly underdotted it . with no margin of out of articles time for serious study reach of libraries. Prof Rhys has also passages in his various writings. dealt with detached Stephens. having unfortunately seen few of them. was the first to introduce sanity into Welsh criticism and his book. a bawhyn er na byhei. page for character. Mr. A fault is plain to every eye The cad doth ever add the spy. Pawb at cenvyS.B. : and now I live in exile. xxxvi . Skene's text was the best the All appearance of the Collotype Facsimile in i888. Students must consult these Notes for themselves. is still worth reading.C. like a dog. read easily is Every letter which the writer . Strachan's own paper in Eriu l/f on the Mutation of the initial consonants in the Old Welsh Verb. page. character for The Meth 'Od present text has been reproduced diplomatically. every letter retraced letter has a wavy line under and every become B. failed to space for space. in his Literature of the Kymry.

where Deu&wr is adopted. repro .B. which may be read in two ways Rhag de\iwr ynEuSwr. spared to make the readings faithful and reliable and I cherish the private transcripts of the original conviction of a happy issue to this part of the work. Oxford.illegible through efTacement or damage to the vellum .C. and 48 Particulars respecting these are given in the appendix. now of the firm of Messrs. of all sizes. I have deliberately transgressed 49 this golden . rule. Davies's transcript. The greater number of these are coloured red/^ a good many are green. and a few are chrome. the prevailing colour used for patching the smaller Capitals tion represented by heavier faced type. The press-work is also the result of our joint-efforts. and its cost in time and money will be incomprehensible to all who have not made the experiment. The interpretation of the text is quite another matter. It is to all intents and purposes a facsimile in No pains have been characters which all can read. and in a variety of styles. XXXVll . Jones for entering into my plais Hall. Before two men into Deu5wr. ambiguity may arise from the double use of / = S & /. Note I have seen Dr. 5° The wise editor attempts nothing beyond his knowledge.B. or yn eu twr y tyrran. but not always as for example Rac deuwr ineutwr y tirran. or into their tower they throng.' Since writing the Pal. is unique among printed books. with interest and intelligence. with twr queried in the margin.duc< Most of the Xiarge Initials are traced copies of the originals. Different sizes of types are used for the different sizes of the handwriting of the manuscript. George Jones of Lampeter. I have to thank Mr. . These Capitals are bodies. I believe that only my assistant^' and myself have ever attempted such a combination of founts. and for helping me to carry them out effici- Kemp ently. Mr.C. and that the B. Fox Jones & Co. is Meth 'Od of underlined. 50 Occasionally : : B. The sense as a rule solves this trouble. involving the use of fourteen distinct founts on different sized The work of adjustment. i.e.

Er cymenn a Dyallyr Llyvyr Du nid wy. and multiplies the duties and difficulties of the paleographer. offers The anonymous 1 7 '9. 7 '4 Pal. nothing is so noticeable as that the difficulties of the one are not.' After all we should not be it. a fact own lack of perception quite as much at fault. by rhyme and sense. And yet of difficulties. I have I left enough I to satisfy the ambition of others and have. word or phrase.B. wherever there is the smallest remnant of a vanished letter.C. as the lapses of the scribe. Ys celvyS a'i dehonglo. alterations and omissions. The latter in the present work include palpable misreadings. few obscurities would remain. blundered often enough to giv6 pleasure to certain ' friends. as a rule. trust. and deny pleasure where we can bestow abundant opportunities lines in this direction.C. The B. and the reputed obscurities of the poems. xxxviii B. «rltles but in no greedy spirit. & were each ! eager to contribute his best. However.B. harllenwy. without touching upon the blunders of the scribe. Notes Paleographical Notes are usually confined to remarks dealing with any peculiarity. as evidenced by assonance and metre. . This opens wide the door of textual criticism. churlish. the difficulties of the other. . or indistinctness in the writing itself. But.1 o. alas BreuSwyd a welwn neithwyr. —a stroke.hazarded here and there the interpretation of serious Obscu difficulties. When two students compare notes. list must find an echo on every reader's every fresh reading reduces the that should convince us that our is lips. those Were it possible to seat at a round table who have given attention to the text.

note of the ^"'* sense of the context must be taken the right length must be found. Many of the Notes are of a tentative character. in the case of poetry. consists of 4 leaves = pages i — 8** 6 4 6 10 )» ») ii iii iv ») V vi vii viii » 10 8 » )J 6 » = = = = = = = 11 9 — 20 —60 » 11 21—28** 29-40 41 1) 11 11 61—80 81—96** **97— 108 11 We 51 thus see that the original number of folios. left illegible in the manuscript must be measured. or a curve. varied. s^/iiV. it be confirmed by the superit added text test of versification. is which constituted a quire. the emendation ceases to be guess-work.' queries. By omissions are not meant lacunae. can be admitted into the latter with confidence. The space .> is used loosely for contrasting. as well as for comparing different passages and words. letter If and a word of this word have a with a corresponding stroke. $6'6. angle or curve at ^""^ the right place. Si^ ' ^ E XXXIX . s8'i4-is. which have six and four no folios See Fiusimile 4y5. The test has indeed tempted the editor to trespass occasionally beyond the frontier of his science. and iii. The probably^. and suggestions should be carefully distinguished from solutions. which Quire i shewn by the following table of now make up the MS.. because there lacuna between ii. — that being entirely the creative work of the imagination.*' If. The student must be warned that <:. a thorough knowledge of the writing and scientific idiosyncracies of the scribe provides a ^**' ^"'' ' basis to build angle.'" But no attempt has been made to restore omissions in the text. of which there are at least four. as the gatherings or quires.

B. 9. rather than to omit nothing. of Many the entries are neither proper names nor subjects of doubt.. Every it many doubts as removes. & 108 are stained.B. or that the Manuscript is is made later all is up of different fragments. and ii. It is clear.C. difficulties. 80. at least for the present. probably. not ' The aim has been . it which has been read sufficiently in parts to and that not continuously be printed. and iv. more particularly as the entries differ in 53 some i. will is be found in the Index of confidence. blundering imitation 80.. the proper names. only mere fragments of the collection originally made. which occur in the text. some years ago. much later. for it has : the appearance of a base.. shews that they were once 'outside' pages. which has six. which has ten folios. that a quire and is missing between i.C. Like Aeneas Ignari hominumque locorumque Erramus. than the manuscript. and formed separate parts. which he has not seen.Quires between iv. and v. respects. therefore. We have in the B. nor Index between vii.53 It necessary to add that is the writing. to see his private index to the Facsimile but he must not be held responsible for any error in this work. thus calling for recurrent slight revision. The fact that pages Xl B. and those which present for allowing are printed without the initial Capital letter. between iii.. and viii. I These. . 8. 96. The Index That all has been a work of anxiety. and respectively.. even doubtful items is but unfortunately the doubtful is a shifting element where knowledge fresh reading breeds almost as imperfect. a matter of hope. have to thank Prof Rhys me.. beginning with line 12 of page 79. probably continued on page only.

acknowledge my indebtedness Ago and help to two fellow-students. SSSome of the errors are corrected at the very end of the book. The Poetry in the Red Book of Hergest. I should be glad to recast many of the non-paleographical notes. see further and do better. for some of the notes marked %. but it This may Texts cause inconvenience for a is unavoidable. 54Prof. each is Let it. suggestions. Loth I regret my mistake. Neither stands sponsor for the writer's emen- dations. but not Other yet published^^ time. and to read over with care some of the more debatable Notes. will expect finality. 5. who kindly read his additions follow the mark |5^ Thus a number of the Notes have undergone pruning or For all restatement. Facsimile of the Black Book of Chirk. and a few have disappeared. 4. has a wholesome discipline in the cause of brevity. graProf.C Xji . The Notes have scholarship of ' benefitted further from the caution Prof. His affirmations have been It remains for me to for valuable criticism harvested and follow the mark t. be clearly understood that is responsible only for what specifically credited to him. services and kindness I offer my heartiest thanks to revises ' : certain both friends. but no one. who knows the difficulties of the text.. and lead him its to improved results. J. including several works printed. who has to pay for and corrections are every word he prints. See 55*'. B. Every generation sits on the shoulder of predecessor it should. Morris Jones was so good as to discuss certain tias difficulties with me. But it is the nemesis it of destructive criticism to perish with what modifies. TheText and Facsimile of the Book of Taliessin . 3. : B. therefore. 56Towit.B. Strachan wishes me to state that credit should be given to Prof. 2. He. and errors. expensive. The References this to other texts are to editions in Series. The detection of my blunders may inspire some young student to take up the study of the B. The White Book Mahinogion .C. as the readings in the older editions are not invariably correct. TheTextandFacsimileof the Bookof Aneirin. and the Strachan. however.

to the nation. Oarmarthenshire gave the twelfth century. the twentieth. in the history Thus the first & last link of the Manuscript meet in a way to It kindle the imagination.I have much pleasure for in acknowledging my indebtedin *'ness *"*"* *" access to the original Manuscript. 1907. and tendering my cordial thanks to Mr. by linking Stije it with the name of JFirat IPrcetHent of t^ie Mtlel) jraational Libtarp. Pwllheli. greatly pleasures another of her children to associate with the happy event this Diplomatic Reproduction. xlii ^^-^^ . Qwenogvryn Svans )remvan. presents it birth to the Black Book in in & one of her sons. its the first In personal effort for its establishment. whose kindness and courtesy have ever been uniformly unfailing to the writer. y. the first in personal sacrifice for good. Wynne. Gitiyl Wenog. & the first in the importance of his contributions to its treasures.

• <iilii'nuC lifnury of lladjx .


.... . Can treghis wiguifc yfll amhoen Canis coegauc moreurauc a hin 97-3 loo-g 70-1 17-7 Kyd karhwiue morva.. ar Ian llyant 46-1 Afallen peren per y changeu ... Kywarchaw im ri.. . Dinas maon duv daffar . .. ..C.... . ... .. Enwev meibon Gereint B. ... .. . ...... 73'ii E Betev ae gulich y glav Eneid kid im guneit .. ... .. Elaeth ae cant. . . .... . Affuynaw naut duv diamhev y daun Betev ae gulich y glav. .. ......... . .. 63-2 23-4 . .... .... . .. .. 82 -x i8-i 104 -3 gi 46.... Kygogion...... ........ caflaaue mor . ... ..... xlui .. Bendith nautoryw new e.. Brenhin guirthvin guirth uchaw yflit . . .... ... ir . filius llywarch hen ......9 8i-i Dv dy Duv in uarcii du dycapan kymhorth in nerth . ... Breuduid a uelun neithwir ....INDEX TO FIRST Adwin caer yflit LINES. Kyntaw geir adywedaw y bore ban kyuodaw Kyvaenad keluit kynelv o douit . .. ...... 107-8 71-11 Erbin ..... Kymhenach doythach nyd wy .. 48-4 36-11 yS'i Arduireaue tri trined in celi ... . 63-2 keluit creaudir 88-3 87-3 41-5 7 '3 -jo'z Bendith y wenwas ir dec diyrnas ...... Devs ren rymawy awen ..... in porth . ...... Rad wobeith . . .. .. ..B...

... . . Hervit vrten.. -. 24-9 52-62 94-1 . ... ...... Ystarnde wineu fruin guin .. •• ... Ban geneife o honaud Gwin y bid hi y 47-1 86-6 85-7 Gvledic arbennic erbin attad . . . .... Yth arkiveir ar pennic penn •• ...... In enu domni meu y voH 61 -6 39-4 89-1 Llym awel Hum brin .. autyl kyrridven diffrid 151 70-13 Heb cofifav duv daun gwirion •• .. ......... . ar claur maelenit argluit hanpich guell . Tarv trin anvidin blaut Tec yd gan ir adaren ar perwit pren (Tra vom kyd kerded goned kydimyteith) .. . blyghaud ... ..... Merddin wyllt hagr orwyllt haint •• ••...... . 97"i3 107-9 79-12 27-7 .. .. . .. xliv ... ... • . Nac imadneirun neu rimwaredun . Hoian a parchellan Bydan a vit ...... ... . . Tri anreith march inif pridein . . . . 83-1 75-6 B.... 103-2 35-1 Gogonedauc bleit ..... • Marchauc a girch y dinas Madauc mab Maredut Marunadeu Meinoeth kiclev lew heid .B... ..: 10-12 13-6 Gveith reith rysset .. 46-20 84-2 29-1 1-2 Mi ae gowinneis y offereid bid Moli Duu in nechrev a diuet .. loi-io 103-6 97-1 • •• . ...Goduryw Greid a glyuaw.. ..... 106-6 Rac gereint gelin kystut 71-12 ........ Oian a parchellan Pa gur yv y porthaur Seithenhin sawde allan .. ........ vedwen in diffrin guy Gwledic arbennic.... .. Mor truan genhy mor truan .. .• •• .C....... anhaut cafifael did .. .. .

Text The Verb The less I—108 To Be and its compounds. .i it The Mythology Religion in the Dialogues Vlt and Theology . . . xlv .. xix xxiii Hi iv Historical References Literature .. 112 113 Paleographical and other Notes General Index Postscript dr' 141 Appendix 157 Additional Notes. XXXV xxxvi xxxix xl *// Method of Reproduction explained Hi The problems of Paleography iv xxxviii V vi vii The gatherings of The Index Acknowledgment the Manuscript to fellow-workers .TABLE OF CONTENTS. and Corrections List of Subscribers 158 162 BBC.. .. Gaudeamus xlii xliii Index to First Lines . S^c.C..... Introductory Remarks.B....• xxix The EDITOR'S Apologia / ii Earlier Editions of the Text .. IO() familiar forms of Verbs in the B.


Oed chaR kyulauaR kyula^ uan.^^'''^^#^^'*^ 02 truan gen/ 1 I I f^y ^^^ truan LadeRyv. ^ 2^ Ruyd o tRyuan Calpeg. s Oed maelgun auelun inimuan y teulu rac tqz^ . amke'' 11a/ s M duyv achauan. ^ Oed yfcuid otryu/ .

maur a^? teith y deuthan CaltelTiN. Rys undant oet Rychv/ B. Rac eRRith agurrith . 9 .B. tirr^ i Rac deuur an . leith . ^j>EtiN.C. ineutuR y . 3 y aR Welugan Mein w'v . nev indiheu adygan Mo^s ch guelheRyniueR ganel^ gan Och oe .yuulu ny thauant .

C. trav a th^ . ^ daeth rad kyulaun llaf 3 kynduR ynan on . elgan rui . rau imdoeth y doethan B.^iiattN. 9 .gan. tra meffur y ku^ lias haelon o din^ . hid attad y . tra uuan ©RyuiR . a th^ 7 Ruy aRuy . ©Ruy . . 5 nod mauR eu clod.B.ant y taRian .

C.brau amelgan . 6 Neu gueith vit aRywdeRit pan .B. . llat dy/i uel oe diuet kyulauan ab erbin ae uemn aw/ Dalies 3 naethanlflAi maelgun bu yfcun y doethan aeR . . wiR kad trybelidiad guaedlan . y 9 deunit o hid y wuchit //> B.

. llyas peleidrad .B. ILyaus .aeRwiR bRyv bre^ uaul vidan .y darpan . guaedlad guadlan Uy/ aus. . . ban bnivheR llyaus ban foheR hymchuel an ib B. Uyauf ev eu hymv/ in CalteffiN Seith me/ Seith guiR /// eliffeR .C.

. kinre/ s inon ydylanuan. . Seith tan. jO^piatiN. 5 Seith guaew gowanon.C. Seith ugein haelon aaethan ygwllon. daRUuan Can yf mi myRtin . Seith kad 3 kyueRbin. Seith . loneid awon Oguaed . Seithued kinve/ Hn y pop kinhuan CaltelTtN. 11^ B.B. .yg coed kehton.y.ban brouheR. vueliN.Seith guaew ny ochel in eu feithran ^piatiN.

nif 5 Gueithred 7 llyuiau niuer nid hoffet meiuret bro . talieffin bithaud .B. 3. Neur uum ydan liu un duted a bun dec gro . . Guaeth. auelun neithw/ ae dehoglho . kyffrediN vy . 2 Creuduid ir. y reuit . guanec 10 Nid cur llauur uRth din da . 7 B. yfceluit Ny ritrelthir guibit aR nuygelho llara .C. '^/9^ . darogan .6 coffa arnuydalho .guydi.

3. nychaffaw aehamhevo .C. . Ny chenir buyeid ar Nynaut n ucheneid rac guael lit hael aR nuybo iv*" .vygniw odiuattep hatnappo ithred . 9 Ny lluit reuuet ydlreid ffo . 5 deduit .w/ 7 na mynich enuuyret afeRlinho . I . 3 Nydichuenic but pedl yfguell delli urth auo . . B. Ordivet NId ehalath aftra^ etha.c imganlin a^ . 3. adioffrid aaduo . Ny dcRl/ Ny ry del 13 . ir nep nuy/ i Nytiuuc rac drlcwe^ . . imattrec guydi darffo .B.

6 ogyR ven amhad.trybefttaud heid. Amhad' anav aReith awyRllav. fruythlauN trae^ thaud.ycav keineid. / 12 caf amtimeid CathyR.Cuhelin baRtkym^ raec haRt kidvRthodiad . amen fynedic waud.ked kyWa tas. s 10 keRt kymuynas. .Her^ vit uRten autyl kyRRidven.evs ren lymawy fiat. 3 awen. .

ka^ nt kalan kid. . reid bleit JO blyghaud Gre/ . KywyRgiRn kyvle ky wlauN 4 flamde kywvire vad.C.Kywrgein gen^ hid.kywyftraud.KeRit vycho'.ky- waRvs mavR. kyvan volaud. i cluttaud attad.cozachiwid.kyhid kydneid. kirllavReircch/ eid.Clo kelvid. *'" B.waur. kynvllid greid.B. ozhygneid .Kywolv. . kerenhitnod clod achvbiad.Kenetyl W0202 ky wrifc wofcozd kyg/ .

Gur oet eit^ i oel g02vy reol. VI II . .gofgyman gvith.gnaud brauduriaeth .Gvytbuil dragon. . maur coz kyvoeth.tyw detyw duraud. gozdethol do ' 4 eth.B.C. gnaud kyhidet . . B.gozffet 7 metveith Metcvin kyw/ ran marchauc mi t Ian. «» 9 manN meidrolaeth Mett^ n rid mur ioz. gof^ paRth brython.Gvaud tryganet.maus pedir pedro2.

. cath^ 4 yl kyvid. milwiR ozvith. molav frav fraeth .Mas cas nognav. dauc.maer anhetauc maret / auc doet^ Medel vartoni .minhev nev frav.• Moes vreifc vreyR . Moes i wiRth vehiR. s mynogi gvyth . Mcr f/* kertev «» B.C.B. vifci mel . sss« 10 Mynvinad vron metv ton dros traeth 1 . Maer claer kywid mad .moidit ieith. Muner uo / .

ef^ 3 meuvet vetvd. .C. 10 Ryvel vebiN vii . . IX . gvi^ 6 ch Ruich ryuet rinuet re^ en Rec Ryfiolaw Rec aar/ . s chaw.vytud. iuRthen. muith Mufic agan mal eur ozian.mywiR covein.B. .kein. ^veith reith ryffet .mire^ in i anoeth.Meneftir. Ruthur vthiR avel Ryn^ aut uvel B.molud .Ruymav .man vahanieth.

. 7 Ry chynis gretyw Rac => lletyw ogyRven .Rot cuhelin. dyRllit . Rev^ • wet paraud Rin vynn => 3 wafcaud bRiN . tra gwaud wo^ . chedwis detyf . Ry 5 cheidv ynaut Rac caut gelin .C. 14 1 y/A B. . • clodRit Rihit aden . . Rac dac droffow Reghid bRid bot. Ry hait itaut . . Ry.B. Rychlud . .RuteuR .


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o B. Ban wan -^3 gnaud y diodRut. ythuRid.ineRbin tRidaud. Wrv 'o ach dydivet dy lauRiav. imtuiN aR llogylwit . Rihit. a.B.Nev duid yth keRit . Onid imwa^ 7 redit.02drucdigonit. Jf jg .C. DRud dy tihenit dy .y . kymuN bid pa Raud.eRuill cofpaud. . Bid glafglefychaud. ha.y iffca/ ti ud Guae din hewid piR 5 doduid im bid.

Cozph niglivit paleue iR y gilit. acy haRuetud.c itoet 20 owud y ^ luRv teint B.C. acydad-^ 3.gobuill. teifte Pa ro^ 7 otholud kin muill moll mud.Dihafal dyimte/ ith dyiffcaR ath 2 kedimteith Co2ph diffid diReid.c nyRiuelffud y meint agaR'' yffud. . n . th enid.afegi athraed ymlith pRit athydwet. Pa Roteifte oth Rev^ vet kinkyues aRgel.o. 3.

PadeR pRiw traethaud.C. Adaon itaethant . Xt 21 . Nicheuntofte padeR na phil^ geint na gofpcR. B.dud. gobuill o nebaudio namuiN y tRindaud. igkym/ eint offuiant Pkit pRinude^ 3 chant. padcRbeunit. Ac yfmoztiuant mal goffod am^ Rant.B. AueleifteogaRant afvj treis tragiffant. othRiit ageugant. Ry talud iftedlit tRi feith . Affv ac nidoes ac nithreghis.Ny fte pheRchei^ guencR oth vauRetyllteR.

B.C.Gvae th vi vi piRimtei^ genhide piR in kyudth. An deid iglethuiRguRth nabuo^ ft vffil. Nid en ^ deueifte kiwRev beiRt gouec kiurek phregeth evegil. NipheRcheifte th ereaudiR new kin lleith lly^ 9 auf aghiuieth adodute aR diaReith. . moe y dinwaffute meR weRit. Ni pheRcheifte creiR-^ ev na Hoc na llanev.Gvae n • wuuf aR dikiuolv pan douthume attad oth 22 xfi 13 B.ev hoes .

guneit in aghen digeR^ it. Arhun yted. llachaR. O feith lauanad ban . taN.othtremint trv^ e jNeid kid im^ .O feith creaduR . im fe fuinad.C.nade^ chrev . OetuN pRit daeaR B. 13 xu 23 .Neu RimaRtu ad othlauR kiueithad. pan im Rot/ .GuiRyvguae uinhevpiR deuthofte imgotev.bichan diuet.B.nacaghev.4 nincredninep. 6 Nac iRO^ 9 fe. ed paR. pan im dodath aR puR Oet^ un.

Oetunnyul aR mynit yn keiffau keton^ hit.Achiwnod net 24 .B.wide 1 kywiffcaRaN. keu^ gant kywraghaum . llei OetuNi vy hruc 3 nom da. . ac imadneRUN nev RimwaRedun. « Eneid kid imgunit.nym dy haetei guint gouchaf alaR. fe / 13 Acheugant xii" kinatlet.C. Oetun blodev guit aR vinep douit eluit. B. 5 Amffuinaffeie imdodath aR deunit.

llv aRall bRith / ion. Rac drech.fyth leith gywei^ 13 X/!/ thit.y.tRi. 9 drem ieffu.ILuguiRinguiNioN eiliv egilion . na didRif na diag.ydiN inydeheu wuchet.llv. A lluch athaRian a llya^ lie uf llydan. taN aRpoploet any^ .TRyde / diuedit. Awi-' dy tagde teeRnaf aRvere. 25 . eiliv llv bRodozion. Nyllettaud d'v 6 nag.Dy gettauR.Kywoethauc duw a wet. ^ 3 Adyadu Ian .AdaduiReinobetguydi hiR go2wet.

Kein bid evgoff/ alon gan guledicgozchozti^ on.nidguael y geRenhit. nidaongan aghimon Myny mae .C. ebeftil amtee^ 9 Menymae pyw hael inyclaeR kyueiftet.In vn dull . meillon agulith aR tiRion 4 Myny mae keRtozion in kyv^ eiR kyffon. .Mynymae Rnaf uwil.B. Ro^ tiad bid beddrael.huilant iglithuiR impaRth^i reddievil. Achin deginulk 26 x"^ B.

ywRut a ©auautiR chiR B. 27 . fcRi . Or fa^^ dymguy tat aR lleith dim-^ gozbit.C.emne ul eiliveRt vedit . . ©Ri an Reith march inif pdein. m . kadwallauN xiy fil! k. Ac ew gueith dimgu^ nelemne.Nif Rydraeth Ryuetev kyvoeth Ruytev douit.dimbrodic dit.B. . C aRnawlauc maRch. clet^ / brei-" . maRch GugauN . . OweiN. . mab VRieN a Bucheflum .

DRudluid.m. B. 88 Guynevgodvff. m . m.Du hiR teRwenhit .a. karadauc. amely.RyteRch hael. RuthiRehon tuthbleit.C. Wri gohoev etyftiR inif pRideiN. nlaf.m. hoev etiftiR inif pRideiN ^o Uv ago2.hiR. maRch paffcen fil! VRien. 28 Jf^y^ B.keiN caled . gualchmei .kafwallauN mab Bely.css ArwuI melin.GiP beRd mab kadgyffRo. ©Ri.m. sssossss .Wri torn etyftiR inif pRideiN. .maRch kei.felyw mab 3 kynan gaRRvin. a. .B.a.m.

. Ae kyn/ iw ny welli ny om^ et Vn mab meiR modri/ daw teeRnet meir mam a diuet 2 . ^^ XV 29 .Dy/' ir . Duu vet. ir dy s maur drugaret Ar dy mab iolud en karet . Duv 10 uchom.Renjiew anRotone B.C.B. 5 crift ergynan rianet. Dy eiraul . Duu ragom.oli duu innechrev . dav yr heul 02 duyrein goglet .

chid im agraget Ny chif^ yfag-^ B. 20 Gulad it im ne . .in tywill heb canvill im gozffet . mynedim 5 gueRid imiRuet.B.ran trugaret Teyrn uron.guydi meiRch ac tuiN glaffuet. achyuet a^ . i tanc y romne. 12 J"^*" .Ym im-^ 9 Gueinvod im gozod im goz^ wet. heb imomet 3 Diwyccomne a digonhom o gamuet KiN . gaw gobuyllaw om diw^ et.C.

ac onyfguataul y Riet. wen Bit di1/ 31 nid eirch trugaret n chuero y talhaur iny B. Ny vir drud nid . aur agrauN maur ueRth^ et . 9 nid eiftet ny chan . en guit daduet Guae ag^ .B. 7 yfcrid iny timhyr. ny chiueirch .pygil uit inydi^ . Nychk . 4 Kyn gatteR ew vet in Ryred. XVI . preffen.C. uid uo2e .ro y maffvet mal deil ovla^ .

y lyffeint anadret. eiRolve ne mihagel 32 ar ren B. di trem . uod ac imtuiN enwiret Ac agheu dydau uRth gluydet Ewinluth dychinull dychi / uet Dyneffa heneint a lied .allev/ .An . alluidet. 9 chricha croen diuiffet ath una heneint.B.wet SybeRuid a maurw-^ . . cluft .C. aRnad Dy . MeithriN coz^ ph. t rid.amaRet. di teint neud adwet Dy . xvr .

vy llauuridet Toft . bRin in tyno. . muc eth-^ s amluc anhunet kan int uy keReint inattwet.rac xvu 33 ym E mo2 impop . trugaret. Dyar 3 EreidiR .ininyffet n fozt itelheR. Kinte^ i viN keinhaw amffer. callet . mo2 guit brithottoz tiret Ban 6 ganhont cogev aR blaen guiw handid muy. ich iguet Guirt .new ran adaR glas in Rich .

« nim nacceR y dagnouet y po2th ve trift 34 . aw-" 6 ant in un ozffet crift Y gid a ve guiN.i Oet ffet in chuant in car Ttrc^ treitau ty tir dyalltu-^ . . fozthint vygilet Rec aarchawe . rof a duv . Ambo .ny . det Seith feint afeith^ .B. ythozffet": xvii^ .criftguiN nid oes inialet. fozth lo riet Crift nybu^' 12 B. 4 ugeint afeithcant .C.

A. diffuis yffit .achagell. TeiR haun Due uch . . .ogonedauc argluit hanpich guell.C. ac vn uch eluit A . attpauR.B. A . ykif / gaud aR wit . B. adaR aguen^ n en. adicN. A. Athue / dicco de egluif. . dit . A . kagell ac egluis . XVII ^t . A. A . vaft^ An-^ ad a ./ Athuendiguifte fit awr/ raham pen tragiuit . SiRic ap. vuchet A. guit.

a femen. 6 .h.yfaul da digoned. llevreu a lly^ theR.B. .G. A. a.pifcaud in hydiR" ueR red . 3 Seithnieu a seR. . A.awiR. A A .yffi tri 10 trined in UN athRi. ky wid a gueith-^ . A ^vafcul . tyuvod a thydued.Ath^s uendigaf de argluit gogo^ ned. ac etheR A .Athuendigufte aron amo^i efen. jceli.^ xviii^ B. Ruireaue. Gogonedauc. A.

3 hidRi . vnguiRth oe teithi. &. & fpu . Han^e pich guell fili . Dyuolaudir yf mi yfbud baRtoni aRhelv eloy. crifti. yffi vn aDeu. B.yffi tri hep ev.hep haut yamhev.C xtx 37 . domni on ad^ 9 onay HRduireaue Dev.B. Dyuolaur yfguir . pater.ed un ynni. . .un i duu diuoli.ath^ uolaf uaurri maur dy ur^ . . Aw^ 12 naeth fruith afreu a fop.

ac s th alluN.Duu paulac . iP yDeuacuN.allythir. Auneth tuim ac oeR. Duy uau y kyffreu in tri .inDeu. 38 xiJ^ B. 5 tri aRnuN. 10 heul alloeR.B.Duu yenv.ig. Cuir afflam im pabuir.a. 12 . H-Rduyreaue vn. nhuN.iP Duu y huN aunaeth maur-^ abuN. Duy uuaul y inni Duu an-" 3 yenu invn. . a. D uu y env.amafcul nat kyuozuN baf ac anot^ UN.C.amriffreu.iffi fi .

vrenhin trindaud. Duu if^ 12 vRy. 5 douit maur y .C.allofci. Duu angobeith . mauR y uolaud Molawe .ferch in finhuir . Duu andyli . 9 teilug piRfeith. abuN hyg^ aR huiR. kinnit aR y . XX 29 . B.B. 7 Duu angozuc Duu an gu^ araud . tec y pur^^ faud fi .pimp kaeR Nenu domni meuy. caRdaud Duu anamuc .voli.

Duu 12 B.Duu abroued inytruyted T y trallaud Duu a dyfu oe . 9 iry penid ae pimp dirna^ .Ym paradui. . . impur kynnuis racpuis pechaud Angunel iechid . andiffirth 40 ban kymirth AA^' . 6 werindaud. garcharu gan vuildaud. Guledic deduit angunelin rit 3 eRbin ir dit braud Andu^ .B. ud Dolur eghiRith . ch gulet ir y varet ae .C.

