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1 Chapter 1 The Problem Introduction The use of cigarette in our society has been a long time culture in the

world. The use of this said stress reliever has also brought a lot of discussion to people against and pro- smoking. Behind the fact that the use of cigarette has lots of dangerous effects to health, society and environment, there are people who still treat the use of cigarette as their pain, stress and loneliness reliever. A lot of individuals appropriate large amount of money just to sustain the use of cigarette. In the Philippines, even a law has been passed to increase the amount of cigarette in order that the smokers will limit their cigarette consumption and to likewise increase the collection of tax in this products, the use of so is still high and incomparable to other goods that is sold in the market. The reason might be hurled to the chemicals in the cigarette that makes the smokers addicted and prevent them to stop once they tasted a stick of cigarette.. It is said that smoking was a heritage of our ancestors. Indeed the use of cigarette serves as medication and as a cure to various illnesses and diseases. But nowadays, smoking serves as a satisfaction ingredient to millions of people around the world. According to Britannica Concise Encyclopedia (2007), smoking is the inhalation of smoke coming from burned plant, cigarette or pipe. Even though there are societal and medical arguments against the use of tobacco products, smoking is still practiced throughout the world. Cigarette contains a chemical called nicotine which causes addiction to users. It has also stimulating and tranquilizing psychoactive effects. In this research, the leading causes, effects, proposed solutions and the equal distribution of frequency of every causes, effects, proposed solutions to each other is the very reason to find why does students become so attracted and addicted to smoking despite of the fact that it has worst effects to their body and to their health as a whole. In the information that has been collected, researchers will also test the equality of distribution of the causes, effects and proposed solutions to prevent smoking.

the following has been used: Test of hypothesis: Chi-Square.Chi-Square fo . effects and proposed solutions to prevent smoking. What are the leading effects of the use of cigarette of the students of Bicol University? 3.2 Statement of the Problem 1. There are 50 respondents coming from the College of Social Sciences and Philosophy as a sample to answer the questions on the checklist that has been made to test the causes. (fo-fe)2 Xc2 =  _____ fe Xc2 . effects and proposed solutions to prevent smoking. effects and proposed solutions to prevent smoking. Using the goodness of fit-test as a sub-type of Chi-Square form of testing the validity of hypothesis. and proposed solutions to prevent the students of Bicol University from smoking? Scope and Delimitation The research is focused on the causes. Is there an equal distribution on frequency on causes.Expected Frequency . the following has been used. this has been used to test if there is an equal distribution to the causes. Statistical Instrument To test if there is an equal distribution on the several causes. proposed solution to prevent the use of cigarette and the equality of the distribution on the aforementioned aspects of the students of Bicol University. What are the proposed solutions to prevent the use of cigarette of the students of Bicol University? 4. effects. What are the leading causes of the use of cigarette of the students of Bicol University? 2.Observed Frequency fe . effects.

and proposed solution to prevent the use of cigarette as long as it correspond to them. Using the checklist as an instrument to collect various data to come up into conclusion.3 Interpretation of collected data. The data collected was tallied and transferred to a table for further interpretation . effects. There are 50 respondents whom not limited to choose how frequent several suggested reasons.

As a fashion/style 12. Curiosity 4. Tension Reliever 9. magazines. Trip 11.5 11 Frequency count 22 31 12 7 Rank 3 1 7 9 Mean n 166 _____ = _____= 13 n 13 i=1 Ʃ X1 . To look handsome Total=166 29 11 14 13 20 1 3 1 2 2 8 5 6 4 12. Past time 13. Chapter 2 Interpretation of Data Collected Table 1. internet.4 . Energy booster 7.) 5.Imitated from media (tv.Peers/ friends 3. Drowsiness reliever 8. To serve as a desserts 10. Causes or reasons of Smoking Leading Causes 1.5 10 12.Satisfaction 2. etc. Stress reliever 6.

8 + 3 = 3.8  20 -14 ____ 6x .5 Mode =1 *the most frequent value that appeared.  Range R = H-L = 31-1 =30 Quantiles Sorted Numerical data: Q3 = 3(13+1) ______ 4 = 10.2 = 0.8 +14 = 15. Median 13 s the median.2 P30= 30(13+1) ________ 100 = 9.20 ____ 2 x .8  22 .3 .5= 1 + 20= 21 N is odd so the median is 13 because it is the middle score 1 1 2 3 7 11 12 13 14 20 22 29 31 D3= 3(13+1) _______ 10 = 4.3= 1.5  7 -3 _____ 4 x .

