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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

A. Some Pertinent Ideas 1. The Concept of Film Film is a term that encompasses individual motion pictures, the field of film as an art form, and the motion picture industry. Films are produced by recording images from the world with cameras, or by creating images using animation techniques or special. In language learning, film is one of audiovisua material in a form of video. According to Stempleski & Tomalin (1990:3) the interest of children and adults will occur quicken when the language is experience in a lively way through television and video. The help of moving picture and sound builds the interest. In addition, the videos can also help the students to develop their skills in learning English such as listening, speaking, reading and writing skills. Giving certain activities by using video materials can develop the four skills. Film can be one of audiovisual material to learn English better since there are combination of sound and picture on it. „Audiovisual media are closer to real life because visual clues and context make it possible to “view” the message as much as listen to it‟ (Baltova, 1994: 508, cited in Danan 2004). In addition, students‟ exposure to digitized images such as film, television, video, is improving students‟ listening comprehension since there is face-to-face interaction with native speakers (Herron et.al., 1995 in Danan

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2004). Film also has communication value in learning English. According to Lonergan (1984), the outstanding feature of video films is their ability to present complete communicative situations. The combination of sound and vision is dynamic, immediate, and accessible. This means that the communication shown in context. Film as audio-visual media has a special benefit in learning English. Lonergan (1984) stated that the benefit of using audio-visual recording with moving pictures – such as film, television or video – offers the phonetic and prosodic advantages of audio, as well as the paralinguistic information provided by visual elements. Paralinguistic information is gained through paralinguistic features namely arm movements, facial gestures, and eye contact. Through paralinguistic features the speaker grasp the meaning from the dialogue partner. Visual elements are also important in getting the meaning of the situation shown in the audio-visual media. Visual elements are components of the verbal and non-verbal interactions, which come to full comprehension (holec 1975, in McGovern 1983). The components of visual elements are describe in the Figure 2.1 below.

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Figure 2.1 VISUAL ELEMENT SETTING
Relevant to message not relevant to message

INTERACTION
(non-vocal communication) Significant „message bearing‟ movements and feature Not significant e.g. nerveous ticks

Worth „teaching‟ for passive or active control, depending on students needs.

Worth sensitizing students to; then easily transferable From L1

ELT Documents: 114 Video Application in English Language Teaching From Figure 2.1, it can be seen that the visual elements are setting and interaction. The visual elements are valuable to language learning if the setting is relevant to message and the interaction showing significant „message bearing‟ movements and features. In the interpreting the visual elements in film, thre are several things that involved in interpreting visual elements. The interpretation is equal to students‟ response to visual elements of video programs. It can be seen that students‟ response to visual elements of video programs is based on the response to setting and then the response is change with the expectancies of interaction. The setting devided into three parts, shich are influence each other. They are background, situation, and participants. The interaction is devided into five parts, which are not influence each other, such as proxemics, posture, gesture, facial expression and eye contact. The combination of five parts in interaction is interpreted as communicating three layers of information, such as affective, textual and interactive.

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In this research the use of film as audiovisual material is to measure students‟ rewriting of the story in the film. Another important thing in rewriting the story in film is the vocabulary mastery of the students. The vocabulary is used in order to get the meaning of words in gaining the meaning of a dialogue happened in the film. a. Subtitle Subtitle is textual versions of the dialogue in films and television programs, usually displayed at the buttom of the screen. According to Lever H.J, there are two types of subtitles, integralingual and interlingual subtitling. Intralingual subtitling deals with the production of subtitles that remain in the same language as the original and are used for the deaf or hard of hearing, or for language learners. On the other hand, interlingual subtitling refers to both a change in mode and language, going „from one language into another language and from spoken dialogue into a written, condensed translation which appears on the screen. Interlingual subtitle is the type of subtitle used in this research. According to Danan (2004) audiovisual material enhanced with captions or interlingual subtitles is a particulary powerful pedagogical tool which can help improve the listening comprehension skills of second-language learners. Subtitling is helping the students visualize what they hear, especially if the input is not too far beyond their linguistic ability. Subtitling can also increase language comprehension and leads to

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additional cognitive benefits, such as greater depth of processing. The subtitle is expected to make the students easier to understand the meaning of the dialogue in the film. Since the students have to rewrite the story in the film, the subtitle is one of the helpful tools for the students to graps the meaning of the dialogues in the film. The subtitle of the film is in Indonesian language form. b. The Story in Film The story in film is a story in narrative structure form. Around the turn of the twentieth century, films began developing a narrative structure by stringing scenes together to tell narratives. It means in order to understand the story in the film; students have to know the narrative and the structure of narrative. Narrative structure is the form of story. The common features of narrative structure are begining/orientation, problem/complication,

problem is solved/ending,resolution, and moral/coda/evaluative ending (Figg, 2006). In the beginning/orientation there is set of the scene, creating a visual picture of the setting, atmosphere and time of the story, and also introduction of characters and clues set in place for the coming complication. The problem/complication is the phase where a problem and complication occurs that affects the setting, time, or characters. In the problem seems to be resolved/minor resolution, everything seems to be