Yn y wuy^ 02 devnit 13 w. uchaw yffit Yffi pen 7 adaw . iffi .cli / 10 owiR id pridaw y .Yrfi hael diwael diweir^ haw. Din a collei bei nafpRin/ i hei diuei devaud. Yffi per gadeir gadarnaw. Orcroc crevled y . y duv indin digcRit .ydel paup oe F XXI 41 . llaur llaRiaw . guiN guengCRt aganaw. O pechaud kin brand prydeR^ aw. y teily^ renhin guiRthvin guirth plant f gdaud. Duv y duv maur y duv . deuth guared ir vediffyaud kad^ 3 aRn bugeil crift nid adweil. O pechu apechuis ada^ w. Erbin oed ydit. . 2.cnaud. y diallaw. Yffi haul uraul gurhaw wir.

vy ch . 3. kin tywaud 3.c im cow. Vy maurhidic nen. y BeiRt y uediffiaud. Rotefew vnllv vn eR^ teccaw. dreic vffyldaud Ban dywu guas 14 duv diwarnaud attav.kiN 42 -^-*^^ B.C . 02 teulv teilyghaw. 16 ae bRiaud. a. nav 6 .m .Bet iny devret bv ban lie In devraw . . ir imbrav.vy perchen. ofgozt grad new. Hid impen vn bmn bin ev baRnv. kin tywarch .val ioff . diwaud uRth ygureic yam . Vy Dewis kinvllaud. Mai y ir i fv ozeuhaw. gadu y traethu traethaud yth vo'' li kin tewi tawaud. 8 par-' . Vy Devs domenvs menaud Vy bardeiR. 4 Tellygdaud wafcaud.B.

B. new nav kanmaul glad vad veidroli RieituN voll .dirnaud .C. . Jn evR coeth kyvo'^4 eth . . guifcvlf im^ 4.barauys duv.ygnaud.guy/ th golev aozev cRni. ogylleftic gulfc B. Canydoet hagen Rothei o nebaud. Ymas . a.i higaff. 3. Culuit argluit attad . gvar guironet kedwi irawallen thi . Ny chedwif eva 13 per. y trindaud .vR/ am y cham nychimv ahi. adwin y cotl. guen -^ Gwenvlit Rit lo Gwin gaR . XXII . a bilwif obilion. duted ed-' mic. maeiftaud ymae in moli duv. . diwad pechaud wid weti 3- diw ^ 7 kelv brad keli. kar. y rotion. a. Gvnaeth duv trv/ gaR gaRdaud. Ryv .

hnni y doeth digiwoeth llin gwerin 44 kain kadeithi xxn^ B. 13 ned hebti ni .deni . ar owRif ywiN iti. iti.gur . Idi.C. Herwit guir igu keli .c eil guiRth awnaeth ehalaeth y voli. . 3. agueleifle gureic amab genti 3. 16 . argluit a erglw 4 Ban y winnvis gochel ydeli.diwed thomet tithev irolev guronet.B. guiN Turr guir gwydi ny a dav 10 ygeiffav inguefti. ffoes tiR. impuet i ychiwoeth y noethi 3. Pcriw new apis .r . yrandiR arad duv er'' 3. dinam dauN owRi. Sew eini fo2t Jnytoet arad'/ ur in eredic . ny^ in gweti Jn gueled imy/ . y diwaud y trindaud ew 7 ae mam .

Ydiwod vn Vrth y gvR dro-^ 6 3 guRthwn gurtharab gowRi ffi . yfprid glan agleindid indi. a well. Druy eirol^ 9 ed meir mari oe gvybod guybv duv o heni . 3.Toziw anwar enwiR ev hinnl. gueleifte dinion diN . .B.C. Sew awnaethant plant kai y VRth tir ^ Medel ym chueli . 12 gidahi.y. B.Turr keiffeid i y keiffav keli. Jn myned hebod heb Gueleis ban llyuneis y llen^ deguch aweluch y medi.Yt oet inydiffrid . AX//! ^e .

Ka^ deir deur am diwurn afich heul . . agl'ich maelguN. Gogywarch de gwinet boed tev wy'' . Gwaewaur rrin.gueleiffe guir Dyv merch' yg cvinowant Dyv iev bv. afich heul . . . . B. Agulch edar.1 ant yffit ar Ian llyant. guarth. 17 Merddin mab Morfryn a ganodd yr hyn y fyddfcrifenedicynyr wyth ddolen fy yn canlyn fely testiolaetha llewelin ap Cynfric dduyn y wedd hon : Merddin wyllt hagr onvyllt haint so am Mhorfryn amau hirfraint 46 Cerdd tra wamal gyfalau gynt goed a gant o i gau Jw borchell ddigyfbell gas difedwen fel ynfyd-was.Mwtn caer J. Pendevic adwin adviar.C.B. Oet llutedic guir guinet Dit y deuthant.amdiffin duv amdanav. ar dant. Ac am kewin llech Vaelvy kylchuy wriwanf: llv Cuytin y can keiwin ocarantT" 8 X) inas "Xyinat maon duv maon ad cozffant .ir. Ad oet bryger coch. 4 Rei adarwant . afich heul agulich mervin . Kymynad degin. " X)inafmaoN gulad adav. caf vnbin teernet . ir. lo afich heul. ac och . 14 0)ad dodes ^moztuit armerchin march lluid. Adwin yd rotir i ypaup ychwant. agulich nynhav.

B. Afirth * ychegev pop vn.' Win y bid hi y vedwen in diffrin guy. Ac auit rid pan vo. . @Win wy Ar . Argueiffon vodi . . mon ae Af? jcx/y . Ac awil. Ac arall 14 amwall am dwylan gwy Ar . a Wil ban ban baran eilon. saer ae gunel'' wy. n vythuy Avibid ban vo ygad peleidir . Ac edwin imoN gleiffon yfcawin roti ::::"'::::::". tawuy .:: . phont ar taw ac arall ar . ban gluedichuy. Apheleidir agaur inyganhvy. pop dvy ardudvy. y vochn^ 3 gad in A chimrevan biv am vy. A . y.C. vit ympimlumon. t^ 5 ar dillad rution in ev :::::::'::—'":•:":':::'> I Win y bid hi y vedwen. 8 freigc in lluricogion id 2Lc am gewin iraeluid bv^ balawon "a mineich in vynich invarchogioN. bid y env garvy Arbenygaul B. in ardud-' kychuin amedrywuy . ybid hi y veduen yguarthaw din^ .

C. . . Oian aparchellan dydau dywiev. . Jn amuiN kymi^ clev. . i Dedwytach no mi ae harhowe Amfer .guledychuy . Jn diffrin machavuy mer^ hyrdit crev. Ami difgoganave rac pchen machrev. kcRt aganhwi.B. volet goz-' 8 ygimry g02uaur gadev. Ami dyfgogana 12 gwir heb gev Dyrchafaud maban inadvan fallen y dehev. ar onn verev. puwaur maur weir 4 fallen rauc enwauc in vev. Guraget dan ygint Guir yg kyftvy. . kadwal'' adiR. Pv waur y chagev hy ae chein wanaf goganafe kad amdias . Ami dyf^ is Penguern kywetyrn. jj^ pen pren hyduf glas .] leaf eingyl iS gan pendeuic 48 ^^'^ B. gozuolet y loegyr gozgoch lawnev. ©@©©^^§@^§©©©s©©@^^ pen p y chageu. A guarwyaur fe pelre ac ev pennev. naud clefytaud Aer o faeffon . met y hataf ©©g^§@g©@gs©©©^§©©©@©©©©©g© [ac am gylch kyminawd eryri eri kymyn attkaf.

NamuiN. ASeith cant. arwy ifguit . . pir puyllutte Andaude adar cly wir . a. atif inllanerch. drof mozyozefkin. ae hargel rac riev Ryderch amfa^ . pen . 7 gwydi ev llettkintT~^§@^§©©© . . nydant y kenhin. 16 thir inybon maon ynychilch Oet aelav vt XXV 49 G . Orfaul ydeuant Seith Iledwac . Kymaethliff-' vne inybon irbot y wun. . ^ i in hal art heb art inychilch^ Ami difcoganwe kadimpRydin.Hwallen tyw in. 10 Keliton y kifceiffe vy hun. melin . Amyfcud . A pren . yhange^ . ev hymevtuN Teernet drof moz adav dyv 13 H . Am huN . vin ev terwin aguir duliN Seithlog. }n am^ . Oian apchellan.ydeuant 4 drof lydan Hn. llun Guin ev bid ve kymri Wallen pen ft oz arowuN. Wallen pen Atyf tra run . clet ar wy clun Ac yg coed .

. oet eur. Bun wen wariuf vn weinuf vanon . Kyn dyf^ fod ar willave lleith I'VL fallen mab guendit.Dec mli'' 18 . Nu nym carl guendit i ac nimeneirch Oef kaf gan gwaffauc guaefP af Rydirch. . . .Nym gogauN guarvy nym goffvy gozterch . 12 Och ieffu. . .^ dit. it vif inym'' B. net adev ugein inygein anetwon 50 JTAT** . a. nadyfifv wynihenit . Wy goathozch Kin .^^dit Ryffo2ri guaflauc guaeffaf meufit . Duyweith atheiRgueith. 15 r^Y^ ny lluit maer. pen atiff ar Ian.C.^ JflLteVm puyll waflad. pedeirgueith in vn. afon Jny llurv . a. . @©©^§@©@©©@©@©^§@ /^ fallen pen.vt dulloet diheueirch . buyf aelav hetiv gan eiliv eleirch. mab aemerch. 4 guydi guendolev nep riev impeirch. aryw 7 derit . inychlaer aeron Trafu . ir . . . Ryrewineif y hev aduc paup pa rac . blodev effplit atiff inargel in ^^% argoydit Chuetlev agiklev inechrev .c igueith . . am buiad inibon.a.B. @©©^§@i©@ .g^ nam kyueirch 2.

16 kadwaon. . guall. o gwallt hiRion . Nv nev nach^ Vy argluit guen^ . Id lathennaur gan brid guf hid erwit. uit grat Rac dreigev arderchev. Kid keiffeer ofer vit . ^^^s©©©^^gg^§@^g§ XXVI 51 19 B. ^"% JL hud yguit Difgogan hwimleian hwet^ il J^ adiwit.wynragon. Guydi da d]. @©@gs©@^3@©@©@ fallen IV pen blodev effplit.B. Rac maban hvan 13 heolit arweit fallen Saeffon ardiwreit beirt ar kin^ fion attif y pen apren dan H . grande o aranwinion aguneuthur guar o willt . gel yg coed .atyf igwerid ag^ .riev Rybit. adyuod. wehin din . heruity baton iny del kadwaladir oe kinadil affon. 4 dolev am broaryv brodozion. Nv' i ogan aditan kertozbn.y erirtywi ateiwi . Goz^ digrefit .C.gan wylleith aguyllon yfcafe ergrlnaf . Keliton. Buyf guaf guinwy'' 7 gan guledic gozchoztion. Guydi pozthi heint ahoed amcylch coed die.teith gan willeith agwillon. Keliton. .

eiffillit gwinet gur digozbit 52 ©©©©©©©©@g©©©©^§©@g©@ xxvi'^ »4 B. aparchellan.Rid Reon in ar faeffon . ydan gel yg ofer vit he'' i coed Keliton rwit . del kadwaladir oe ef kin^ 3 adyl. dein kimry oil inyeu kyfluit Uyuelin y env o .fallen pen apren . gon . llauen vi bri. argel in arcoe^ Rac erwif .C. Nachlat 9 dyredcir ympen minit . attif . ritech hael ruyfadur Ami difcogan^ 12 afe a gwir uit Hid inaber taradir rac traufev pry^ . OJan dit. ahinoN.B. Kinan inyerbin kychw^ 5 Kimry ao2vit kein bid eudra^ teithi . Aparchell dedwit . Kid keiffer y hafon . .bry^ 7 thon Kenhitt02 kirrn eluch kathil hetuch . Clat in lie fit. fion . yny . Kaffaud paub y .

©©^ 9 Nyhaut aryffit arnaf po2theife . rac ton naved. llafaffed Rac diuod . Yd welefe guen^' dolev in perthic riev in cynull preitev opop eithaw .C. Oet reid myned . inydel an iti oechin gueled . rac godurt y gal'' Degmlinet adeu ugein yffit 12 poen yftruc ao2hoen arnaf. ny bit attco2 bith ar OJan yd aparchellan kiffcaf. ^ythrefred. y dan vyguerid Rut nv neud araf llaret . mvyhaw 53 XXV11 . 3 ny chuinune Ami difgoganafe . rac . Kinytion mo2dei bei . . 18 Pen teernet gog^et B.B. Nym^ 15 ad rianed oplant adaw ar ny creddoe y dovit indit diwethaf .OJan erlid aparchellan . arnamne acingueled Ac 02 diaghune in lluted . Rac vnic bariffviN gvehin dived dirchafaud llogaud nid ir llettcred ynty^ kin'' 6 mhir gurthtir aguyftuiled. Oes imi gan ieffv gaffv guaeffaf . brenhinoet newoet achoet uchaf .

3 heli . Ami difgo^ ganafe bid divifci .B. dev wynepauc Deuwlaen xxvif^ . meirch y^ ar'^ 15 danunt 54 ve. B. Ry dibit attamne 12 Penaetheu bychein anudonauc .c arfev coch ac och in^ . a myned y loegruif wi . Ac na bo guared aparchellan bith y noztmandi . .Dewi. . a. . offin pimp penaeth onoztman^ in Ar pimhed myned drof moz trewi . Kad . Meiri mangaled am pen keinhauc Pan drof mo2 guir eneichauc . diffon. i Rac di . Na uit hunauc chuetil dyfrida-' . OJan uc . 6 awnant ennydet arbet. o ymlat mab a thad gu' diffuif trc' 9 lad ae guybi . Ac winttuy in dihev adoant o heni Ec .y ozefkin iwerton tirion Ef guna-' haud ryuel a di.C. dififfci.Jan aparchellan oet reid gweti .

a.euguaev anoleithauc dyhetauc . aparchell dyhet enry"" . CRti heb medi ymbid i guell bet .ybit re taer . Cirrn ar y guraget pedryfanhauc A ffan-'bo-' 3 vont ve co2fo2ion meibon eidauc. ^ybit oynt gan wint goglet ac inabcR clev eukin^' OJan guin aparchellan aparchell iTatlet . 15 allyuelin aduit mab aRwarr. rac Kaer fallauc. rug brodozion brad owinet guiftil inhiR otir Ban diholeR feith ganllg ta-' 9 guinet . ©©@@§©©§i©©!J3©Q@ 9 OJan uet . aparchellan . .B. no buhet pop yghenauc . Rimdyuueid huimleian chuetyl ami difcoganaue haf guithlonet kyw^ . guneuthur dyganhuy dinaf degin o g*»*»m* lloegir B. bebillo lloegir intir ethlin.C. a»«i«» 55 xxviit . 12 Rymdywod Pan huimleian chuetil amechrin . .

llannev. . Y parche s 6 mev Ar hun y ffy •»• keiffed . 12 edwi fRuytheu. awir ryderch hael heno y ar y wlet apozth^ 56 xxvii^ B. lluch lladron diffeith amyneich aobRin beich obechodev llim y vinet . Ac efcib. Ban fozro deinoel mab dunaud fo2t i deinwin. leiffev.wiv. ny ofin. ahiR diev Areiv enwir.kychuin . ©©©§©©©©©©^§©©©©©©@©©© dit Oian an aparchellan neud dufifyR golev . hoian hoiev Bei yche^ . bitaud in tev .B. nauc duv gunai ymchuelev y ffy. Oian aparchellan Kyuuely 15 anwinud panelhute yozuet Bychan . .C. Cochuet inev kylwet yn ev kilchiN. Jn 3 aber dulaf gvanaf guehin . ^^s©©©©©@g©©@^§©§ Oian 11 aparchellan . Ad . vit frangc arffo . . An^ 9 daude leifadar bit ni bluitinet dyar .

Uather y faeffon y kimerev trin bid vy kimri . is Nachufle hun bo2e. o hil Rif aerllut aer llyf bitin .aparchell. .in kywrc . nhin . Achivod el-' in terwin guinet Ac onymbit gan vy trv Ri 6 ran trugaret . guiN gvif.eife neithuir o anhunet . wy Ryffet . . Guae wi ban imbv. nachlat imprifc. Rac dyuod Riderch . Pibonvy imblev. ae cvn kyfruys cy . gan cun . Ban . vy Oian er wyRtin aparchan . Ny bit f diwet llu kywun Ban kyhuin . Eiri hid impen blin i clun. . aer oka^ 9 Y harduy dev kenev. . callet . Guin ev 12 kimrvy werin ©©^g©^g©@§ Oian H aparchellan. . Ry dibit div maur dit guith^ 3 lonet Kywrug hirell glyu powis achlaf guinet oe hir ozwet y SLmviu ae . hael xx/jr .

a mi thau gulad.Kin caflfael ohonautte y coed reddaud. Ban ur ad . Oian Nychirchud diflfeith aparchellan Bei a guelud aweleis o odi- degin . . naue |)eu podaur a luniont .C. achiftutia gwad . llaffnev in ertirn kirn llim aganhaur ^riuha' .yar llidan Uin vit ud Ilurugev rac . allv alle drad a is divahaur aeth. dychuis. flfuis liN. waewaur Ami difgoga' tegnevet onef .ve. guir guinet ev gueith ma'' .B. Jin bi ni inaeth guared guy di gu^ Neb ohaelonaeth nididolaur. 12 y uiron yfwein ar vall o luii' aedmyccaur jl chiurei' . imurth- rin ina gan . 9 diifon nojtmin. eg .Ban .nychclatude brin. Nychy^ eifte^ caftell 6 4 fcute hun bere . dein adyattavr . xx/x^ B. aparchell guin treis . tho faeffon inyfarffren achirchu opell gollwin atuit dillad hoev agloev dullin Oian 9IE aparchellan andaude ynaur ban dottint .1|ynan kadwaladir Kymri penbal^ adir bitaud ev kinatil . vitinaur a gozefcin pdein hid laur.

Kimri aozuit kein bid ev dit. Arth odeheubarth adir' chafuy.B. Nauid ieuangc ferchauc fyberv warruy.wiuuy. ©©©©©©©©©©©©g©© CO XXX .Nud glas minit ten^ i ev vy bleit lien imi nyd . OJan Na a' 6 chlat de redkir nac ifte. B. Nac char waes. Nachar. vy 3 nim treit guendit Ban diffont guir brineirch irguaRthluit.Jan aparchellan.warvy.vo pende^ wic dyued aeguledichuy. vi. lluld yv. Ilonit . acoch ofuy. 9 Ami difcoganafe gueith machav Aduit gelozaur Rut inRiv didmuy. Achuffil arotafe y wenabuy.©©©©©©©©©©©©^§^§§©©©@g©©s aparchellan. O ki'' Advit 12 wranc y kynvrein bron renion boze och. kifrvi.Ryllettaud ywir ew tra thir mynvy 15 Guini bid hi guendit aeharovy ban. aparchellgawi.C.

OJan aemet Ac . apchellan. maur erifli auit impdeinac nim Ban diffon brodozion oamtiret. inhiR inhuir. Ban gunelhont meiriev datlev bichein An-' udon abrad gulad veibonin. mon.VRidet. feil kyurifD difco^ 15 hil kymuyet Ami ganaue kindiguet Brithon dros faeflbn bRithuir ina indaune daun gozuolet Guidi bod .OJan aparchellan neud blodeu drein gozlaf eluit keK i n minit neud kin . kad coed lluiueiN. . . y bid inunwet Felled fon arbrithon haelon . Aphan del kadualadir yozefcinmon dileaur faefon otirion pnydein . ©©©@g@©©©©^§©©©©©©©©©© 18 OJan 60 apchellan andaude ireilon agroar ad^ ar kir kaerreon. digiuyfci .yholibrithon brithuid dybi Dirchaf/" 9 aud dreic faud fau ifpi gurt kyuan uaran o Ian. aparchellan do2bi. Ami difcoganaue ruthir .agelozaur rution rac 3 Owein. Gunahaud am dyued Bit itau 12 in aelau eilon indi. ZIZZ> 6 OJan teiwi . ©©^^§©©@©©©©©©©©©©©©©©© M02 ennyuet na bit un enhid faeflbn . 21 ^^-^ . Vnyfl'un aroun minit ma-' on y edrich drichinnauc drich ferchogion -^^^ .

Rymdivodgwyllan opell ymi. tCRwin. Karant nypharchant eu kerenhit Rvit ny . ^ eiloN. Andaude all'' adar. Achad cozfmochno. Aphan vo diwed .Ami vy. guraget revit. ^JL»^ dyuod ac ew dybit Mozynion moelon. 5 B. Teernet en^ ryuet ev kiniweti . Achad abergwc'' tir Achad ieithion . Moztruan. divod iti . Bydan . A chad machav^ i Achadavon.myr. 8 kywruit. Ev-' 14 vnahont dyhet adivyfci.B. Efcyp agkyueith oian aparchellan bichan brychni ileis diffeith difid. l^^oian aparchellan. Kad ar yton .ert02ion teithi . Achad immon. Achad ith. Gwitil abrithon aromani. avit . n an heb ran K.vrth ygilit. y. caerlleon. K.yn fafont inydrvs tluf nyf deupi. Ac y kywenv am dywiev 16 Ac imlat intaer dvylan tywi. difcoganawe .maurevhinni. @©^§©©© y. .C. XXXI . Achad kyminaud. Maban dirchavaud mad y VRythoN.

Nym dawe kingid. . Megittoz oc ev guir.B.hir alana. ur.vo. allyr Ami dyfgoganawe gOydi henri.Ban. Ami difcoganawe . na breenhin brithwyd dybi. if^ 10 car aduv ditaul ky vid goaffen bid .devbro^ itaf 4 der. . Vy ma^ vy id.vy. vy pen. Andav i de leis adar mo2 maur eu diaf. Heb cadvid. ^ Bychan breichvraf .oian aparchellan. Kyn kiw. Eoian aparchellan aparchell rymi llonit Tenev arywderit 13 vy lien nid ymi . oian aparchellan . breenhin . .C.vynepheb ran VRdaf. Kertozion allan heb ran vrdaf. crauN haw ami nid im verid . Gwraget heb gvilet Gwir heb gurhid . Yy Hen nyd did. . Oclybx 6 od lleis adar duwir dyar ev grid Tenev gvallt Dolit vy ifcubaur nyd . ban vo pont ar 52 ' 16 xxxi° B. . Yr gueith mi nymdoabi kynduguitei awir y lavR enlli .Deu am tir. Gurthwnaud efpid abridgan gwas.

tonnev tir. 15 Bet in llan gwalchmei ympyton.e ymtial. Bet gur gwaud . Ileffeint heb a. ny . ryvel iti i St?Y aegulich y glav ffint . B.ymynwent cozbre Bet feithenniN finhuir .B. y mae bet pRyderi ynyterev . ^Betev a tut gvitwal . aguriad . bet gwallauc hiR irdiliv. gvir ny oztywna' 3 vy dignav kerwid achivRid . . padaRn bet kinon . guryen. ydav y dyved . Bet tedei tad .taw.C xxxn 6^ . vann y rug 12 kaerkenedir aglann moz mauridic akinran. tarv tozment. 9 diffuis graeande . ygodir hen egluis yny . achav.y dynetON. . mozien amozial ^ Betev . ^n aber gvwenoli. . gvlich kauad. keri cletifhir . Ac arall ar ty wi . . yg karrauc.ny Ileffeint in lledrad gwen. 6 agurien. awen yg^odlr >* bRJn aren ynydvna ton tolo Bet dilan llan bey no Bet . gvyR.

Bet owein ab urien im . in abererch . feir^ 12 ch ameirch cann . 9 gozuytaur maur minreiw in llan helet betr- owein . Neud ew hun bet run bet . gwen ab . pedryal bid dan gverid llan moavael riderch hael . gvydi llauer kywlavan. bet Kyir' inergrid . . llyuarch hen Hun. inifel gwelitin . bet gur gurt idiw. yg kynifc bet kinon mab clytno Bet mab oKv 6 ran ygcamlan. Bet . Gwydi gurum achoch achein a . idiN . . bet meigen mab run rvif 17 64 xxx/j^ Wis-r- . Piev y bet yramgant Ae tut mo2 agozoz nant Bet mei^ 15 gen mab ruN Rviw cant. kig-' i Piev y bet daycyftluN awnaiarloegir. Bet bedwir in alld . i on mab clytno avon . tryvan .urtin in uchel tytiN.Gwydi gweli agwaedlan agvifcav . ruN mab pyd in oervel ig gverid bet kinon in reon rid 3 Piev y bet ydan y brin In. Piev y bet inyrinif ae tut mo2 ag0202 gwrif. .

17 caeav. dieffic unben. . Bet lliagvitel in argel ardu-' duy. in llurv llyauf hir. mab pedur penwetic . in rid fiffcad fuir fo'- mab y bruiw obricheinauc.y bet bet. hen. nybitei gur. ny kiliei mab meigen. 6 Bet mozmaurhidic en kinteic. ^Ri 3 bet bodauc inarterchauc brin. am i bet meigen tri ab run ruyw gwir. gvinionauc mo2. tnad pan aned. bet epint inyffriN gewel. ameilir amada-' uc.vrien g02ev . triN. Bet dywel 15 mab erbin iggweftediN. mab y guyN. vir. Piev. drewred drav. gwinN.ybreinhin. divei nyochelei I 65 \ . Bet madauc mur egluc yg kywluc kin^ . poft kinh^. Run mab Bet alun dywed yny o caled. dan y gvellt aegvevel. o winllyuc. Bet meilir 9 maluinauc faluvodauc finhvir diauc. 12 vaen ked. ae pen gan y ranvaered.€(s cul y bet ac yf hir. aluN diwed .ym pant . .

ig gurthtir 12 Pieu ir bet hun bet . Bet llvch llaueghin ar certenhin anon pen faefon fuyt erbin ny bitei . pvy vynt vy pvy eu negef. hirguynion byffet beidauc 66 rut. gur oet hvnnv guir y neb ny ro^ 15 tef. Seulu oeth ac anoeth a dyuu y ouit . .Bet llenn llaugyfes ydan achlef mozyny bu y gy wnef. ac yn ryd . i yg guarthaw guanaf jffit €[beteu hir yg guanas ny chauaf ae dioef. drimif heb drin €(beteu ynhir vynyt . 9 llvytauc uab Pieu yr bet ynymynyt aly viafei luoffit bet fyrnuael hael ab hy vlyt.Bet gurgi gvychit a guindodit llu lev a bet llaur . Bet beidauc rut yn amgant riv ly vnav. eltivlch hir. pennant turch mab arthan gywlauan gyuu-' Ich. bet lluofcar yg keri. 17 Pell y vyfci ac argut gueryd machave ae cut. 3 noeth yeu gur yeu guaf ae . bet gvryen gvrhyd enguavc a lliwelit . ceiffo vy elated 6 guanaf. . britu bet omni. guyr lluoffit . yn llvyr y . Pell y vyfci / 19 .

yfcvn . Ebet yn yftyuacheu bet gurtheyrn gurth^ 6 ymae paup yny amheu. maef meuetauc y dan^ .meirchmei. elffin ybrowi vy martrin. av.vch kinran geffevin. Bet ruwaun Ryievanc dac'riN. 12 aun cletyfrut anoeth bid bet y arthur Bet elchwith yfgulich glav . y prowi vy bartrin.i. yn yda lliv yn llychur. Bet y march bet y guythur . Bet unpen opdein yn lleutir guynnaffed. Dyliei kynon yno y kiniav Piev. . eneu I^ian a ud yndiffeith cund drav otuch pen bet alltud . bet eitew oet hun tal abet eidal . . .i.^ bet ruvaun ruyvenit ran. bet y gug^ . 9 vch kinran . Eitew ac eidal dieffic alltudion . Bet hun a hun gowin ymi mi ae . . Neumduc.y bet . guN. 18 kanavon cylchuy drei mekid meibon meigen 67 i. 15 hun . ig ke^ 3 Hi uriauael bet gyrthmul. . bet kindilic mab anau gueryd machave arnau beidauc . ffevin elffin. rut i yv hun ab emerllydau. . Bet ew.

in aber duwir dyar.inhir gweuN . yny gvna tavue hun bet toniar . darn Bet aron mab .guradigonei daaryarwev. llauer nyf guir ae^ 15 gowin. Piev ybet in y ridev.ny rotei gwiR yalon Bet tawlogev 18 mab Uut. Bet 9 gur gurth y var. Bet ycoel int mab kinveliN . nydo^ . le.y. deilew ar ladron . eili'' nvy Bet milur mireiN gnaud kelein oelav kin bu.y brin . kymynad pen pop nyRth eliffner 11 hyget ago2et ypiRth. aral guythuch ur'' 3 th ervid. Piev y bet„breint. i th ydvei nybitei fo. Bet llemenic inllan elvy.yggURthtir mathauarn. pen v wu wu y amfer. llewin ae Uedneint bet gur guae. 6 yg kinhen teir cad .ygguernin bre bet . trav. 20 .yftifirul kedwiRca^ .bet Ruyw 12 yv hunnvmab Rigenev.trathlathei ch^arthei VRthid Bet filit dywal ine-' drywuy . y Rug flcarant.Piev ybet Hun nid . Bet abner. . Bet deheveint ar eleven awon. iny bruyno hir hydir y wir iny bro paf . mal ymae iny kyftut.llachar mab run yg talyrth cIun keiN.inytrewrud . le . yi-' Piev y bet in llethir. llachar llyv niver. . clathei caffei but Piev ybet ar Ian ryddnant 68 Run.Piev y bet hun . tra daear diarchar dibryder. Bet talaN.tav ydan meiN .

lleas . wu ny bv rallt .bet kinveli . bet ebediv gelin am maelur lav. . Piev y bet iny trav . eitilur .bet kinon garv y duyael bet kinvael . kyfniflen yholi galanaf. kin boed hir tuw y eif. dygir^ 9 chei tarv trin ino treif . minit . p2ydein y ddiua .69 ab benlli 21 S^'^""] . [Y Beddeu yny moiua yf bychan ay haelewy: ymae fanauc fyberw vun y mae run ryuel afwy y mae earrwen .env radev keucant. ig kemeif tir. Piev y bet pedrival. bed einyavn ab cunedda cwl ym . tin bet madauc marchauc dywal hir. Bet llv/ id lledneif. Bet . Riogan aegvant. ae pedwaR mein it amy tal.Etri bet yg kewin kelvi. Pieu yr bed yny maef mawr balch y law ar y lafnawr. ir Oet ef i Schen bv 3 but bet bradwen.*' bed beli . tra . En eiwori'' elvit y maegurhyduf paup pan rydig^ 6 hir. 15 verch hennin ymae lledin allywy. . henben yn aelwyt dinozben bed airgwl yndyuet yn ryt gynan gyho2et Gogyuarch pob diara . Ri oet ew. Bed hennin . pi-- 18 eu yr vedg02 yfly yma.yrug y gverid aederv chuerv.awen ae divaud imi . fiauN fyberv inhirerv. chuerthinauc braucbrid^ Piev y bet iny clidur.guawRut grut aten. 12 y lauer y tarv trin trugaret itav.