X 9 1 6 18 16 2 1 0 7 12 10 12 11 Ʃ X .13 =9 12-13 =-1 7-13= -6 31-13= 18 29-13=16 11-13= -2 14-13=1 13-13= 0 20-13= 7 1-13= -12 3-13= -10 1-13= -12 2-13= -11 Absolute deviation X .A.X= 105 .D = Ʃ X .X n _________ =166 n _____ = 105 =8 13 ______ =13(sample mean) 13 22.6 Average/Mean Deviation: Scores X Score deviation from mean X-X 22 12 7 31 29 11 14 13 20 1 3 1 2 Ʃx= 166 X= Ʃx Mean/Average deviation: ____ M.

Pampawala ng antok 8. To serve as a desserts 10.8 12. internet. Curiosity 4.88 0.88 7. Energy booster 7.8 0.8 12.6 25.Satisfaction 2.8 10. Stress reliever 6.88 .003 20 20 12.5 0.05 1 3 1 3 12.Pampawala ng nerbiyos 9.8 20.8 29 11 14 29 11 14 12. etc. magazines.05 2.8 12. As a fashion/style 12.7 Table 1 Causes or Reasons of Smoking Causes of Smoking Frequency Count fo fe =166/13 (fo-fe)2 _____ fe 6.8 4.1 13 13 12.8 12.25 0. Libangan kapag walang magawa 22 31 12 7 22 31 12 7 12.) 5.8 12.8 12.Imitated from media (tv. Trip lang 11.Peers/ friends 3.8 10.6 1.5 1 1 12.

Discomforted breathing 29 29 25 19 33 29 Total: 164 29 29 25 19 33 29 Total: 164 27.01 level of significance.19 .  = 0.393  26.Blackening of gums 5. let it be determined if the causes of smoking are equally distributed based on the data shown. we reject Ho Conclusion: The causes of smoking are not equally distributed.10 . Ho: The causes of smoking of Bicol University students are equally distributed. Using the goodness of fit test at the 0.3 0.Blackening of lips 6.01(12) = 26. To look handsome Total = 166 Test of Hypothesis *Chi-Square Problem: The research has been made entitled as “The Effects of Smoking to the Students of Bicol University. Table 2 Proposed solutions to avoid Smoking Leading Effects of Smoking Frequency Count fo fe =164/6 (fo-fe)2 _____ fe 1.Cough 2.1 Since 98.3 27.8 9.2 .10 Xc2 = 4.3 27.19 2.3 27.Discoloration of teeth 3. Ha: The causes of smoking of Bicol University students are not equally distributed.Bad breath 4.5 1.393 2 2 12.8 13.10 .3 27.2170.3 27.2170 df = 13 -1 Xc2 =98.

4 4.27 23 18 23 18 15 15 4. Ha: The effects of smoking of Bicol University students are not equally distributed. Using the goodness of fit test at the 0. Not giving attention to cigarettes displayed anywhere 5. let it be determined if the effects of smoking are equally distributed based on the data shown.6 5. Table III.01(5) df = 6 -1 = 15. Proposed Solution to Prevent Smoking Proposed Solutions Frequency fo fe =165/11 (fo-fe)2 _____ fe 1.6 15 15 15 0 .  = 0.19  15. Ho: The effects of smoking of Bicol University students are equally distributed.up to people whose expertise is preventing the use of cigarette 27 24 23 27 24 23 15 15 15 9.0863 Since 4.27 0.0863.Avoiding friends/peers who use cigarette 3. Having check. Making time with people who are good in academics 8. Avoiding cigarettes even if it is just for free 2. Using of candies or chewing gum as an alternative to smoking 4. Playing of various sports instead of smoking 7.9 Test of Hypothesis *Chi-Square Problem: The research has been made entitled as “The Effects of Smoking to the Students of Bicol University.01 level of significance. we accept Ho Conclusion: The effects of smoking to the students of Bicol University are equally distributed.27 15 15 15 0 17 17 15 0. Joining activities which aims to prevent the use of cigarette 6.