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resolved. The new problem/complication shows that the problem or complication now often worse than before. After that problem is solved/ending/resolution phase shows that the problem is solved and the story ends. In the end, there is moral/coda/evaluative ending, shich shows wheter there is moral or message at the end of story (Figg, 2006) In this research, the sample is second grade of SMK Madani Makassar who are already exposed to narrative structure. It can be seen from the curriculum for second grade students of SMK. 2. The Concept of Writing a. The Nature of Writing Writing defines as a complex process of exploring writer‟s thoughts and ideas, and makes them visible and concrete. The thoughts that implemented in a written form can be examined, reconsider, added to, rearranged and changed when students feel that writing is a process, it will encourage them to think and learn. (Ghait, 2002). In the line with Gaith, Harris (1969) stated that writing is an integrated process. Futhermore, little exposure to writing will make this skill seen as a difficult skill to learn. Kay & Dudley-Evans (1998), cited in Kim (2007) stated that, there is no doubt that writing tasks can be more difficult than other language skills, so students at low level of proficiency absolutely need something that they can rely on since they have little exposure to English writing. The process of writing of the story in film is the process of

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comprehending the story and composing their comprehension in written words. Composing and comprehending are two sides of the same basic. Comprehending is critical because it requires the learner to reconstruct the structure and meaning of ideas expressed by another writer.

(http://revolution.allbest.ru/pedagogics/000192690.html).

b. Aspects of Writing In order to create a well-organized writing, there are some aspects that should be concerned. According to Harris (1969), there are five aspects of writing, namely content, which the area of the idea expressed; form that shows the organization of the content; grammar that refers to the employment of grammatical forms and ayntactic patterns; style, which show the choice of structures and lexical items to give a particular tone or flavor to the writing; and mechanics as the use of the graphic conventions of the language. In addition Brown (1994:356-358) classifies aspects of writing into six: content, organization, discourse, syntax, vocabulary, and mechanics. Based on the aforementioned aspects of writing, it can be classified into five, namely content, vocabulary, spelling, generic structure, and grammar. Those aspects are adapted from Harris (1969) and Brown (1994:356-358). c. The Importance of Writing There are a lot of reasons why writing is important by Hairston in Saleha (2008: 5):

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1) Writing is a tool for discovery. We stimulate our thought process by the act writing into information and tab into information and image we have our unconscious mind. 2) Writing helps us to organize our ideas. We can arrange them in coherent form. 3) Writing generates new ideas by helping us to make connection and see relationship. 4) Writing down ideas allow us to dictate ourselves form them. 5) Writing helps us to observe and process information when we write a topic, we learn it better. 6) Writing enables us to solve the problems by putting the element of them into written form; we can examine and manipulate them. 7) Writing on a subject makes us active rather than passive learns of information. d. Types of Writing 1) Narration Oshima (1997: 27) explains that Narration is story writing. When you wrote a narrative paragraph or essay, you write about events in the order that they happened. In other words, you use time order to organize your sentence. In the model essay, the writer uses time order to divide the essay into paragraphs. An outline of the essay narration would like this: orientation, complication, and resolution

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Narrative is not emerged only like; legend, fiction, or short story, but also emerged as real life story. From that statement, it can be analyzed that the daily experiences in past time is one product form of narrative writing oriented on realty of life. A narrative can tell what happened with students by their selves and the environment. 2) Description Oshima (1997: 50) explains that descriptive writing to the senses, so it tells how something looks, feels , smells, tastes, and/or sounds. A good description is like a “word picture”, the reader can imagine the object, place, or person in his or her mind. A writer of a good description is like an artist who paints a picture that can be “seen” clearly in the mind of the reader. In a description, writers often use spatial order to organize their ideas. Spatial order is the arrangement of items in order by space. An outline of description would like this: introduction, body, and conclusion. 3) Explanatory Exposition is used in giving information, making explanation, and meanings. It includes editorials, essays and informative instructional. It includes editorial, essay, and informative instructional material. Used in combination with narrative, it stands as an essay. Used alone or with a narrative, exposition may be developing in a number of ways.

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4) Argumentation Argumentation is used in persuading and convincing. It is closely related to exposition and is often found combined with it. Argumentation is used to make a case or to prove or disprove a statement. e. Components of Good Writing Jacob in Ismayanti (2008: 22) points out five kinds of components in writing. They are content, organization, language use, vocabulary, and mechanics. 1) Content The content of writing should be clear for the readers so that the readers can understand the message convey and gain information from it. In order to have a good content of writing, its content should be well unified and completed. This term is usually known as unity and completeness, which become characteristic of good writing. a) Unity The writing regards to have good unity, if it has some main ideas and the sentences contained in it develop that idea. The main idea is stated in the topic sentences and each or every supported sentences and related to that idea of the topic sentences. If a writer wants his writing is unified, he or she should not include the sentences that do not support the main idea of the topic sentences.