duhuned. Ny gvnaho 3 Dowit duypoen ardin amydic aeawar. eb coffav duv daun diffrid gwirion ac egilion hevid 12 (goimot o cam fyberwid guae aegunel heb kel imbit. nythebic drud y treghi. Ny naud ydireid imioli aduv.a gothuy yr dioteiveint crift nachifced. am awnel opechaud ny mad . . mab duv . anew ynof y tragh. Cantreghif. (Elattl) ajjaitt. @©@g© 70 . Otreinc mab din heb 9 imdiwin aduv.I^^ffoffjon . Nycharaw alaw od. i waen .Nymgunaho douit duy poen . floe tl) accant tantreghif wiguifc amhoen oa. . a duhuned pilgeint ageifif . Nachifced mab. ew keifif 6 new achirreiveint Kyrreiweint agoffaho duv ac niftirmycco. aeth eneid iny gnaud . Daearaul pechodaul imyoel a duv a devveint .Direid daear.mryuef neufad^ . ol difod breffuil. in erbin dit kynhi. Direid new. eitavclod y duv goiev im goivod.diN.pop preffent yf haw^ 14 Din wuyf itav.

opleid cofion.a. harchaw arch giwreint breffwil inpriflur pop pilgeint ymeneid rac poein oweint . oil yrholl merthy^ Yduvyharchaw arch aton dihev rac poenev gelinion. ©crcint . obeith atew. IVac gereint ge^ >S .naut duire y feint.naut meir gwiri argueriton. y. ivac gereint gelin dihad . Yduv .gwidygaurgarvachlut. Bac ut o . meid. Naut .ybid. yn argledir eloy. y.guydi gaurgaru puyllad 71 . ieith ygid acew im pop pozthaur new. Roti argluit Y duv y harchaw arch y poeni.Caraw voli pedyr avedir tagtew iaun. aepelltauN. rolre Heb coffav duv.y. til' trblN.llara cloduaur. harchaw arch hewid kywiauN can dichauN vyniffrid. meneid rac poenenbid naut criftonogion. gueleife meirch crimr^ kad a.y.imeneid rac ri. gereint gelin kyftut y gueleife meirch can crimrut.hael. Yduv.

aguyar in din^ . . agelozaur mvy nomeint . deur oodir diwneint a chin tyffent . En llogpo2th gueleife gotto-' 6 aguir nygilint rac gvaev.gueleif meirch can eucrees. rillethid ve. Oet re rereint danmo2tuid gereint . En llogbozth ygueleife vitheint .rac mab y tad . guirigrid aguaed gereint vaur ev. Rution ruthir . Oet re rereint dan moztuid 72 gereint 17 .En ev.guydi gaurga-' i rv achles. Rution ruthir eriron dv.Enllc 3 gbozthygueleifegiminad. Oet re rerent dan vo2tuid gereint garhirio 15 graun aebv. . am iad. a. ameraudur llyw^ iaudir llawur.garhirion graun boloch. acyved gviN oguydir glo^ llogpo2th ev.aguir rut rac ruthir gereint . Rution ruthir eriron coch . Enllogpozth y llaf y gereint guir .lin o2mes. . agvydi gaur garv atnev Enllogpo2th ygueleife y 9 arthur guir deur kymynint adur. y gueleife arwev guir.Ua'" Oet re rereint dan vo2tuid gereTt erir^ 12 garhirion graun guenith ion blith.

graun adaf. turuf goteith ar diffeith mynit Oet re rereint . uv inkymhozth innenth inpozth incanho'Rthuy . kimry ozoz kyghoz arvy. on graun eu buyd Rution ruthir eririon livid. Oet rerereint dan moztuid. F^ywel welmoz. 12 adwi.garhirion graun wehin. Muyhaw y treul. 8 Ban aned gereint oet agozed pirth new. garhirion. XJ valch teeim dinaf unbin degiN . rerereint dan voztuid gereint garhirion grat . 15 dridauc heul.vchel kylchwy. K xxxvn 73 . 'SerruiN trochiad. rotei crift 10 aarched prid mirein prydein wogoned. Rution ruthir eryrion glas . gurt intrydar gvae rycothvy Pe^ . s gereint. Blaur blaen euraun inariant. Godrut y var. i Oet hit . Rution ruthir eririon gviN. tozwoet ueitad vabgozonvy. . dan moztuid gereint garhiri^ . 3 dan V02tuid gereint garhirion gran anchvant. Oet re rereint .

lleiN drav.p. 3. Dyucd dvycauN . ran ardcr-' . ac abcrffrav. a. a diffriN 3. Ryucl cb/ .Tcgigilotal lo CdcirnauN Kiiit . ial. cluit .Tywin. chauc.wa/ uvy.^^J cv Kydadlas amluitli cur/ gvaf cLiaflyviiy. Cr^l^ anchvant. dyganlwy.tliyiicilauc ac xxxvii* avo B. gulad niozgant.Tir l)Kycheinauc. arial aulvy.kif'' 7 laiiN owLiy.Dylfriii inynvy. .Gv^4 liir pcnuiN yftradvi hRiN.B.nant convy » Powis cnwauc *4 3.accwionit.gucnt. Rofrowynniauc. Kugil yg goztiiy. KcrcdiciauN. S^mcironit.C 13 .'mi) ae ardudvy.(ly iauN iViud.

tycrnct anhvyct Rvy.vt'' vcn vcnvy. Or fan pcnn/ 1 aeth ri^^f-ir inaclli..r tramozdvj' .ar .B.C xxxy/ii . 7 ij B. H^ucl giil ^ edic. Hrvacth camrvy. llaur Mcint v</{^^ rr achupvy.dilywiN dcnvy. Rywifcuif am </ aur cur amacrvy. o plant ncvuj'.pcll Maclcnit a y trcithvJ'.< ' iilnN.y. Clwad gucll. Tcir inis 3. iharkivcir ar pcnnic 5 pcnn .Kcri hiKtllt.Drcic kLiiiI turvf mozoct maur. Dyffrin hi' .id ygiiylllvy. clyjrcn. Bcinachancd.Tcir rac ynis.gur^ .mvj'. Gozuir cdwiN.'in.

Hydir y kymhell hywel env . Vy rypuched y colowin 10 ked. clevid crid 3 GweriN werid gwedy 5 achymvy. yfcarant . . hid ynottvy. Cap wy Ry/ 8 buchvy. faud hyuel uRth y hoewet .B. Hyuel haelaf. DipRyderant d .arial vytheint. a .rac y dibvy nt. clod pedrydant.kyvid hehowin colofyn xxxviti^ B. . opell 1 Guell yv noc vy . Ryuel dywal vrien haval. Dihev utu ' chur kyftvy.C.Gurifc gueilgi 76 12 dowyn. trallaud kyftut. Ny dav metic hid ozph/ en bid. vaureilaffaw gozefcynhvy.

gelleift pozthant. gurhid gozmant Terruin . IlugiRn deudo2 . galon reibeint. lluoet agoz. pen pop kinweint.milcant . Ho^ ew . XXXIX 77 . Gwerlig haelaw haeton vaut . Go2ev breenhinor gollewiN hid in llundein . am tir Ri reith kyw^ ir. 3. rvytheint.Oteernon kywrid leon. levaf teccaf 5 o adaw plant (J j . vaton. affav aphlantr: 12 vrten arnav Rad B. ohil mo2gant Omo2ccanhvc oRieinvc radev 8 . . chein y atew trvi aRtuniant ac anaw.B. gur. veitaton^vetveint Gozuir menic mur gwerenic . i bango2 breint. . vn vid veneid yellyfpp ethil hir ac bid. 3 Haelaw lariaw .C. Pryduf pchen podaur ben.

cLfluinaf archafeirchadym . 10 nacheluch ychpozth can pthin attreguch goftec wir His gofteguch goftec beirt bart aglywuch. ^ffuin^ . athtozyf oth teern meibon . apis new allaur. diheupozth kertozion athturuf othtarianogion. ^ffuinaf y chnaut. 4 druffad.wozffet. ipCfiuinaf naut . xxxi}^ . . gelwir naut kyuir kygwaftad.B. . ^ffuinaf Kaut naut haelvonet. ar dygulad dehev.ardy guir •gliledic erir aerev. 78 13 ardy tozif cozyf kywriffet ardy B.nyth ozffeiw teernet.Na^ 7 ardypiRth ar dipozth'' haut haelon deheuparth . aw archaw archvaurypiw ut rac dyuar car kertaur aur.ffuynaw naut duv diamehv y dauN ae donyauc wiffinnhev.C. .ar didriffaur gvaur gwenvlad. ar dydriffev aer .

Teernweilch pdein . padivet aebet ambit. ae gwellig ineurdirn. igueithrd.y dauN. MetcuiN evgwiraud met kirn i aegwallav. kyifun crevit . affuinaf ar wut naw naut. 12 ymmared drvi a. .ffuinaw naut duv diamhev. Kyd credwit douit. fit [© vom kyd kerdd. drvi kereir . ych bart ych beiRnad vytaw. ych po2th pthin yv ataf. 3 prydaw ych priwgert . fit maur penyd meith peunyt eneid . 14 hyt . bid pyrfe. acred. agloev y ved in edirn. Ruifc .ych pwclod adigaw. . 3. Ruiffirt kert vahaut af^- 9 fuinafferv herv hirvlaut . llaeffa Viw kertaurjm ruw kirt .goned kydimyteith.teulu teilug met. 6 ^ ttep aganaw ar canhuyw can dothuif. wi. vy argluit. yth. . lleiffauN lliw llev gliv glevrvit. pan im keuerchyt BBC. 16 XL 79 . aglev teeirn. mozkimlaut gurt .ergliv. aglivdeur. divar di bart wif.


guae ny baut a gaut guledlc. pthldev muyhaw. Bei . Edrlchdepo^ en Imy gan mo2 pryued. ath vradafte 8 am tuyllaf ynnev. yf 13 cuypuN ar vn mo2 amluc . vy penhid.Athuradafte bith nyf am gunauN. edrichdepoenimiganmoz K XLi pryued. kyrraw de imi vy gev.ymbangozar paul cozed. Bluytin llaun ymry^ doded.iadu aetiyf^ colan. .allyviR rod y ecluif. allat bu^ voti. 81 . y creaduriev pthidev muyhaw matev im vy tuyllaf ynheu. guint. y vlaen bRic guit fallum Erav 15 vneuthume C reaudir gev. bango2 ar paul cozed. Mi ifcolan yfcolheic yP 4 cawinypuill ifcodic. yftrum kynhi. Creaudir y creadurev. 10 Bluytin llauN im rydoded. Olofcl ch ifcol.ym.V dyuarch du dycapan du dy . 'pen du duhunan.

euid bran yhafgell. . Ymae vlmrid andebed arowuN ar mo2 wy^ ned . arowun myned. y boze ban kyuodaw.arowun myned. Ymae Dyrch^ 9 vymrid ar kighoz.C. etyl butic bytaud I02. croes crift inwiffc ym 3 danaw.etil butic bytaud keiN. \ . Gulfcaw ymdanaw inberth. Dyr^ cheuid bran y hadein S-rowuN myn^ 15 ed Ruvein. ^Rhelv uyren yguYcav hetiu .yntaw geir adywedaw. etyl butic bitaud ked .Ny credaw coel canyd kerth 6 y gur am creuyfe . am ncRth . un trev a glyuaw nid ew wy . duu nifcredaw. armo2. 82 xLfi B. impell .B. 12 etyl butic bitaud guell .

i hiraethauc rauN rIn Reid Ren new . wof 1 prid freid . Ruit ygniw Rygig. crift colowiN ked f^ oirwin Dywyccviff tonn . guledic . dafifar duv ozev xui 83 . truiN. argluit . "P^ftaRnde wineu HIr y neid Ruit yg 6 nyw Rygig. guiN. a phedir pen pop . yd uit trev. chuerv vueliN met' Ren new Ruitade vyneges. YftaRnde winev ot-^ biRR y blev. din a denvin kedimdeith Gozwin blaen p^ bann cogev. . daeaR 9 tev deil dRis melif. ny lut ar lev trev direid ©rum kyduod . O eiffillit 3. woteid . oet 3 duu genhiN. hir dit .©@a . Duv y theu gar . SanP fuynade inimdeith IJeul eir^ kely 15 ioled arouned .Yftarnde wineu fruin . ew mynyd vo .Tru^ kein gywrev adar.Redech.gueith wtic . ieith . wympe^ pifc tuth eleirch Trybelid areith .

Syberu afegur dolur an eu knaud guerth iau 1 myned drof ueffur. a Rietillter. hid wra^ fo2t ud gojeu goztywneid Yfcythrich a delhich ti . yftir nith^ ny bo puR. @@@gs@@@@@Q&g@@@@ . Pader a buyeld a bendic^ .QJ chaud am gueithred . . aegwinneif y offereid bid ae hefgip aehigneid ba beth ozev rac eneid eid creto . llyna chuec chuerv eRbin A-i//" 15 B.y. o kyuil dieuil dothuid . a Ryuetuda^^ ud a Riwiraud . ae canho rac eneid . o.B. gynaud g. a chenich 8 newyauc a .C. Ryhun o vet . thvi tranc aRtrugaret Ro . . dillad ynoeth golychuid . vyd. a llunhich tagneuet . .ny^ . .

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/ athro Im. ir neb nvy keis. eif. Nid oweR traethaud aRa^ - Nid eiffev. Nid pozthi pen / . vann. geneife . namethryad. 10 ym crevis dews diffleis. Nam gwellic ymplic lav. thi 85 xLui^ B.oth virein gulad . oth. Nid ew RotiR new.oth va ran.vt echeiad. Nid ew du^ 12 hunaur ahandeneif. llu du digarad. Nid Rvy oawit awenyt / . Nid Rvy oobruy aobRyneif Nid po2 / Ryuc ryuegeif im bron. o honaud tretheif.Nid ew guneuthuR. . . . im^ pled dirad trewad.yg kein ew^ reis.wy kerd.Nid eiffywed^ men y keweis.C. 2 wt . Na threis. /I wledlc arbennic Ban . Nam ellug gollug oth gualluf 5 Nam ga .yR amhuill na thuill.B. Namditaul oth.

Jnadaud wy Ren Rydamv^ ryiole's. . xL/y Mui . Kyffei bart pridit 3.B. Bu drvi. ton. mab gowRi gobeith. Duv. graean.4 ieith. llara llau fraeth. athuyllvRiaeth .r . . 3. Adylivaf idas y Dylllt env Innvfin impop enweir McIr rymath. vewil .Rydid imeneid. guaffanaeth yargluit Bu hywit ac 10 nybu doeth.Reid |endith brelfc |y y wenwas. Ry vetyleif. yffit in 13 eluit .iR dec diyrnas. 2 neis.Ac hid vraud. ar mir . ar fir fyweditiaeth Beirnad y dinwaP 87 Rodiad B.bron ehalaeth.r .2ir hallt arechuit . in hudaul gvar . thofte Mad dev-^ 7 yg cozffolaeth llyna .ny vnyaR^ vaeth .

moli dyvR^ [Tdaaeth.kyvoethauc .ynyduit. Kyuoethev. y due Ren y Riffet ydad ^ wet.duwyr echwit. rI.fune gunaune eddwaeth. hael 6 Eil kanuill crlftauN. f-x 9 Ryvet. ir keluit creaudir. Nifrdraeth. Ren new Ryphrinomne digerenhit. 14 bv Rit.cvd ymda.Nev cudvit. Kyuothauc duu .Cv. 3 /Pllendith nautozyw new. 12 duu vab meiR. a leuich uch elgauN.B. gg .cud echwit.a.C. ILocr vilioet vilenh^ it. .aoif newac eluit Pan deuth^ ST ofte y paffc diwedit ovffern awu ran . . l -kt i • auc.pedwerit thrcia. . .. Cvda. i Maur duv hetiv. . Ypen y feith mlinet.yv merweRit moz.Redec treigiLCvthrcwna. xuv^ B.Jolune ara beir. ^wdouit Apis vynveR heul indit lleuveR lleuenit . Pa T • hid. iti.. Athrydit Ryuet.Cv DigonefperLw.

birr diuedit guit gvyrhaud Ottid . llicrid Rid reuhid llin. 10 aren. caffael did. coed inlbluch.mi nidaw. kedic awel. go2uchel guaetev rac bron banev bre breit allan 02feulr. ©on trathon toid tu tir. fegur yfcuid ar ifcuit hen. lluch rac brythuch gaeaw.Ottideirytohidiftrad. gupid gint blaen guit tev. RyfelwguraRvnconiN. Oerguely piffcaud ygkiffcaud iacN. nida kedwir oe neges.anawnimgad^^^ XLV 89 .J p^ vm awel Hum briN anhaut . Ry uaur guTt reuhid dien Ottid eiry ar wanthaw reo.diuryffintvy keduirycad. oer llinnev eu llyu heb tes. goP . crin caun calaw 5 truck. 8 eiry eiry guin y cnes. Ottid eiry guiN . cul hit caun bary^ whaud . Oer lie. kadir yfcuid ar yP cuitglev.

reuid rev pan vo. Hum guit Hog ar mo2. Guenin igkeithiv gwirtHv mo2 cRin calaw caled riv.Genin igogaur guan gaur adar. • . glaf glan guilan in emRiv. mec / cidHvwyrHauerkygho2.karcharaur gozuit cul i biv. Heith dyppo. GueniN igodo. IJir nof Hum roOluid Riv.B. dit .Ottid eiry odv Riv. ©©©©©Gueni ig cHdur rac gulyburi2 gaeaw. garv mir glau auit het^ go XLV^ IV B. ir nep goleith. kyfful/ 7 win kewin bRin coch gwaur. ciRn 4 am cIuIr.ocr HyRi^ Huchedic auiR blr diuHth diwedit blaen gvitgvIr. oeragdo rid. Ottid eiry. oer divHt. nid annuyd hawdit hetiv. guin go202 mynit. glafcunHeitcevewur. yR eluit hetiv.C. ^urtirnamcirn. dricweuetHyvrder ar guR.

nid vid eleic unben. uit. nyth eluir in dit reid. brluhid brooet .B.breit KalangaeawguRimgo2/ dugo2blaengruc. nabuoft gureic.GangaRn carv cul grum cam. guaet.C.bir dit deruhid ych kigho2.Gozuchel awel gulrozfeuirallan. gullchid lliw llaur trewit . 8 ]3ronureith breith bron. ia. B.go2euynauc ton moz.Breithbron bron ureith. och gindllic. . 4 Nid vid ifcolheic. XLVi^ ft'j- . . Okifcaud yfcuid ac .Briuhid talglan. . Kirchid carv crum tal cum did.kinuetlauc oer callet cul hit llywin diffrint. 2 awon hinon Driccin imynit avonit igniw. Hum Ry dieigc glev olauer trum .jSlch guint guliphlnt. aral gozuit aguir deur diarchar tec nof y.vann. neud guellgi gueled ir eluit .

regedamRyvaeth.ffiffccau efcaR. Rut ypaR openaeth oweiN in.Can medRit mo2Ruit.B. diffreidad kad kynuid.towIffune Iv y bRiN. Kinteic guint crellum coed. 10 ythuaguid.guydi.yar can kanliN 8 oweiN. H y met meuil na vynuch Yboze gan .ty'^ tul. Ygur aRithao duv. i crin cauncaRu ifcun.pelif pa aR'' tir.C.pelif enuiRpatirhun.NimgunapRydeRimpRldein heno kyRchu bro pRiw uchei. Can ethiv Ruiw Rodwut iwcRit ateulu na fouch. Kin ottel eiRy hidinaRuul melin.y Rodwit aRid aRiv eiRy adiguit . o Rigae^ 12 th carchar.nimgu^ naei aRtu awiRtul.Kin imtuiN aRiweu ac yfcuid nad.pelis pan vid kyvaR/ 5 wit. . las g2 XLvf" B.

C.kighoz. aR Drud aRall Caniffonoglon mugc. KyuaRuuan amca^ vall. XLVii . Duvin. 02 chuedeu amdiallad. 6 a lataut mechit . piw new peifte imi dyuit . lliw alaRch . bRi-^ th bron mo2. me/ chit gologuit arnad. Rid Rewitto2 oeruelauc tonn. lleuenit Had. dihawaRch ben glvyftec llenn . 8 igrid. . kyntaw.kelein aRuiaRaR wall kywranc Run . Gwir .dit ban kirchuld oet mug maur treuit. 13 affruiNcluymus maRch B. Ren Rothid. nyd uagaud meiRch mechit Nim guna i .B.dRuduaf nif amgiffre^ dit . vn'^ Mechit mab llywaRch.

o trywRuid. Manawidan ab oet duifycufil. Banon.onyfguar/ Mi aeguadi. din cyminauc 94 Argluit ae llochei my'' XLVif' B.ymtynydoi.C. ron. i gauaeluaur. 7 mab.B. 3 Guirgozevimbid. Vythnel / nt elel. .achei guiN. llauynnauc Oetin diffreidauc ar ei^ . n ar 13 mabon am melld maglei guaed guelld. Pa gur aegouiN ciivtiiur. Neuftuc manauid a eif tull . Ac anguas edeinauc . Gleuluid . Oet 9 RiNn vy gueiffon in amuiN ev detvoN. Kyfceint .Pa imda genhid . edi. i A guiN godybRion llyr . a lluch. .Ba. guaf uthir pen dragon. . gur yv y pozthaur. affivyon ell tRi Mabon am myd . athi aegueli.

. cant id cuitin. . Ar 10 arnvm agarv/ . Oet hynelw guaftad .kel ig kad Oet cletyw ighad . clety^ w ac yfcuid Oet guaget bragat vr^ . Ar^ thur ced huaRhei. a. Pop . pop cant rac beduir bedrydant traethev trywruld In . ew agura^ 5 Ew aguant pen palach. oe ar 13 lav digulftlad lleg ar lies B.caffad cuek Afeirolei kei hid trae kymynhel. gulad Beduir XLVllI . luld- Oet guychir y annuyd o . diffethach ym minit eidiN amuc . th .nel ymtiwygei kel aeheiriolel. a Bridlav.Inatodev. Jn neuat awarnach In imlat ch.traella^ . Id cvltm. i theipoptri.yguaed gouerei.B. Pan colled kelli. gr 15 . 7 chinbin. li. .C.

C. . .Nau cant guarandau . oet toft y cynial . Kei aR urif Preltev gozthowif oet 4 . gur hir in ewnis Oet trum y .di^ 10 we kadev. gue^ leife . Puyguant . yifcuid oet mynud tud. Kei aguant dileiN 13 nav guiton Kei wiN aaeth von y lleuon paluc.ygkad pandelhei. Nau ugein kinran . idlathei Nybei duv aedigonhei. Gueiffon ambuyint oet guell banuitint. Oet . 16 q5 XLvnt' B. chuechantyeirth^ au. .atalei yoztlnav. yguaRthaw yftaw inguN . Rac Riev emRcis. Pan yuei owual yueiuR^ 7 th peduaR. .kin gloes glaf veRev.B. cath paluc ei Nau ugein kinlluc a cuyt^ a iny buyd. diheitaghev kei gonint Kei guiN allachev. eRbiN oath Pan gogiueirch . dial . .VRthcant .

©@©@ 6 h" "§ £: S oed emendiceid irguit dv.g.minnev bitawgolv^ ir p^ p ^ -• oed emendiceid . dygneid ony lochir . dauc.attinnuify ligad oe ttv. ^»Cj A //^^ . in n y wit gwallauc ab lleinauc aRgluit.mab lleynnauc VRtas.©©^ ir g 2- B oed emendiceid ligad guit glas . attinvif y 9 p tj* oepenn.g. llaur ny ffeid i^ | "" . guit attinvif .BCb iVL einoeth kiclev lew held pen jrethin pell ban . is S' ? ^ ^ °' »* an if coegauc yffi mozeurauc ahin 3 ^* ? "^ emil His guallauc. attinnwif y 12 < inguaf. Ei- 5* „. ~ cfc? guallauc ab lleinnauc pen llv. Jr 3" g p_ 'arv trin anvidin blaut arbenic llu Hid anhaut dinam eiroes am / I 'S ° In =B! oes naut. y ligad.Yg^" gur g^Rt llv y kinnit /^^ ^^ I arbennic Hid owit . -P jft 13 oed emendiceid ligad guenn.©©^ iR guit | -.ab lleinnauc unbew.athvit naut ^i/-v \ ^aJ \ \%J ^^ Ic 'P M ro"^ canyferchit .

B. pel'' 4 th kiuarchaw in . briuint penaur . C anif naut im arotit. 16 -^^i^-** . guaur llv py dv pandoit . ©©©©©©©©©©©©©©© 10 C anifti guin gur kiwiR. Yfcithreid vy modruy euR kywruy B.minnev guitnev garanhir . C aringrun wi march kad trablut hud 7 im gelwire guin mab nud gozterch cre^ . racod ny ryim^ . hv yfcun gur ae iv ifcuid aghen pebir gur pan dyechen .@© . urdilad merch ' lut .C.moz vcRth ythog^ i yuechit . vin y tawue eithaw eriR mo2 terruin trei'" aw g8 .feidrad. dywrif im trum tawuy anet jVJ id ytawue neffaw alawaraw uRthid. gelir . ©©©©© 12 N ini gade gan kyulauaret ahi urthifru^ in yd wet .nam-' .©©© B J\ an deuaw o kad achiminad maur ac aeflaur in aghad .

aeffaur brihuid. gueleif aer rac i kaer wantvy. y gan wyauaRvy. llv awelei . . Gwin ab kint y fiRthei kadoet rac car^ 6 netaur dy ueirch. Rac mantvy . int breiN gaRthan Mi awum lie llaf 15 llachev B. Do2march oet hunnv afv y maelguN D 02ma»ch it . 02 cvn.C. mab keidav colowin keRtev ban ryeR^ inlle 11a 12 hint brein ar crev. mab ywerit clod lydan. Yftec vy ki ac iftrun.ban ryer^ . tozrhid eif mygedaul nut but 3 kein adygei treif bitinaur . ac yffew oaev . i gg . Mi awum bran.B. mab aRthur uthiR ig bruyn bRiw y laur. ffillit annaw can^ 9 iflamgififredit dy gruidiR ar wibir win^ iny lie Mi awum lias guendolev .cann . truinnut ba .

wiv . yd karhwiue mo2va . . Ty yd car^ treif her^' 13 huiwe mo2ua caffaaue ton Digones ton oer cleis y ron vit . wi wiw. karreian clod edmic ban ryreelt brein ar cic Ny buum . y milguir bridein 02 6 Mi awum ir He .B. caffaaue mo2 pyr toei 9 wanec carrec camhur glev diwal . vintev.ban ryreint brein ar crev. . wi. 02 duyrein bet. hid braud parahaud y eRtiwul. Mi. . vintev yaghev. Mi awum ir lie milvir pridein . lie llaf gwallauc mab lie 3 goholheth teithiauc attwod lias lloegir mab ynnac . Ew kuynhiw iny wuiw 1 Hon. beiRt bit bu' Go2uc clod heiliN benffic awiRtuI. lie llaf i mab .C . goglet . lias duyrein dehev Mi. Gweith heinyw golchiw aRwin-' 100 i" 16 B. hygaR hael huyfcur yfcinvaen tic clydur. Mi awum . meuric . .

.vywron kid y . am y kywrev . a. ©©©^^ ymelis 9 Dial kyheic amoet och co2r dy fozr blis .mi nythcRvill imdj^ 6 od ompaRth gueRtheifle march iRod. 12 yar march cadarn kad fer.Dabregen^ hiw nym gwatter . thwelas Marchauc akirch ir aber. lleinv keudaud nif beirv caloN. Mi nyd awinainaur.C. nythadwaen mi ry' . i a. glev diwal kyweithit yd vam indev . ©^^3©©®©©©©©©©©©© Fechid . y tebic ygur' lOI B.go" 15 tev gueithygodriccaur.c inllvrv kyheic kimod yroN.Menic it ERwet duwiR dalennev. Y gur nim guelaf beunit Lt .B. diRiftan othiwod.elhid bendith new. llaur . . . de ymi bv ewnis ©©©©©©©©© Archauc agirch ydinaf aecuNgwiw^ ion ae ciRn bras . Yflim edivar 3 oe negeffev ban WRiffuis pebRur pell y aghev.

ir dinaf athu^ 3 met ara phellas ac eur coeth ar diwanaf Mi nydadwaen ygurhy ametev tec .deduit . itaw caer lev hid eidy aphandoit . athuit guiw gozyfgelho? Vgnach yw. Ban deuaw i o caer feon oimlat ac itewon. trie ima hid dy v 12 merchT Vgnach mvihaw y alaw.vyheno mab mydno. tan agveli. itti .C. Vgnach Rad acenRydet. . Dabrede genhiw it . beitad yg keRt kyuengiR . 6 achuec ydiwedi Dabre genhiw imtino . bendith ithozffet athvo talieffin viw inhev talaw 9 dygulet Talieffin penhaw 02guir. ny haetaw kabil ny thrigiaw 14 102 i/* B. athvo.B. rad ygulad pennhaw.

Goduryw aglyuaw. gloev B. agliuaw ar 13 claur llavur rei Ryuelclod diffegur. . iav BreiN GoduRyw .lipntclb Oduryw aglyuaw. .Mal uw.Teulv haur. ar claur maelenit Mur eluit eluan gaur.B. Teulv madauc mur eglur. Mai gavr mada^ to2yw teulu arthur. bann benlli gauR. madauc mad an^ Mai teulv.a^arunali apatiatic mab Sl^arctiut. ar claur vagv glyv. Teulv madauc mur galon. ae loeglr in dit keiN Teulv madauc . pliitmaucaecont. ar claur lei'' 6 .C. yn lluithauc in llith-^ . Goduryw agly^ aw. prydeiN . tur^ 9 Goduryw a glivaw. . Lii . tozmenhoet klnoN. muR Godo2 drein waewaur gu^ . thon hiR hydir y wir ar faeffon .