07 13.07 1 1 Total = 165 1 1 Total = 165 15 15 13. . Using the goodness of fit test at the 0.2093.07 Xc2 =63.01(10) df = 11 -1 = 23.62  23. Thinking of the fact that smoking is dangerous to health 10. Stop the cigarette industry in the Philippines 11.01 level of significance. Ho: The proposed solutions of the Bicol University students to avoid smoking are equally distributed. we reject Ho Conclusion: The proposed solution to avoid smoking of the students of Bicol University is not equally distributed.10 9.62 Test of Hypothesis *Chi-Square Problem: The research has been made entitled as “The Effects of Smoking to the Students of Bicol University. Devote time to women instead of cigarette 1 1 15 13. Ha: The proposed solutions of the Bicol University students to avoid smoking are not equally distributed.2093 Since 63. let it be determined if the proposed solution to avoid smoking are equally distributed based on the data shown.  = 0.

and most importantly. Conclusion and Recommendation In this chapter. the use of cigarette has indeed harmful effects on health. The first 3 reasons or causes are the (2. Leading causes of the use of cigarette of the students of Bicol University On the first table in which the leading causes or reasons why the students of Bicol University smoke.11 Chapter 3 Findings.) blackening of lips while in the second rand is the (1. The first observable effect on the cited list of common effects of smoking is the (5. the personality of an individual is the product of the society and his experiences.) blackening of lips. (2.)discoloration of teeth and (3. the findings.) discomfort in breathing. The same with smoking. The second is the (5. the influence of peers/friends is the primary reason on how the attitude of a person is developed.) stress reliever and the third is (1. environment. II.) cough.) Past time which is both in the (12. there are common observable effects that due to smoking.5) rank while the 3rd least cause or reason is (13) to look handsome. Therefore.)trip and (12. the number 1 factor is the influence of peers/friends. It is possible that a trait is developed based on the culture. The least effect which is in the last rank is the (4. On the other hand. Findings I.) satisfaction or has something to suggest that smoking serves to them as an instrument of contentment. . On the table of interpretation. Leading effects of the use of cigarette of the students of Bicol University Table 2 is the table for the leading effects of smoking to the students of Bicol University. the 3 causes or reasons with the least frequency count are the (10. According to Hom burger Erikson. the people who surrounds him.) influence of peers/friends. conclusion. and recommendations are to be shown to come up into matters that will suggest how and why smoking affects to several aspects of an individual.

(3. But contrary to the former.) avoiding friends/peers who use cigarette while in the 3rd rank.5 million of women who died because of smoking.) devote time to women instead of cigarette. there are 2 proposed solution with the same frequency count. and proposed solutions to prevent the students of Bicol University from smoking On the first and third tables which are the tables for the causes and proposed solution for preventing the use of cigarette are not equally distributed. these are. The proposed solution with the highest frequency count is the (1. Therefore. the . (9.)using of candies or chewing gum as an alternative to smoking (6. On the other hand.) stop the cigarette industry in the Philippines. the tallied results of the proposed solutions of the students of Bicol University to prevent smoking are interpreted. Based on the interpretation.5 million of men and 0. Proposed solutions to prevent the use of cigarette of the students of Bicol University On the third table. there are solutions according to the gathered data that there are things that can be used as an alternative to avoid smoking and prevent the diseases to paralyze them in the future.12 According to the Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. the proposed solutions with the least frequency count are the.)avoiding cigarettes even if it is just for free. there are various solutions that can be used to avoid or prevent the use of cigarette of Bicol University students. smoking is the leading cause of death throughout the world and majority of these diseases in connection to smoking were malignant. (10.) playing various sports instead of smoking. According to the World Health Organization (1995). these observed effects of smoking is primarily because of smoking. Equal frequency distribution on causes. III. (11. effects. IV.) thinking of the fact that smoking is dangerous to health. Second is the (2. There are about 1.

Double the tax paid by the cigarette industries in the Philippines. whether private or public be a body of promoting a smoke-free society 2. Limit the cigarette importation of the business establishments inside the country 8.13 third table has the equal distribution of leading obsevable effects of smoking to the students of Bicol University. Establish an implementing government body that will regulate the production and consumption of cigarette in the Philippines 6. Educate the students of how smoking affects their health and the other people around them with the help of the government in implementing certain projects that will alleviate the addiction to smoking. 2. Recommendations 1. Conclusion: The researchers conclude that: 1. Let the parents of the students be aware of the activities of their children outside the house. . 3. Implement the Sin tax law in a firm manner to prevent the illegal attempts in violating the mentioned law 7. The leading effects of smoking are simultaneously observed by the students that is why the frequency distribution of effects of smoking is equal. There are leading proposed solution with the highest frequency that is why the distribution is not equal. Lobby the government agencies to appropriate budget for projects regarding the prevention of smoking. 3. 4. Let the various organizations in the community. There are primary causes or reasons with the highest frequency count why students smoke that is why the distribution is not equal. 5.

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