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b) Completeness Writing is said to have completeness if the main idea have been explained and developed fully completeness. The controlling idea with develop thoroughly by these of particular information. It is relative to know how complex or general the topic sentences by having a complete writing. It is expected that the content of writing will be clear and understandable for readers. 2) Organization In organization of the writing concern with the ways through writer arranges and organizesthe ideas in order the message in the words. There are many ways used by the writers to organize or arrange the writing this organization is mainly recognized as order. There are two parts of organization in this case, coherence and spatial order. 3) Language Use Coke in Ismayanti (2002) states that language us in writing description and other forms of writing involve correct usage and point of grammar. However, considering that there are many points of grammar, the writer would like to quote a little literature about verbs, use modifier or adjective, adverbs, and participles in the writing, a modifier may other be a phrase. A single, well-chosen- modifier is of ten mor effective than several used together. If it is difficult to describe with over used or warn-out modifier, find more interesting synonyms, in the dictionary.

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4) Vocabulary Vocabulary is one of t language aspect dealing the process of writing. The writers always think about putting words into the sentences and putting the sentences into the paragraph until they can create a peace of writing. It is clear now that we cannot write or express if we do not have vocabulary. Therefore, we cannot understand the writing passage without having a lot of vocabulary. 5) Mechanics The use of mechanics is due to capitalization, punctuation, and spelling appropriately. These aspects are very important, it leads the readers to understand, to recognize immediately. The use of favorable mechanic in writing will make readers easy to group the conveying ideas or the message to the written materials. Further explanations about mechanics are as follows: a) Capitalization The use of capital letters makes our writing easier to rad. Capital letters call attention to certain special words, as well as to words that begin sentences. There are specific rules for capitalizing words. Capitalization is important in writing in order that we know which the first sentence in a paragraph and to indicate which the pronoun name. b) Spelling It is a very important rule follows in using spelling appropriately. They are suffixes edition such adding (gerund, present participle); omit

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becomes omitting plural formation such adding „es‟ „s‟ changing „y‟ to „I‟ if the finally „y‟ is preceded consonant such as „fly‟ becomes „flies‟, he handling of „ie‟ or „ai‟. 3. The Concept of Vocabulary Mastery According to Armbruster, Lehr & Osborn, 2001: 1 Vocabulary refers to the words we must know to communicate effectively vocabularycan be described as oral vocabulary or reading vocabulary. Oral vocabulary refers to words that use in speaking or recognize in listening. Reading vocabulary refers to words we recognize or use in print. Futhermore, Armbruster, Lehr & Osborn, (2001) classifies vocabulary into four types, they are: 1. Listening vocabulary refers to the words we have to know to understand what we hear? 2. Speaking vocabulary refers to the words we use when we speak. 3. Reading vocabulary refers to the words we need to know to understand what we read 4. Writing vocabulary refers to the words we use in writing. Vocabulary mastery is very important in English language learning. There are many ways that teacher can do to teach vocabulary mastery. One of them is by showing visual and verbal cues as well to get the students recall on the vocabulary easily. The presence of both pictorial and verbal cues can facilitate learning, in particular when the corresponding visual and verbal representation are continguously present in working memory (Mayer, 1997, 2001, 2002; Wittrock, 1989, in Linda 2004)

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In this research the students vocabulary mastery is tested using film with subtitle as the media in learning English. Terrel (1986, in Linda 2004) found that combining an unknown I.2 word with a visual representation bypasses a direct translation and facilitates vocabulary learning. Other research suggests that foreign words associated with aural or written translations and images are learned more easily than are those accopanied by pictures or text alone (Baltova, 1999; Guillory, 1998; Jones & Plass, 2002; Oxford & Crookall, 1990; Plass, Chun, Mayer, & Leutner, 1998, in Linda 2004). It means that visual representation shown on pictures in film and also the translation shown in the subtitle can help the students easier in getting the vocabulary meaning. B. Related Studies The research conducted by Baltova shows that there is a positive effect of film with subtitle as representation of written translation and images in vocabulary learning. In the research, Baltova (1999) examined the effects of viewing a French video with either French audio and French subtitles (bimodal format), or English audio and French subtitles (reversed format) on students‟ vocabulary learning. Another research conducted by Markham (1983:39,41) shows that the captions or subtitle help students to perform beyond their proficiency level. The students‟ responses were very good when the subtitle had been available. In regard to the previous studies, this study is conducted in order to investigate the correlation between students‟ rewriting of the story in film and

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their vocabulary mastery. The film used is film with subtitle and the story is narrative.

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C. Conceptual Framework

The theoretical framework underlying this research is given in the following diagram : INPUT English Learning

Describing the story

Rewriting

Vocabulary Mastery

OUTPUT

The main component about this is described as follows: Input : refers to the students English lesson material.

Process : refers to teaching and learning English process using Classroom Management. Output : refers to students‟ ability in rewriting of the story in film and their vocabulary mastery in teaching and learning English process.
D. Hypothesis To find the answer the problem, the writer should propose alternative hypothesis (ha) and null hypothesis (ho) as follow: 1. Alternative hypothesis (Ha): there is correlation between students‟ rewriting of the story in film and their vocabulary mastery at the second grade of SMK Madani Makassar.

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2. Null hypothesis (Ho): there is no correlation between students‟ rewriting of the story in film and their vocabulary mastery at the second grade of SMK Madani Makassar.