10 mmt kyRt keRtozIon .ymaR-' glult kedymtelth. aealon ympopIeith. . . vygc belth RIt wlffcoet weffgviN canhlmte^ ith . met^ welth yalar. efcar ylfculd In dllelth . wobeith Rut . Rut onglr Bran vab . lelth . Rad wobeith Kyvv' archaw kywercheife canwelth. Ycvlnavmadauc.Ypro^ wi prydv. Tarlw Rwy .RvIt attaw attep . dilut dlletyw kedlmtelth Ry gelwld . madauc kin noe . pwleith eurgeRt . .byelwu Trinva kyva kinytu Trydit tri di-^ . Turuw grucyg gotucgotelth. 13 voglon dIffelth. . weir teulv. 2 ywarchaw Im rI.B.i6 B. 104 i-if . St^arunaH Sl^atiauc fir Sl^arrtut. . Ruld galon y. . in evR welth.Dozyf'" cozyfcvid canhimteith Tarlan In aerwan .C. lllr lledlelth.

5 owIn gur ny miNN mabweith Hvil yf cvn yfcvid pedeirieitlf! ^ Hil 7 heirn henO teirn in Hael madauc. Dywinmo^ Oet HIr y truited Oethyged higar Oet llawar guyar.Bart ymteith! ledielth .DaRfv clvm di 10 eith.Darw ked/ beirt-car.igkad IS cvnlleitlf llav efcud. 13 rweith° Oet buelin bias. oe kywa-^ diffeith°. .Ruit y clod includav anrelth. Oet eur-llev. Rad waftad gwif-^ # ^^'" f!\'^ agar. Oet Oet cadaRn ago2. dan ifcvd calchw^ .C. llev . Can daeraud . powif peues diobeith! Haul . don canhlmtelth° Ilawin aryrad. gwanaf gw' kad^ aedreith. veuder anhyweith°. Rvtwo^ i auc vaon ny olelth.B. Can deryv. o aer llin Oet Diwarn kadarn kedymde^ L/u iQC . ieith° B.okidw dth. //am oeleith . reith.

Yg go ^ 5 leuad rad. ar.hid ar duu y dadoluch. gnaud guydi traha trangc hir. ac edrychuirde vara^ emeii'' 7 ^^s-/nres moz.gnaud gu^ ydi traha attreguch .e diwet yfpo can bv.B. .rididpfeith. finaun. traha tramguit. maes gnitnev Rytoes. golligaut guydi gueith.weneftir mo2 diffeith.Boed . Ydiwin y cam kymeint y affeith. y .C.haea'' rn y talheith 3. nimhaut gozlluit. ©©©@©©©©^s©©©© allan . 3 Yg goleuder feint ^^L eithenhin fawde iggoleudeith . diceid y mo2viN aehellygaut guydi cvin finauN wen-' eftir mo2 terruiN .G. ae.mteith unbiN. i leith . . 10 Diafpad vererid yarvann caer.hid ar duu ydodir. 13 Diafpad mererid am gozchuit heno.van kaer hetiv. Boed emendiceid y vachteith. Diafpad mererid y . . 16 Diafpad mererid y ar gwinev kadir kadaul duv 106 Liti^ B. Oet diRn inheiRN.

ac vrien J^andid hauf imachuiffon oe ad^ av arlan awon y gid allvewur lluydon .moz maurhidic a kin raw. pen gwen. gozev. vch.C. llev. ©02eu trywir inev gulad y . uv 107 . ^ri meib Uywarch . ntfibon . tri aghimen. ac araO. gnaud guydi gozmot eiffev erid. Ilpbjarcl) 5m.B. B. (EniDfb 'ec . am^ diffin ev treuad eithir . yd gan iradaren ar pwit pren. gnaud guy^ vann di traha Bet feithenhin fynhuir Rug kaer kenedir aglan. Tri cheimad awlawen .kinyolo dan tywarch briw^ ei calch hen . argad. Diafpad mer-' amkymhell heno yurth trangc pell. . uyiflauell. . ac erthir ac . .

108 L^y" . mi nyd aw anaw nimgad . ©©@§@^g©§@g© B. Y bo2e gan las ydit .B. duch pen bet kinlluc meu gerit. i .nid vid eleic vnben nithel^ . asandew. drud ©©©©©©©©©©©©© 9 Diafpad adodir ygwarthaw Hue vynit. o. ma'' ur trevit nidoet vagaud meirch mechit ©©©© 6 Kywaryan am cavall a. @©©©^§©©@©©©©©@ 12 Nyduid yfcoleic.aseliw. cledir kad kanvill o . mi ae go2uc. kelein an wiar ar wall.r . 15 talan teleifte deigir imi hetiv. bankirchuid mug .@3©§ Pell otima aber llyv pellach yn duy kyuetliw. ky yranc Run . ©©©@© 3 Gpzev rywir y dan new y amdiffin euhadew pill. ©©^§©©©©©s©©©©©©©©© . . wir in dit reid och kindilic nabuoft gureic .Diwriffmt kedwir ycad. Ottid eiry tohid iftrad.^ary gimun trin ryuel adun . arall . Ren new Ruy aendeid huN.C.

2. which. mitOyf 19-22 mydOyf 71-23. ra/. 94-1 deryv 1-3. 28-18-25. ^ 3 sg. ^«. 49-17. 105 oeth22-i3. 27-9. 108-13. 72-73. 3-7. . . . ydwyf 168-35-40 yttwyf 23-/^' handOyf 12-27. 89-9.97-15. 41-6-9. as well as the poetry in the Red Book of Hergest. 37-19 ytoed 7-16. . Ir. 68-2. 2. 26-11.65-1 70-15. is. 21-13. R. -t. 46-6. oes. iwyat. 12-5. 1-23. 91-5. 8-8. 51 5-18. 66-2. 3 pi. and compounds of bid. yw. eu 12-22 yOr24-/j nyt ydiO 938 kennyw 172-10. . 37-10. .oid 34-21-22. . ^«. 69-5-14.B. I7-3-5-3I. 53-6. Tal. 1-9. An. 69-1. i'. .B.B. yv 23-6. Imperfect Indicative. and for sympathetic criticism. . 2ri8 R. wyd.34-1. 69-19. yd ynt An. nyt ynt 26-14 ydynt 2014. 3 pi. . handoed 171-^. Y5sit 35-6. 41-6. 3. 2-15. 54-1. Wyv. . 82-7. yssy 56-7. 81-7 yss99-7.ys €. am dioed 19-17. . 85-11. 33-21. . 3 sg. Tal. y. 7-7-10. andwyf 15-22. yssit 11-13. 87-12 Yssi 36-12. 3. R." od=if it is. 76-2. y. 34-2. . R. Tal. wif 78-2. R.B. 53-13.B. buyint 96-2 Bybat 1215 R. Buei 15-23 R. R. oehud. . . . .dioes 13-24610. |-g8-i4 .B. 1. Ys 37-5. 67-2. 105-8 id woriv 17-4 paniv 98-6. ^. ydynt 17-8 ot ynt 21-34 derynt 16-28. 798. 90-2. issi 38-6. . . 364. t 867. 92-6. 109 N^ . 59-2. 67-17. ot R. 53-12. = is. 62-8. 11-37. yt oet 45-11 .^ 3 pl. Abnormal Imperfects. Bwyad. 6015. nid=it is not. . oedwn oedut An. £565-1. I owe special thanks to Prof. Strachan for suggestions. here offered tentatively._j'«/. it oet 20-11 . nyd 59-2. An. wi ioo-6-8 oef 50-2. L'ssi 38-5. 82-4. = [1599-7. vif 50-19 viw 79-8.n yssyd= there Y5sit Tal. 26-3-9. 63-13. i . An. o5sit 59-22 Tal. 66-15.B. = eVri is. hannoedynt 16-7. *.B. as well as bint and its compounds appear as futures. Tal. h. a. 14-14. Tal. o3'2. . The pluperfect is unknown. oedynt 67-26. . yttiO 12-23 deryO 27-10. 39-11 ossid=if there is. 97-3. boet. oedyn 13-2. vid 77-10. what 17. The usage in prose must be examined and compared before arriving at a final classification of forms like handes. oetin 94-14. oehyn. neut ynt 27-17. buiad 507.B. Present Indicative. R.B. . oeh oet oetun 23-11— 24-5. Laws eu 85 . 94-96. 102-9. 53-1 1. e. 1.* The work done on the Verb Substantive in Old Irish has suggested the Welsh paradigm. oedyn 14-24. 88-8. yssyh = 'who. oehwn. nid oet io8-6 ad oet 46-5 canydoet 43-2. In the older Welsh poetry byiav. ?66-5 . 79-5. 108-13 uid 85-12-15. . The references are to the text of this book with certain illustrative instances from the Books of Aneirin and Taliessln. id 13-/J.The Verb To Be and its Compounds. R.B. 3 sg. 11-2. yhu 98 patiyhu 104 henyw 76.

bydan 75 bedant 98. rybit 51-11 . pi. bid 47'i6. 3 sg. &c. ^ydy. 13-11. 44-9. lines i — 10. 62-16. 46-21. 58-11. 23-12. poet 10-^. Bythawd. 52-2. 61-7. j3. 3 sg. dybi 4-26. Juv. 478. ^«. . Byhiv. bid 52-5. [bithei 35-7. digorbit 5214. byh. c/>. 28-20. 30-10. guibit 76.62-14 deupi 61-13 guybi 54-9.i?. . 53-8. rydybit 54-12. poet 18-23.i>'. . 79-16 . Bid 19-1-2. dyuit 938. bieiuyd 18-5. 17-20. ^f. bi 5815. 667. 14-5. B. dybydant Laws. deubi 20-44 dybi 1T18 dyvi 2 34 dyderbi 22 dyworpi 5-18. 97-5-11. bydaf.107-15. vi 52-6. . . .I74i4 bythaOt 183 byda0t5-9. 51-15. sg. /3.Imperfect Indicative & Conditional. uid 59-9. 3 pi. 3 pi.bydynt 12-35. 3 y. f Bidan 5-4. Byhei. 7-9. 26-12. dy. [SUBJ. *See note on futures in -aud etc. 78-5 . 68-2. . 3 sg. Byhant. Imper. Tij/. diwit 51-10.bydhaOt 20-29. Gl. Tal.ative. 3 pi. An.poet 13-18.. vit 56-2 . -^bithaud T\. . Boed. . 65-10 . ZfySy^Auitint 96-3. boet 4-20.^. 58-13. Bi. -dibit 57-3: gorvit 52-5. boed 462. Tal. 59-4. 27-19. 57-12. Customary Present Indicative. 106-7-9. 266 . 79"12 .B. ? An. bydOn 59" 14. 61-6. 3 sg. dim Tal. . 1 10 B. Tal. .B. Byhav. dyui 72-20. 3sg. Future Tenses. 85-3. dy- 2 sg. 56' 11. yd uit 88-12 . yi4'37.B. .bi 1-14.5. bin Bint.^S. . nuchcuinha&nt = deflebunt.B.B. 3sg. -^n. . vit 4-8. Tal. hu. aOnt 78-1 Tal. Byhud. atvi 16-12-13. bint 64-22 R. 698]. Bid=is wont 33-7. dydybyd 42-20 .33-15. Bit 31-11. H.h\ 1-5 vi 12-12. 3 sg. i?. 18-4. 3 pi. . deruhid 91*14 . Present Imper. pebyllyaOnt 77-15 78-6. loo-ii 54"8. bydif . adwi 73-13 dybi 6og. vytud I3'2.boet 24-8. By&wn. 15-36. . ad uit 55-16./?. 60-11-13. -uit 5rii. ^. meShaOnt . [bydaf 1913. ^^. . . Bint is dyfynt 59-10 dyozfyn app. dy. [Cp. 82-9-13. bitei 65-17. Biawd. 1 sg. kuynhiw 100-15. bytaud82-iri5. on page 112. d^rnbi 76-8 deubi 3-9 dyderbi 77-23. by8y/?. bitaud 56-7. -pi 17-18. deubyd 17-17-24. dybit 55-10. 472. in Laws 17-8. 70-14. 2sg. ByhaGnt.C. 3018. 97-16. deruyd gorbit 27-2 . 52-5. 173-30. to be. bydei i8-20. 88-IO-I2. I vydant An. vytaw 79-5. bydant 21-21. bydha0t78-7 bythaOt 76-10 bydaOt 10-27. mudif ir/a] Tal. bi 312. Tal. dybyn 176-18. 84-8 dorbi 60-8. handid bid 8-1-36 derffid 15-13.5-4. 59-5 . . Biaut R. .i6"3 I sg. Tal. .gOydif 63-21. Bid— let there be. . 55-4. . 42-26. gOnahaOnt 13-9. bitaw 97-4 . 2 sg. 57-6-8. 17-^/. hubyd 13-27.

Buam. 84-13 . 51-6. Tal. 1. -ffei 13-20. 56-5. An. . 81-12. 22-3. 359.B. imteith 22-10 19-1. 3. guant 956. Bon. . ^«. doeth 44-15. dydaruu 15-17. 11-8-13. bOyf 318 &c. bOyn 12-7. 96 byeyfo 78 hanuo 76. deupo 615. -ant 466. 99-8. Tal. 34-5 . . 74-13.4«. 75-11. .B. ii'38. Douth-um 22-13. 170-6 vuam. atvo 16-7 diuo 21-16 dyuo 16-27 gozpo 176-19. 4-5.WU-uf 22'12. -ffu 50 13. Tal. VUOSt 12-3.. <yjm . ry maeth 87-6. |. Bei ys cuypun 58-2. vom 79-12. J . ioom-7 . [73/. Bu. 1 1 .B. 3.B. 8813. a wypei T2g. 8814. 3 sg.5. Bo 8-13. 1. deubu 71-25 dybu 51-7. 95. Bych. dybei 6-3 . 6-17. wuyw 34-11. gorpOy 169-28. 101-9. 26-13. uuan 3-5 want 34-5 daruuan 6-i i darwant 46-3. K^yppo 43-24. . -wu 42-14 guybv 45"lo. vo 47-2. 3 pi. . . ! f buve 2.B. gwnaeth 38-7 . dyuOy 60-11 gOypOy 28-26. dy-fei 3-8. . 92-13 diffirth 4012 . 69-11. 4-5. 7?. kyffei 87-12. gorpo 17-4 . 96-11-14. 4-16. 6-2-9. 24-16. R. uei 97?« . R. » 3. Bu-um. uumyS . -fu 402. ?anb0y'r7-5 /3. goruu 225 gOybu 22-16. 713-18. 87-8-11 bv 42-2. 13-20. pei 26-18. I. . 72-15. Beivn. 3. Cp. daeth 3-2 . Aeth 70-10..6-3. fv 21-5. 46-4. '3'22. . 739 dymgofu 74-6. kymirth 40-12. R. . . . . 3. buum ioo'3. wuyf 70-16. 102-8-12 . gwneuth-um 81-14. dyffo 10-12. Bivyv. 24-7 . vuam 101-4. rybrynhOynt 20-/J. 68-5. 103-2. -t. 91-6. . Present Subjunctive. uo8-5 aduo 8'6. 37-6. 53-2. BOynt Tal. kaffOynt 20-24. .- 41-12 . 3 pi. Beynt. 66-15. I. 5-15. . Tat. cant 701-13. 7a/. . 106-2.Buan.B. 33-2-3-6-8. atnappo8-2 darffo 83 dyppo 90-10 . R. darffo 19-2 '67. Past Subjunctive. . 876. 21-7. 3. Bwynt. 57-7. An.B. 1. 77-9. [gvant 69-1.] 2. R. 68-2. vych Ttj/.B. 42-2. 7a/. doeth-an 39. . . 62-4. -t. . 19-14. . ffv 2113 69-11. deuth 41-3. vont 554. yfpo diffo 57-11 .4«. 10-19.C. 54-10. Bwy. Buant An. wu 68-9.26-14. wum99"ii-i5. . 88-14 darw 105-9 dyuu 664. 3 pi. 53-22 dy. 106-2. 37-6-21 dyffei 2-3. . . BuOSt. R. ceint gOeint 23-21-2. 83-5.B. 108-14. 202 1. ceunt-oste 218. buyf 50-7. vei 18-4-8. 119. 19-25. 66-11 dyfu 108. ?bvi'r69-2. deuth-an 2-8. 96-8. vwyf 27-11. Laws darfo & ryfo 92 pyeufo 91. Hanpich 35-2. B. beynt Bruts 298-13. R. . vych 27-25. B. darfvam 105-8. kanvu 226. 81-13. . 9-3-10. Zijwjbuynt97. 23-20. I. Deuth-oste 23-7.BAm. diffon 6o-8.Preterite Indicative. pir 2. -T Preterites. dodaeth 2311. wuiw 100-15 1-38. BetOn ^^241-1.

. duch 40-5 As duch duw yny dangneuet.delhei 967. gunelhont 6o'4 fafont 6ri2 vvnahont 6ri5. Diwyccom 3o"3 digonhom 30^3 ri phrinom 88'i5. v+h= . : . \ Continued on page 157 below. io"2 . & : : . 59'i6 gunelwy 47'i5 harhowe 48"2. achu^vy 75'io. : : . . . canhwi 48-3. I sg. | cp. in -id. Canhont33'6. orfi o//id 89 norfi no//vy 767. . . . .ont 604. kynvUid lo'ii meccid 90"4 mekid gosgupid 89'i2 gulichid 9r3 Uicrid 892 6719 mettrid irio ottid 89-90 *reghid l4'lo reuhid89'2. .B. .prinhei4ri. iori4 guelher 2'6 PastSubj. llun/iich 847. . Addl. tragho 70^9. e. gweUvy 74-2. gvyrhaud 87'8 Pres. . blyghaud 1012. . g + h = cc. cluttaud in -aud. . amas. 'i 5. kenhi//or 527. 3 sg. ry. . Absolute forms in Old Irish. ceisso 665 cofTaho 70^9 dalho 3 sg. 9i7'io.96-8. Futures Passive in -aur. 112 B. Ind. .rothei43'3. . Canhaur sS'g didolaur 58' 16 . . Pres. 10811. yscithrich 84"5-9. . . . eisteS eisteMosS's. toid 893 torrhid 99'3. . .. Cenhich. . -ovy 59'I5 nottvy 767 treithvy 75"3. : : . 14869. I pi. . . . dygettaur 25'8 divahaur 58T5 talhaur 3i'i2 uolaur 37'4 etmyccaur 5813 godriccaur lori. gwelhvy 74'2 guiftlvy 75'5 guledichuy 47'S. : . 1-35. 99*3. digon^om 30'3 gunel/.-'Brmhcr ter . adnaiod: atna/'/o 8'2. kirchid 917.Some of the less familiar forms of Verbs. . 3 pi. scuio.73'i5 dirchafuy 59'i4 eirolve 32"i2 gorescynhvy 76'8.B. can/«o 84"5. 28'2o. . elher 33"i2 ffoher 5'6 gwatnaccer 34-9 llather57-2 prouher 6'i. . 90^9 *rothid 9310. -aur. garfu gutter 31 '5. dy dileaur 606 dyattaur 58m . chvarthei 68'3. Sigmatic Subjunctive. darfod dar^8'3: dyvod dy^o io'i2 cq^aho 70*9. torr/«d 99"3. 5n5 gunahaud 54-4. briu/iaud 589.llathei68'3. Bendicco 353 7TI dehoglho 7'4 dirmycco 709 eistetho 585 erlinho 8'8 gwelho 7'6 gunaho 70^3 rithao 92"i i roto 29'i2 . . dya/<aur58.digonhei . brithottor33'5 rewittor 93'g. 53'6. b + h = p. .C. llunhich. taWaur 3ri2. 76'8 . Briuhaud 58 g kaffaud 52'6. . 2 sg. : . 3sg. . Canhuyw 79'6 karhwiu ioo'9. . S + h=th. d + h = tt. flf. . .g. 60TI Uettaud 25-6 ry llettaud 5914 parahaud 100T3 reddaud 58'i. . kymynhei95'3. Present in -id car/zuiw ioo'i4. . . prin/zei 4ri.huarhei95'4. : . . . ffo/>er 56. barywhaud 897 ? daeraud 105 '9 ? duraud iri. Passive . keisser 1 5 . Future dir-.95i. cothvy 7o'6. . achupvy 75'io creddoe 53'i5 /3. * Imperative. kenhittor 527 megittor 62-5 Pres. tohid 8914. . byj: bi/Aaud7'i. etc. 45b'i Boed ef an duO an du6ch attaO. gosgu*id 89'i2. 52"2 . . -tor. canho 845. 60-9. . . t Gwares R. . 3rd sg. dyrcheuid 82'iri3. . 5'5 . -tor. Subj. . Briuhid cp. . 96-8. . is h**j. . Pres.& of the Indic. carhuiw ioo"i4 (credwi/it 79'i4) dyvvyccviff 83'i5. 3 sg. edmy^u ettny«aur 58'i3 ma^u metcid 90^4 [teccav 42'3]. . dyr-chavaud 4812. . . amaA 3 sg. The characteristic of the Subjunctive Mood. 48'i. . . . . Futures in -aud. Tal. Pres. delhich. . ro5i roMid 93'io. . .

The following Paleographical Notes deal with the correct readings of the Manuscript, not necessarily with the correct forms
of words, N.B.


less with the

meaning of the


—All who read these Notes should do so with a copy of the Collotype
subject of every note

Facsimile open before them.

the italicised

portion of the word, or words, at the head of every paragraph.
contractions are used for brevity.




app.— apparently
cler. —clerical

mod.— modern or.— original, -ly rad.— radical

cp.— compare

is is

wh.— which


hd.— hand
Ir.— later


t—suggested by J.M.J.
and dark, but legible with the word at the top right hd. corner, to wit, shadowy with no trace of the colour (red) left.



exception of the



The mark


Under the


* in


used in this MS. to indicate an omission. smudge only, while in '4 the under the by a Ir. hand neither has therefore been


r; kyuUjuan.



Bottom half rubbed and Altd. into 6 by a Ir. hd.


17 Talyes. A horizontal stroke over a vowel usually denotes or n Jiere it stands for stn. Read - Talyessm.




half of the o is practically illegible, but undoubtedly t02yuu = t02yw (mod. tor/). Here we have an instance of " double u " used for w, hence the origin of its name cp. 87 ena«yret = enwire8. Final w in this MS. stands,


The second





as a rule, for

v=/ of

mod. Welsh orthography.



2'2 ineutur







and n



nd\n Welsh yields nn in accented For example cs.nde\a.=


cale«rfa = cala«,


desce«(/o = discy««u.
are joined to


the proclitics an, yn,

wyn ( = fyn)

words beginning with


d is assimilated. Hence i« + (jfeutur =
not accented.
68'8, y«igabil

iweutur, not i««eutur, because the first syllable

859, iwyganhvy 47'4, wynihenit 50'i3, winvywron ioo"i6, vy «ruc 24"2. The B.B.C.
i«yffrin 65'I5,



observes this as a rule, but
87"5, as well as


also has instances such as in nvfin

yn, vyn and vy, followed by the radical form of
iineutur may also be rendered tur=mod.yn eu twr.

the noun


vy</arogan, etc.

in two

towers, or read in eu
3'2 3'5

Metre and rhyme seemingly require kyulauan.' vuant = ra(/. buant. 37-4'l. The order of the words is indicated by the marks .^ Read: Trwy a thrwy, rhwy a rhwy, y doethan Traw a thraw, im doeth braw am Elgan. 4'i braw. Hitherto printed bra«, which makes no sense: rhyme and reason require braw = braw. The scribe also wrote bra«, wh. some Ir. hd. altd. into n by joining the limbs at the top. Cp. \V2. 4'2 Llat Ayuel oe diuet kyu\ Wr. over erasures the writing

= mod.




therefore blurred.

4'4 wnaethan/.

proves that

Covered by the rubric paragraph mark. The rhyme n was silent, in words of more than one syllable, as early as xiith century, and was often omitted, as in the verbs doethan, darparan, etc., and in nouns like Morgan,
final t after

4'9 wuchit

= ra(^.

buchit = buche8 = vita.

[dyffryn, etc.

darpan = darparan.

p = par as well as

The verb here


52 guadlan.
6"2 fei^iiran.

Scr. err. for


Cp. ^'J.


There are traces of an erasure between t and h. kinhuan = tkynK/an, o»j^/. 7' 10 Nid cur Uauur wrth di« da. App. 'di;«' should be read here. The MS. 8 This page, wh. is dark and dirty, ends the first quire.

defective here


at least

one quire

is lost.


10 T&nnet.


Wr. app. over an erasure which extended beyond -et. This page, wh. was once an 'outside page,' is dark and dirty.



R«i should be R^i?n, both here and and the word is, a dissyllable. Compare: Ren nef rymawyr Ay wedi. Tal. 3' 12. Rymafei biO blith yr haf. Rymafei edyftraOt y gayaf Rymafei win gloyO ac oleO. Rymafei torof etc. Tal. 707-9. 9'5 trybef/Amd. Altd. letters, and consequently abnormally formed,



rymawy awen.


the metre requires,

especially the a.

a faint way, as


The / is joined at the top to the following t in made by a pen when the ink was all but ex-

other instances.
sin, 6o'i3

The doubling of i after s is not usual, but there are The rhyme demands -aud. Cp. Book of TaliesAtozelvvif
is is

flamdwyn vaOa


97 Amha(/. There
9'ii kyTvatas.

a notch

the vellum here.



abnormally formed: a is quite small and in the position printed in the text s was or. wr. f. The alterations look old. The scribe probably wrote kyz/ataf=kyva8as.


9'i2 caL

This reading was suggested to
click of the
it. I

me by

Prof. Morris Jones.



cynghane8 demands a

c here,"

ca in the

must, however, confess that

and the sense have failed to see

MS.,— these letters are too ill-defined to be sure of anythough the a may be compared to the a in trybeflaud above. Still there can be no doubt as to the correctness of the reading Read: ca{, or about the acumen of the suggestion. kerd kymwynas ked kyvafias cas amSiveid.



9'i2 amti/«eid.



there be no other instance of the survival
still I


m = v in

the B.B.C.,

do not think the MS. permits us


read amdiazeid, as suggested to me.


Cathyr. Four-fifths of the Cis formed normally, but there is a tag at the end (possibly added later), which converts it to a character more like G than any other letter. See Facsimile, and

Perhaps end of c and / in the B.B.C. Prof. Morris Jones suggests that Cathyr is the original form, and C(?thr a form deduced from the pi. Cethri where

where the

tag, inside the C, is

merely a dot.
at the

both cases are instances of clubbing,


the e

is regular, caused by the termination. Cp. the Latin See Silvan C^ntr-um with Cathyr, and Centum with Cant.

Evans's Dictionary,


Cathrain, to drive with a goad.



C02 SLchiwid. Cp.


i2'3, 36-6.

(For /fyz'/(^see

I2'4, 62'lo. 76'i3).

Dywynnic dy wir yn wynnyas, Dy wynuyt ym kywyt nyt cas.
Possibly patched.

R.B. i424"8-9.

lo"3"6 >tyhid...wofco2d.



= kynghor.

Cp. 7313,



a notch

the vellum

lo'io Clo ke/vid.
clo kelvjVid.

Or. wr.

Metre requires 4



ir2 braz^duriaeth.

Altd. late into «.

Cp. bra«, 4T.

4 Gvytbui/. Cler. err. for Gvytbui//. Cp. ara/, 68'3. Cp. Gwr a aeth ir8 me/A'in = nie8 + cwyn (c('«rt) = mead -feast.' gatraeth gan dyd. ne Uewef ef vedgwyn vei noethyd. Aneirin, 4'2.

Note the formation

of t


c in the

Fac, and observe how closely

they often approximate

form: contrast 79' i.
page, with the exception of the one at




in this

the end of



are formed as

two elongated



joined together, a form





Welsh MSS.

The same remark

applies to pages 11, 8r3,






affirmative particle.


Modern. Wr. probably by Dr. Davies. As the scribe has left out the line which 1 2- 10 Mynvz'nad vron. should follow, it is, perhaps, unwise to suggest myn viwad vron.'
2-8 doetA.

over i (which answers to our dotting) is late. 13-5 oaan, i.e. organ, from Lat. or^num, as anan from ar^ntum. 13-5 vahanieth. This spelling probably represents the pronunciation


of the scribe, and prevails

still except in GwyneS and Glamorgan. Final unaccented ae became e very early in the greater part of Wales in the early MSS. it is often so wr. in verbal forms like



adwa^n, and


proper names like Ithd for ludh^zH.
initials, to

13-6 Scribes were in the habit of leaving spaces for big

be afterwards filled in by the rubricator, who often corrected mistakes, and patched certain capitals. The scribes however ' wrote small the proper letter, either in the middle of the space


blank, or in the margin as here.

See Facsimile.

13-9 /«rthen.




derivative of ^zV/V^.



greater than that between the two limbs of the

distance between M' and the flanking limb of 'u' is, as a rule, u.' Cp. efmuith, 4 above.



for tri«daud.1 31 1 vebin=//. Note its rhyme words— meaning Cp. doublet. di«.e. Ca.' Ryhazt. 'b' softened into 'v.f. as in wh.'" 19-2 tridaud. 14-3 Boggled letter. ink. = ? closet. but the rhyme needs u. C. 16-6 The curious should it compare (vol. Cp. It occurs also as here with rad. '9. of the verb 'to be. wr.orkyvryffe8.. dirper. Kanholicion i. Guae ti Omit. 17-7-10 This Englyn was wr. we have affected in di-hi-z't. 96-9.B. ii. the prep. paup. dyhrti?tei 24- 145 itau/.' vei vei. a monosyllable. i. pres. 16-4 kyuryff.gylchin 18-8 gyaerkinan = A//iei tg^zyuerkinan.^r^^/z'«^. err. tBoth or. = y amgylchin. There is a dot inside the and note on 9-12.\ drawn from the top of the second hmb downwards across the first limb. 'pei' And were it Ni ellynt wy draethawd that there were etc' Is the same as 'a phei. paup. vei. this very intelligible Englyn with Skene's reading of 18-4 A<r wei p.' an unusual mutation after 'ac' Still 'acvei' kyvoetheu y drindawd.e. the There can be no rhyme requires it. rr or : doubt about i4'5 -«W being the correct reading The 1. 315). Read—Ac | paup tri trychant tavaud ' is simply the impf. i. See -8. Facsimile. thus reading 'ac The | p€\. 1 1 y . ""r The so called conj. in the second half of the xvith century. Tal. of Cp. subj. 9-5-7. Cp. Kywreneirch = tkyfr-e«neirch. 5 1 Possibly an older form of the 3rd sing. thaw. kywrysseS. of maban. is a XVllth century attempt to change v into/. See 60-14. but 16-3 Cau. of which baban paraad.« suppliants.C. Ac z/ei.&\xwoberyv. Cyfr-goU. a mark of the subj. I4"6 nzMt.. yflyryem yn UOyr kyn d6yr cyffes. The abnormal late line (see Fac. i6-i. A dissyllable rhyming with i6-2 Kan holicion =/n>. utu/ and u8u see Note 49-50. rf. line is however a | syllable short. vei. is a mod. See = kyuryff(r/'.. 78-14. Read: Guae B.. 33.y. and affected vowels occur in 3rd sing.13. detached from it. & Note 4-1. 18-4 am. as in cdn and tdfl. 19-5 Cler. The punctum delens under tidi. Or.' with the consonants hardened. m. : More like n in MS. ' old stem diphthong at = medieval ae. termn. in the or. Ind. the n is app. 90-5 cluir. t 15-1-10 Repetition with slight verbal changes.

B. and of page 25 in a lesser degree.e. letters of these lines.i9'lo Trvach. its 1910 llogyl-vi\\. something like a letter appears is between these two words. 23' 11.. is 'open' done by a fatigued quill pen. 22"i Metathesis for diwwaffute. in the In the cy. 22"i better. because the MS. . 21 'shows through' at this place. 577. 21*2 Prit prinudechant = /«0(i Prid prynud-(^ chwant. In the verbs aeth. | 118 B.' The if writing (i. wr. as well as the letters at the end of the corresponding lines on the opposite page.e. — The writing of these two lines is a trifle smaller than in the rest of the page —type one size larger would represent the MS. Cp. wh. 207 kyuef. = \locul-\xs.J. cp. 87'8. is t' Perhaps from *do-ate-acf-. used as pass. Cp. or with insufficient ink. also the doublet forms prysc and prys na chlat im prifc. 22'i2 pir wuuf=pyr vw^. mwy y merwerit = Merwery8. 247 dodath. di»waffune. 227-10 Open at The first top — almost a u. i. the strokes forming the characters) of this page as 24"ll in particular. wrth na buost= since thou hast not been. hand. See 57' 15. Mod. Mor Weryh Cp. was put. kyn kywefc daear kyn g02wed r byt ozfun gododin bed. was closed before the writing on page 23 was dry. | dyfnasut-/i. The vellum of the original MS. Synonymous with derivative truan. 22'4 vffil = uvil. a past participle pass. Comparative of trv. wide kywiffcaran. yr wyt. irugsLT. are somewhat smudgy. the word in common use. from " Mori-Iverijo treated as Mori- verijo. From Latin hu7nil-is. verb. coffin v/ood = 6ier. 19'3. the Irish Sea. 22'3 gu^rth. 84' 12. perfect active. greasy here. and an/on p. Cp. XVlth and Mor y Weryh in the xixth. rhymes with^/2'j and kyfruys. gwnaeth. Mod. 22'4-5 creirev na. Aneirtn.M.C. first sense it came to be wr. the element *act 24. In or. Read: tkeugant kyfra«ghaw« wedy kyfyscarwn. 20"io-ii." J. + Should be gurth as or. Cp. moe y diwo/aflute. 22'5 «a. keugant kywraghauw. 197 ncv duid = nevd u\d = moti. and later the sea generally. In the Fac.

err. app. The simple conjunction would give af. one line or more must be [wanting. Rad. Gorod is probably a Guein-vod^shtzih-XiVt abode. is late. ny bu ve = ni hv/yi\ = dialectal | ni 35'2 athuedicco = ath ve«dicco. The numbering k. Cp.' G«ae. Cler. naw ban. — By reading a' th vendicco and a'' th vendigwys respectively in cyhydeh each a. 354''. fnod. the scribe caught himself in the act i and the first limb of n. for cilWer vinit' = Mons 0/ivar-um. MynyS Olifer.e. fir. into k. bespoken. ' by the scribe. err. a/Zieir. Altd.B. of the Triads in the MS. awant = az^ant. wr. in form not found of Wales. 35'3-8 a. for +gor/bd.' i^pedr-ael. 1 eiliver/ v^^it. With is Triad 29' I Kudvan. four-sided. and therefore not reproduced. 3 '2 Cler. 25'5 26' 1 Uuch a thar/an. pres. note on 32'2 maret.' 5^« 3510— 36'8. 307 Ym grave. Evans corrected v^rfit to "venit" a the B. for Uuch a tliaran. ends the third quire. See Ftu. Cp. err. for 'gwraget. Sense requires u. Or. for i. err. 2"2. 4'i Abnormally formed. 1 1 g . err. bii^ i. this line = fil/a. for tmaaret. of gwallu.4angell. of repeating the proclitic in: he wrote 2g'6 er-gynan. Ind.24" 1 3 ^inatlet. B. or mynyS yr OlewyS. unless is applicable here. 27'8'9ii. we get a perfectly regular poem lines of 9.B. Scr. The 2L.C. a^aflad. Red I Book of Hergest. The end of the last wanting. Note that the n is not generally 29'3 welli = 2nd sing. a vuant.y App. i9o'29.' 32'io After 'Dychricha croen 34'5 34' 1 1 mawreS. 1 Gueinvod im g02od.C. inwechrev. beddrael. this fact that we have ^agell.B. which he clumsily joined at top and bottom into something suggestive of the letter n. ' 271 Scr. 329. ' 30'io graget. t/aftad. is ' N. vol. [doubled. the cler. 27'i2 28' 1 3.. and evidently one or more quires are missing. and would not be followed by a full stop. diuiffet. Teir.' Myv. renowned. and more like n than «. z>. h^ but alt. See Skene's Four Ancient Books Silvan ' ii. proves that used as a contraction for the formula of '2.

Note the repetition of 35'9 in 36"l is. gentle. guirth. 11. 93'i3. as one would expect. a word app. 40 bottom margin. 4ri3 43'5 y devwit. =a wnaeth. See \ 42" 14.' If guit = gwynt. mas maeiftaud = in . all used here as vocative. the field of honour. pater. word Llyfr yr The fourth quire ends here. Ancr The Morris Jones I7'4. 42'i3 ioff=Iov = Job. for ma^s 1 and maeifiaud \s the JCp. celt = in ca'li for in cwlo. 37'8.e.firt. Altd.want here a dissyllable. Latin virt-us. Lat.2 by a Ir. feeling. Tal. err. for 'aunaeth' «>. is 407 werindaud 40' 1 virginitdt-em. but not by same scribe. Cler. From in Latin masculus anAfemina. and late Latin. .C . and sometimes did duty by celi ' Duw itself for 'Deus coeli. 362 a vascul 36'ii-i2 in a. for firmanent 3S'6 gult. — 36'8 2i. Cristi. 6o"i8. See 38'8. Mas is a scr. C)>. 4o"3 vuildaud 40-5 i. in attention to this 2. fili. 36"i athuendig«fte. ««(/ffruinclym«s.B. 37'8 fpu = fp/>7'/u.vridet. sigmatic subj. the 1 The writing belongs to the same school. 3S'9. whence also Xr. wax tablets. hand.ig. An duc^ = may he lead i.e. Lat. letter. The termination -ws perhaps. used indiscriminately for all cases. See Fac. Latin text in my writing after this page is smaller and the ink blacker the patching red instead of it is chrome. calls i85'i. then a word 35'io is We missing. older See next note. 39'2 huir=j/o«/. the senses. us.femen. Note the | slightly different orthography. ' groves of 'holly' ' too absurd to means simply God of heaven.' Cp. 4 '6 Repetition of g-1. 39'3 otyueti wir = o SyweSi wyr. cuir i. and see note on than -wys. 39' I finhuir. Cp. 38' 10 auneth.lhuendiguiyie. 38'! I llythir. and spiritu are in various cases. humilitat-em. 20 B. err. maiestdt-em. huir. The idea that 'Celi' is proves Druidic worship contest. patient. From *doucset—o\A Prof. miracle. irg.e.' It may be necessary to state that ce and a were written simply « or ^ in The genitive celi was adopted as a Welsh word. 3S'3-8. = 3. as opposed to earth 'eluit.

a dissyllable. Dyf ieu bu g6artheu a amus^ant. Cler. ofyn 4316 o 44-10 gylleftic. reads ry : AduOyn gaer yflfyd ar Ian lliant. Sic in MS. wyd we8i. Ac am Gefyn llech vaelOy Cwydyn y gan gefyn llu o kylchOy vziwant garant. O2 121 . Mvi^. has wr. Ac yd oed vziger coch ac och ar dant. 44-8-16 MS. 43"9 guenglad. wh. Read: Y'maes maeiftawd y mac moli a diwyn go8i Difad pechawd. for o gyllestnc. idi. for bra/^d. hd. 23-15 . has 10. err. Ile/nir. 6. 45-8 Kai z>. Taliessin. ym p^ruet. : i iii. 44-1 apis impuet = a p^ris iti. something resembling ' over mrts = ma(?s. i 462 paup y chwant. 8. and do not help the sense. err. = A'rtz«. 67-3 lle/dir. However. impure. wh. & lle«tired. gwenwlad. brad. Diwyn celu brawd celi. DuO merchyr gOeleif wyr y^kyfnofant. idi i. Sic in But cp. In the field of excellence is God praised i . Scr. 45-6 Ilewtir. unblessed. GOaywaOz ryn rei« aderllyjfant. Cp. — Duw It is hurtful to offend is him craving. AduOyn yt roAir y pa6b y chwant. may 438 Sense suggests a cler.Tvynya. 'tThe metre requires diwin duw a liiwia. &c. 76-14.' 43-6-7 a diwad a diwin. syllables. Cler. chvvant. err. Ungodly It is sin. 8. ka-i. diwin (which is the negative of gwyn) = sullied. hd. Corrected by a mod. wh. Aneirin. passion's culpable to conceal the judgment of heaven. or pawb of The Book of Taliessin. See44-i6. Yn llannerch yn lleudirme. iti ywin Scr. Oed lludued 'iiynet dyd y doethant. Cp. ? omit both as. i6i*-24. error for h/nni. err.e.vm. for guengwlad. 77-21. for y owin = /«Of/. = paup er y chwant. [7'ti/.43"6 adwin. make the lines 8 syllables each. into 'a dnvin' as in 7 : the '5 same above.1 5 hnni. this be an Englyn dyrr a tho^eid. Gogyfarch ti vynet boet teu uCiyant. 44.

47'2 auit.. Cp. Tal. 24*20. v. 22'i2. 3"5 : dwys dengyn yd ymledyn [aergwn. in Dyganhwy. cubs.The variant readings are instructive. y chageu 48'4'i4. Mon.. puwaur = pufawr. Cp.. with a affected. Meaning variously guessed as.'u/in.B. 165. wr. err.) is used T/^/ at the top. balaon. balaot. Altd.«ar-?'aj. for weir//zawc. for ga/edichuy. 55'ii.. ad I. Gweirawc would suit an orchard. See Y Cvmmrodor. for ur indifferently.. There a hole in the MS. The number of the syllables in successive lines is too variable to be accurate transcripts of what the poets wrote. App... co2ffant*. Or. here no trace ra and of the TV 47"5 t" is left. Cp. 46-5 46"! darfuant. I7'i6.. 463 darwant — darwi'ant = worf. Cp. Cp. mute. 48'! gint=_§v?«/esnigrae Annates Cambrie in y lav 48'4'i3 lofien | = kenhedloe8duon = Z>an^. — A mal balaon faeffon syrthyn. Even the Black Book text is not above suspicion either.imon«>. & Aneirin: Peis dinogat. i villains... divwm eu kyt. 48'io cle/yAiud. = tra. Gozuchyd Aneirin. ar ^«/ a gwydyl aphryden.r.o grwyn 47'i6 y env. vol. err. and if this is typical of way MSS. 122 . were copied in the xiiith century. 48'4 maurwe/r|rauc. 78'3.pchen = peren p^r. also dialectal 47'2 y ch(?gev.4 inyganhvy. I4'22 . The r is 46'i6 diw«/-« rhymes with maelg««. is See 517. but \i pufawr= a fruit-tree then gweirrauc is tprobably a scr. + From Lat. fruit-bearing. Cp. See 2'2. it is no wonder Book of Taliessin presents endless difficulties. Sadw«. Cp.' 35"i7. /o. IX. 47. and gar8w« ( = gar8«'r«). ? a uz*it = a wybyS.p^rchen. wolves. Aneirin. Aneirin diw Sadwrn bu Cp. : 47'5 yka. : 46' 1 6 gl'ich = galich. and only the smallest fragment of -in This contraction mark (see Fac.. i5/zj/n'«/'^</wen'rauc in some copies.C.. 583 kad degin. letter. the the When a proper name like Gwyneh is transformed into the verb myncd^ and Kei wyn into cefn. 48'4 pen p. 813. blossoms. foxes. and 'ha didurnn. p. 47'io balawon. B. Cler. 47'5 g/«edichuy. 47'i2. A metathesis for — cle/j/aud. the sense naturally becomes elusive. etc.

warriors ') from cad. O. Chad : see Preface to the Book of LI. — : | | mam is y doeth rad. O. E. racdut. This = irigdu=/ rynghii) in the Book of St. Aneirin. connected with Latin sciit-vim from *skoito-. frequently. ganthud. Gk. 186^. utut. p. thus reading vtv«t. the oldest form: witness igridu udw. 49"3 A mi difcoganwe. a place name. 169''. xliii. ( "] i. The above prepositions occur also without the Ac vn tat ae bu a their final -h=f. scuit. 30'22. Cp. pi. eitut. Sk. racdud. 123 . or more probably. In llettkin/ the / is silent. 1054 yfcud vel yfcuid. 221^. Brit.' (pi. MS. 249b. 49"ii pchellan 49" 1 2 c/ywir. p = prtr as well as p^r in Welsh MSS. 48'i7-i8. 3. Oei—wyi. for ze//.W. Kynbelw and Gwalchmei used the -8 termn.. A late hand has added the contraction mark for n over the second V of vtwt. 12). etc. i47i>. etc.C. etc. CanhOyll yn tywyll a gerd genhyn | 499."] \ 75 '17.SS. 0£ is sometimes used See S3"i5. err. a mistake wh. Lat. O. ymdanadud. trostut. Kenhi. Jr. 49' 1 1 y kifceiffe vy hun = \ slept my sleep. Panton MS. 3 reads dy\svc.' 496 nyd t/iey shall not go from us. for ' difcoganflwe. See Note 4'4.««e by the process of assimilation became kenhi«ni. (1870) pages 143a. where the following examples occur: kyfryngthut. viv.unt should rhyme with kyftz^/. | Onad« Taliessin. 49-50 vtvt i. MS. Addl. 5r2'3 iVa = Goth. common colloquial use. I slept myself. the scribe makes at See Facsimile. from kyveS. B.' App. Note that the rhymes allow no doubt as to the terminations. t76"3-4. 187". ganthut. t because hurt — sleep occurs as a rhyme-word in '12. tas kadam kedym. A scr. In a later hand.) = mod. Tal. Tal. Pen. 5o'i. whence kenhi« (the genhym. yj'xf). 49"8 R?m. ant y kenhi«. For example o ganhat ieffu.B.48' 1 5 kywetyrn. nunz. where \xX. scoit. 14869. pi. arnadud. 8..e. prevailing form in old M. u8u8 = an old form of the prep. 3rd pers. Ddv. 'drinkers. See Myvyrian Arch. MS. = parchellan. nu. 145a. Br. Q>. 96'i3. {See Pen. ist per. lyij. ' Formed app. Cp. sciath come from a Celtic *skeito-. ntt. 502. p. 'yn run. : | Trychan meirch godrud a gryffyws ganthun?. I 6. Mus. kynan yn racwan ympob Gennin and gennon are still the forms in difgyn. now.

however. 3. chwedl. in the app. Pen. O. Hole in vellum eaten by the green paint of the big on the other side of the leaf. O. I heard nothing. Hw. Derivative of llary. after o. targ-\is.C. I 1. 50' 1 6 50' 1 7 Tra vm puill. uiA or iuA. 52'3 ha/on.e. for Rac erc/zwis rite^ch. These three and a half lines were 53'i6-i9 Yd welefe. for a.16. Weles. Cp.B.(?.e. err. first person. to Prof Loth. ha/on 51 'id f=v still interchanges with 8.e. 3 reads 'y o. am not. 87'2. vvr. survives as Srg hwetil = mod. 'I \ Impersonal.\yf[od nr wi/lave i. Abnormally formed. huarhei 954. There should be no following [_§• Repetition of ri4. A scr.W. Contrast Red Book : v2m' = vymhwyll. in South Wales.' 50'l8 warius.5o'i3. 53'J9 gog'^et.. Cp. 53'i9 llaret. Brodyz Cp. Srigowillt. A 1 1 i ^ ' 1 5 '17 y «ir. of unequal length. for am buiad. Scr. initial Q). of the verb. : buyfl-\\\^A. . mab guendit = the death of the son fu | of GwenSyS. has -wy as a rule in the tnod.mvyhaw. pres. err. 53' 1 Confused probably with 3 sing.' [chuerv.prevails over the greater part of South Wales. tfrom Lat. . err. guall. 517 gwledic. lo38'5 ' . instances of hw. 50' 14 lleith Kyn <.are not uncommon. bOyat a due duO ragof. Rac erwis ritech. war-I-us. Or. Probably a scr. 'credo' the d comes from the stem ind. The consonant hardened in the subj. added In. am Ir.h€i = I knew nothing of the talk^ or hwehel: ni wdwn story. 537 guyflvi\\tA=guyta\\&A. is 5 cr&ddoe = cretwy i. Err. j^o^..§-wallt. but also chuetil 5513. and as nearly all our important vellum MSS. Cp. 521-3. 1 1 24 B. though normal in the dialects. /'. Read: gog/et. A stumpy addition is made above the e. and probably by a different scribe. i048'5'3i. etc. is unusual in MSS. Cp. 5 '8 aghud = agh?zd = aghy/!yd in Pen. Rydid imeneid reid ryioles. MS. vyllwtvi. mor h\\t. 5i'i d/ogan. 47"5.m g'ujf.. 5 '2 Nv nev na. MS. 52"! 5210. 5 ? oror.' i.337. ni-m-tha (also niinpthd). xxivmeib am bwyat. 78'3. impers. Aneirin. gwar-e-us. First limb begun as /. \V\.597 nachlatde«'rt'/('z>= J 'lair'acc. subj. 557-I3. were wr. The old form. hwimleian srg. 53' 7 cj/null. 53'6 niA. for igu^l.

B. A m. = 56-1-4. Dyhet is. Genii. 1395 32. has thefollowing: Yr arglwyd Gozvchaf io2 eurgledd gwaeichion a Gatwo yn da ni Ennyd ac a gatwo yn dynion Rac Sais kav a Gvvyddel a Rac kas kigyddyddion A rac Bloedd a lledzith a Rac Bleiddiav a Uedzon ' f Rac hwnnakw yn ddzwc Rac kwn kynnddaiziogion Rac dzaic awyz a thwzf a Rac dzykzythozion A Rac hiz ddvlwm Saafif a Rac Kezdd Wiliam Sion. or at least by a fresh pen. and end of 55-15-16 also 57-14-15. Pen. 3 has acharr ar. R. An. 3. llu feif. app. dropped a syllable only. vymareu vy : mar 55 ae kychwyn. MS.547. 556 dyhet. cWev. The chemicals in the green paint used for the big initial O have eaten a hole of the in the MS.. 55-16 ar vvarr. See Note 48-1. original : I 55-6-7.B. Cp. stop after ve is doubtful it is too low down to be See Facsimile. 2.. 61-15 & ym bid dyhetauc. Peleidyr ar gychwyn a llym waewawr. but makes one syllable too many.e. Read: ? ar warr ac ar kychuin.v\i. thus causingthe disappearance and of the words written on the back thereof. i. The scribe prob. and we should. in a late xvth century hand. •^* kav gau i. perhaps. Abnormally formed. Pen. O The same remark applies . read. Taliessin.C. Cp. A derivative of ian-ach. 54' 1 6 ve. \U.' Bottom margin. a#** kychuin. 55-11 'oynt = o yni = or gynt in Pen. The . drykrythorion = For 'kigyddyddion' read 'kigyddion. Read: o g[yfranc]. the negative of het=heh. difgoganafe. 55-11 c/ev. dyhet a divyfci.' 55-15 o g*»»*. Myv. Wr. without pedigree. 'false Saxon. in sense. and end of 58-14-15. eil oynt. 125 . ' The sense alone can often distinguish between c/and that d. 566-7. by a fresh hand. 144a -2055-14 tir ethlin = tir epeling= ? y BerveS-wlad. 55-2. of low caste.' dryg-grythorion. see to 56-I4-I5.e. 54-15 eneichauc. 9-17. 3 reads 'gygrang. The place has been assumed to be Aber dcugleheu. MS. B. MS. here. Compare however :— Dymhunis ton vvyrS wrth Aher Dau Dy-chyrch glan glaswyn glwys y frydau. Cp.

Cp. See note on 19' 10. like that of Dr. E. for Sarffrz'n as proved by its rhyme-words gollwin & duUin. : . 57"4 Ily/I A late hd. Mr.2 ll?<ch. feis. 300.56'4 Kylwet. II. 1 3-26. parc/ieW.v. Davies.f.' But ? omit lluch : the line is too long. 62-22-3. 577 trv. \x. But ? aer llyi/=aerlly«/. There is an n over the v. See Fac. en amwyn called a. Misprinted in some copies ar«'v. J. correctsyinto /. 522. 57'i4 gvif=a sow. for parch^//an. but it can hardly be by the scribe. thus reading kyk/iwet.B. 207. glas callet. above (by the same hand as 56'4). 48'S AtOyn plOyf Xy/wri^ydOy a towys.' 56.. keissed ynteu. 3. The couplet then will be Y parcAell yssy vyw. Cp. 57'i 5 prifc rhymes with^f/j. Taliessin: a march karadaOc kymrOy teithiaOc.' Kywrug glyu Powis achlas guinet = ? Between the chief of Powys and the clan of GwyneS. guis. 58'5 Sarffr^n. Pen. 578 parchan. Cp. Cler.\io Aneirin: Yd gweles r ar hual tref tardei ^^Z/^rf.' 56'6 limb of the/ is left to be sure MS. 3. MS. . Has a wr. MS. See Silvan Evans's Dictionary. 572 c\ir\ callet.C. note i. . med eidin. which looks old. Phillimore queries Carreg lViier. gi'a. GOeleis lyO katraeth tramaeu bit vy nar nCyhachar kymryeu. See Owen's Pembrokeshire. Looks more hke cl in MS. bySawd meu Ar hwn yssy varw.nt!ir Llandrinc)pd Wells. 56'9 neurfdit golev = 56' 1 1 it is daylight. 25'6. gwez O. Corn. ' has inserted ch above the w. err. Cp. ' ' ' ' : 1 26 B. ' 1 ' . and of one of Twrch Trwyik's piglings. Cp. 57-15 Nachu(le = Na chwfcti. 58'3-4. 5267. i | . 3 reads 'gynhatled. 33" 17 and Taliessin: Pan pzynaffant danet trOy fflet Ariel/. Y Enough of the first of that letter. kimrvy werin. A hd. Gwys also is the name of a brook. 57"! I aer 57'i3 .' See Celtic Folklore. . 333 oer callet. [s. Omit c and read/ry. Breton giuiz. 9'i4. err. p. Cler. 'pOTchell' in Pen. das.' We meet with Sarff-vryn in the form of Sarfbryn in a charter of Abbey Cwm Hir see Dugdale's Monasticon. kyues. pp. called. A. i . 57'io har(/wy. 567 **** = var7v in Pen. thus reading llrtuch. vol. as the lines are so fine. tnirf myfi = it is not I.

visage. dy cecin yr mynyd. 607 eriffi. W. a/>rt'<!ir»='fist. yg g"ur 230^'48. this points to a scr. swords in their clenched hands. 2i"i7. = ifp«ri. This page is dirty. sparr.. Cp. Gwaith fudig gwledig gwlad feibionain. spear. 597 nac ifte z£/iuuy = nac iste wmny = 'irwyvf/y. = Kyuriffe/=cywrysse8. whence E. kinreinon 67. 'blades in their handles! Cp. 6o"i-2 ^rlaf k«h. E. err. like Br.disgog(jnaue. for —a chiflutiaa gw4d. Read: O. 337.' we should translate. 6o"io ifpi . 7*9. for veibonein. or cy/rysse8. as the i here above ^. neud blodeu drein. The ff ' are faint especially the upper half. one instance is not enough to prove. Very faint because the green of the big O at the back is gradually destroying the vellum. muyz/y. Cp. nor sojourn too long. err. 59*12 re«/on. 58*14 achiftutia Also pridein (in margin).B.' i 5o<»*46. &c. B. Cp. but whether its ei. which also malces the line a syllable too long.' Cfi. M. Myv. is from O. seems to More like »«aur in MS. Scr. Cp. The two adjectives come together. Cp. Piggie 59"i A'i/rt'glas minit. ' 6o"i4 Kyuriff. The s of i/peri ill-defined. this is the MS. in Pen. also mod. gwad.ybr 'n^ud glas minit.58'8 waur. 60. 6o'5 veibonin.was simplified to i. Cler. llwyd vyngran. When a vowel is placed as a contraction above a letter. The dialectal form of eisieb is isle : its final 8 was dropped in the xilth century (see Pen. *sparre (attested by sparr-ian). App.. 5cr. 59'3 lluid yv vy bleit i. err. and the writing is not always quite clear. cleSeu. But j/^awr in the line above be against the repetition of the same expression. a p. sp§r. Cp.C. '13. Aneirin : ac yfberi y beri creu. S9"6 gaa/i. i. it stands for r + the vowel written. = ga7/OT = gafwy = ?a doublet of ^^(T/oy. Ddv. cryman.E.e. di-guet = diwe8. on a visit should not root up his lair. equally probable.S.E. But if it=|Ir. gorlas kerin minit. reading.' 58' 1 1 /odawr. 127 . 29). ' dwm Read pr/odawr. spere. Borrowed. 145 " early. See 78"i4. O. 58"9 llaffnev in ertirn. lances. ^rr. Bk. 6o'i6 diguet. eluit neud knn. 3ri I y ozy/par yoz. Prob. MS. but re/«on is perhaps. Cp. spar. 3.e. of LI. 'esgyrn eliphant ys gnawd yn yrSant ar yr erhym! Myv.

of LI. ^ | 6n4 kiniweti. without floriation inside. Cp. indistinct. Saints z. 65'3 Dodauc. From line 8 to the bottom of the page the vellum very dirty.ger. 6o'20 Vn y(r«« aroun. we have here another scr. See io8. tad Gwent. : 63 63*2 Possibly a fresh hand begins with line 2 the ink is is paler. . Betev. and 8ri4.«i. A verb is missing. corrupted into ''tad agwen. pt. Ir. —63"! E Compare J^eti Booi. fol. 62'i2 ry. This B in the printed text should be plain. a«^/y^«'//«.' We should prob. wh.e. i. 3859.C. MS.. The Greek s is wr. 62"9 Kyn MS. i.o XkiC Beirniad. tri Faint in MS. for 'agkiu/eith' = mod.e. /?^rt(/. (1864. 'un yff//n 6r8 Rvit ny kywruit. Stephens identifies Tydei with the Irish Saint Tatheus ''pater erat enim totius GuenXome^ i. Welsh a in the mutated form only. muner uodauc i2'6. 264a last 1. As : Irish th = VJ. Bnits.' ru£=TaoA. Athan's' San Tathan's 63'ii see Bk. those who could not speak the Welsh language. a careless scribe app.' p. is almost black with dirt here. Tedei. See note rg. is little dirty here and the letters somewhat tarqAin. read yffiin. err. i6ia'42 Mso Myv. occurs in mod.f>'«czVA = anghyweith = ? unsociable. where Thos. may further cp. near. 62'I5 Irregularly formed. at end of lines when the space scanty.e. in Nennius's Historia Brittonvm. The MS.e. Prof. Dav. rodawc y rodyaw drud. — Botawcy Dwyn madauc dreic vodawc B. d. toruoet.B. Cp. wh.e. churlish. 128 .. W.^.6o"20 kir = k^r. Tydein ' possibly preserves the n of the 'Tathaw. a seagull. &c. 62'5 alanas. "kyntth'x. The name of several rivers. 637 Tedci tad awen. 299). viz. so the genitive Tathei=V^. 27o'2i. I See Cam. dzycyfpaytolion agkyweith-as. here. i.-Brit. 6r9 Escyp rt^. and sometimes as ifcar. is 6ri4 av]vnahont = a wnahont.Rvitny tekywruit. The epithet of/a/agT/^^ is given to 'Talhaern' Harl. of KynfeS. 6ri3 gwy //an =_g-«y/a«. \. rhwng. 58030-32. 264. p. above the letter preceding it. Tathei with 'Tathiu' = 'St. 188(^7-8. The mod. XvV Uaur. Morris Jones refers me X. But more prob. 284'2i.

Scr. Gower. 8 syllables.heb drin' (66. yn j> mynyt. maodyn in previous Note. ^w««T' guir y neb ny rotef. for neud ox ys ef. howl.' scr.dcnud = 'nhand. See Notes 99' 12. . dy-ar.. 6y6 cund. three syllables : dioes 66. a scr^err. i. 67'i3 Bei elchwith &c. Cnud a chnud a fyS ymdanaSuS. yn hir vynyt. of a gloss on 64'8 pedr^a/.' Diciionary. Cp.e. . 64' 12. 1 P 129 . . 67"i4 'inherited. So Omit hir.• .' Cp. wh. -. a 1. .' . See TaL. .. . 66"3 dioes. . 68"2 Cant a dau y'ngrau y'nghrair achluS. I45<?. ? Metathesis for gor-zx: cp.. the metre demands. or rather Pieu y beS hwn a hwn ? Who owns this grave ? a be8 Eidal Answer Neud ef beS EiSef and this ? This is the grave of EiSev and [this] the grave of Eidal 67' 7 Bet ew. ? hun a hun = Should vi^ read : Pieu'r be8 hwn ? 'hwn a hwn . loo'i. Metrically inadmissible app. with the meaning rm'fiitauc' The suggested t Me«etauc = MynySog would be Cp.Who owns this grave? 'So and so. i. then 1717. 6g"3. . Rea. io48-29-4o. Scr. Cp. bref-ar-ad. . tf^/ Wr. ? maes meaetauc. wh. ? Read: Yn Abererch beh Ryderch hael.e. n or. . 6617 hr\ln = Brihw.. Ta/. wail. Metre demands i3'24. . err. llaf-ar. scribe. 66"i5 gur 66"i9 .B. Derivative of meueS. Ask me. gor-dy-ar (R. with a v wr. for pedro^/. . 2i'9. In a hand different from what goes before and after. altd. is a syllable short..' bet 67'i5 k/«zav.' ' Bed Book. 37'i. err. gal-ar.1 -8).6o'i9 gro-Kt. for dio/es. 648 Abererch. 64"2 guyr. and note the rhyme-words of pedrival. is locally pronounced y Berch. This line . a monosyllable. a dissyllable.7 is usually a dissyllable. . 66-67'6. 66" ID Cp. into the semblance of v : finally expuncted. I know'. a.. treating pieu 67'i5 Pieu y bet hun. above. . ' . app. gwanas. t cp.%=pieu'r. for 'k«/«av. 'tcry. above by "8 or. — : . in the nature 1035 I ). tryd-ar.^z>guynion byffet beidauc rut. MS. . See Note 67'i3. beddrael. Myv. . Om\i oet hvnnv. 26' 1 ink of 'Bet gurgi. ? is pale..or a pack. The App. a«on = az'on. Mai cnut yn dylut deueid. err. in . Totn elwithan neuf gCilych glaO maes maodyn ydanaO dylyei gynon y g6yna6. . is near Pwllheli.

«id.) We have then Pieu y beS yn y rhydeu ? be8 rhwyv yv. o. in edrywuy le. Cp. 69" I Ri oet ew oet ef. . . treis Cp. gur dicones remeda(ut) elbid.MAB. 68' I bruyno.1 7 Altd. a case of anticipation. For/4^«^«see57"io. . canaon An. Hirweun is a well-known place near Aber Dir the name is now incorrectly spelt Hirwam and Hirwa/n. meirch mei meingrwn dwnn a dossawc. mab Rhigeneu.67"i9 kanavon. ? Omit. 687 talyrth. into the Ir. 215a.. A — hydir y wir in y bro parth yd vei ny bitei 68"2 ydvei. 1 30 B.C. \Myv. The pedigrees give 'Brwyno' and 'Brwyneu hen.2\%okyna6on.C. not 8. 68. 6820 rydl/nant. Delete cross reference at r4. where : — the descriptive noun is added. Compare the Juvencus fragment da ar y arwev. or tgwr digonei da arfeu. cleveint awon. 68"i2 yv Aunnv. into r. ^'f^\\.B. ffo. Wr. 3-87. 143232 beast. but metrically they seldom count. ^wyw.. The dd=d. 68'4. As for le cp. know neither.B. Two syllables are missing. and note the difference between "9. For a digonei read Idigunai or digunaei (both forms occur in B. fairly Read: rhydnant. R. andcp. 68'4 bre.B. . also Certenhin avon. affected form.gnr adigonei Omit hunnv. Omit. 67'20 meirch mei. gwr Sygwnai 8a ar y arveu.' ny dodei.B. . i8'27.' but the older MSS. if something like « placed above dv as change the correct yd vei into y d^vei. gi'is. then altd. Kanawon makes a syllable too many here. the r( in talyr/h and re in diarchar. 68-20 Ae clathei [«««/"] caffei but Neus. Cp. 67"i9 Meibow. : : — 68'i4 y iffcarant. See Facsimile.. 'iffc^r^'nt. i 68'2 aral = arial. ? aid. and may be heard locally pronounced Hirwen. or ew wanted. Meib is the plural of mab: the double pi.C.. Should we not read? hir Piev y bet hun ? bet Brwyn o Bricheinauc. 68' 1 7 in hirgwewn le. Pronouns after verbs are constant in the B." There is to ' ' ' 68'2 Pieu y bet hun or. meibow . Cp. The young of man and Go2onOy gOzd gyniret gOyth.

69"i9 einyavn ad C. i. ealre.mab first Though 11 still syllables are permissible in the line of an old Englyn.. 477 vronn adon deccaf.e. 85'4 deweint. correct reading. In a late hand. wr. i65'9. 69'io braucbrid. 7o"6 Tal. & Taliessin: arch aedon. Scr. Alt. till/. of eal. and even draza.— yn holre oludoed=a// our riches. aton.e. yr olre. ny Odant pan yfcar deweint a gOaOz. and should be omitted. Or. twhere we have proest in place of rhyme. B. Bk. MS.Q. 70"9 tragh°= trangho. Read: goffaho— Duw. tumult. 5i'i6. 10421 2 — 1043- 1 5. 70'5. 69"i3-22 69"is Scr.«/.e. yny chroth yn was. lyz . err. aediMC.' Cp.. . 56'9. 7o'8 Kyrreiweint [ = ma8euant]ageiff a Clearly a scr. Amry{ysce8 = confusion. 7rio."ne^^d (7r8) = ym eneid. See Red Book. / 699 tarv. Dav. 207. Guir y rat gOafpoathyant O2 adon.. medley. there is a "(full stop) in front of "ab. 7o"2 amryuef=? amryuefc = amryfysc. 'contention. See F'ac. mob din. goffahoduv acniftirmycco. 76.. kyues. Conhorget. D/7' or Uro. rolre i. over an erasure. Cp. by a late hd. Y Beddeu gawr. The " is wr. From midnight duv. 14869. error for guaevf-ntt.gv««v. of LI.. 72"6 n<7s I This rhymes with hoen & poen. Cp.. ffol. which must be the 7rS arch Cp.B. wr. also 87'io-u . is 70"i6 Din.'^if.C. See Llyfr yr Ancr. App. or r. for bra^/aucbrid. . gen. This i is probably due to the pen anticipating 7rio y Read: poenoweint = ww^. the former mat | is confusing here as regards theological terminology. Din = dyn. & Gozffowyffeis naO . I5"4. An. err. ? adw(jen. \(y)-2i. 7r6 y. i. Note differences. 131 . Run auael auwy. ae danc nis dirmycco..Y. 7rio poem oweint. poenofeint. 68'io .<?«v. for there into an erasure at the end. 7r12 — 73- 10. Or. . Run ryuel afwy.K. cock-crow. 69'i8 gyhoret.6g'2 guawrut. gottoev. 70"3 May be read also dmra.meid. adwaen. The Editor now derives olre from O. Tal.. Add/. . but cp. the ezn of ovieint. a nef y nos y trangho. 69"i8 dz'ara. Q*.. for aed\^(i=ae Kyrreifeint a geiff a da..

Cp. 72" 1 2 re. il^^. -8. which shows that the meaning was obscure in the The word is prob.. See Note loo'i. or rather re-re-eint (ioo"2). 76-3 dihev utuw/. d. . a quiet horse.C.7ri3-'5 meirch can crimTut. for its rad. for utu/. . trallaud kyftut. 'a camp. err. unruly.' gritk. d in both instances. t Scr. half of o ri. been treated as a place-name. Read: pnaud. onomatopeic. An written over any letter stands for first 74'io o /al. 47'i7. 72'2 llongborth has fied satisfactorily. into Uatyffmt. wr.v.o kad = White horses with bloodstained legs.' Cp. ' 7313 arvy. ' ' 72'4 guir igrid. "12. The . Can Clwyd be for Clwyb f + Cp. coch -17. also anhj'weith.' g\oev. We require a restless. err. and there may be another letter between o and t. there can be no doubt 74' 1 2 ebrui/ clui/. I think. wh. Altd. 2i5b"24.e. and the second half of / are left. Sense = ? OeS feirch weryreint dan forSwyd Gereint. daingen = ^ua\i^. guinn 73-1. 7S"ll Bei nachanerf y tyernet. i. or e. io5'8. 73'4 gran. err. •14-17. saer. See Silvan Evans's Dictionary under crimp. can 72'i4 b/ith. Compare Garvy \ ? 73'i4 Terruin tr(7chiad. 73'2-7. Red Book reads redeint.. [72-14. Strachan queries = Ir. gryd-wst = dadwrS.M. glas7. The o may be c. Cp. he gre or rAe. Scr. word rhyme with teyme/. See Note 49-50. guin y cnes = cne-es. brith. s. Or. t Neither 'cantd' nor 'an erf' will to do here.J's Geirfa See Note 7o"3. livid 72'i4 rerint. gormo(/ for gormoS. Cp. a greave. cefiyl hweb.. . eriron dv '15. 74' I Scr. for graan. but never identiProf. to Barb Cwsc. 72" I can eu crees. err. See Notes Cp. 72'6 guaev rhymes with gotto^v and 72-n llatyflVnt. should be read in 14th century. See J. cre-es. J 72 B. for re-re-int. for tr^chiad. 73'i2 degin = de«gyn = J Ir. a shin. Sg'g. ' /aud. form. Of the /. Cn'mhog. + = Ir.' cynnwrf. As regards Scr. a shout. but the rest of these two letters is destroyed by the green paint of the big capital on the back. Athuolaf uilwrpedrydawc.B. 73'i5 Pedridauc heul. long-phort. err. Scr. loo-i. 75"i2 anhwyet.

' B. ych naut = asswynaf ych nawS. partit-\i% would give a rad. The first line is often repeated to show that 79' 1 1 Affuinaw etc. or undelentia. The marks transpose the words into 'naut haul.Cp. 7912-16. the poem is complete.' 78"3 g/i'ledic. prifc for pris. over them. pa 8iwe8.B. 77'9 lleon = Ileuon. err. Read: wyv kerSawr im rhwj'v. 53' 17. 517. A>^ 741. Cp. — veitaabn. uad 7/erthideu. . 76"i2 Gurifc for gurif. caut from coii & craun from cronni. He first corrects into veit/a</on. Kyd credwi Dovy8 drwy — ffyS.. Read: Gwerlig haeton. maur benyd meith beunyS ! Eneid pan im kyverchyS.. 37'2 . See Note. Cler. ^Z2. Begun as g. 207. and ink. for. but the second is more or less erased. in antique style. Mvv. GOae a dyt y V2yt myOn byt ae ia6d. and suggests vei(//aton. Y weilgi\% feminine. The /a/ have " wr. More like c than t. do&i. ueitad. as also in /erthic. .C. gweilgi Sofn. erases the lo2"i I. ym Meir] keilTwn ffyS. 79-4 /vvclod = pnwclod. 8r8 /erthideu. . '' '' certain in his own mind. iJerthideu 1 1 50'3 . 76' 1 3 gueilgi dowyn = OTO<^. Read: Tra vom kyd kerSed goned kydymSeith. There are no puncta The scribe was either anticipating next word. a chred. violence. t Lat. See Facsimile. 73' 14. 797 /lev. 79'8 viw ker&ur 'm ruw. in the same hd. ruw = ruzw.//. 78' 10 alTuinaf Cp 47"5. then Cp. .B. drwy a chrevyS. '/erthid. tMetre points to rol. These examples suggest a scr. or that it ends as it began. ae beS a'm byS? — 8r4 iaul from R. i6i^'i3. 96-I3. gwledic. vaton vetveint. Red Book : dogyn ii7o'8 err. also 8r6 llyvir rod. it ymwared kreiryS . Ir.. iJerthideu rieu rywafgara(»2. gvaut d. Cp. 57'i5 Pasgen wrys pafcueirch arjyi: vreifcdawn. ii90'3o. of lieu. 77'6 veiAiA)n. beitad. I234'2i. Cp. — bid perffeith yn gweithred [t . However. 3i'3 Taliessin: ma02 7/erthideu. y chnaut = a. Wr. 78' 1 3 haul naut. to rhyme with ifco/.

. 82'9 etyl.neu \. 8i"i6-i9. Cp. t. 86'6 The green paint of the big G on the reverse side of eife the leaf has eaten a hole in the vellum which leaves altogether. Cp. preserves the name under an alien spelling. xy ehillier. Or. Nam ditawl oth vA. Ystamde wineu. I pi. 1 arfer vyd. 847 nythvi = in meaning. it is where mistakenly erased. gamOynt y rydaO ae edyl\a. imperfect at the bottom. m or.. adulterstill 85*9 Y«z'gabil. Fyngwineu-farchya/«^«7i{j^j.. Repetition of 7-12 above. and blawd.. from ? /.. 83*9 pi. 2nd sing. Dr. i6"8. 84" 2 yfrir = ys d\x nithiaw ni bo pur. with wh. app.B. and see I'g. ni'th vyd. S. Cp..C. quivering mane. reith]. pres. 33-1 $. in the bottom 8ri4 gmt fallum. 84'8 Ro vyd y neuyiLuc = mod. bio. wr. App. t From Lat. 84"6-9 Yfkithrich. division. Di-8awl glossed expers — X %e. 1 PwU GOdyc. io'5. Ir. then altd. Altd.. Subjs. Bruis 26g'i$. while the letters underlined in lines 7-9 are gone 134 B.. 'forgive. dryssi..e.e.' marginal repetition is matev.llunhich. bzOydyz locality is that of blodeu gives blodeuyn. Rho vwyd — i newywog. wr. gueith wtic.iox vvX = \)\xh. alsoken-«/j'/. Stokes 84" 14 Rietillter i.txx. than in the MS. whence mod. Ir. J . in c. 83'i Ta. RedecA.achenich. 2nd sing.\ya r'm. Traces of scratching are benefit. 'do airbirt biuth. Shows more clearly in the Fac. ca« wyd. as pysc.. dns = 6riar.8 1 The corresponding word '8 kyrraw. t Aho A neirin. 1076. oetta gyv- 83' I 83"! W. Pembrokeshire. Daviescps. pi. sing. I remember /r^«^/w« used as a synonym ol^pren melyn. Good'ick The still Goodwick. 6i"i4. the Juvencus gloss : 'anit arber fo7" = onid compares O. 8ri4 Arav|vneuthume = Ar a wneuthum-i.delich. On the banks of the Teivi ^z/'Z£/w = whitlow. Cp. wh.xieife. Guyneu. subj. Cp. Laws. dryssien. 83! 83' 1 pyscod gives pyscodyn. eiffi//it. App. ^zx. march Kei. mordOy. 85"i2 cauid 86'3 is i. was used for the cure of whitlow. 287. Tudur. d&l. 847 tagneaet. Cp.

. A syllable too yffi in 'gormod 87"I2 kyffei 87' 1 3 odleu. 87'I2 ar yKU eluit. Cp. mark the beginning of the are wr. c\xt=prob.' Read: ar e:\\i\\. 69"io-i + accentual k after r . The d is Sic in reduplicated because the syllable .. Read: etwaeth.C.e. ^^o*^/ Nif rjdraeth. ar ^ugein. 88'9 where are they ?] Unes in the MS. 87'io-ii guassancj^th. |. Ar Aallt ar echuit. fill See Facsimile. err. for bmch. Gr:) has inserted '. for molin' 884 Kyuothauc. 135 . scr. Exigency of space in making up the forme compelled the departure in the reproduction. 87'6 lymacth. 89'2 Ryfeiw gur ar ' vn co«z» = a reed.arv^z^th. etc. ac yn hyt y oes ny flygOys konyn dan y draet. B/uch is bruch = ? Battling is the wind the wood presumably a scfi err.' White Book Mob. Another instance of -es for the first person sing. 88'2 nifrdraeth. cwj/8. coed ini in its tumult. 89'6 kedic awel is . tyffi^ is wrong. TaliesI. stn. 392. Scr. coo? 5 [i. B." The underlined letters. Cawnen is formed from the plural. and homage do. 88'8-io cv = cw. in 5 lines in The marginal words the MS. where ? See Whinfield^s Omar Khayydm. Zo'i2 = mod. thus reading ryiolm. is 88'i enV/waeth. The in scr. A thra uei uynyd ar ulaen y kaOn y kerdei. where? +cu(/.B.. caww. coo? coo. iu. etto. has been "shaved. 29'3 & cp. Where I kings did bow them down. MS. err. 247. (? Jasp. See '12.' as also 'dodath.' 2y\ I. Cp. Tal. many. 463'26-3i. = ky(/wei. dyHlit. for Kyvorthauc. 27-5. towering to the welkin blue. See 53" i6. ar yssy'n elfyS.dc«th. closed.. by Jaspar Griffith sing. Yon palace. yr hoW. which are guesses. Cp. 875 dyllit. wrote ' rymath. 14-1.. 8g Defcriptio hyeinis ac difsuatio belli cafum mechitis llovarchi et aliorum. Cp. 8-12. 87'2 ryioles. = mod. 88"2 moli. for ar a tre/theif. tra uei coet at uric y coet y kerdei. per id temporis propter Wr. saw a ringdove on its arches perched. cp.. App.867 aratretheif. And thus she made complaint.. Scr. of — at the top margin. err. cvi yd. stump ' . ' etwa. kyfrOnc allt ac allt nc echOyd. Pers. The margin of the MS. See Note 70'3. coo.

Read: 93" I Rodwzt as in "5 above. io3r2o. fryShao Duw. than t. for frruinclyma«s = ffrwynglymws. 92"9 ariweu 92'ii gar. fegur. mug. . Mug. for cunlleiM. from L. 907 after 'adar' ? a word has been erased. is syllable like eiry.. 1288' 1-2. a scr. 257 . 94'5 Mi ae guar^di a thi ae 95"4 Arthur. gOzaOl redyat ffyayf. t Llyri a mono- 89" 13 gint. Mugc in "6. Aneirin. There 36"!. fyvno. io35'36 and V>mevwr. . for smoke = muf. Cp. blaen bragat briwei mab 7a/..v. J^c«r-us 89' 1 2 reo = rhew. Metre and rhyme require mechit a las! something like a stop quite close to the v. aren. taer bziOgyzyf tarO GarOy ar adwy bzagat. See diallaw. Meaning uncertain. i. io5'4 . Scr. The word See Index.e. llary. arfeu. [gOz]. . r39'i7- 92. llu ew-ur io7'i6 pan yO keu ef()2. by a late late hand. 937 a lataut mechit. . is 93' 1 3 ffruincl«ym«s. ar ryd a rhiw.B. Br. DinevM. Evor={a. ' bendigws -ays 35'9. Clerical error for g«int 90'5 Uyrit'. 95'9 can/. unless it is a proper name. Red Book : a chanon kunlleith 579'i7 90"i3 cev ewur. not mu^. Cler. chwec evwr chwerthinat tonn. Altd. More like c App. mistakenly. 93'3 am diallad. (b) hellebore. 41' 14. nuchein Tal. Cler. on the Towy. etc. 92'8 bro priw uchei. 93'io Duv. err. Begun as grio cul grum = culgrum = OTorf. ? erasure here. banadyl rac biagatyn rychua bziwat. R.) cow-parsnip. Cp. Sex. currently wr. Read: uchei«. for Ti ae guaredi. is The top blotched and indistinct.B. err. 95'i2 bragat.C.89*9 eiry eiry. ced huarhei=cyd hwaryei. 33"8. Read: Y gwr a 92'i4 Rodwut. I 92'2'6'io pelis = py lys. {ox '^Ltitn' hoarfrost. Added by a hand. Taliessin : Pan yO baruaOt Cp.5 arid a riv = ar rid a x\\ = tnod. 6"8 . f. The u is irregular. 2i"5 R. ygkynlleith gayaf. 90'14 nof /lum.. .B. s. culgrwm. err. trc. 89" 1 1 Erased. 90' 1 3 cunlleiA Cp.. err. 9ri4 derw^id ych kigho2 = derffid ych kynghor. Third limb wanting. This is wr. 136 B. ' Cp. Cp.

however. huyfcur loo'ii./•«. 987 98'I2 Nim vy march. the Taw^. gad^ ga. for kin llu/Vi. Taliessin: yt lethrynt pennaOz difgowen. 96'8 ? . dusk.T\ = mod. 97" 10" 1 2 %. ^-gwySei.95'i5 lleg. a place not far from Gloucester. 97*4. Div. 98'i3'i4 Tawuy. P2 ^Z7 . Cp. C. or place here. before 'ny I oet diheit | ' . 96'i5-i6 kinllaf. Cwybei is used in mod. but the poem is incomplete. the Rev. 98*5 helmet. From .' The day is dawning . l33'5- hv yfcun gur. i38'22.' lluid = dawn or dusk. 96"i6 a. The scribe here devotes two lines to every stanza. which rhymes with 'buyd. 97"4 go\vdauc. the man who. Begun as j/. We want the name of a district.e.) See Domesday (fol. perhaps. 2). Siivingewidin in Herefordshire. suggests the Ifceuin of the Bk. err. See Mabinogion. and the '17 For XLIX raedTHlAX''. leg-io. Begun as^. for we should not have more than If the / be a cler. If the poet lived at Carmarthen Priory the nessaw would indicate the Towy. eithaw. now Port Skewet. and corrupted early into lle«g. S syllables. 96'ii y gunnhiLW jfyiiiTV ingun. 984 penaur. we have yfcawin.. Towy enters the sea at Llan Stephan and Tawfe flows into Swansea Bay. the home of the tMV guiton of '12. (Elsdon hund.. wh. Kei. i. Plummer kindly examined for me. Welsh always with dy. Lat. Ny bei. Scr. i8i r" col. err. and rather than spoil the symmetry of his page he writes the end syllable of '4 on the blank at end of "2. Sometimes many lines intervene between the first and second half of a word (cp. Tawue. io8'3. Aneirin: gwyngalch a phedryollt ben- nawr. gave his name to Forth Ysccwin. err. and llwydnos.prefixed. 2io'i5. = %uallauc. Wr. wh. prob. ma'r dyS yn llwydo. Cp.' Read: ? Nu a phei ny bei duv ae digonhei aghev Kei guin a Uachev. on top margin. Three syllables are missing | bei.. for c or k. i = ?«0(/. Quire vii ends here. Query scr. Z£/imarch Cp. 98'4). of LI. where Ifkawin ab Panon is mentioned.verev. 97'l The beginning of the poem is wanting. Cp. 3'i7. Omit.. Nim gad gan. See note lafnaCiz ar 98"4 ^eXeidrad.

bref-. iny He 99''3'iSi 100-1-5-7 in He He. ar rid. With 'wi.J. § 40. R. (/ro« wayw drwn firm. thinks that we have here. roar. I02-2 Itewon. . 100-12 awirtul." gan wyavarvy.M. S. bination iu is impossible in Welsh. .. . 997 i iftrun = ys dr*iun.. Prof. Cp. 101-6 Fechid diristan. The form IwSewon arose in the xvith cent. loo-il huyfcur. rA. 5^« N. compare ^aAd. a rea y V2an vaOa a rea y V2an vechan.. vam^T/am. sad.. The r is erased both instances. 'Fechid Diristan. See pebir gur. 101-4 glev . Morgan and Parry. well write Jadgual and J«dhael for Idwal and As tThe comi. vinteu. 98-5. Ithel. hOaer and Ohaer. 34-10. 100-1-2 ry-re-ei«t. 161*. ozeureit. trisyllabic.4int. llef-an<.' = mod. z.«. is a See Notes 60-19. Bible. . Cp. M. Om\tyd. . Mi awum iny Has guendolev. = strong. %tnv' = mod. ior6 o/>5iwod = oth Syvod. 99-8-9 in Dorm:ach oet hunnv. 39-19. . dygrwydr ar wybr vyny8. Cp. 72-14. 101-3 pebrur. rarian. verb rhe-u denotes to cry like a bird.B. 138 B. a/>-Sw/= solicitous. We find it in MSS.C. wynteu ymeS . 100-4 lloegir.' d. . also "W. J. 99-10 dy gruidir ar wibir winit 99-1 1 = [neus] . Cp. in the ISewon. wiw. but see -13. V<J\ = wyf. The simple ?A metathesis for ry-re-int. a compound name.ydvani in dev. i. 72"i4. 99"3 hn/iu'id for hnu/iid. Dormarch. Scribe wrote first limb of _>'. Myv. &-» see also 100-3-5-7. [to neigh. but not in the editions of Bps. 99-12-14 ryer. . Read : mi wy' vyw. . mod.E. Proverb. to/ vftm 99-11. Omit. 92-5. . oet hunnv. loo-i.B. 1176-1-2 ar erdrych auarwy. bet . gOafcaOt r kynn . Mi wy' vyw. J?. Silvan Evans treats this as "fy avarwy = my Cp. y. apparently. TaL. wynteu y« awgheu.y aghev. rac taryf trun.H. -15.e. . wi. EVANS. anxious. wiw = fyw y = y = ym yn. in Salesbury's New Testament. Mod. Or. Aneirin: e % Ir. . . hv yfcun gur. Cp. O. unless there verb ar-«. Omit lie . wr. 100-6-8 Mi. or bellow like a beast. E. Cp. gOifcaO auarOy.gweryru. wj/Zyw..B. Nyt ynat neb dzut ny dzefnOy. See Grammar. 99-11-13-15 Cp. Cp. S. 27-19 . 100-4 teithiauc Begun as ^.. = teith-i-auc.99'l y sorrow. awum=a7/z'um=a vu-um. 98-6. gal-. for vuam. Ny reel warthec heb Oyneb rud.

if any. Madauc died. J. I03'l Late addition. inserted after verbs.. rhyming with' m/nn' . lOS'S not visible in certainly cases. all Ditto in lines 8. 1 io5"4 calchwreith. Rhys spelt it Gorh Fagu at the end of the xvith century. 2i'i2. an^lan = an +^lan. io3'4 anhaur. ^ yiax:y\. 1027 g02yfgelho7.7i»z." . 12. i.io2'2 itaw caer lev a gwidion=yfi if. 1027 vyhtno = mod. »had etc.« in the ultima It is interchanges with_K.' ioS'6 Read: Hil te-irn in he-irn heno/eith. kedyrn . is. Pi.? here and at I04'2 by a xvilth century hand. ios'3 where. Haulowz>z = HawlOvy/n.dvXap BleiynapCynfyn. App. Also after is -eith io4'6'9'i2'i6. 7a/. with floriated additions in red. in the MS. enamelled in various colours.. 14. as a rule. Cp. B. 4 \ . Rudyon beuder biO a maOj yrat. thus Ow_yn = Ow«n. [^SHio5'3 ar>Tad = ar -l-^rad. f'enw. is called Dr. the black of the meaning. aeth von. one syllable: /^enw is heard in the dialects of GwyneS and Morgannwg only.C. 7S'I2. is not app. 226«. kyngrein. which Garvagy on a tombstone in Nantmel churchyard. 16. of calchfrith. 39'20. 'John yw «enw i.. Cp. 103' 1 7 ar claur vagv.e. \ .. I02-3 dabre de. /4«fz>7>i. for io3'io drein . 10.e. The i I no part of the word. Cp. Red Book : Y2 aelwyt honn neus cud drein : mwy go2dyfnaffei yc/tyngrein. but seldom counts See "6.AAtdhot\\ W . ^enw are very rare in vellum MSS. a dissyllable. Torri «enw. In Deheubarth the vyof vyn is dropped. This superior ° ° is patched with red. rhyme-word in many other" ' anaAadzy dbyn. J 2g . 7'«/. \ 1 however. Cp.. as kedmn. i. Cp. A rac pyrth ban syrth Drein has krein or cyngrein for its Saeflbn ygkrein.. 1159. Instances of . io4'3 This big initial K is. io5'8 anhyweith=««r«/y. err. anhzyet. & Myv.hMa.e. guae loegir in dit iein. — common it construction in old Welsh with verbs of motion. a scr. Omit last letter = unfinished 2. There is a farmhouse on the Dulas. y4««w/-gynhoruan huan arwyran. like the one reproduced in facsimile on page ioo'9. The pronoun in the verse. i7'9.. Cp. io5'8 veuder. 1eftalha(i2oa««<52garma&ngarant. 104 '26. 57 .B. 96'i2. . i. D. [" I02'i2 merch/r. IOS'5 diobeith".

: The c is faint. Cp. not before am at the beginning of the next. f»=a» + bendigeid = a«-blessed. io6'9 vachdeith.e. Baranres = /i«^a. io7"i2 io7'i5 ev «•» treuad. that which is bound up in cynghaned. erased. wh. lo8'2 gz>«un. is io5"9 Dara'=darz'7/ = darfu. writing. err. letter. . io8'i2 mi nyd. ivenestir with L. 207*. Vellum almost as black as the yfcoleic. accursed. as is if The end is a stop followed. Word erased. Cp.' Cp. xoyyi-i. cwlwm cerd.C. app. in S. The ». into the affected form. See Fac. cler. io6'8 cvin from L. lo8'3 Gozev rywir. for 'bras. should come after v at the end of line 8. delens is very small and lo7*ii calch llywarch hen.. i. faint.. . lo8"ii 0\X\d. The punctum J.R. —J. io5'8. gloss. k^daul. 3. machdeith. Book I038-29-30. Ox. de varanres.B. loS'io beirt-car. and the h erased. 10815 Pell hetiv. by a late hd. See Red loS'io o. MS. read with some : 108 The ? outer third of this page stained almost black by gall or is lime water. ? erasure Clwrn is io5"io bart clvm diledieith = ta bard of elegant song.£. an altd. . ' The hyphen io6'4-5 gol^wad. Written above line by Dr. loi'i i. cena. Scr." : io6"i4 traha a/treguch = 4 syllables lo6"i6 kadaul. Myv. Cp.duc^ = oSuch. A + Cp. 1067 c»«endigeid i. cwyr aberth err. Davies Calch — armour. Evans's Dictionary. first very dark here the i and limb of m are not certain. 1 40 B. io8'i3 Nyduid «»• .C. clubbed. 105T4 Oet buelin b/as. like i in i is more Altd. abnormal and prob. cirn bras. See Red Book. The original The vellum writing is difficulty. Ry s ua wr ualch yg calch yg cadeu. io6'6 Ac edrych uir Joined at the top. [here. "damsel. Something uid probably. Cp. Faint for ft-ywir=tri-wyr. Repetition of 9r5"6. minisir-um. Ir.ioS'8 is Darfv|»am oeleith = Darfuam oe leith.

? Cletev]. i6-l2 . 652. 62'i3. Argoydit 50-10. 71-5. 6512. * — See Paleographical Note. 74-8. 59" 13. Uuoet. 66-ii.INDEX TO NAMES OF MEN AND PLACES. aton. 35'9. 5ri8. teulu io3'i6. Awarnach.1 7. 36'i. bas ac. 68"I7. » 56-3. 69' 12. 52'i2. Clev [= Dulas. anau 67-1. march Passcen. 4"3. LI. See Arthur. • amgant. Brin. SS^ii. 61 '3. Eitew ac Eidal. 5o'6. mab Meigen. ac. ameraudur. alltudion diessic. teulu Oeth Aranwinion. atnev. Tedei tad. arth o Deheubarth. loriz. Annhun. Alld Tryvan. 50-52. Arwul melin. ac. cad. [67-18. Ardudwy 4712. . tad Eitivlch 53''5. anav 9'8. -uy y Berch » Berffro Aren 89' 11 . tad Run. 74-8. io8'i5. 94-3. auarvy.. (69'i92i). 637. 95'5. 94'i4. Awraham. Gweith. —epithet. IS'4. Llyv. I4"2. 77. I07'i3.1 : Arthan.v. 72"8. Anguas edeinauc. awallen 43. Aedan. 647. aten. 69. rad ac anaw. Gwenoli. yr.B. afallen 48. anotun. gueith. tad Llachev 9916 . 6V^ am. inab Llywarch hen. am = ab q. 38'9. vir. 4-8. 92'3. Argad. ab = mab. Frav. aden. B. 97'6. ep. Alun Dywed. 28'2 cp. 64'8.C. Arcoedit 52'io. Duu Paul Anoeth. 72'9. 67'2. 63' 13. hir. 63'8. 66'4. 99'i. cp. Aron a Moesen. hid in Aruul melin. Adonay. Aron. Arywderit. 68'lo. Aber. Taradir. 38'I4. plant4r7. iv\. cp. 95-3 ameraudur Uywiaudir Uawur 72'9. Alun Diwed. Airgwl. . Arav. 68'8. Adaon. • 141 . Erch. 49. awen. mab L^S-MhSn. 77'5 Arthur 6713. avon. Adaw4i-i4. Llvagor. mab Diwinvin. 15 '9. 65 '12. 37^8. 69'2 . 66'i3. in neuat. 77 '12. 94 6' 12. 107T4 duwir Dyar. agor. -vy 47-3. 6r2. 64'i5 yn 66'i6.

tad Kysceint. . Ywerit clod lydan. yscinvaen eir.of Karadauc. breenhin na breenhin [Henri. i . 105-10. clvm. 55-9. bartrin. . 51-5. beirt. ar vann caer lo6'l i"i3 . 74-5 68-14 y dan y 64-4 . kiwrev . 77-6. See Cuhelin. 142 B. loo-ii. Ilithiav. 11-5. 64-7. 65-10 Bry-. Brython. Brython guernin 68-4. pridit. 12-9. Llan. 89-11. ep. 75-2. biv. 69-3. 104-16. teulv bann. 65-3. 95-15. y. Brithon. ab Benlli gawr. gur Bangor 77-2. cp. . tir. Bangor. 27-1. Breint 68-13. 78-12 See Kelli Uriauael. . See hyneiw. 7812. : Brin Aren. guir. Briauael. argluid 85-1 oWinet55-9. brithion eiliv brodozion. 95-9. Bran. 6rio.] 62-15. bichan brychni. bann cogev. 63-8. 28-13. . bedrydant. Bucheslum seri. Brineirch. 47-3. march Gugaun brad. 103-5 brodorion. 66-16-19. Brwyn llys. m. 52-6. 42-8. Prydein. bre. Brithuir.B. breinhin. See maban. 27-9.65-io: Bruyno. See Noteb%-\. B. kewin 90-8. 27-11.C. tad Meilir Maluinauc. arterchauc 65-3 in Iljethir y See Beduir. tad Kaswallaun. Bridein. 92-4. Bricheinauc. . Bruin o Bricheinauc. 67-1. 52-6. 60-8. 47-i-7-ii. . 63-8 63-69. 51-13. Uu. 90-2. 60-16. 74-1. 66-17. beirt 22-6. baraffvin. Beidauc (Beli. bard37-6. 28-12. teulu bann. breichir. 61-14. 69-21). bartoni. 61-14. Bradweji. 25-11 beteu. SririS. 67-8-10: cavkeineidg-g Bridlav. 79-5-8. bodauc. Bevno. ryd. kert. 78-12. 6o-9-i5-i6.tir.&' cp. 89-4. . rut. Brycheinauc. Britu. Bely. beirt. 65-17. Banon. bart. Vnic. 42-8. cletywrut. bychan breichvras. 99-14. banev tri. 87-12. 9-9. bedwen.68-i. * * gaur. 103-13. 62-1. Bran. 77-2. See hyneiw. 5^^ Tauautir. Brithon. 65-10. 22-6 gostec beirt. 69-21). 94 '8.74-i . 61-5. 535. Brin Tytul. vab Llir Uedieith. englynion Bedwir Beduir 95-15. in Baton. See Inis. 25-12. breichvras. 11-5. brein. Buellt. gulad veibonin 60-5 keli 43-8. Bri-. (tad Beli. 60-9-15-16. bedrydant. loo-ii . 61 '5. bedit. Benlli Bro priw > uchei/z. 92-8. io3'5 banev bre. 59-4.baban. 89"4. 83-18. son of Henri II. Brin 58-4. ab Emer Llydau.

i'4. Kyminaud. 6o'5.27"8. 6o'20. 66-6. 45'8. 65 '17. * Caduan.. 68'6. Crist kely. 6r3. Cp. 78-9. » kyuergir 102-11. tri trined keli. 27'i2.Vr.C.^. 6i'2. kertorion 26*5. Eluan. 66-17 .6"io. tad Gilberd. caer. 69'8. im Mon. carrec camhur loo'io. Ka-i. 96-9 Keiwin 46'8. ar vann 447 . Kelvi. 63'I2.e. 96'4'ii. tad Guendolev. 94'3. aryton. Keri. 64 "6. io2"2. Keliton. 96"i2 gur hir. 63 -g. Keidav. kertaur 78-7. 5ri6. io43'2i. Certenhin avon. 99'2. 49"ii. clun. Keri cletifhir. Guin .987 Carnawlauc. m'ch Guin m. See Benlli. 79-9. 6r4. Kerediciaun. Nud. 1 avon. kewin. 92'io. I05'i5. Kein. v^. 45'2 . 52'3. Kenedir. 9'9. march Gualchmei. kaer. 96-5. 28"9. 95'2 : 516T5. Kaswallaun. 65"! I. keli. Kemeis tir.B. 48-2. Wantvy. Kadwaladir. 58-5. Karreian clod edmic. cav. in Rid vaen. coed. 28' 12. in celi. Caer lleon. L52'2. filius K. 6 '2. I02'2. tad Meuric. Kynuid. 5^£ Castell. mab Bely. 6r2. Wyrtin. Machavvy. 44'i6. Caeav. Seon.75"lkert 9-11. lleon. Lev a Gwidion. 48-3. brad. Camlan. Kain. 93'4. colowin kertev kertev 12. 6o'3. «5-io. 58"i2. 43'8 . I07"4. 79-8. coed lluiuein. Jeithion. 95T13. . uthir ig ker- tev = Llachev 99-16. 61-11. 74'6. 39*2. . 51-2. 55'5. karn] caled. Uriauael. 28' 13.Cad Abergweith. io6'iri3. 6r3. Sallauc. kerd 86-8. keineid. 46' i. 67-3. trindaud pimp c. B. cath Paluc. Cav. Castell Gollwin. 6i'i. 63'i4. kad. Kaer Kenedir. caur. Kadieith.. c.m. /?. -ualadir. 15-10. Reon. Caringrun. 69'6. 36'i2». 96'i3'i5. 99'i2. = Karadauc B[reichvras]. 63-4Cavall. 83'I4. Kadgyffro.6ri. ('ioo'2. 62-2.dygen. 1087. 104-11. 51' 17. 57 '9. Kein [ ? karin i. march 0.11 . Cors Mochno. 63'i2. ked. Kelli. 28"9. io7'4.yg. 6r3. Kadwallaun. . 6i'3. Keduyv.. See 2Ti2» kadwaon. Karrauc. Kei. Guendolev 99-12 . 287.

64-1. kad. cletyfrut ep. [52-2. Aber [Deu].) cvnlleith. corr. 99-14. 63-9. 6-7 . ior2-8.bart9-9. 34-11. Kinveli. See Ki-. » Ky-. 18-3. 9-9. . 61-3. ymynwent. 63-3. « cletif hir. 6-4. kinteic. 69-7. 91-6. ep. llythir ig. Creurdilad. kad. Gindilic. kely 83-14. of Karreian. Clun kein. 74-12.e. 68-15. 57-13. 58-12. kinytion Mordei. 67-7. 144 B. 59-4 Gugaun. tad Selyw. 6r2. Kymri. mab i. . 49-10. mab Corknud. 67-7. Civrid. 69-2. 103-9. 69"6. merch Lut. 57-4. 95-8. 46-19. 68-15. 594. 41-4. 69-19. Kinran. 69-7. 90-13 Kinvael. (Cunedda. Kelvi. 58-5. kyminaud Kymraec. 525-13. 64-2-5. 52-4. kimerev trin. Clytno idin. Clytno 64-3. Cinbin. 55' 1 94-16. Corbre. Corknud. (Kyhoret. 38-12. 68-6. 107-4 ? kinz/rein. tad Llewelin).6-io. cp. Kinon. 58-12. 64-12. Kindilic. Cristonogion. Kimri 57-13. 73'9.96-i6. mab Meir29-6. Ki-. nant. 105-4: cunlleit. Kinon garv y duyael. Kintilan. 53-7 clod edmic. 33-6. 64' 1 3. GoUwin. Kewin kigrun. Lluiuein. 48-9. Kinvelin. y Gimry. 18-3. ep. tad Coel. tad Kindilic.Kerwid. kinteic 65-8. 60-3. 73'i3- cogev. 51-6-15. 69-7. 85-5. cletywrut 27-10. 58-12. Convy. Kinvelin.49-i4. Coed Coed Coel. kad. 48-9-17. kyminauc. croes 82-2. 59-12. » Clas Guinet.) kyfnissen. ioo-2 clod lydan. 63-11. Cleveint a won. 83-18.C. 101-9. Cristi 37-7 mab Clytno idin Cristaun. 15-6. 52-4.63-i2. Kinlluc. !o8-io. 63'3. kinreinon. Kyndur. 69-18. C\e/ev. 28-4 gyhoret. kian. 64-5. tad K/non. 52-5. (Cynfric.B. Ki-. 69-18. 63-16. 57'I2. 88-6. Kimry. of 67-13. 48'9Kynan. tad Einyavn. Kymri 49-14. 15-5. * Crist. 71-8. 98-8. 95-2. 108-14. 33. Kyheic. Keliton. diffrin. 1. mab 67-1 5. ep. 92-1. Kinan. 53-7. 11 v. Collwin Castell 74-12.doeth cuir.70-6. Kimry S2'i3. 5«-« 96-15.67-9-ii. guin 34-1-7. Cluit. Cuelli. Ky-. 67 '6. Kynan Kynan garrvin. of Keri. 58-12. 73"i3. 68-15. Kynon. Cuhelin i4-ii. ryt. 18-3. idin. of Ywerit. Cors Mochno. 53-2.

Dyffrin Gewel. <:/. Dehev. 28'3 Dulas. 75 'i. 56'2. Llog. t. 68' 10. m'ch Selyw. kywluc kinhen. g2'io. 9'i. ioo'6'8. march Ryterch Druduas. 40'lo. See Run. 56"!. 37-8. Div Maurth. 57'3. Devs 427. I02'll. 9i'i. Dyued. ep. io3'i. 758. dyv Llun49'i3. lyz. -parth. 56'! deinwin. 74' 13. io2'ii dyv . Deheveint. 697. 64-3. Kyven Venvy. 746. 547. diweir teulv. 70-3. tri. Dinorben. Dunaud duffyr deinwin. 6ri5. direid daear. Aber duwir. of Dunaud. kynvrein. ineutur). 47'i. 57'io. Deheubarth. 7o'4. 97 '16. Dews 86"lo. 39-4. dias. drvd arall. [Deu] CWev. 79'i4. yn aelwyt. duwir 627. 39-6. [Eitew. io4"i. 72. 59'ii. Daear diarchar. dowit 70-4. kad. iev. See Dyved. m. Diffrin Cluit. dev kenev in kywrenhin. i6'ii. 681 5. 64-4. Kyrridven. 20'4. Kynon. mab Clytno idin. Aber. Diwinvin. 247. diessic alltudion. desseffor. dovit 53'i6. 27-6. » y. guir. 68'i7. Dyar. Domni. Drudluid. Deinoel. yg. 72'! i. mab Banon. lor6. Douit. darogan. Kynuid. 48-5. kiwranc reid new. 59'i3. 8-2. 78'3. kywrenhin. yg. Diffrin Diffuis. Aber. Fechid. llugirn. Kinon. Deutur (MS. loo'S. Ren Dewi. 549.m. 83^8 di- Kyntelv pridit maur. h. 1 [99'8'9ci Maelgun. Kysceint. Domenvs. 46"4. Dinon. 63'8. 48-13. 68' 10. 59'i2. Dinvythuy.kyniscin. 957. Diwneint. 68'9.65 7. duwir Dyar. 64-1. 6310. 947. Didmuy. * Du hir terwenhit. 645. Deinoel. 7o'ir. Dyar 56' 10. 74' 12. Cyueilauc. 937. 78'8. 355. 55"ii. guledic. diristan. diessic Unben Duyrein. dyv Merchir 463. = Mor maur'ic. kert. 28"5.. Dorma*ch truinrut. * Deudor. 62'2. I03'9. tad Aron. dev kenev dywiev 48^8. 57"io. diffrin. i. Dulin. 56'3. pimp. Denvy. Dilan. 65'5. Dived. 77'!. 49"4. 88'5. Guy. 69'i7. 427. kyuergir. Dissethach. in. Riv. Aber. dirnaud. 67'i5. 58m. 145 . 47'! 3"4. 9'6. Diwed. 63-16. Clytno idin. dvy caun. See Eidal ac See dyffnn.diffrint. : direid 810. 627. 297. 2'2. 65'15. Dunauddeinwin.

Dyffrin Hawren, 75T.

Eitoel, 11-2.

Machavuy, 48"6. Dyffrin Mynvy, 74"4.


elvit tir 69-4,


Elaeth, 7o-ri2.
Elcliwith, 67-14.
Elffin, 67-8-10.

Dyfridauc, 54" 12.



47-4, 74'9, -uy. 55'i5-



caun, 74'6

Dyued 6o-ii, dvy Diwed tir, 61-4;


2-6, 3-7, 4'i-

Eliffer, seith



gvehin Dived 53"5
D., 59-16



ab Ner,


(Dyuet, 69-17).
ep. of Alun, 65-12

Eloy, 37-6, 71-4. Elwael, 75-2.

Dywed, Diwed,

Dyuel,abErbin,4-i, Dywel, 65-16
ep. of Silit, 68-3.

Eluan gaur,



35-7, 60-2, 87-13, 88-13,

See div.

90-11, 91-4, 103-3, elvit


Elvy, Llan, 68-4.

(Earrwen, verch Hennin, 69-15.)





rut, 67-2


Maelur, 69-12.

Emreis, 96-3.
Epint, 65-15.

Edar, 46-10. Cp. Etar, An., 37-1. Edeinauc, 18-7 ep. of Anguas,

Erbin, tad Dy«el
Gereint, 71-11.

4-3, 65-16,


Edeirnaun, 74- 1
in, 79-3.





Erbin, suyt, 66-7.

Edrywuy, 47-13 in E., 68-3. Edwin imon 47-4, breenhin 75-7. Egluis, ygodir Hen, 63-g.

Erch, Aber,
Ergig, 74'3-



Ergrid avon,
Errith, 2-3.

in, 64-2.

See Ruthir



Erir Tywi a Teiwi,





» eriron,

yfcvn, dieffic alltud,


Erthir, ap Ll'ch h6n, 107-12.

Eidauc, meibon,
Eilinvy, 68-4.

Ervid, 68-3.
(Eryri, pendeuic, 48-18).

Eidin cyminauc, 94- 1 4, mini t, 95 '7



56- 1 2, 84-3,

agkyueith 61-9 »


ethlin, 55-14.
etyl, 82-9-11, etil, 82-I5.


eilon 16-2, 47-8, 60-12-19, 61-5.

(Eingyl, 48-17).



(Einyavn, ab Cunedda, 69-19).
Eitew, diessic alltud, 67-i7-i8.

Eva, 43-12.
74-7, Eiwonit 69-4. Ewur, Uv, 107-16. See Pal. Notes &• cp. Ir. Ibar.


Eithir,mab Llywarchhen, 107-12. Eitivlch hir, mab Arthan, 66-12.



» Fechid diristan, ior6. » femen, 36'2. femin-a.
fdius, 27'i2, 28-2,

Fallum, guit, 8ri4.




Gormant, 77-7. Goronvy, t. Hywel welmor, 73-14 goror nant 64-15 gwris 64-17 ; kimry73-i3; mynit9o-3:#5rJ7

finaun weneftir, io6'8.
teir, 35"5.


gorsset, 11-7, 30-6, 34-6-12, io2'8.

gorterch, 50-6





fonogion Mugc, 93'6. See Mechit.



y Freigc, 47-9.

Guin mab Nud, 98-8. goruir, 77-6, g. Edwin, 75-7.
gosper, 21-9.
gotev, gueith, 101-15.

Frav, Aber,


Freid, San, 83' 12.

Fyrnuael hael, ab Hyvlyt,





cp. 73-4.


grande, 51-18:
Garanhir, ep. of Guitnev, 98"! I.

Greid, 10-11-12.

72'i3— 737.


4-7, 64-11



Garthan, brein, 99'iS.
Garvluid, 9S'io.


Gualchmei, 28-10, Gwalch-,63-15.


saer, 47'i6

Arvy, 73- 13.


97ni, His 97-4,



garrvin, ep. of



Lleinnauc, 97-8-10,

gauaeluaur, ep. of Gleuluid, 94'2.
gaur, (Gawr, 69'22), ep. of Benlli,
ep. of

Lleynnauc, 97-12.






Eluan, I03'4.


hir, 63-14.

Gereint, vaur 72';, o dir Diwneint

Gewel, dyffrin, 65'i6.


mab Kad

gyffro, 28-8.


y, 48"9.

See Kymri.

guanas 66-3-6. See Gvhir. » Guarvy,5o-6,Warruy, 59-10, 74-5. gueilgi, 91-4 g. dowyn, 76-13. gueith, 27-3,58-8,101-15; g.aryw:

Gint, 48'!, 55'ii.

See Teiwi.

derit, 4-7,

506, 62-13


g. finaun

Glan Teiwi,


wenestir, 106-10; g. machavvi,

Gleuluid gauaeluaur, 94'i.
godir, 63 7 -9.



g. wtic, 83-1





gweith, 100-16.

Godybrion, ep. of Guin,



Kad Aber,


ep of Guynev, 287.

gueli94-5 gveli 102-5
isel, 64-1.



Goglet, 29-8, 53-19, 55-11, 100-6.


etystir, Tri, 28-6.




Goholheth, tad Gwallauc,
gollewin, 77-3.

Gwen, 63-6, ab Lly'ch hen Gwenabuy, 59-9.
Guendit, 50-1-14, 59-3-15.



castell, 58-6.




50-5, 51-4, 5316, mab Keidav, colowin kertev, 99'ii.

Gvitel, ep. of Llia, 65'i4. (i25'2g)

Guener, 217.
gvenin, 9o'6-i2
guenith, 72-13.

GwitilaBrithon a Romani, 6ri4. Guitnev garanhir, 9811.
Guitnev, Maes, 1067.
guiton, nav, 96'i2.



58'i4; brad

Gwenoli, Aber, 63' 13.



Guent, 74-3. * 637 gwenwas, 87'3. cp. gwessgvin. gwenvlad, 78'S, guenglad, 43-9 « gwerid, 5 r8 gverid, 64'3.

gulad veibonin, 6o-5. # Gulad Morgant,74'4. Glamorgan
guledic, Hyuel, 75'4.

guledic 267, 40'4, 83'i



guerindaud, 407 =virginitai-em. gueriton, 7r6.

857, 86'6, gliledic Dehev,

Guernin Bre, yg,


gurBangor, Breint, gur gwaud, 63'i6.
gurgurt, 64'4, 97"i5

77'i.t;^. 68'i3.




gwestedin Caeaw, 65'i6.


hir, ep.

of Kei, 96'5.


See Hirgweun, 68'i7.
cletywrut, 27'io, 67'i2.

gurach 95'5





Gurgi, gvychit a Guindodit lev,

Gvhir, 74'4


G., 66"2.


Gwidion, caer Leu

a, io2"3.

[66'i. Guriad, 637. Gurien, 637, Guryen, 63'5.

gain, Crist, 34"i 7; duvguin,4ri2;

Gvryen gvrhyd enguavc,
gwris, goror, 64'I7.


gur guin,


guin, ep. of Kei, 94-3, 969, win,
46-8, 96-12.



gurtheneu, ep. of Gurtheyrn, 67*5.

Gwinn Gvinionavc, pant, 65"4. GwinabNut,99'4, GuinmabNud,
gorterch Creurdilad, 988'io.

Gurtheyrn gurtheneu,
Cwtic, gueith, 83'il.


Guin Godybrion,
Guindodit, 66"i.


* Gwy47'i5, Guy 5f2, Difrrin47'i. Guyn. See Guin.
1 1

Guyn o Winllyuc, t. Madauc,65'6.
46'2, 52'i4;


Guynev godvff
brado, 55"9;


march Kei,

clas Guinet,


guir 46'6,



SS'lo; terwin 576.

287: (5^.gwineu,83T-6; io6'i6. Guynnassed, yn lleutir, 67'3. Guyr. See Gvhir.

Guineu, i'4,83"r3'6. &tfGuyneu.
Gwiri, 7 1 6.

See pant G. G.

Guythuch, 68"2. Guythur, 67' 12.

Gwinllyuc, 65'6.


(Gynan gyhoret, Ryt,


See Meir.




art, in, 49'2.

Jal, 74'ii-

hael, ep. of Fyrnuael, 66Tr,

and Jaspar

Griffith, 5

m, 46



of Riterch, 285, 52-11, 5616,
57-16, 64-9.

Idas, 878, Itas, 62-5.
Idin, ep. of Clytno, 64-2-5.

Judas. f/.Eidin

haelaf, ep. of Hyuel, 76-7.


Jeithion, kad, 61-4.

Hael Hywel
3-4, 6-9,

bwrs y ivlad. Deheuparth, 78-8.



ar clawr, 103-6.

Jessu, 25-10, 50-13, 53-13. Jev,


Dyffrin, 75-1.



dyw 488.
See Deutur.

Heilin, 100-12.

ineutur, 22.


Helet, Llan, 64-io.
heli, 54-4.

Inis Pridein, 27-7, 28-1-5-11. Teir

rac ynis ar teir inis, 75-3.
Joff, 42-13.

hen, ep. of Llywarch,64-i4, 107-8



egluis, 63-9.


irii, 82-11.

(henben, ep. of Hennin, 69-17.)

codic, 81-4.

Henri, breenhin na
higneid, 10-6, 84-3.


buch, 8r6.


Iscolan, yscolheic, 81-2-3.
isel gwelitin, 64-1.

heul 38-11, 46-IO-I6, 83-13, 88'6.
of Eitivlch, 66-12

Itas, 62-5, Idas, 87-8.



Itewon, 102-2.
Iwerit, in

Judas *

Gwallauc, 63-14

of Jeithon,




hir, 28-7.


Hiraethauc, 83-2.

* *

Hirgwevn, Hir vynyt,


mab Run,

milur mirein,


niver, 68-10.




Llachev, 96-9,
Elvy, 68-4.

mab Arthur, 99-16

tnRed Bookof Hergest,
Hirerv minit, 69-9.
hirvlaut, 79-10.


Llan Bevno, 638.
Helet, 64-10.

hud = Guin mab Nud,
etiftir, tri,





Padarn, 63-16.

hwetil, 51-9.


llanerch, 49-15.
Ilavur, ar claur, 103-14.

hyneiw = Beduir a Bridlav,

Hyvlyt, tad Fyrnuael hael, 66-ii.

llawur,llywiaudir, = Arthur 72-10.
llaueghin, ep. of Llvch, 66-6.
llaugyfes, ep. of Llev, 66-14.


76-9, guledic

75-4, haelaf

Hywel welmor, v. Goronwy, 73-13

Llaur, 66-1, 75-10, 97-2.


66-6. 58-12.llaur. Llvagor. 100-4. 786. Lluch llauynnauc. lle«tir. 72-10. 54-9. dew. 58-12 . 55-16. tad 68-19. 46-1. 100-4. 67*2. Meibon— Llis Gvallauc. Uyth-er. cp. Aber 64-17. Llyv. 48-7. tad Lloegir. Llun. y duv llaur. 108-9.-io. Lleinauc. 68-13. 64'i3. kewin. Lleon. 49-14. of Lluch.C. Lloegir. * « Manawidan. 72-2. uab Lliwelit. Gwen. rvif. 66-14. Llir lledieith. 61-3. Uu ouit. Llywarch see Arav. L\enn altered Ueuon. Lledneint. Llyv. Riv. 68-13. 67-3. march lluoet agor. 46-7. mab Llywarch 105-5. 65-14. y rug. y rug Llewin ae. dyv. new a. [28-12. 66-14. Llyuarchh^n. Tawlogev. 94-13. Lloegir. of Emer. Livid Uedneis. ep. Ueutir Guynnassed. Llyr. 69-16). 16-11. 74-8. Llein. mab Lleynnac. Uoer. 58 in margin. = Meigen. 69-16). . Eithir. 55'i4"i6. (Llewelin ap Cynfric. of Llir. tad Gwallauc. Llyvnav. (Lledin. 104-16. Lleissaun. 46-15. 107-14.Lleynnauc. of Livid. llywiawdir llawur = Arthur. 79-7. 66-10. Merchin march. 38-11. Hog dessefTor. 93-11. to LleT/. hto.64-i4. . B.-8. lleon. Llvytauc. Llyant.t. ep. Lloegruis. 68-4. 46-19). Llut. i6"i2. 66-16. Uedneis. llyv niver. Ll^n. Lleinnauc. Llemenic. Vrien. 104-16. ep. 66-17. Llvch llaueghin. 60-3. h6n. Lluid. kad Caer. Mechit. tad Llvytauc. Pill. 68-10. 108-15. 10115 o nef hid laur. and note scribal error Llydau. tad Bran. 77-4. . Llis. 94-10. Lloegyr. 36-4 -ir ig cuir. \See Llyr. kaer. 96-13 . 107-8-13. Lledieith. kad Coed. ep. Lluiuein. Llia gvitel. SeeUir . 45-6. 102-2. Aber. 67-3. ep. Karadauc B. San(Sr* Lliv. 88-7. 97-4. Llev llaugyfes. 67-3. tad Creurdilad. Uog^orth. 77-9. Llev. Llethir y Brin. Argad. Lliwelit. Lluoscar. 66-2. Llev Powis. Uevreu 36-4. 38-8. 69-8. 52-13. llauynnauc. 38-11. Llychur. Llev a Gwidion. Llev.-i2. 68-14. Lluc vynit. 41-11. 66-io. 108-15 Lliv. y laur 99-6. 94-14. Lleynnac. Llewin ae Lledneint. Erthir. Seliw. 77-1. (Llywy. 67-3. 97-6. of Llachar.. 98-9. Llundein. io3'". Llech Vaelvy. Llyuelin. 69-7.B.

menestir. See Llech Vaelvy. Maes meuetauc. tad Alun Dywed 65'i3. Merchin. 65'8"lo. io7'4. io3'3. Madauc. March.B. mab Maredut.Mab. 6y6. See Mor. r'8. fonogion mab Llywarch 'l Mugc a lataut Mechit i . ab Run by2. 54'i3. Maen. 69-4 io3'48'ii. maban. maurtreuit. Caringrun. menic. 1 |"65'4'5.C. 93^2. mab y Manawidan ab Llyr. 69'2i. Meigen. 68' 16. Maelgun. Meironit. 103-05. mauridic. Meir. See finaun w. teulu. 277-10. 5^^Arwul. io3'i. vir Vrien. 94"io. lonet. Mechit. 747. 94'ii. infra. gueryd -ave 66' 18. am. mab y Guyn o Win llyuc. 77'6. m'ch Kaswallaun. 57-3. of Gereint. ep. L^7'i9. Maelenit. mangaled. 48'i2. gueith -vi 59'io. 8n. ep. div. gwiri7r6. yg gurthtir. mam duu 88" 1 3. Meilir. ebediv am. B. 45'io. 94' 12. 54'i4. ioi'4. See Rid Mechit.lo8'5. Meiri. mari. Ruthir ehon. 69'20. » warch hSn. Maredut. meiri mangaled. 72'5. 75'2. 38'8.28"l2 Melld. Maelvy. mam Crist. Mabon am Melld.ofMug. Menvy. 5112. treuit ban kirchuid Mug maur nyd oed uagaud meirch See meirch. 6o'20. 63' 2. a vascul a mascul-us. 29-4-5 [133-24]. Bruin o Bricheinauc. 67'I2. 69' 12. tad Madauc. tad Mabon. Mantvy. meibon 67'i9. 93'i-2. Melynlas. Meigen. b^'<). cp. meirch. ditguith- Madauc. maluinauc. Manauid. march. 48"6. See ab. Lly- Maelur. 93"3. mab Guendit Ossvran . 65'4. 998 llu. 6i'5 vebin. maluinauc. 4^4. 45M0.. 752.42"9. Melynlas. Maurth. cp. 36'2. Madauc. maurhidic. Carnawlauc. Maes Guitnev. .(r/.ep. goruir. 5o'i4. . 87"6. . mab Run 6i\'\y\y. kad.93T. 94"6. Bucheslum. 387. 46'i6. meibon. 937 . modridaw : teernet. terwenhit. io8'6 Mei march inis P. tri anreith. Mei. Guynev. 64'5. of Meilir. Mathauarn. Maes. Machrev. byi^. Maur. Tauautir. Maes mawr. 6ri. ioi7'i3. minit. Du hir Llvagor. 657. 67"20.67-i9. marchauc. maon. meirch Mechit. diffrin -uy 48'6. See Eidauc. Madauc. mawr. 94'i2. . 1067. See kaer Wantvy. 99-2. Keincaled. 57'3. kyven. Eliffer. Machavvy. mascul a bun. io8'5-6. Drudluid. byi. [131 1» Mabon am Mydron. Vaen ked. femen.

* &" 68"5. cp. 88'6. Meuric. 58 in margin. Mordei. mur. Prygwerennic 77"6. 46"i2. io2'i2 mer.6-2-8-ii. 47' 6 1 . 757. 53"2.Merchin. 6r2. ben. ioo'i4.37.. ion 5. li'l2.C. 99"4. eglur -3. 699. Ner. 47'io. See 93"67. Morvael. . 69' 14. 22'l. Mechit. meuetauc. Nynhav. 74-4 . 88'3. Llan. nav 42'5 toryw new. See Kaer Wyrtin.5. navgradnew. mauridic.. m. 77'8. 63"i2. Mynvy. Periw. * Meuric ar kewin y gureic.i. See Morgant. Nortmin. = Llachar. tad Merddin). dyv. (Merddin. Mydron. -va loo'g. aethV. Nu/. ioo'2. Moesen. tad Mabon.. Mor nav kanmaul. 37. 74*4 = MorccanGlamorgan. tad Vgnach. kinytion.6-2'8'l Mir-. new ac eluit. Morgant. gulad. kadimM. Eilivert 27'i # vinit. 77'8. mineich yn varchogion. dyffrin. io7'4. wibir winit. 93'i. Nortmandi. tad Eliffner. Morfryn. o hil. mab Peredur. 96-12. plant. io7'i. nav guiton 96'! 2. Nevuy. 47*4 diessic un- NantConvy. morua. Morial. Mugc. 32'I2. M6n. Mirtin. B. I2'5. Maes. morynion moelon. 5^^ ygaul. 93'6. maon 6o'2o Hir Mydno. 74"i2. 64"8. Merchir. 54'2'I0. Pennant. 657 . 46-14. 66"8 . 98"8. 108*5. to death. (Morfryn. 63"5. mab Karreian c. tir. nognav. 487. Hirerv m. 97m. Mihagel. 46-1 5. maur treuit. See Cors M. galon -8.46'i7'2o) Mochno.B. 46-3. . nav. 617. 65*4. Morgant. maurhidic. Ed win imon. Mor. 46'i7'2i.2-i. Morccanhvc 77'8. 957 . Morien. rid. 6o"9 arben. 78'6. tad Gain. i2-9. .6o"6 o amtiret. mynver. 43'9. 59' 14. 63' 10. 68-8. Note that maur treuit do not mean mawr dre/ydd as usually transliterated te/mawrdrewydd. io2'8. 7%^ffonogion o/Mugc. 36' i.Myrt-. Reen. chyrdit. See direid. Pedyr. i. ior irii. 57'io. 94"6. mererid. new a Uaur. minit Eidin. 63'5. 67"i4. io6'ii-i6. Hhe mighty smiter^ beat Mervin. 5. 103-15. march Lluid. cp. Mochnvy. mynwent Corbre. eluit dein '12. Myrtin. . fl. egluc 65"5. merwerit. mynogi.e. myneich 56'i3. 47'3. jnilur mirein Mechydd cp. * Mug. 2'l. 88"i3. hvc.

Q2 15: . 52TO. 48" 10. perthic. ior3. 57-15. bet in Llan Pennant Turch. I3'5. 74-5. 48' 18. Pyd. Peryton. 66" 1 7. pebir gur... 73" 15. penpobieith 83'i2. periw new. 39'2. pedridauc. Pryderi. Pedir. Prydin. offereid. 84"4. 7r3.26'i 95'9 . 477. 18-5. bet in Llan Morvael.. vz"«it. Penminit. orian. 64-2. 27"8. Paul ac Annhun. pen palach. 66'I3. Pill.niabVrien. 49-3. Llan. 105-5 . 81 'ii. 95 "6. . pant Gwinn Gvinionauc. Penguern. 6o'4. 60-6 . tad Run. 947. 92-7 inis. 92' 13. Peredur penwetic. 44'i. pridit See\fix\. porthaur new. palach. teulu. (pendeuic Eryri). 79-3 . Owein. fili et spiritu. « 64T1. Vrien. of Peredur. pimp penaeth. Penrin. Oliver 14-9. ep. 78'6. kad im.. 58 m. on. ep. 95'6. 64"5. 65'3. io8'4. 93-8 peryw pilgeint. 96' 14" 1 5.llev. Bro. 97. 38"4. paraduis 407. Padarn. (Prydein. paul cored. 103-2. pater et fiU'us Pimlumon. 103-2. 58'I2. 647 Owein . tad Mor. 377-8.pedrydant. 48' 15. pen. 707. pebrur. 63" 16. * pegor. * peddrael. 52-12 mur Prydein. . 92'2'6io. o tirion . Pridein. traufev P. Passcen. P. 1 92*9. maur. Powis.. 37-8.. mab Llywarch Paluc. of Uthir. 64"8 » i = I prise. milguir Bridein. 11 "12. 57"4 . penwetic. hen. 63-13. 88-14. pimp dirnaud.Oeth ac Anoeth. 98'6. pader. 100-7.74-i3 glyu. pedror. Ossvran. pendragon. 2 '8. pridit 87-12.[irii]. pedryal. helet. Owein. penbaladir. 2r8'9'i2. 81-19. pedrival. Reged. 54'2.76'l priw uchei«.27 7. Kymri. pryued. teernweilch 100-5 ! milvir P. pimp kaer. Passe. 67-2. 84'2. 60-7. cp. 65"8. . ep. 63'15. onn verev. mab. 69'3 . 15-2. 73-10 P. 65"8. 28-1-6-11 : unpen o P. 64' 10. 53" 17. abUrien » fhael 26-9. 69-20). 40"io. 553. 103-12. mor. 59' IS- Ogyrven. yr 7ri. of Kyntelv. pelis. 27" i. cath. . pendewic Dyued. infra. 92-8. 28'2. « Omni. 66'4. * pedryfanhauc.

Run. 92*i4. Romani. 57-12. Riv Didmuy. 46-3 . 58-5. io8'4. etc. mab Kynan garrvin. Reged. 47"3. 74'9. Ritech. ep. ar Drvd arall. 66-17.. Rieinvc. io6'4. kywranc R. synuir v. 66'i6'i9. 6o-i4-i6. 74'9. 67T. Ryterch hael. Ryd Britu. 93-5. 137 . (Sais. 69"i. Rid Vochnvy. 23-24. ofBeidauc. 6ri4. 59' 11. I25'29).) 2'9. 49'8. B.Ryderch49"l6. Ri oet ew. 1037. 58'5. Ri-. seith guaew. Ren 88' 1 1. Rid Reon. Ruvein.28'5. 68'll. 69T. RuT/aun. caer. Ritech h. io7'3. io6'6. 67"! I. Reon. ep. reen. sinhuir vann 63' 11. 62'i2.kad. 29-12. Ros. 503. of Owein. 68'6. iny. Riderch ? h. iny. Riv Lyvnav. io2'2. See Alld. 88'i5 Devs ren. . 94-9. Siaun. » Run. • (Ryt Gynan gyhoret. S2'i i.. See Rid Reon. * Saeson 6o'6. Sallauc. Sanffreid. Saesson. h. Silit. glan. . Rigenev. See Ri— 68'20.B. * » seint 34-4. 667. rodwit. Seithennin Seliw. Run. rut.C. 69'i4.. Rigenev. See Bucheslum tad Meigen. 68'20. 27" 10. Ridev. 68-3. tad ruyw. rrin. Ry— » Rys. See Ryrianet. 68" 12. 83'2'io. 65-II. of Seithennin. 68'ii. 64'i6'i7. 67'9 . Sarffren. ruyw. 57'ii Rys. 66'i6. Ris. 55'5. Kaer. 69'9. seith meib Eliffer. Riterch. Rid Vaen ked. 85-5. Ryddnant.. suinau. Gilberd. 93' 10. etc. R. ergynan. seith seint. 32-33.Rallt. f^S'ii) I07"3- Ruthir ehon tuthbleit.tan. io8'8. 69'i8). Ris. S. o hil. 52'4. ryievanc daerin. mab Alun Diwed. 77'8. 83. 64'9. Seon. Run. 57'i6. 92'5. Rowynniauc. a want Run. in y. rinn. pen Saeson 667. Sandew. 56'i6. 92'i3. Run. 65'2. 52'S. 28-8.. 5 "8-9. io8'4. 7rii. (Sanauc. 28*4.. (69'i5). » 2-9.. Riogan. 5i'i3.12. ruyv enit ran. ep. . 64*2. Rymi.. 29"6. tra. Run. 34'4. Run. * Selyw Seri. tad Llachar. 6. g'l » mab . 64'3. Rydirch. -hin. mab Pyd. suyt Erbin. 57-1 1. 82T5. 65' 12. See Ryderch h. mab Ll'ch hSn. Kaer. march synhuir vann. ren new. 69-I2. -wut Iwerit. mab Llywarch hen. 48'io. 6o'20.

97T3. Taradir. tarv trin. 74'! tir . rac ynis ar teir Turch. . 25'9. 89-3. 99-9. SS'IO. tarv torment. Trewruz'd. 64-7 eredictir. 36-11.7'i. terwenhit. 74-5IS'-i? . teulu bann Tywi. hir t. Brin. Cp. 28-1. Tri Uv rac drech. Talyes'. 47"i4. teulu Arthur. » ton navfed. teithiauc. 92'2 tir Brycheinauc . Tywin.B. Taw. 92-4.-7. 104" i. talyrth. Taliessin. 55'9. 94-7. Teiwiaffon. ep. Aber. Tal tal art. vtvt. Diwneint. 72'ii elvittir. See . 28-11.. 107T3. 6o'6. . Madauc uchel tytin. Trywruid 94'ii. 69'9T3. I. P. Vnic 102-8-12 .mab Mydno. trined in celi a thri vned. 67' 1 8. I03'5 I03-4-8-II .64-i. Teir cad. Tauautir breichir. t. io3"i6 Benlli gaur. Vrien. 52' 12. Tri aghimen kad. Tavue68'ii Tawuenessaf98T4. Du t. march Talan. 28-8. olanT. 76-12: m. 77'9.Tawuy47'i4. 62-5. mab Llut. Tri meib Llywarch h^n. 85-1. P. Inis P. \i>Z-i<). 15-1. ep. Tri bodauc.98'i3 Tedei. Teyrnuron.' ep. 63'io. 63'i. t. 104-1 Tryuan i ^^ alld Try van 64-7. \ordin-em. Urien. 68'i9. tad Owein.\ 26'4. Tawlogev. . 76-3. . 65"3. tarv.. P. of Eidal.. 277. Trewruit. 49-50. : traetheu 95-10. 34-3. bariffvin. .44'6. t. 28'6.. S ri 7. 66"8 . 59"i4 Guinet.2'8. tad Pass. 63-1 dvylan. tirethlin. Tri hoev etystir Inis Tri gohoev etystir Tri thorn etystir I. Vgnach. Dormach. tad O. ' tad awen. Tri anreith yscvn. Tegigil. . 687 . o tir Guinet. io8-i6. 21' 12. 55"i4. * B. Tri seith pader. 9-6. io8'l. march Kadwallaun. 57"i2 . 69-9-I3. Pennant. of Tedei. 5I-I7. 28-3. 74-10.. io2'9'io. 49'2. Taliess' 4-4. 35*5 inis. Ll'rchhen 107-15 Vrien. tri diweir deulv. kiraerev. 75'3. tuthbleit.' 637. 27*1 1. teulv. 66-13. Taguistil. Tryuruyd 1-7. 53'. tir Mynvy. .' tad awen. 63-14. 5'8. tir tadcu Madauc. Tdv. 6o'ii. 68-6. pont ar. TytuI. 69'5 can 28-3 . 53-5. ioo'4. . of Goholeth. Oeth ac Anoeth 66'4 . Uthir pendragon. 77-12 .. 65-6. 6ri6 erir. 97-13. 637. finhaun. diweir Ryuet 888 tri tryde Uv 25-12. 27-9 . urtin.. See Tryuruyd. Ruthir ehon.C. 17. vrten. . io8-l. 30' i. tir. » Teernon. eithaw98-i5. 61 '4 . ? 54'4. truinrut. ep.6'5. 107T3. 64-1. 68' 18. of trydit . . tir terwin y eilon. tirion {pl. trin 65'i8.

Vaelvy, llech, 467. Vaenked, Rid, 65-11.


See Guineu, Guyneu.

Vagv, claur, 103" 17. vann caer,yar, I o6' 1 1 ,van k. io6'

Aedan, 15-9. vir Vrien, Madauc, 65-6. uiron Yswein, 58 m.

[98' I4"'d 68-3,

Wantvy, kaer,


vrth-av, 16-3





veibonin, brad gulad, 6o'5.

Wtic, gueith, 83- 11. See Gwtic. »


ep. of



wenestir, finaun, io6'8-ii.
rid, 47'3.

vythneint, 94-5.

Uriauael, Kelli, 67'4.

See Brython.

Vynyt, Hir-, 66-8. Wyrtin, Kaer, 57-9.

Warvy 74-5, Guarvy 50-6, Warruy

Ynys, teir rac, 75-3. See Inis. Yscolan 81 -2, Iscolan, 81-3. ystarn de winev, 83-1 •3-6. Cp. Guynev, march Kei. * Yftawin, 96-11. Ystradwy. Ysradvi, 74-5.
Ystyuacheu, 67-4. Yswein, uiron, 58 (margin),


wen,nichan, 3rio. QJ.guengert.
wibir winit, 99"io.
wid, 437. (Wiliam Sion, 125-33).


ar, 6i-i.


Ywerit clod lydan, tad Bran,99-i4. Cp. in rodwut iwerit, 92-14.



Some of the

less familiar forms of Verbs*.

ends in -it, i.e. -yb=-y vel -;. Anigiffredit937,99'lo;clivit20"5;kyuerchyt79l6;digonit 197; doit 98'2, lo2'i erchit 97'l6 gogyuerchit 98'i guneit 235 imwaredit 19-6 medrit 925 rotit gS'l Kedwi 43'i2, erti 55'i,&c. sillit 99^9. of taraw=tereu 3 sg. Pres. Indicative of a8aw = eteu 102-5 63'I3 of cadw = rycheidvv I4'6; of llanw = Ileinw loi'i of berwi = beirvv lori oferchi = eirch 3rii [also cyv-wch 3r9, 50-4, go- 96' 14, en-eirch 5o'2, kywr- i6-6) parch-av = peirch 50-5 of trenghi 70"I2 = treinc 70^9 ; of diang-av = ry dieinc 918 of coSi 436 = caw8 146 ; of digoni=dichaun 717; of no8i = naw8 811, 7o'ii of cronni = crawn 3 r3; arvoll-av = erviIl ig'i, ior6,' gwel-av, 2. -i45'4, gwyl478. 3 sg. Preterites in -aud. Diwaud 42-13, 447, diwod 45-2, divaud 69-6, rym divod 61-13 guaraud 39-8.
2 sg. PRt:s. Ind., in old poetry, often
; ; ; ; ;
; ;










-wys, -ws. Bradas 81-9 cauas 66-3, guelas iori6, rythwelas 101-12 ry dadlas 74-2: digon« 100-14; rotes 42-16, 6615; ry toes 106-7: cedwzV 43-12, ry chedwis 14-7 ry chynis 14-8 treghis 21-13, 7°'^ h&TdiUys 43-13 bendiguis 35-9 bilwis43-i brissuis 101-3 crevis 86-10; kynnuis 40-8 guiscvis43'l6; ry wiscuis 75"io; minnvis 44-4; pechuis 41-14 tinnuis 97-5-11 ; bendigaj- 36-1 ffruinclymuus 93-13.
3 sg.
in -as, -es, -is,


dylivas 87-8; tuyllas 81-9:












3 sg. Perfects Passive in -ad, -ed. Caffad95-2; caffod 16-2; diallad 63-3 rim artuad 23-1 ry parad 85-10 suinad 23-10 arched 73-10 ; colled 95-2; digoned 36-8; ganed 65-14, 73-9, ri aned S3-15 proued 40-1 roted 2312 ry doded 81-1017.





Prof. Strachan writes in the Revue Celtique, lOfyj: "It is well-known that the Subj. of the Irish verb has formally only two tenses, a present and a past. I have discovered clear indications that in British, as in Irish, there were at one time only two tenses ... In the same passage an earlier text shews the past Subj. when a later exhibits the plpf. Thus R.B. Mab. yr nas gwelsei W. B. kyn nys rywelhei 454 '22 &c. . Later plpf. Subj. forms plpf. Ind., and have come from them. . The spread of the plpf. Ind. to the Subj. goes along with the disappearance of A forms in the Subj., whereby the past Subj. came to coincide in form with impf. Ind., except in a few words . and even there is a tendency to substitute byZitm for bewn.
. . .









As Thurneysen has pointed out K7.., XXXI, 10, the plpf. Ind. is in itself a British innovation, modelled on the impf. In Early Welsh the impf. is still found in a plpf. sense in the apodosis of conditional sentences, e.g. diri a collei bei fias prinAei=ma.n would have been lost if He had not redeemed him bei yscuypun nys gunawn — \{ I had known &c." B.B.C., 4i'i & 8i'i2.
. .


In his paper on the SuBJ. MooD in Irish Prof Strachan has shown that rois found W'ith the past, only in exceptional circumstances. "In Welsh ry is absent in the instances quoted from the B.B.C. and in a couple of others, but more generally it is present. Here obviously we are confronted with a Welsh innovation to get a more distinct form to express the plpf. sense. A similar use of ry is found with the Pres. Subj. when it has the force of a perfect, cf. Eriu II, 2t8. This use, however, is not without its exception." See * Continued from page 112 q,v, a digon/iom = Vihsit we have done 30-3.




KB X) €[© :^

E.X[ 0)1^:^3^



This German fount, in various sizes, and the letters specially cut represent the Large Initials referred to on page xxxvii above. All are red, except those particularised below. Black: A 46'i. Gr^^«;A48-4,49-8, 50-15, 51-14, 52-1 641-5,87-3; D 73-1 1 £47-7, G85-7; H61-10, 62-1-6,70-13; K 104-3; N 742; S 1066; V76-10.





10-12, 86-6










fount, in smaller capitals, represents red letters in the MS., except those enumerated below which are black. 78-3-5-8-10-13, 82-3, 85-1; B 91-9; 046-9-11-13; 63-4-5-13,

The above



107-11; 65-1, 66-2-8, 90-4; 46-14 ; 83-13, 90-14, 107-15 ; 90-1 ; S 91-1 ; 3-5-7, 19-10, 27-11, 65-2, 83-16, 89-3, 107-13, 108-1.






Certain of the large capitals are floriated, in Black, B 87-3, 18-1 88-3 \n Red, B41-5 ; K 104-3 coloured in Chrome: 4,%-^ the hound Dormarch on page 97 the human head on page 25, also corners of the square enclosing D, g-i, with black in the centre. For further details see Facsimile, and its prefatory note.








The Tables of the Verbs have crowded out the analysis of the orthography. The Notes were printed over a year ago, otherwise
the Verbs would have fared similarly. As there is no real end to any work, only a leaving off, I stop with the few corrections and additions which follow. First comes xx-17 of the preface. Nis credav goel can nid kerth. Why do we say " God bless you " to the man who sneezes ? We do not know, but the persistence of the ritual shows the importance of the dogma in our ancestral religion. We are all suckled in creeds outworn when we are grown up we repeat our catechisms, ancient and modern, with equal Our minds are fervour and equal ignorance of the meaning. swayed by nursery tales, and we ever find it necessary to dash past dark places to escape bogies of the mind. Our bard, to keep up his spirits, sings aloud In the hands of my Lord I will dress to-day a sneeze I hear, it will not hurt me, I will not believe it. I will dress me seemly well / will not believe an omen, because it is not certain; He who created me will sustain me.' 82-3-7. Later he tries to rationalize on the subject, for he reflects that where there is a But it is safe to assume that nose there will be sneezing, 83-5.
: :




sneezing perturbed his soul to the end. 46- 1 7 The statement that Merhin is the author of the matter on 47-62 is too absurd to discuss. Note the dates of the events, p. xxiii, etc.

May-day, igoj.



•Scribal Errors.

76 ge\ho/or

?me/. r38'4. 169 a hun /or ? A«hun i.e. Anton-y, the father of monachism. cp. 23-3 nin cred «z. 3ig-io uore .... wenlgert ^i' 12]. Omit. 29'3 weUi /or wellig, 3sg. Pres. Ind. of gwelligaw //wa2 gwall— 43'i4 guyth /or gwyrth, see 44-2. Llywarch Reynolds. 49'9) 891 1, 9ri4 ^scud, yscuid /or the old monosyllabic scutti. 64'! urtin /or u/rtin. 92-8 yar can /or ? ya.r varc/i ca.n. briyvhun. Omit. 70-5 imyo^l yor \xnyo\ed. 84*2 bid., m. for ecclvis, f. Note /^esgip ae /iigneid, and metre. 84"i3 Ryhun a ryuetudaud i.e. Ryhun ryveSw-dawd. 878 dyl/Vas. Metre requires a dissyllable. J ?dvyl/as. Cp. 94'S mi ae guaredz for ys mi ae guared = ae guared ys mi. Arnun nin cred ni nep = Arnun nep nin cred, 23'3. 105—106. kedywd!?|mteith /or kedymteith.

gwelho. ir2 i2'5 «ev /£)r ?aev = wyv.

KaoA /or

Eitol. cp. 67'i7,

& Bruis


iz'iimer /or

= godiv. 9-12 Cathyr = Jlr. cinteir. = prayer, from Lat. Pet-o. \y\ mywir from me7nor-[a. 9'i ren = reen., ruling power, from an oblique case oiregen-s. lO'4 kywyrgirn kyvle = kyvr-gyrn kyv-lei". 47'6, 58'6 dillad = coat of mail. 5314 nymiad = ny mad. 66'5 yinoeth = ? yn oeth = yn oeh guas. But cp. R.B. 7*30
6'3 vuelin









Eirymynyd acdo


Bit glaf

86'3 d\-iawi. Cp. gwa-Su/ = dot, loo'i6 golchiw. Verbal noun. |cp. molim.

pob trOm IlOm Uet noeth. dowry. Eng. do/e, O.E. ddi, geddl.

Additional Notes.
22*1, 87'! 5 dinwrtj'hite
. .








Scr. errors for diwnute dissyllables. The plpf. is an
p. 157.

innovation in Welsh.

See note on

22'i2 pir wu-u/ This rhymes with dikivol«. the rhyme-words of kyvle = kyv-le/'lo"4 Ili

The/is mute.


= lli/"62'I5,






drech drem



'before May9.' /"//io/i^. See xxx"7-i8. -w/- is usually Cp. An«//un 38'i4 ca«//yn 166 kiw^uan 6'5 ; keiweidyfcr kei«/;eid, from keiw/eid 99, i5'4; torme«/ioe8 io3'9. 389 awotun = abyss, from an + go+dwvyn. The intensive particle an must not be confounded with the negative an., in words like awchvant 734, (2«hetauc 127, ^«weir 87'6, enrydet 547, fwryuet 557, where the a is affected by the following palatal vowels.
33'i Ki«/evin


took such cognisance of men and things, If any beat a horse you felt he saw Yet stared at nobody, you stared at him, And found, less to your pleasure than surprise. He seemed to know you and expect as much. R. Browning.


reduced to nh.





naturally 96' II Ys/awingun. Cp. eel. Myv. Note 5fi7. Gothic mag-ath-s." Bruts i-j()-]. i y redech. Bran mab y merit (fem. 88'8 merwerit mor. ^nu nyth ervill. M. : 'a rei onadunt a adassant Redec/i. Khy-vel. agitation.6i"5 eilon = aliens. 96'9 d\heit = ux\-reachab\e^ i. 82'i-7 See xx'i7. 62' 1 4 a llyr en Hi. a gynhuIlo8 anreitheu drwy losci tei a diffeithaw haiach yr holl wladoeh. ac ereill yn gvbyl a dalyassant. Sense suggests 10I-6-8 FechidXooks like a verb— 3 sg. . Deu traeth app. Ef kyrch kerdoryon fe fyberO Seon. Laws MS.' Hiraethog with quivering mane. For the assimilation of ? wrth ar rid of consonants cp. 8r6 See note p. The line is app. al-i-us. Br. wave. servant. maid O. fol. do no harm ' — a sneeze can 82 '4 coel 83' I = Ir.e. with bridle white. the tossing or tumult of the sea. mf:r7very8.. and 6214 above.' but that does not explain the bungled 'im djoA. Tal. [? flood-tide]. or barony of Kemes. Pres. page 158. 1907. vel 'Trewdrath' in Welsh. 'adult' V. cp.B. See Note p. 98'i3 urth i fruin yd wet.' See Postscript. Cp.).B. footnote 4 & cp.«a5'rf. I Myv. . Howel vab GronO 73-13 Hywel welmoT. The Ysgavynwyn of Aneirin. and established them there.E. Taliessin 43-8 : eillon deu traeth GOell kaeth Dyfet. . The Norman leader "Martin de Tours or de Turribus. .C. -macdacht. . cawyd k. = suggests Yscawingum = Ysgavnwyn. i . Noc = Cp. Read: ffrwy« «yd hw-eS. 67'i3 anoeth bid. Ind. Both strands belong to the old lordship Marcher. frivolity. Ir.' ci. 133. (See x-3l). 67'i5 Cylchuy drei. ysgwydamdre\ i6o^'52. anoeth byd braOt bOyn kynnuU J?. .e. \x. I won't believe it. and postscript. pleasure 22'l. Tal. I3'i820. AtOyn eryr ar Ian llyr pan llanhOy 9-4 . unattainable. gl: auspicium. 42 'S. = . and footnote 28 of page xviii. See also. the strands of Fishguard and Newport. mor-fairrge. Loth's article in Revue Celtigue. dylleinO dy llyr 6626 . /i«. i. 137. corn. 82"4 Nid ew wylduu = ? iJyduu = pyd/w. maghieth. & cp. lo6'9 vachteith = morwyn.' The third line contrasts favourably the reception given to the subject of the poem by the bard with that by Tristan. Trevdraeth. Pal. ac ereyll o newyd a Saddle thy bay.. cp. See xvi-xviii. Kerth = f(?r/-wj. cp. cp. or pydwj/. Matez 'servant'. See page xi. Cp. O. : Val twryf ebyr yn llyr Uawn i s6^g. = caw «yd kerth 82'6 aHd 92 '5 wi wiv = viyv 7/yw 1006. a syllable short.E. which "was originally independent of the Palatinate of Pembroke" in Dyved. calcdrei." brought the eillon Note that Newport is into deu traeth. 98'i5(?rirmorterruin. with Bran vab llyr. = strangers. al. Lat. & CaXmor. m'ddchen. I02'2 Ban deuaw o caery^o« o imlat ac itewon. 88'8 below. 99'i4. ' 160 B. coursing OSSodassant. HENRY. 20'6.

The name of Elgant figures as one of the four princes of the adjoining parish of LI. Kedvyw. with whose court Taliessin is associated. i. Phillimore identifies Traeth Tryvrwyd. 120. 4'2. in the upper hamlet of Talley parish. J where Kyndur appears among their ancestors. Though I had learnt this from the Annates Camb?iae. Egerton Phillimore called my attention The scribe. which are generally a year or two out. vol. and noticed the change of metre at 47.. vol. he could not have been at ArvderyS in 573. Ddv. turned over two or to the fact. Witness the death of Dywel ab Erbin. I found it impossible to verify anything.. and the beginning of the second dialogue. 66-67. therefore. The first half only. J Cardiff MS. figures as the bard of the men of the South. and long has his mistake lived undetected. Mr. p. in LI. in common with others. Erbin and Elgan figure in the line of the sixth century Kings of Dyved. p. I failed to perceive that two different dialogues had been compressed into one. These two bards are the representatives of the rival combatants. vol. 714. p. Sawyl. The dates given are those of the Bruts. 65T6. 149) occurs in Blaen Cediw in LI. with the Solway Firth. and is commemorated in Trallwng Elgan.. i. more leaves of his original together. The speakers being the same in both dialogues the change of subject escaped the scribe's notice." The rivulet Bachwy is a local — *See Report on Welsh MSS. including the latest. in 'which Maclgwn and his men took a decisive part. Gan and Llether Cadvan. till Mr. . and Skene's Four Ancient i. and Lewis's Topographical Dictionary. xxiv9-i5 Omit: "It only mentions Bachwy is too late" " Robert of Belesme" "or Bachwy. of LI. pp. t Report on Welsh MSS. The history of Lewis needs revision. Myrhin. 77. are silent on the events treated in our text. Phillimore proposes to print soon. we may suppose. the Tribruit of Nennius.B. called the King of Dyved in the Vita Merlini.. commemorates his companion. 161 .* As Maelgwn is said to have died in 547. These and other interesting identifications Mr. These pages were written with the help of the Ttruts. The xxiii-xxviii. That Maelgwn made a descent on Dyved is clear. thus omitting the end ol the first.C. 25.Corrections ix'8-9 " &• Additions subject is the Battle of ArvderyS. and his grave in the Plain of Caeo.. but as Histories of England." When I wrote that sentence I was mentally fast asleep. or its cognate Cetiu {B. yet. Books of Wales. concerns Maelgwn. 1-6. B. Gathen. which appears as Tracht Romra in the Irish Life of Adamnan. Students will therefore accept nothing on trust.

Pal. . 35) read xvni and for /. 106-9. 55-7-13. 95-4. where it is shewn that the foreigners who held the Irish coast were not Danes. I20"i .B. as stated the by " xxiv. cp. E. 94-6.//*. Gint. and cp. du 86-5.tributary of the Severn. 2212. having read the lines between Sidney and Melbourne in 1881. see 162 - B.N. Alex.C. 4l>. last line: cancel repetition of in ix7. Mr. and how much it is. Robert Browning. 307. . . Mr. mistake of writing Note 41. Lewis. p. first sentence of footnote 17. 7fioi'.P. and of a xxiii'i3. Elei.P. I mis-quoted from memory. 83Tb.' . I4"6. kad. tir. Arthur Jones. 92'8 . 637 Tedei. Gwythneint • 94-5. and what worlds away. Tout. n. Moro OrwySawg xiii. xxiii.' rc«rt"amhad' 97. For the compositor's 'agressively read 'aggressively' xx"29 for 'everthing' rt'rtrf' everything' xxviT5 in some for '0 bawSyn copies read 'a bawSyn' xxxvi7 for 'firmament. 6r3. ISewon/^r KerSorion. Bugge's Norseme?i in Ireland. has called my attention to Mr. ' ' . for 'di/??culty. Kyminaud. Morgan. . 293. tad read Omit Fechid and urtin.\xviii'27 84'8. Bruts. also cp. xi n. xiv. mein wineu 2'4. Notes 125." Prof T. Jones also points out that in the Britts Norsemen were confounded with Germans (267'20-2i. ?64-i. huimleian 519. Notes ir4. 172. ["• 4^x'l [Er]ethlin. INDEX* Kewin ir aelwyd 47'9. but Norwegians. 160). 945. of the Manchester University. Col. For 'amhad.' read ftrmamtnl' . And the little less. 273'io-ii). preitev gorthowis 96-4. 137. F. mam . who nevertheless makes Machawy or Bachwy " elsewhere. E. Myrtin. 303. 55-14. Gwytheint Mor Terrwyn 98-15. Lt. 82'9. Jiead : Oh the little more. J . iof6^ Cancel last paragraph of Pal. and never seen them again. 12. llu Drum 98-I3 . xxvii"i7 omit " and again at Winchester in 1 For Senghenyh read Seinhenyb = Sueineshe = Swansea Castle. xvii. transpose ae to ea read' di^culty' I40"22 in 'raed' = read. ' For folio xv/i (p. 105) read/. which it joins above Llan Idloes. For Ywerit Note on 88-8 (p. . & for 'na?^/' read' naut' P. . 'cithara notissima Tithen' of Vita Merlini. Cancel Pal.F//*(p. Llvvch Garmon = Wexford.

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Black book of Carmarthen PB 2273. ' .B3« .